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Junction Transistor

The transferred-resistance or transistor is a multi-junction device capable of

Current gain
Voltage gain
Signal power gain
Transistor contains three adjoining alternatively doped semiconductor regions:
Emitter (E), Base (B), and Collector (C).
The Bipolar junction transistor is an active device that works as a voltage controlled
current source and whose basic action is control of current at one terminal by controlling
voltage applied at other two terminals.
Both electrons and holes participate in the conduction process for bipolar devices.
It consists of two PN junctions constructed in a special way and connected in series, back
to back.

Emitter: Emitter is heavily doped because it has to emit charge carriers.

Base: The charge carriers emitted by the emitter should reach the collector passing
through the base. Hence base should be very thin and to avoid recombination, and
to provide more collector current base is lightly doped.

Collector: collector has to collect the most charge carriers emitted by the emitter. Hence the
area of cross section of collector is more compared to emitter and it is moderately
doped.

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Transistor Biasing:-
The application of suitable dc voltages across the transistor terminals is called biasing.
Each junction of a transistor may be forward biased or reverse biased independently. These are
following three different ways of biasing a transistor, which is also known as modes of transistor
operation.
Active region
Emitter-Base junction is forward biased
Collector- base junction is reverse biased.
Saturation Region
Emitter-Base junction is forward biased
Collector- base junction is forward biased
In this mode transistor has a very large value of current. The transistor is operated in this mode,
when it is used as a closed switch.
Cut- off Region
Emitter-Base junction is reverse biased
Collector- base junction is reverse biased
In this region both the junctions are Reverse Biased. In this mode transistor has zero current.
The transistor is operated in this mode, when it is used as an open switch.

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Working of a p-n-p transistor:

The p-n-p transistor with base to emitter junction is forward biased and collector to base
junction reverse biased is as show in figure. The base to emitter junction is forward biased the
majority carriers emitted by the p-type emitter i.e., holes have a tendency to flow towards the
base which constitutes the emitter current IE.
As the base is n-type there is a chance of recombination of holes emitted by the emitter
with the electrons in the n-type base. But as the base us very thin and lightly doped only few
electrons less than 5% combine with the holes emitted by the p-type emitter, the remaining 95%
charge carriers cross over into the collector region to constitute the collector current.
IE = IB + IC

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Current components in a PNP transistor:

The figure below shows the various current components which flow across the forward-biased
emitter junction and reverse-biased collector junction in a P-N-P transistor.

The emitter current consists of the following two parts:

1) Hole current IpE constituted by holes (holes crossing from emitter into base).
2) Electron current InE constituted by electrons (electrons crossing from base into the
emitter).

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Therefore, Total emitter current IE = IpE (majority) + InE (Minority)
The holes crossing the emitter base junction JE and reaching the collector base junction JC
constitutes collector current IpC. Not all the holes crossing the emitter base junction JE reach
collector base junction JC because some of them combine with the electrons in the n-type base.

The base width is very small and hence most of the holes cross the collector base junction JC and
very few recombine, constituting the base current (IpE IpC).

When the emitter is open-circuited, IE = 0, and hence IpC = 0. Under this condition, the base and
collector together current IC equals the reverse saturation current ICO, which consists of the
following two parts: IPCO caused by holes moving across IC from N-region to P-region.

InCO caused by electrons moving across IC from P-region to N-region. ICO = InCO + IpCO
In general, IC = ICO + IpC Thus for a P-N-P transistor, IE = IB + IC

Base-Width Modulation or Early Effect

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We know that in a PN junction, the width of the depletion region increases as the reverse biased
voltage increases. In a transistor (in the active region) since the emitter-base junction is forward
biased, therefore, this has no effect o the thickness of the depletion region.
However, in the collector base junction, the PN junction is reverse biased and hence as the
voltage across the collector-base junction increases, the thickness of the depletion layer also
increases. However, since the base is lightly doped region compared to the collector, therefore,
depletion region penetrates deeper into the base region. This reduces the effective width of the
base region. This variation or modulation of the effective base width is known as Base-Width

Modulation or Early Effect

The decrease in base-width by collector voltage has mainly three effects


It reduces the chances of recombination of electrons with holes in the base region. Hence the
common base current gains () increases with increase in collector-base voltage (VCB).
The concentration gradient of minority carrier within the base increases. This in turn increases
the emitter current.
For extremely large collector voltage, the effective base-width may be reduced to zero causing
the voltage breakdown of a transistor. This phenomenon is known as Punch Through Effect

Common Base (CB) Configuration: no current gain but voltage gain

In this configuration we use base as common terminal for both input and output signals. The
input is applied between the base and emitter terminals and the corresponding output signal is
taken between the base and collector terminals with the base terminal grounded. The input
parameters are VEB and IE and the output parameters are VCB and IC. The input current flowing
into the emitter terminal must be higher than the base current and collector current to operate the
transistor, therefore the output collector current is less than the input emitter current. This
transistor configuration has high output impedance and low input impedance. The voltage gain

for this configuration of circuit is given by. = . Current gain in common base

configuration is given as = Output current/Input current, = IC/IE

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Input Characteristics

Input characteristics are obtained between input current and input voltage with constant output
voltage. The below figure show the input characteristics of common base configuration. As the
collector voltage VCB is made to increase the reverse bias, the space charge width between
collector and base tends to increase, with the result that the effective width of the base decreases.
This dependency of base-width on collector-to-emitter voltage is known as Early effect (or)
Base-Width modulation. As base width reduces the emitter current IE increases for small emitter
to base voltage.

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Output Characteristics
The output characteristics of common base configuration are obtained between output current
and output voltage with constant input current. The figure shows the output characteristics of
common base configuration.

Current Amplification Factor (a ) :

When no signal is applied, then the ratio of the collector current to the emitter current is called dc
alpha (a dc) of a transistor.

dc = (Negative sign signifies that IE flows into transistor while IC flows out of it).

of a transistor is a measure of the quality of a transistor. Higher is the value of , better is


the transistor in the sense that collector current approaches the emitter current. By considering
only magnitudes of the currents, IC = IE and hence IB = IE - IC
Therefore, IB = IE - IE = IE(1- )

When signal is applied, the ratio of change in collector current to the change in emitter current at
constant collector-base voltage is defined as current amplification factor for all practical
purposes, dc = ac = and practical values in commercial transistors range from 0.9 to 0.99.

Total Collector Current:

The total collector current consists of the following two parts:


i) IE, current due to majority carriers
ii) ICBO, current due to minority carriers
Total collector current IC = IE + ICBO

IC = (IB+IC) + ICBO ; (since IE = IB + IC)


IC = IB + IC + ICBO
IC (1- ) = IB + ICBO
IC = [ ] IB + [ ] ICBO

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Common Emitter (CE) Configuration: current gain and voltage gain

In this configuration we use emitter as common terminal for both input and output. Here the
input is applied between base-emitter region and the output is taken between collector and
emitter terminals. In this configuration the input parameters are VBE and IB and the output
parameters are VCE and IC.

This type of configuration is mostly used in the applications of transistor based amplifiers. In this
configuration the emitter current is equal to the sum of small base current and the large collector
current. i.e. IE = IC + IB. The ratio between collector current and base current gives the current
gain beta in common emitter configuration.

This configuration is mostly used one among all the three configurations. It has medium input
and output impedance values. It also has the medium current and voltage gains. Collector current
IC = IE = IB

Input Characteristics

The input characteristics of common emitter configuration are obtained between input
current IB and input voltage VBE with constant output voltage VCE. When VCE=0, the emitter-base
junction is forward biased and he junction behaves as a forward biased diode. When VCE is
increased, the width of the depletion region at the reverse biased collector-base junction will
increase. Hence the effective width of the base will decrease. This effect causes a decrease in the

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base current IB. Hence, to get the same value of IB as that for VCE=0, VBE should be increased.
Therefore, the curve shifts to the right as VCE increases.

Output Characteristics

The output characteristics of common emitter configuration are obtained between the
output current IC and output voltage VCE with constant input current IB. To determine the output
characteristics, the base current IB is kept constant at a suitable value by adjusting base-emitter
voltage, VBE. The magnitude of collector-emitter voltage VCE is increased in suitable equal steps
from zero and the collector current IC is noted for each setting of VCE. Now the curves of IC
versus VCE are plotted for different constant values of IB. The output characteristics thus obtained
are shown in figure below.

Current Amplification Factor ():

When no signal is applied, then the ratio of collector current to the base current is called dc beta

( dc ) of a transistor. dc= = . When signal is applied, the ratio of change in collector

current to the change in base current is defined as base current amplification factor.

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Thus, IC = IB. Almost in all transistors, the base current is less than 5% of the emitter current.
Hence this configuration is frequently used when appreciable current gain as well as voltage gain
is required.

Total Collector Current:


The Total collector current IC = IB + ICEO
Here ICEO is the leakage current. But, we have,

IC = [ ] IB + [ ] ICBO

Comparing the above equations, we get

= & ICEO = ICBO

= (or) =
It can also be seen that (1-) =

Common Collector (CC) Configuration: current gain but no voltage gain

In this configuration we use collector terminal as common for both input and output signals. This
configuration is also known as emitter follower configuration because the emitter voltage follows
the base voltage. This configuration is mostly used as a buffer. These configurations are widely
used in impedance matching applications because of their high input impedance.

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In this configuration the input signal is applied between the base-collector region and the output
is taken from the emitter-collector region. Here the input parameters are VBC and IB and the
output parameters are VEC and IE. The common collector configuration has high input impedance
and low output impedance. Here also the emitter current is equal to the sum of collector current
and the base current. Now let us calculate the current gain for this configuration.
Current gain, Ai = output current/Input current

Ai = IE/IB ; Ai = (IC + IB)/IB ; Ai = (IC/IB) + 1;` Ai = + 1;

This common collector configuration is a non inverting amplifier circuit. The voltage gain for
this circuit is less than unity but it has large current gain because the load resistor in this circuit
receives both the collector and base currents.

Output Characteristics

The output characteristics of a common collector circuit are obtained between the output voltage
VEC and output current IE at constant input current IB. In the operation of common collector
circuit if the base current is zero then the emitter current also becomes zero. As a result no
current flows through the transistor If the base current increases then the transistor operates in
active region and finally reaches to saturation region.

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Current Amplification Factor ():

When no signal is applied, then the ratio of emitter current to the base current is called as dc

gamma (g dc) of the transistor. dc = =

This configuration provides the same current gain as common emitter circuit as IE IC but the
voltage gain is always less than one.

Total Emitter Current:

We know that IE = IB + IC Also IC = IE + ICBO

IE = IB + ( IE + ICBO)
IE (1-) = IB + ICBO

IE = +

IE = (1-) =

Relation between & & ;

= and = and =

IE = IB + IC or IB = IE - IC

= = =

We know that IE = IB + IC and IB = IE - IC


= = = =

= = since (1-) =

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Bipolar Junction transistor characteristics

Property CB CE CC

Current Gain Low (<1) Medium High

Voltage Gain High Medium Less than 1

Input Resistance Low Moderate High

Output Resistance High Moderate Low

Power Gain Low Very High Medium

Phase Shift between


input and output 0o (or) 360o 180o 0o (or) 360o
voltages

For high frequency For Audio frequency For impedance


Applications
circuits circuits matching

The photodiode resistance will change as the light falling on the base changes, causing the base
current to change as well.

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This changing current will be amplified by the transistor, resulting in a change in collector
current.
The current gain of the transistor is the reason the current carrying capability of the
phototransistor is generally much larger than that of photodiode alone.

Ebers Moll model :-

Ebers Moll model for pn-p transistor. It involves two ideal diodes placed back to back with
saturation current -IEo and Ico and two dependent current controlled current sources shunting
the ideal diodes.

Ebers moll model :-

The Ebers-moll model for a PNP transistor

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The general expression for collector current IC of a transistor for any voltage across collector
junction Vc and emitter current IE is

IE + IC = I or IC = I IE or IC = - IE + I;

=- + ( -1) Where, I is diode current.

Note: I0 = - IC0; Where, I0 is the magnitude of reverse saturation current.

=- - IC0 ( -1)
Here, subscript N to indicates that we are using in normal manner. When we interchange the
role of emitter and collector we operate transistor in inverted function. In such case current and
junction voltage relationship for transistor is given by

IE + IC = I or IE = I IC or IE = - IC + I

=- + ( -1)
Note: I0 = IE0; Where, I0 is the magnitude of reverse saturation current.

=- IE0 ( -1)

Here, subscript I to indicates that we are using transistor in a inverted manner, is the
inverted common base current Gain.

The above equations are derived based on the assumption of low level minority carrier injection
(the hole concentration injected into the base is very much less compared to the intrinsic electron
concentration in base), in such a case emitter or collector current is mainly dominated by
diffusion currents, drift current is negligible compared to drift currents.
Consider two diodes connected back to back in the configuration shown below

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It is obvious that if one junction is forward biased then other junction will be reverse biased.
Diode D1 is forward biased and diode D2 is reverse biased much like a NPN transistor. The
reverse biased diode D2 at most will allow only currents order of reverse saturation currents.
Since D1 and D2 are in series same current should flow through both of them then only currents
order of reverse saturation currents flow through their junctions. It is obvious that this is not the
case with the transistor in active region (because of the internal design of transistor). The forward
current entering the base is swept across into collector by the electric filed generated by the
reverse bias voltage applied across the base collector junction.

FET: Field Effect Transistors

Differences between a FET and a Bipolar Transistor

Field Effect Transistors can be used to replace normal Bipolar Junction Transistors in electronic
circuits and a simple comparison between FETs and Transistors stating both their advantages
and their disadvantages is given below.

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Field Effect Transistor (FET) Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

1 Low voltage gain High voltage gain

2 High current gain Low current gain

3 Very high input impedance Low input impedance

4 High output impedance Low output impedance

5 Low noise generation Medium noise generation

6 Fast switching time Medium switching time

7 Easily damaged by static Robust

8 Some require an input to turn it OFF Requires zero input to turn it OFF

9 Voltage controlled device Current controlled device

10 Exhibits the properties of a Resistor

11 More expensive than bipolar Cheap

12 Difficult to bias Easy to bias

The Field Effect Transistor (FET) and BJT

The conventional bipolar transistor has two types of current carriers of both polarities (majority
and minority) and FET has only one type of current carriers, p or n (holes or electrons)

The BJT is current controlled and FET is voltage controlled current between two other terminals

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Fundamental difference between JFET and BJT devices

JFET junction is reverse-biased, the gate current is practically zero, and a very high impedance at
input whereas the base current of the BJT is always some value greater than zero, for example, in
As

FET Definition

Field effect transistor is a unipolar-transistor, which acts as a voltage-controlled current device


and is a device in which current at two electrodes is controlled by the action of an electric field at
another electrode. Field effect transistor is a device in which the current is controlled and
transported by carriers of one polarity (majority) only

Basic structure of JFETs

In addition to the channel, a JFET contains two ohmic contacts: the source and the drain. The
JFET will conduct current equally well in either direction and the source and drain leads are
usually interchangeable

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Junction FET (JFET)

JFET consists of a piece of high-resistivity semiconductor material (usually Si) which constitutes
a channel for the majority carrier flow and a gate. Conducting semiconductor channel exists
between two ohmic contacts Source & Drain. The magnitude of this current is controlled by a
voltage applied to a gate, which is a reverse-biased.
(Ohmic contacts means following Ohms law [I V current proportional to V under constant
physical condition.)

N-channel JFET construction

This transistor is made by forming a channel of N-type material in a P-type substrate.


Three wires are then connected to the device. One at each end of the channel and other connected
to the substrate.

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If the channel is doped with a donor impurity, n-type material is formed and the channel current
will consist of electrons. If the channel is doped with a donor impurity, n-type material is formed
and the channel current will consist of electrons.

Operation of N channel JFET

JFET Operating Characteristics

There are three basic operating conditions for a JFET:


JFETs operate in the depletion mode only
VGS = 0, VDS is a minimum value depending on IDSS and the drain and source resistance
VGS < 0, VDS at some positive value

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N-Channel JFET Operation

The nonconductive depletion region becomes thicker with increased reverse bias. With no
external Gate voltage (VGS = 0), and a small voltage (VDS) applied between the Drain and the Source,
maximum saturation current ( IDSS ) will flow through the channel from the Drain to the Source restricted
only by the small depletion region around the junctions.

At the pinch-off point, for any further increase in VGS does not produce any increase in ID.
VGS at pinch-off is denoted as Vp. ID is at saturation or maximum. It is referred to as IDSS.
The ohmic value of the channel is at maximum.

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As VGS becomes more negative, the JFET will pinch-off at a lower voltage (Vp).
ID decreases (ID < IDSS) even though VDS is increased.
Eventually ID will reach 0A. VGS at this point is called Vp or VGS(off).
Also note that at high levels of VDS the JFET reaches a breakdown situation.
ID will increases uncontrollably if VDS > VDSmax.

Operation as a Voltage-Controlled Resistor


The region to the left of the pinch-off point is called the ohmic region.
The JFET can be used as a variable resistor, where VGS controls the drain-source resistance (rd).
As VGS becomes more negative, the resistance (rd) increases.
2
ro
V GS rd =
ID = IDSS 1 - 2

VP V GS
1 -
VP

Important Terms

1. Shorted-gate drain current (IDSS): It is the drain current with source short-circuited to gate (i.e.
VGS= 0) and drain voltage (VDS) equal to pinch off voltage. It is sometimes called zero-bias

2. Pinch off voltage (VP): It is the minimum drain-source voltage at which the drain current
essentially becomes constant.

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3. Gate-source cut off voltage [VGS(off)]: It is the gate-source voltage where the channel is
completely cut off and the drain current becomes zero.

Parameters of JFET

(i) a.c. drain resistance (rd):

It is the ratio of change in drain-source voltage (VDS) to the change in drain current (ID) at
constant gate-source voltage i.e.

= at constant

(ii) Transconductance (gm).

The control that the gate voltage has over the drain current is measured by transconductance gm
of the tube. It is the ratio of change in drain current (ID) to the change in gate-source voltage
(VGS) at constant drain-source voltage i.e.

at constant

The transconductance of a JFET is usually expressed either in mA/volt or micromho.

(iii) Amplification factor ( ).

It is the ratio of change in drain-source voltage (VDS) to the


change in gate-source voltage (VGS) at constant drain current i.e.

at constant

Amplification factor of a JFET indicates how much more control the gate voltage has over drain
current than has the drain voltage. For instance, if the amplification factor of a JFET is 50, it
means that gate voltage is 50 times as effective as the drain voltage in controlling the drain
current.

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Relation among JFET Parameters

The relationship among JFET parameters can be established as under:

Amplification factor = a.c. drain resistance transconductance

MOSFETs have characteristics similar to JFETs and additional characteristics that make then
very useful

There are 2 types of MOSFETs:

Depletion mode MOSFET (D-MOSFET)


Operates in Depletion mode the same way as a JFET when VGS 0
Operates in Enhancement mode like E-MOSFET when VGS > 0

Enhancement Mode MOSFET (E-MOSFET)
Operates in Enhancement mode
IDSS = 0 until VGS > VT (threshold voltage)

DEMOSFET- Depletion Enhancement MOSFET

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Construction of DEMOSFET

It consists of a highly doped P-type substrate into which two blocks of heavily doped N-type
material are diffused forming the source and drain. An N-channel is formed by diffusion between
the source and drain. Now a thin layer of SiO2 dielectric is grown over the entire surface and
holes are cut through the SiO2 (silicon-dioxide) layer to make contact with the N-type blocks
(Source and Drain). Metal is deposited through the holes to provide drain and source terminals,
and on the surface area between drain and source, a metal plate is deposited. This layer
constitutes the gate. Si02 layer results in an extremely high input impedance of the order of 1010
to 1015 Q for this area.

Operation of DEMOSFET.

DE-MOSFET can be operated with either a positive or a negative gate. When gate is positive
with respect to the source it operates in the enhancementor E-mode and when the gate is
negative with respect to the source, as illustrated in figure, it operates in depletion-mode.

When the drain is made positive with respect to source, a drain current will flow, even with zero
gate potential and the MOSFET is said to be operating in E-mode. In this mode of operation gate
attracts the negative charge carriers from the P-substrate to the N-channel and thus reduces the
channel resistance and increases the drain-current. The more positive the gate is made, the more
drain current flows.

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On the other hand when the gate is made negative with respect to the substrate, the gate repels
some of the negative charge carriers out of the N-channel. This creates a depletion region in the
channel and, therefore, increases the channel resistance and reduces the drain current. The more
negative the gate, the less the drain current. In this mode of operation the device is referred to as
a depletion-mode MOSFET. Here too much negative gate voltage can pinch-off the channel.
Thus operation is similar to that of JFET.

The upper curves are for positive VGS and the lower curves are for negative VGS. The bottom
drain curve is for VGS = V GS(OFF). For a specified drain-source voltage VDS, VGS (OFF) is the
gate-source voltage at which drain current reduces to a certain specified negligibly small value.
This voltage corresponds to the pinch-off voltage Vp of JFET. For VGS between VGS (0FF) and
zero, the device operates in depletion-mode while for VGS exceeding zero the device operates in
enhancement mode.

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EMOSFET-Enhancement MOSFET

The main difference between the construction of DE-MOSFET and that of E-MOSFET, E-
MOSFET substrate extends all the way to the silicon dioxide (SiO2) and no channels are doped
between the source and the drain. Channels are electrically induced in these MOSFETs, when a
positive gate-source voltage VGS is applied to it.

Operation of an EMOSFET

When drain is applied with positive voltage with respect to source and no potential is applied to
the gate, a very small drain current that is, reverse leakage current flows. When the gate is made
positive with respect to the source and the substrate, negative (i.e. minority) charge carriers

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within the substrate are attracted to the positive gate and accumulate close to the-surface of the
substrate. As the gate voltage is increased, more and more electrons accumulate under the gate.

When this occurs, a channel is induced by forming what is termed an inversion layer (N-type).
The strength of the drain current depends upon the channel resistance which, in turn, depends
upon the number of charge carriers attracted to the positive gate. Thus drain current is controlled
by the gate potential.

Since the conductivity of the channel is enhanced by the positive bias on the gate so this device
is also called the enhancement MOSFET or E- MOSFET. The minimum value of gate-to-source
voltage VGS that is required to form the inversion layer (N-type) is termed the gate-to-source
threshold voltage VGST. For VGS below VGST, the drain current ID = 0. But for VGS exceeding
VGST an N-type inversion layer connects the source to drain and the drain current ID is large.
Depending upon the device being used, VGST may vary from less than 1 V to more than 5 V.

Characteristics of an EMOSFET.

The current IDSS at VGS <=0 is very small, being of the order of a few nano-amperes. When the
VGS is made positive, the drain current ID increases slowly at first, and then much more rapidly
with an increase in VGS.

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Comparison between BJT/JFET/MOSFET

S.No. BJT JFET MOS FET

N-channel- JFET, Enhancement &


1 Types NPN, PNP,
P-channel- JFET, depletion type,
Bipolar
Unipolar Unipolar
Both majority
2 Only majority charge Only majority charge
Current &minority charge
carriers are used carriers are used.
carriers are used
3 Input
Low (k) High (100 M) Very high (1015 )
impedance
Current controlled Voltage controlled
4 device input current device. Input voltage Voltage controlled
Control
controls output controls output device.
current current
5
Fabrication Difficult Easy Easy
6 Power
High Low Very low
Dissipation
7 Switching
Less High High
speed

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