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Globalization

A. Nixons Domestic Affairs: Moonwalk


a) Space programs pushed for many years
i. Goal: putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade
b) Apollo 11 Command ship for Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins
c) Eagle Lunar Module
d) July 20, 1969: Eagle lands on the moon
ii. Both Aldrin and Armstrong walked on the moon
iii. Armstrong was the first man on the moon
B. Domestic Policy
a. Cut costs of government and balance the budget
b. Made four Supreme Court appointments
c. Democrats in control of Congress; Nixon had trouble reaching his goals
C. Foreign Affairs During Nixons First Term
a. Vietnamization slowly bring American troops home, and turn war over to the

S. Vietnamese
b. Anti-War Protests
i. Opposition mainly occurred at colleges and universities
1. Kent State University Four students killed by National Guard
D. My Lai Massacre (Vietnam)
a. US troops killed 300 civilians in village of My Lai
b. Most killed were women and children
i. Military attempted to cover up the crime
E. SALT I Agreement: 1972
a. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
b. Limited nuclear arms development
c. Dtente (French term) Nixon used the word to describe the reduction of

tensions between US and USSR


F. Nixon establishes a relationship with China
G. Election of 1972
a. Republican Nominee: President Nixon
b. Democratic Nominee: George McGovern
c. Nixon wins in a landslide
H. Foreign Policy During Nixons Second Term
a. Secret Cambodian Bombings (1965-1973)
i. Bombed suspected Vietnam Congress bases in Cambodia (Operation

Menu; 1969-1970)
ii. Congress and public were not told
b. Vietnam Bombing Intensifies
i. March 1972: Thousands of N. Vietnamese invade S. Vietnam
1. US Response bombing raids all across Indochina
c. March 18, 1969: the US Air Force launched Operation Menu, the B 52 bombing

of Cambodia
I. US Aid to Israel (1972)
a. October 1973 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Yom Kippur (Yom Kippur

War)
b. Nixon aided the Israelis with various supplies
J. First Arab Oil Embargo 1973
a. Arab response to US aid to Israel embargoed oil shipments
b. US Faced with gasoline shortages & higher prices
K. Domestic Affairs During Nixons Second Term
a. Watergate
i. A special investigations unit, Plumbers, broke into the Democratic

National Comm. Headquarters in the Watergate office building


ii. Caught! Nixon attempted a cover up
L. Nixon Under Pressure
a. Ervin Committee Investigated the Watergate situation
b. Nixon fired two top aides
c. Tape recorded conversations hurt Nixon
M. Resignation of Agnew
a. VP Agnew accused of serious crimes
b. Resigned and pleaded no contest to tax evasion
c. Nixon nominated Gerald R. Ford as VP
N. Resignation of Richard Nixon
a. Supreme Court Ruling Nixon had to hand over tapes
b. Nixon knew he would be impeached
c. August 9, 1974 Nixon resigned from the Office of the President
O. Domestic Problems of Gerald Ford
a. Nixon Pardon
i. President Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon
ii. Pardoning Nixon lost Ford much public support
b. Problems with Congress
i. Ford had problems dealing with Democratic Congress
P. Foreign Affairs During Ford Administration
a. S. Vietnam never took control of the Vietnam War
i. US evacuated S. Vietnam in October 1975
b. Arab Oil Embargo
i. Lasting effects OPEC, fuel efficiency, speed limit
ii. Alaskan Pipeline completed
Q. Election of 1976
a. Republican Nominee: President Ford
b. Democratic Nominee: Jimmy Carter Governor of Georgia
c. Carter wins close election
R. Carters Presidency
a. Foreign Policy
i. Main goal promote human rights
ii. SALT II Attempted but never came
b. Domestic Policy:
i. Energy Crisis Carter dealt with the problem by creating the Department

of Energy
ii. Three Mile Island Incident (1979) feared radiation leak
S. International Problems
a. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
b. US Response embargo of grain to the Soviets and boycott of 1980 Olympics in

Moscow
c. Iran Hostage Crisis: November 4, 1979
d. Angry mob invaded US Embassy in Teheran, taking 52 American hostages
i. Lasted 444 days
e. Middle East problems continued
f. Egypt and Israel met at Camp David to discuss peace
i. Result: Camp David Accords established official diplomatic relations

between Egypt and Israel


T. Neo Conservatism: Election of 1980
a. Republican Nominee: Ronal Reagan Governor of California
b. Democratic Nominee: President Carter
c. Reagan wins easily
U. Reagans Domestic Policy
a. The Economy
i. Took over during a time of stagnation
1. Stagnation a combination of high unemployment and high

inflation
ii. The Solution:
1. Cut many domestic programs and increased spending on military

defense
2. Dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal

government
3. New Federalism: Shifting responsibility for many social

programs to the states


4. Supply side or Trickle down economics: tax cuts to

businesses and wealthy individuals


iii. The Results By 1984:
1. The biggest economic expansion in history up to that time
2. Median income grew 15%
3. 5 million new business were formed
4. 20 million new jobs were created
5. By 1989, the unemployment rate dropped to 5.5%
V. The Reagan Doctrine
a. A policy of supporting guerilla groups that were fighting to overthrow

Communism or pro Soviet governments


W. Election of 1984
a. Reagan wins an overwhelming landslide over Walter Mondale
X. Sandra Day OConnor
a. Appointed to the Supreme Court by Reagan
Y. Troubles Abroad
a. Wanted to stop Communism and saw the Soviet Union as the focus of evil in the

modern world
i. Peace through strength
b. 1983 Marine headquarters blew up in Lebanon
i. 241 American Marines were killed in the terrorist attack
ii. They were sent there on a peacekeeping mission
c. October 1983: Grenada After a military coup, a government sympathetic to

Communist Cuba was established


i. US invades Grenada did not want another Communist country in the

Western Hemisphere
Z. Iran Contra
a. Iran Contra Scandal: US sold arms to Iran
b. Reagan wanted to free hostages being held in the Middle East
i. The money went to help support contra rebels in Nicaragua
A. Election of 1988
a. Republican Nominee: George H.W. Bush Vice President under Reagan
b. Democratic Nominee: Michael Dukakis Governor of Massachusetts
c. Bush wins easily
B. Foreign Issues Under Bush
a. 1989 Berlin Wall comes down
b. 1991 The Soviet Unions Communist government collapses
i. The Cold War comes to an end
C. Persian Gulf War
a. Iraq seizes Kuwait
i. August 2, 1990: Iraq invades and takes Kuwait
ii. US sent forces to protect Saudi Arabia
b. The Allies attack
i. Operation Desert Storm US and allies attack January 17, 1991
ii. Iraq agreed to withdraw after 42 days of fighting
D. Clinton Presidency
a. Domestic Policy
i. Struggled with both health care and gays in the military
ii. He and the Republican Congress passed legislation requiring a balanced

budget
1. Attempted to reduce deficit
iii. December, 1998 impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice
b. Foreign Policy
i. NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
1. Eliminated tariffs and other barriers to trade with Canada and

Mexico
E. Election of 2000
a. Republican Nominee: George Bush Governor of Texas
b. Democratic Nominee: Al Gore VP under Clinton
c. Bush wins one of the closest elections in history
i. Came down to Florida Bush won by 537 votes
F. 9/11
a. Al-Quada terrorist group: responsible for the attack
b. Coordinated attack 4 US commercial planes hijacked
i. 2 flown into the World Trade Centers (NYC), 1 into the pentagon, 1

crashes in PA
c. 2,996 died
G. Essential Questions
a. What made the 1960 election so unique?
b. What was the goal of the Bay of Pigs invasion?
c. Who built the Berlin Wall and why?