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1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Miscommunications are commonly experienced by the students when it comes to the

distribution of information and announcement. Such issue gives rise to the need of a general

mechanism in order to deliver or announce information that will be clearer and easier to

understand. Indeed, we introduce Public Address System wherein through oral announcement,

the distribution of information will be fast and direct. It will be easier to communicate with all

the students within the university campus

The importance of this research is for the student to understand easier and clearer the

different information announced within the university. This research will also contribute to the

efficiency of information distribution by the officials and the student organizations.

Communicating a message effectively to an individual or a large volume of people is

essential, especially in emergency cases or big gatherings in an outdoor venue. Upon installation

of the Public-Address System, different things are to be considered such as the spacing or

location and position of the speakers, the basic speaker characteristics, the acoustic

consideration, the area coverage of the sound, the layouts of the speaker and the electricity that

will be used.

The total equipment cost of the project is Php.181, 150 which includes the amplifiers,

speakers, microphones and cable wires. The construction cost computed is Php. 31,530 which

includes the construction materials and post where the speakers will be installed. The contractor

cost will be around Php. 120,000.00. And the total computed cost that includes the production

and the construction cost will be Php. 343,180.

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Installation of a Public Address System requires professional consultation from

experts such as audio engineer and electrical engineer to properly lay down the framework of

this project. The installation process shall be in compliance with the mandate of Department of

Public Works and Highways Standard Specification 1213 Public Address System (Department

Order No. 232, Series of 2016) and shall be governed by the provision of the latest edition of the

Philippines Electronic Code (PEC) and other existing rules and regulations of the locality and

governing agencies.

2. BACKGROUND

The increasing population of Bulacan State University with more than thirty thousand

students demands a more effective and efficient way of disseminating information throughout the

University. As a formal organization, written materials (e.g. letters, reports and memorandum)

are observed as the most common way to communicate with the university administrators to

other members of the academic community. In addition, the advancement of digital information

era has made the advent of new methods of communication through social media.

Announcements are publicly posted to social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. but the

legitimacy and accuracy of the message relayed is questionable. And also, not all faculties,

students and other staffs have access to internet at all times.

Miscommunication and misunderstanding are commonly experienced by the students.

Such issue gives rise to the need of a general mechanism to announce and to deliver information

orally. Oral announcements are fast and direct to communicate to all the members of the

academic community especially during emergency cases and important events.

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To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of information dissemination, equipment and

the system needed to deliver messages and announcements must be taken into heavy

consideration. Thus, a proposal has been made to address this problem with the implementation

of the Public Address System or PA System in the whole vicinity of Bulacan State University.

Public Address System is an electronic sound amplification and distribution system with

a microphone, amplifier and loudspeakers. PA system allows a person to speak to a large public

to relay message. The public address system will be used for general building emergencies and

university purposes, to quickly contact all building occupants or to clear the building. The PA

system may also be used to make announcements involving personal emergencies, defined as

situations involving death, critical illness or serious injury. The PA system will not be used to

make personal announcements.

To transmit audio in any setting such as in a university, there are two basic system:

Paging System and Public Address System (PA System). Basically, the two systems are similar,

and their differences are not that quite precise. The Paging System is more of on the broadcasting

and speech amplification side. Though the PA system can also be used for speech amplification,

they can be utilized to play music as well. However, the Paging System requires a complicated

installation because of the many areas for the speakers and wires to pass through. Examples of

establishments include hotels and university campuses. As for the PA System, it is simple and

straightforward to use.

Most Public Address systems can be considered to be distributed reinforcement sound

systems in that they provide real time amplification of an audio source (e.g. live or recorded

audio announcements or media audio) to listeners in a served area using a number of individual

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speakers. PA system can also support Fire Detection and Alarm System at which feedback and

response to the people in a certain area to remain calm and evacuate. Also, pre-recorded files for

emergencies can be played when the situation demands it

3. ANALYSIS

Communicating a message effectively to an individual or a large volume of people is

essential, especially in emergency cases or big gatherings in an outdoor venue. Equipment and

the system needed to deliver the message must be taken into heavy consideration. This section

will provide a general discussion of the basic concepts and key concerns related to the

installation of public address system. These include importance of correct spacing and location,

basic speaker characteristics, acoustic consideration, determining coverage areas, speaker layouts

and electrical considerations.

3.1. Importance of Correct Spacing and Location

The project location of the PA System will be at Bulacan State University Main Campus

in City of Malolos, Bulacan with approximately seven hectares. With this wide area coverage,

speaker spacing and location are a key part of ensuring that the PA system provides the required

degree of coverage. Poor spacing or bad location selection can result in a PA system that

provides no useful information to listeners.

Currently, a horn speaker is used for the flag racing ceremony of the Grade 7-12 students

situated near the College of Education and the Laboratory Highschool building shown in

Figure1.

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Figure 1: A Horn Speaker

In figure 2, graphical representation of the possible location of the speakers around the

BulSU is shown. These points are chosen to acquire the maximum sound range using the

minimum cost. There will be eight (8) posts to be constructed or used where the speaker will be

installed. Each post shall consist of four (4) speakers as indicated in the map. The eight posts are

located as follows:

1. Beside College of Social Science and Philosophy (CSSP) building


2. Beside BulSU Canteen near Valencia Hall
3. In front of College Of Engineering (COE) building
4. In front of Roxas hall near Laboratory Highschool Building
5. In front of College of Home Economics (CHE) building
6. In front of Tennis court
7. Beside Activity Center
8. In front of College of Nursing (CON) building

The main control system of the AP System will be placed in Valencia hall. The

microphone or the sound source and other set-ups will be placed inside the function hall. It is

also accessible since the Presidents Office resides in Flores Hall which is very near to the

Valencia Hall.

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Figure 2: PA System Set-up in Bulacan Sate University Map
Figure
3.2. Basic speaker 3: PA System Set-up in Bulacan State University
characteristics

Most voice announcing sound systems use three basic speaker types dual cone, coaxial

cone and horn. The word "speaker" is the shortened form of the word "loudspeaker". Speakers

are considered to be transducers, in that they convert electrical energy (signals) into mechanical

energy (sound waves) that results in the generation of sound. Most typical coaxial cone and horn

speakers utilize electromagnetic drivers to transform the electrical energy input to a mechanical

energy output. They can be considered to be a specialized form of linear electric motor.

Figure 3: Parts of a Speaker

The typical components of a speaker are frame, voice coil, pole piece, diaphragm and

spider. Frame provides mechanical rigidity and mounting for all components. Voice coil

performs the conversion from electrical energy to magnetic energy. Pole piece of magnetic

material is attracted and repelled by magnetic fields generated in the voice coil. Diaphragm,

usually of paper or plastic, the mechanical movement of this item by the pole piece produces

sound. Spider connects the diaphragm to the frame and to the pole piece for stability while still

allowing movement required for producing sound.

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A dual cone speaker has one driver that pushes the sound

through two different cones that are attached to it. The larger one

handles the lower frequencies and the smaller cone handles the higher

frequencies. This works pretty well but the sound quality is not as good

Figure 4: Dual Cone as other types of speakers. Dual cone speakers do tend to be less
Speaker
expensive, though, which is something to consider.

A coaxial speaker actually consists of more than one speaker

working together. The term coaxial refers to the fact that you have one

speaker wrapped around another. A typical two way coaxial speaker

will have a woofer with a tweeter in the center. The tweeter handles

the higher frequencies while the woofer handles the lower frequencies. Figure 5: Two Way
Coaxial Speakers with
The tweeter and woofer each have their own driver which makes for Flax Corner

superior sound reproduction compared to dual cone speakers.

A horn loudspeaker is a loudspeaker which uses an

acoustic horn to increase the overall efficiency of the driving

element(s). A common form consists of a compression driver which

produces sound waves with a small metal diaphragm vibrated by an

Figure 6: Horn Speaker electromagnet, attached to a horn, a flaring duct to conduct the

sound waves to the open air. The horn serves to improve the coupling efficiency between the

speaker driver and the air. The horn can be thought of as an "acoustic transformer" that provides

impedance matching between the relatively dense diaphragm material and the less-dense air.

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With this different type of speakers, a horn speaker is more appropriate to be installed for

an outdoor PA System because of it is greater acoustic output power from a given driver. Other

special features shall be considered as to higher quality speaker offers weatherproof and

waterproof loudspeaker nowadays.

The following acoustical parameters are important considerations in speaker selection

and spacing/location:

a. Audio frequency response The frequency of a vibration is the number of complete

waves which pass a given point in a unit time. Frequency is usually expressed in vibration per

second or cycles per second or Hertz. For successful reproduction of speech in a PA/Paging

system, the accepted minimum frequency response of all components within the system is

typically 350 Hz 5 kHz. For A-V systems, the accepted minimum frequency response of all

components within the system can be as broad as 20 Hz 20 kHz.

b. Sensitivity or the Sound Intensity Level measured in decibels (dB). Sound

Pressure Level (SPL) or Sound Intensity Level is a comparison of intensity of one sound and

the intensity of a reference sound. It is an acoustical/mechanical measurement that can range

from 0 dB (threshold of hearing for a typical person) to 120 dB (threshold of pain for a typical

person). SPL represents sound energy intensity commonly referred to as loudness.

c. Dispersion angle this is the angular value within which the SPL is not more than 6

dB below the on-axis level (the Sensitivity) for the speakers overall frequency response or a

specific frequency specified by the speaker manufacturer

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3.3. Acoustic considerations

Acoustic considerations for speaker spacing and location include:

Space dimensions and configuration (length, width, height, circular, rectangular, etc.).
Ambient noise (ranges from low as in an office environment to high in an industrial

environment).
Surface characteristics
o reflective concrete, ceramic tile and similar surfaces
o absorptive carpet, fiber ceiling tile and similar surfaces

3.4. Determining coverage areas

The method for determining the coverage area of the installation of PA System is as

follows:

a) Obtain space measurements and prepare plan and elevation views.


b) Note existing surfaces and finishes.
c) Identify areas not to be covered.
d) Identify special conditions (e.g. open archways to stairwells or other spaces; abrupt changes

in dimensions, such as ceiling heights).


e) Calculate the base coverage area for an individual speaker based on the manufacturers

specifications.

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Figure 7: Diagram of Speaker
f) Once the speakers base coverage area has been determined, the next step is to include the

following measurements into the calculations to determine the location specific coverage

area:
i. Distance from speaker to listener ear height.
ii. Desired SPL at listener ear height.

The level of 95 dB SPL at listener ear height is typically the maximum allowable to

avoid the potential for hearing damage.

g) Items to consider:
i. If the reference distance for the initial SPL calculation is doubled, the SPL will

decrease by 6 dB. (e.g. base coverage area SPL at 1meter is 97 dB at 1 watt, at 2

meters the SPL will be 91 dB at 1 watt.). This principle is also known as the Inverse

Square Law.

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ii. If the reference input electrical power for the initial SPL calculation is doubled, the

SPL will increase by 3 dB. (e.g. base coverage area SPL at 1 meter is 97 dB at 1 watt,

at 1 meter the SPL will be 100 dB at 2 watts.)


iii. For this example, the measured ambient noise at within the area to be covered ranges

from 55 to 60 dB SPL.
iv. The SPL at listener ear height should be 15-20 dB above the ambient noise level.
h) Review the calculations:
i. Do the results provide the necessary SPL level at listener ear height ?
ii. If yes, the next step is to determine the speaker layout within the space.
iii. If no, there are additional steps which must be taken before proceeding with the

layout:
a. Increase or decrease the height of the speaker above the floor.
b. Increase or decrease the input electrical power to the speaker.
c. Select a different speaker usually a speaker with a smaller dispersion angle

can provide a greater SPL output at 1 meter than one with a wide dispersion

angle.
d. In this case, the calculations must be redone, before proceeding with the

speaker layout.

3.5. Speaker layouts

Once the final coverage area for an individual speaker has been determined, the next step

is to evaluate and select a speaker layout methodology. The two basic, most widely used

loudspeaker patterns are square and hexagonal (also called offset or triangular).

A Square Pattern lines up the rows and columns and often requires fewer loudspeakers,

resulting in a lower system cost. A square pattern is easy to lay out, especially on a suspended

ceiling tile grid. It may also be easier for zoning large open spaces. It is usually the preferred

choice, delivering more even coverage, and often with fewer speakers. Its usually the best

starting point for a design

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Figure 8: Square Pattern

In a hexagonal layout pattern, the rows are offset from each other. While a hexagonal

pattern typically uses more loudspeakers, it may use fewer in some particular cases.

For example, in a room laid out with a square pattern, it the end row of loudspeakers

cover only a small area. In a room where the width is 1.5 times the coverage of the loudspeaker,

part of a loudspeakers coverage is wasted in the square pattern. In these cases, you might be able

to reduce the number of loudspeakers in each row by one and offset the rows from each other,

with the offset loudspeaker from one row partially filling in the uncovered area from the adjacent

row. This sometimes can reduce the evenness of coverage.

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Figure 9: Hexagonal Pattern

The choice of pattern depends on the best fit between the space dimensions and the

speakers. Also, the pattern orientation can be rotated as needed to fit the shape of the space. The

three most common densities in loudspeaker layout or spacing methodologies are edge-to-edge,

minimum overlap and full overlap.

Edge-to-edge density places the loudspeakers such that the outside edges of their single-

loudspeaker 6 dB down points just touch one another. The spacing distance is equal to 2r (r =

radius of the coverage area).Requires the least number of speakers to cover a space. It will leave

some gaps in coverage. It is not recommended for locations with poor acoustics or significant

background noise.

Minimum overlap is a tighter spacing where all spots are within the 6 dB coverage

pattern of at least one loudspeaker. The spacing distance is equal to r times 1.414 for speakers

utilizing a square pattern and r times 1.732 for speakers utilizing a hexagonal pattern. It requires

additional quantity of speakers than the edge-to-edge spacing methodology. It will cover gaps in

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the coverage area (but may not be sufficient in many cases). It may still leave areas where

announcements are not audible or intelligible in areas with poor acoustics or significant

background noise.

Full overlap is tighter still: the 6 dB down point of one loudspeaker extends to the on-

axis point of adjacent loudspeakers, and all listeners are within the coverage pattern of at least

two loudspeakers. The spacing distance is equal to r. It requires additional quantity of speakers

than both the minimum overlap and edge-to edge spacing methodologies. It utilizes the highest

speaker density commonly used for PA/Paging systems. It is the best methodology for areas with

poor acoustics or significant background noise.

3.6. Electrical considerations

Once the speaker spacing and location issues have been addressed in the design, the next

step is determining the electrical requirements and constraints. For systems using a constant

voltage distribution methodology, the factors included are total audio power requirements, audio

circuit configuration, audio circuit sizing, and amplifier loading.

3.6.1. Audio Power Requirement Determination

a) These systems utilize nominal voltage level audio output circuits from audio power

amplifiers typically this voltage is 25 or 70.7 volts, but in some instances, this voltage

could be 100 volts or higher.


b) The speakers are wired in parallel to the audio output circuits via multi-tap matching

transformers at each speaker location.


c) The matching transformers are used to match the impedance of the speaker voice coil

(typically 8 ohms) to the high impedance of the constant voltage audio output circuits of

15 | P.A. SYSTEM
the amplifiers and allow, through the multi-taps on the primary of the transformer,

selection of the power in watts to be provided to the speaker.


d) Matching transformers can be purchased with taps as low as watt up to values as high

as 15 watts and with various levels in between.


e) The selected transformer must always match the speaker voice coil impedance and must

not allow the power to exceed the speaker manufacturers maximum, otherwise damage

to the system may result.


f) Calculating the audio power required first involves obtaining all of the individual speaker

power requirements based on the matching transformer tap settings and adding them up

(e.g. 25 speakers each tapped at 1 watt equals 25 watts).

3.6.2. Audio Circuit Configuration

Determine the number of circuits required to connect the speakers to the amplifiers.

a. Zoning requirements, separation of spaces within the same zone, and raceway

configuration are just three of the factors to be considered in determining the number of

circuits required.
b. (2) Assign speakers to each circuit. This is best done by utilizing one-line and/or riser

diagrams with each speaker uniquely identified to its location on the plan and elevation

drawings.
c. Ensure that circuit connections are polarized (+/-) correctly. Incorrect polarity can create

an out of phase condition where speaker outputs can interfere with each other, reducing

levels and/or creating distortion.

3.6.3. Audio Circuit Sizing

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a. Usually, a minimum of #16 AWG wire is specified for audio output circuits between

the amplifier outputs and the speakers.

b. In a 70.7 volt PA system, #16 AWG wire is limited to a maximum safe current of 6

amperes, resulting in a maximum power capacity of 420 watts at a maximum distance of 90 feet,

assuming a 0.5 dB (12.5 %) line loss.

c. In some cases, wire size may have to be increased to meet the power and/or distance

limitations within a circuit.

Ohm Max Max Max Max Max Max Max


Max Max
Wir s per Lengt Lengt Lengt Lengt Lengt Lengt Lengt
Safe Safe
e 1000 h (Ft.) h (Ft.) h (Ft.) h (Ft.) h (Ft.) h (Ft.) h (Ft.)
Amp Powe
Size Loop at at at at at at at
s (I) r (W)
(R) 10W 15W 20W 30W 40W 60W 100W

#16 8.0 6 420 3600 2400 1800 1200 900 600 370
#14 5.2 15 1000 5600 3800 2800 1900 1400 950 560
#12 3.2 20 1400 9100 6200 4600 3100 2300 1600 910
#10 2.0 25 1750 9900 7300 5000 3700 2500 1450
#8 1.28 35 2450 7800 5700 3900 2280

Table 1: Length of Two-Wire 70.7 Volt Line Delivering Various Values of Power at 0.5 dB

(12.5%) Loss

3.6.4. Amplifier Loading

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Manufacturer recommendations/best practices:

The connected load should not exceed 80 percent of the amplifier power rating for a

100 watt rated amplifier, the total connected load should not exceed 80 watts, including

circuit losses.

3.7. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM

1. In all cases, system wiring must comply with all applicable codes and standards.
2. The installation process should be in compliance with the mandate of Department of

Public Works and Highways Standard Specification 1213 Public Address System

(Department Order No. 232, Series of 2016) to provide effective standards specifications

of various infrastructure projects such as PA System.


3. Installation of the system shall be governed by the provision of the latest edition of the

Philippines Electronic Code (PEC) and other existing rules and regulations of the locality

and governing agencies. When codes and standards conflict, consult with engineer for

proper resolution prior to action.

4. COST BENEFIT EVALUATION

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In this section, the technical, functional and operational characteristics of different

equipment under consideration will be discussed. And also the estimated cost of production and

different options for each equipment will be provided.

4.1. Equipment Cost

A PA system usually consists of three parts: An amplification system (amplifier), a

speaker system (speaker), and a sound source (microphone). Different products will be

introduced that are suitable for installing the PA System.

4.1.1. Amplifier

An electronic amplifier is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal.

The technical characteristics of the amplifier under consideration are as follows:

Frequency response - is the quantitative measure of the output spectrum of a system or

device in response to a stimulus, and is used to characterize the dynamics of the system.

It is a measure of magnitude and phase of the output as a function of frequency, in

comparison to the input.


Power Output - is the actual amount of power (in watts) of radio frequency energy that

a transmitter produces at its output.


Power Requirement - refers to the electrical energy over time supplied to operate an

electrical appliance.

Table 1.1: Product Samples of Amplifier

Compact PA Mixer Two Channel PA


Product Name Speaker Amplifier
Speaker Amplifier

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Product Design

Price P6450 P9250 P7950


Frequency
80 Hz to 15000 Hz 40 Hz to 15000 Hz 80 Hz to 10000 Hz
Responses
Power Output 120 W 300 W 350 W
Power
110 V/220 V AC 110 V/220 V AC 110 V/220 V AC
Requirement

Between the three amplifiers that were compared based on the given factor, the most

viable choice is the Two Channel PA Amplifier. Even though it has the highest price, it has a

higher range if frequency responses and has an intermediate power output. This amplifier will

yield the best result over time.

4.1.2. Speaker

A loudspeaker or speaker is an electroacoustic transducer which converts an

electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound. The technical characteristics of the amplifier

under consideration are as follows:

Sound Pressure Level (SPL) - SPL is actually a ratio of the absolute, Sound Pressure

and a reference level (usually the Threshold of Hearing, or the lowest intensity sound that

can be heard by most people). SPL is measured in decibels (dB), because of the

incredibly broad range of intensities we can hear.


Frequency Range This is the group of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that

are assigned by regulatory agencies for a particular purpose.

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Protection Grade classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against

intrusion (body parts such as hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water by

mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. It is published by the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).


Rated Input - the highest power input allowed to flow through particular equipment.

Table 1.2: Sample Products of Loudspeaker

L-Frank Audio
Product Name TOA Horn Speaker TC-40 PA Speaker
Speaker

Product Design

Price P2900 P1490 P1291


Sound Pressure Level 113 dB 110 dB 105 dB
Frequency Range 250 Hz to 10000 Hz 350 Hz to 5000 Hz 400 Hz to 5000 Hz
Rated Input 30 W 40W 80W
Material Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum

As previously discussed, horn speaker are more suitable to be used compared to other

type of speakers due to its higher frequency range and the outdoor set-up of the speakers in the

PA System.

Among the three speakers that were compared based on the given factor, the most viable

choice is the TOA Horn Speaker. Even though it has the highest price, it has a higher range if

21 | P.A. SYSTEM
frequency responses but requires minimum power input. This speaker will yield the best result

over time.

4.1.3. Microphone

A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike is a transducer that converts sound

into an electrical signal. The technical characteristics of the amplifier under consideration are as

follows:

Sensitivity The sensitivity rating tells you how effectively a speaker converts power

(watts) into volume (decibels).


Frequency Response - the dependence on signal frequency of the outputinput ratio of

an amplifier or other device


Rated Power Consumption - the highest power input allowed flowing through

particular equipment.
Impedance - the effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating

current, arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance.

Table 1.3: Product Samples of Microphone

MCH-600 Wind Chime Desktop Paging


Product Name SPECO MHL5S
Microphone Microphone

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Product Design

Price P3360.85 P3500 P3250

Sensitivity 71dB 74 dB 46 dB

Frequency Response 100 Hz to 10000 Hz 100 Hz to 10000 Hz 100 Hz to 10000 Hz


Rated Power
1.1 mW 1.2 mW 1.2 mW
Consumption
Impedance 600 ohms 680 ohms 630 ohms

Among the microphones that were compared based on the given factor, the most viable

choice is the MCH-600 Wind Chime Microphone. Even though it has the highest price, it

offers higher range sensitivity. Its rated power consumption was viable with impedance higher

than the other competitor.

4.1.4. Cable

Wire Size - American wire gauge (AWG), also known as the Brown &

Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardized wire gauge system used since 1857 predominantly in North

America for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. Dimensions

of the wires are given in ASTM standard B 258.

Table 1.4: Product Samples of Cable Wires

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Audtek Electronics
Audtek Electronics Audtek Electronics
SKRL-16-100 16
Product Name SKRL-16-50 16 AWG SKRL-14-50 14 AWG
AWG OFC Speaker
OFC Speaker Wire OFC Speaker Wire
Wire

Price P28.84/ m P34.25 /m P49.93 / m

Product Design

Wire Size (AWG) 105 x 36 AWG 125 x 36 AWG 168 x 36 AWG

The Audtek Electronics SKRL-16-100 16 AWG OFC Speaker Wire has the right wire

size with the lowest price and better compared to the competitor product.

4.2. Total Equipment Cost

Table 2: Total Equipment Cost

Product Amount
Component Product Name Total
Cost Required
Amplifier Two Channel PA Amplifier Php. 9,250 1 Php. 9,250

Speaker TOA Horn Speaker Php. 2,900 32 Php. 92, 800


MCH-600 Wind Chime
Microphone Php. 3,500 2 Php. 7,000
Microphone
Audtek Electronics SKRL
Php. 28.84/
Cable Wire 16-100 16 AWG OFC 2500 m Php. 72,100
m
Speaker Wire
Gross Total Cost Php. 181,150
4.3. Construction Cost

Table 3: Construction Cost

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Construction Material Cost per unit Amount Required Total

Black Iron Pipe Bi


P1200 / pieces. 16 pieces. Php. 19,200
Pipes

Cement P259 /bag 30 bag Php. 7,770

Sand and Gravel P157 / cubic meter 80 cubic meter Php. 4,560

Gross Total Cost Php. 31,530

4.4. Total Production Cost

Table 4: Total Production Cost

Total (3
Component Initial Cost Month 1 Month 2 Month 3
Months)
Total Equipemnt
Php. 181,150
Cost
Construction
Php. 31,530
Cost
Contractor Cost Php. 120,000
Power Output
Php. 2000 Php. 2000 Php. 2000
Cost
Support and
Php. 1500 Php. 1500 Php. 1500
Maintenance
Gross Monthly
Php. 332,680 Php. 3500 Php. 3500 Php. 3500 Php. 343,180
Cost

The proposed budget for the PA System is Php. 343, 180 which includes the equipment,

constructions materials, contractors cost, support and maintenance.

5. CONCLUSION

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During the course of the study, it was found out that the installation of Public Address

System will help in making a university-wide medium of communication that will give real time

information among the students and the faculty. It will help the university through the immediate

update of status and events occurring inside of the university especially in times of emergency

situations.

Immediate dissemination of information through the help of the PA system will greatly

benefit the members of the academic community of Bulacan State University and increases the

efficiency and effectiveness of public notice like memo coming from the University

administrators. PA system was consisting of an amplification system (amplifier), a speaker

system (speaker), and a sound source (microphone). These components may be expensive but

through proper selection of the right equipment supplier, accurate financial assessment and

technical aspects, this proposal will become cost-efficient and will help the residents in the

university for a long period of time.

The installation process shall be in compliance with the mandate of Department of Public

Works and Highways Standard Specification 1213 Public Address System (Department Order

No. 232, Series of 2016) and shall be governed by the provision of the latest edition of the

Philippines Electronic Code (PEC) and other existing rules and regulations of the locality and

governing agencies.

6. RECOMMENDATION

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After bearing in mind the significant factors in the study that we conducted like the

financial and technical factors. It is therefore recommended that the establishment of the sound

reinforcement system on Bulacan State University be pursued.

The following recommendations have been made for the establishment of a Public

Address System or the Sound Reinforcement System on Bulacan State University

The sound coming from the system must be heard throughout the whole university.
An expert must be present in handling electronics.
An expert must be consulted in placing the correct type, quantity and location of

speakers.

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