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Mindanao State University

General Santos City

College of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering

Name: Karen Claire B. Beler BS CEN IV

Time/Day: 1:00 PM 2:30 PM, MTH
Subject: CE 141 Transportation Engineering I
Instructor: Engr. Steve Anthony N. Lim
Due Date: May 15, 2017 (Monday)

As is stands today, traffic congestion, especially in intersections during peak hours, is a

major concern for transportation engineers of the city (i.e. General Santos City). A good way of
mitigating this problem is by using proper transportation planning. What are the processes of
transportation planning? How are they prepared and implemented?

Rising traffic congestion is an inescapable condition in large and growing cities today.
This traffic gridlock is a major curse on city movements. It is a plague that has become an
integral part of normal life in every people living in an urbanized city.
The problem of traffic congestion in cities is worse at road intersections. Indeed, there is
no other point on cities roads that can be greatly congested as road intersections. As defined by
(OFlaberty, 1997), intersections (where two or more roads meet), are points of vehicle conflict.
Similarly, (Mchsare et al., 1998) noted that at no other location within the street and highway
systems are so many potential and actual conflicts than at road intersections. This is because at
intersections, vehicular flows from several different approaches making either left-turn, through
and right-turn movements seek to occupy the same physical space at the same time. In addition
to these vehicular flows, pedestrians also seek to use this space to cross the street and thereby
worsening the already bad traffic situation.
A good traffic and transport plan along with appropriate implementation of traffic rules is
necessary to save the city and to mitigate the problem of traffic congestion. The transportation
planning process is useful where it can assist transportation engineers and others involve in the
community to select a course of action for improving transportation services. Garber & Hoel
(2008) provides a seven-step planning process which is a useful guide for organizing the work
necessary to develop a plan. The seven steps are:
1. Situation Definition
The first step in the planning process is situation definition, which involves all of the
activities required to understand the situation that gave rise to the perceived need for
transportation improvement.
2. Problem Definition
The purpose of this step is to describe the problem in terms of the objectives to be
accomplished by the project and to translate those objectives into criteria that can be
quantified. Objectives are statements of purpose and criteria are the measures of effectiveness
that can be used to quantify the extent to which a proposed transportation project will achieve
the stated objectives.
3. Search for Solutions
In this phase of the planning process, consideration is given to a variety of ideas,
designs, locations, and system configurations that might provide solutions to the problem.
This is the brainstorming stage, in which many options may be proposed for later testing and
evaluation. Alternatives can be proposed by any group or organization. Some data gathering,
field testing, and cost estimating may be necessary at this stage to determine the practicality
and financial feasibility of the alternatives being proposed.
4. Analysis of Performance
The purpose of performance analysis is to estimate how each of the proposed
alternatives would perform under present and future conditions. The criteria identified in the
previous steps are calculated for each transportation option.
5. Evaluation of Alternatives
The purpose of the evaluation phase is to determine how well each alternative will
achieve the objectives of the project as defined by the criteria. The performance data
produced in the analysis phase are used to compute the benefits and costs that will result if
the project is selected.
6. Choice of Project
Project selection is made after considering all the factors involved. In a simple
situation, for example, where the project has been authorized and is in the design phase, a
single criterion (such as cost) might be used and the chosen project would be the one with the
lowest cost. With a more complex project, however, many factors have to be considered, and
selection is based on how the results are perceived by those involved in decision-making.
7. Specification and Construction
Once the transportation project has been selected, the project moves into a detailed
design phase in which each of the components of the facility is specified. For a transportation
facility, this involves its physical location, geometric dimensions, and structural
configuration. Design plans are produced that can be used by contractors to estimate the cost
of building the project. When a construction firm is selected, these plans will be the basis on
which the project will be built.
The intersection of Salvani Street with Aparente Street in Barangay City Heights, is one
of the heavily congested intersections within the city. Using concepts in transportation planning,
propose a method to mitigate this dilemma. Specify and/or enumerate the steps that need to be
taken to achieve your proposed method.
The issue of traffic congestion in intersection roads of Salvani Street with Aparente Street
in Barangay City Heights draws significant attention each day and is one of the heavily
congested intersections within General Santos City. It is getting worse as thousands of tricycle
units and habal-habal, a modified motorcycle, drive along major thoroughfares. The problem is
more noticeable during the peak period of morning and evening when vehicles stand still in long
queues resulting in stress and reduction in the productive hours of commuters. The purposed of
this proposed method is to reduce the traffic congestion caused by this intersection and to
mitigate this kind of dilemma.
Transportation Planning Process:
1. Situation Study
In this phase, the basic factors that cause traffic congestion are described, and both
the scope of the study and the domain of the system to be investigated are explained. The
present system is analyzed and its characteristics are described. Information about the
surrounding area, its people, and their travel habits may be obtained. Previous reports and
studies that may be relevant to the present situation are reviewed and summarized.
2. Problem Definition
The proposed method wishes to improve the 4-legged intersection road, primarily to
reduce the high level of traffic congestion on this intersection road caused by narrow road
that carries the traffic. Since it is a dangerous intersection where four streets meet, the
secondary purpose of the proposed method is to avoid accidents and for vehicle drivers not to
violate the traffic rules. The measure of effectiveness for the method will be the accident rate,
time travel, and construction cost. Other aspects that will be considered are the effects that
each alternative would have on a number of businesses and residences that would be
displaced, the changes in noise levels and air and water quality, and the changes in natural
3. Search for Solution
Managing the transportation system by adding new facilities or by making
operational changes to improve system performance is the most common response by
engineers and even politicians and administrators to solve congestion problems. Among the
options that might be used are different types of transportation technology or vehicles,
various system or network arrangements, and different methods of operation. This phase also
includes preliminary feasibility studies, which might narrow the range of choices to those
that appear most promising. Some data gathering, eld testing, and cost estimating may be
necessary at this stage to determine the practicality and nancial feasibility of the alternatives
being proposed.
4. Analysis of Performance
Included in this step is a determination of the investment cost of constructing the
transportation project, as well as annual costs for maintenance and operation. This
element also involves the use of mathematical models for estimating travel demand. The
number of persons or vehicles that will use the system is determined, and these results
serve as the basis for the project design. Other information about the use of the system
(such as trip length, travel by time of day, and vehicle occupancy) are also determined
and used in calculating user benefits for various criteria or measures of effectiveness.
Environmental effects of the transportation project are estimated.
5. Evaluation of Alternatives
In this phase, feasible alternatives are identified in terms of cost and trafc
capacity, to estimate the effects of each alternative in terms of the objectives expressed,
and to assist in identifying those alternatives that will serve the traveling public and be
acceptable to the community. Among the groups that could be affected are the traveling
public (user), the highway or transit agencies (operator), and the non-traveling public
(community). Each of these groups will have different objectives and viewpoints
concerning how well the system performs. The traveling public wants to improve speed,
safety, and comfort; the transportation agency wishes to minimize cost; and the
community wants to preserve its lifestyle and improve or minimize environmental
impacts. Of particular importance are the environmental assessments mandated in most
urban transportation studies.
6. Choice of a Project
Before deciding whether or not to implement the proposed method, decision-
makers look carefully at the revenue-cost forecasts and would likely consider projects
that appear to be financially sound. The project is selected based on a careful study of the
factors involved. The information gathered in the earlier phases would be used, together
with engineering judgement and political considerations, to arrive at a final project
7. Specification and Construction
For the proposed method, once a decision to proceed has been made, a design is
produced. These plans are made available to contractors, who submit bids for the
construction of the road. If a bid does not exceed the amount of funds available and the
contractor is deemed qualified to do the work, the project proceeds to the construction
phase. Upon completion, the new improved road is turned over to the local transportation
authority who will be responsible for its operation and maintenance. Follow-up studies
will be conducted to determine how successful the road was in meeting its objectives;
where necessary, modifications will be made to improve its performance.
What are the possible hindrances/obstacles that your proposed plan may face?
Enumerate and elaborate as many as you can.
The performance, design and operation of a transportation planning is affected by several factors:
1. Climate Change Adaptation
Climate change adaptation refers to planning, designing, constructing, operating,
or maintaining transportation infrastructure while incorporating climate change concerns.
Current efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, while
important for reducing the long-term effects of global climate change (GCC), will likely
have little effect on GCC over the next twenty or thirty years. Policymakers,
transportation planners, and system managers must proactively and cooperatively adapt
to GCC in order to continue to deliver safe, reliable, effective, and sustainable
transportation systems.
2. Land Use and Transportation
Transportation moves people and goods from one place to another, but
transportation systems also affect community character, the natural and human
environment, and economic development patterns. A transportation system can improve
the economy, shape development patterns, and influence quality of life and the natural
environment. Transportation decision-makers can support economic vitality by
appropriately planning for and accommodating the many different demands on the
transportation system. Decision-makers should evaluate proposed investments for
economic development and future transportation needs.
3. Transportation Equity
Considering equity early and often through methods such as public participation
and data collection and analysis improves the planning processs ability to adequately
respond to the needs of the community it serves. It may also improve project delivery by
preventing costly and time-consuming delays that could arise from previously
unrecognized conflicts as projects move from planning into implementation.

4. Safety
Improving the safety of the transportation system is one of the planning factors
that requires to be considered in the transportation planning process. Short and long-
range plans should have a safety element as part of the plan. When projects and strategies
are evaluated for possible inclusion, safety should be a factor in their selection and
prioritization criteria.

Aderamo, A., & Atomode, T. (2011). Traffic Congestion at Road Intersections in

Ilorin, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9):
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Garber, N. J., & Hoel, L. A. (2009). Traffic & Highway Engineering (4th ed.) Canada, MA:

Cengage Learning.

U.S Department of Transportation. (2015). Transportation Planning Process: Key Issues for

Transportation Decisionmakers, Officials, and Staffs. Retrieved from