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# Introduction

## Electromagnetism is a fundamental force in nature that establishes the internal

properties of all things on Earth. It is a phenomenon that is manifested in the
interrelationship between electricity and magnetism, and the interaction of electrons and
photons at the atomic and molecular level. The theory confirms that one can be
produced by the other and also explains the nature of light.

## Electromagnetic induction is a process where a conductor placed in a changing

magnetic field (or a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field) causes the
production of a voltage across the conductor. This process of electromagnetic induction,
in turn, causes an electrical current - it is said to induce the current.

## Michael Faradays law of electromagnetic induction

states: that a voltage is induced in a circuit whenever
relative motion exists between a conductor and a magnetic
field and that the magnitude of this voltage is proportional
to the rate of change of the flux.

## In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851)

accidentally discovered that a compass needle got
deflected when an electric current passed through a
metallic wire placed nearby. After hearing of these
discoveries, Andr-Marie Ampre (1775-1836)elaborated
upon them and formulated the basic principles
of magnetostatics: steady (static) electric currents result in
magnetic fields which circulate around them

## In 1829, electromagnetic induction may have been anticipated by the work of

Italian priest and physicist Francesco Zantedeschi but also did not publish their findings.

## In 1830, Joseph Henry of Princeton (invented telegraph) observed induction,

conversion of magnetism to electricity, but did not publish and did not recognize the
vast importance of this observation. Later however, he observed and published
evidence for self-induction.

In August 29, 1831, Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was the first one to publish
and to be credited with the discovery of electromagnetic induction. Faraday formulated
that electromotive force produced around a closed path is proportional to the rate of
change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path.

## In 1834, an important aspect of the equation that quantifies Faradays Law

comes from the work of Heinrich Lenz, a Russian physicist who made his contribution to
Faradays Law, now known as Lenzs Law, (Institute of Chemistry).
1860: James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), a Scottish physicist and
mathematician, puts the theory of electromagnetism on mathematical basis.

## 1873: Maxwell publishes "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism" in which he

summarizes and synthesizes the discoveries of Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Faraday,
et. al. in four mathematical equations. Maxwell's Equations are used today as the basis
of electromagnetic theory. Maxwell makes a prediction about the connections of
magnetism and electricity leading directly to the prediction of electromagnetic waves.

1885: Heinrich Hertz shows Maxwell was correct and generates and detects
electromagnetic waves.

## 1895: Guglielmo Marconi puts the discovery to practical use by sending

messages over long distances by means of radio signals. i.e. the "Wireless".

In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed the Theory of Relativity stating the relationship
between electricity and magnetism, showing that frame of reference determines if an
observation follows electrostatic or magnetic laws.

## Many electrical devices operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

Electromagnetic Induction is the basic principal of operation of transformers, motors and
generators.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

1.a. What would happen to the voltage impulse value when the magnet is
inserted in and withdrawn from the coil?

## Voltage impulse or induced electromotive force would be created due to the

magnetic flux created by moving the magnet in and out of the coil and therefore a
current was also induced into the coil by the physical movement of the magnetic flux
inside it.

When the magnet moved towards the coil, it would induce a positive emf.
Likewise, when the magnet is moved away from the coil in the other direction with
regards to the first indicating a change in polarity, it would induce a negative emf. The
Voltage impulses have the same absolute value but different signs when the magnet is

## inserted and withdrawn from the coil as the integral

When the magnet stops moving and is held stationary with regards to the coil,
there would be no induced emf in the coil as there is no physical movement of the
magnetic field.
1.b. What is the significance of inserting two magnets with respect to the
voltage?

The insertion of two magnets with the same pole will intensify the magnetic flux,
producing a greater voltage impulse.

The use of two magnets additionally verifies the proportionality between the
voltage impulses and the number of magnets used respectively the difference in the
magnetic flux produced in this manner:

2. What is the relationship between the voltage impulse and the number of Turns
(N) of the respective coil?

If additional layers of wire are wound upon the same coil with the same current
flowing through them, the magnetic field strength would be increased. The magnetic
field strength of a coil is determined by the ampere turns of the coil. By increasing the
amount of individual conductors cutting through the magnetic field, the amount of
induced emf produced will be the sum of all the individual loops of the coil.

## Number of turns is directly related to voltage impulse in Faraday's equation for

the law of induction. The relationship between a voltage impulse and the number of

## turns N of the respective coil is

THEORY

The electric fields and magnetic fields are produced by stationary charges and
moving charges (currents), respectively. Imposing an electric field on a conductor gives
rise to a current which in turn generates a magnetic field. An electric field could be
generated by varying magnetic field with time.
OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION

1. The supplied voltage by the sensor Cassy is 100V connected in the coil. The
time taken for each set-up was 10 seconds. When a magnet was inserted back
and forth repeatedly and continuously, the graph shows that induced voltage was
produced. Pushing the north seeking pole of bar magnet inside the coil produces
a negative voltage while pulling the bar magnet away from the coil produces a
positive impulse voltage.

Magnetic flux is defined as the product of the area (A) of the surface swept
out by the moving conductor and component of the magnetic field strength (B) that is

## The process by which a changing magnetic flux produces electric current is

called electromagnetic induction. The current and the emf produced are called induced
current and induced emf. Induced emf depends on the rate of change of magnetic flux
through the coil. Magnetic flux penetrating closed circuit varies with time.

The two laws describing electromagnetic induction are Faradays Law and Lenz
Law.

## Faradays Law of electromagnetic induction states that a voltage is

induced in a circuit whenever relative motion exists between a conductor and a
magnetic field and that the magnitude of this voltage is proportional to the rate of
change of the flux. The induced emf is proportional to the rate of change in the
electric flux with respect to time.

## When we induce a current in the coil, it becomes an electromagnet. One end of

the coil is a north pole and the other end is a south pole. When the north pole of our
magnet is moving towards the left hand end of the coil, the induced current flows
anticlockwise (as we look at the left hand end). This makes the left hand end of the coil
into a north pole. And this north pole tries to repel the incoming north pole of the
magnet. Pulling the bar magnet out weakens the magnetic field at the coil.

## Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction states that the direction of current

induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to Faraday's law of induction
will be such that it will create a field that opposes the change that produced it. In other
words, an induced current will always OPPOSE the motion or change which started the
induced current in the first place. Lenz's law is the negative sign in Faraday's law of
induction. It is related to the law of conservation of energy.

Lenz's Law explains the direction of many effects in electromagnetism, such as the direction
of voltage induced in an inductor or wire loop by a changing current, or why eddy currents exert a
drag force on moving objects in a magnetic field. The induced emf within this metallic part of the
system causes a circulating current to flow around it and this type of core current is known as an
Eddy Current.

Other two laws relating to Induced Voltage are Maxwell-faraday equation and
Amperes Law.

## The MaxwellFaraday equation is a generalization of Faraday's law that states

that a time-varying magnetic field will always accompany a spatially-varying, non-

## conservative electric field, and vice versa. The MaxwellFaraday equation is

(in SI units) where is the curl operator and again E(r, t) is the electric
field and B(r, t) is the magnetic field. These fields can generally be functions of
position r and time t. The MaxwellFaraday equation is one of the four Maxwell's
equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical
electromagnetism.

## The magnetic field in space around an electric current is proportional to the

electric current which serves as its source, just as the electric field in space is
proportional to the charge which serves as its source. Ampere's Law states that for any
closed loop path, the sum of the length (l) elements times the magnetic field(B) in the
direction of the length element is equal to the permeability(u 0) times the electric current
(I) enclosed in the loop.
2. When the north pole of the magnet enters the coil, the graph
starts with a trough and when the south pole of the magnet
enters the coil, the graph is a crest.

## An electric charge produces an electric field. An oscillating charge will produce

an oscillating electric field which in turn produces an oscillating magnetic field. Oscillate
means to swing backward and forward like a pendulum. Waves are disturbance
travelling through a medium or in vacuum. Electromagnetic waves are produced by
oscillating electric charges with the electric field and magnetic field vibrating
perpendicularly with each other and to direction of wave propagation. Hence
electromagnetic waves are transverse wave. They all propagate through vacuum (or air)
with the same speed equal to 3X10^8 m/s.

Transverse waves are made up of alternating hills and valleys. From equilibrium
position, crest is the position of the maximum upward displacement while trough is the
minimum downward displacement.

## The voltage waveform starts at zero

along the horizontal reference axis (time).
Cosine wave and sine waves are sinusoidal
function. Cosine waves is shifted by +90degree
or one full quarter of a period ahead of it. Sine
wave is a cosine wave that has been shifted in
the other direction by -90deg. When the north
pole of the magnet entered the coil, the graph
starts with a trough which means that the wave
pulse is a cosine waveform. When the south pole of the magnet had entered the coil
after the North Pole exited, the graph continues with a crest which means that the wave
pulse is a sine waveform.

3. The faster the round bar magnets was inserted and pulled out, the greater the
voltage impulse. The graph also showed that increase in motion results to small
wave period.

Wave Length or wave period is the time taken for a particle to complete one cycle
for the particular wave motion. Increasing the speed of the relative motion between the
coil and the magnet produced higher induced
emf and current within the coil. If the same
coil of wire passed through the same
magnetic field, its speed or velocity is
increased because the wire will cut the lines
of flux at a faster rate so more induced emf
would be produced.

## The amount of current induced

depends on how fast the magnetic field is
changing. If the magnetic field is changing quickly, the current will be stronger than if the
field is changing more slowly.

4. In graph 1 and 2 when there is no magnet inserted in the coil, the impulse
voltage were almost zero. And when the round bar magnets was held in
stationary, there is no induced voltage and the graph fall into zero.

## Insert north, held for a while, then exit no magnet inserted

If the magnet is held stationary near, or even inside, the coil, no current will flow
through the coils since there is no movement in the magnetic field. A constant magnetic
flux does nothing to the coil, while a changing magnetic field will produce a voltage in a
coil, causing a current to flow.

5. The voltage impulse in the graph of experimental set ups 1, 3 and 5 using a
coil turned 250 times has a higher range of voltage impulse in value compared
with the graph of set ups 2, 4 and 6 where the coil was turned 1000 times which
produces a lower range of values.

Greater no. of turns in the coil results to greater impulse voltage. By increasing
the amount of individual conductors cutting through the magnetic field, the amount of
induced emf produced will be the sum of all the individual loops of the coil, so if there
are 250 turns in the coil there will be 250 times more induced emf than in one piece of
wire. And so if there are 1000 turns in the coil there will be 100 times more induced emf
than in one piece of wire.

## Number of turns is directly related to voltage impulse in Faraday's equation for

the law of induction. The relationship between a voltage impulse and the number of

## turns N of the respective coil is

6. Graph 3 and 4 consists of one magnet inserted while graph 5 and 6 consists of
two magnets inserted of same poles in the coil. The range of values of impulse
voltage with two magnet inserted in the coil is higher than the range of values
with only one magnet inserted. When two magnet of opposite poles was inserted,
the voltage drops to zero.

As shown in graphs 5 and 6, when two magnets of same poles are inserted to a
closed loop such as coil, it produces higher impulse voltage readings compared only to
one magnet inserted. An increase in number of magnets would intensify the magnetic
field surrounding the two bar magnet if inserted with same poles because of the
repelling reaction of the magnetic flux between two magnets.

## The use of two magnets additionally

verifies the proportionality between the voltage
impulses and the number of magnets used
respectively the difference in the magnetic flux
produced in this manner:
While inserting two magnet of opposite poles the impulse voltage drops to zero
since the magnetic field of the north and the south poles of the magnet
compensates each other, and there would be no excess magnetic field

7. The condition of the coil used might affect the obtained values of impulse
voltage.

## A healthy coil will exhibit the

same waveform as the voltage is
increased from test to test with only a
variation in the amplitude. A sick coil will
exhibit waveforms whose frequency
and/or damping rate changes as the
voltage increases or will exhibit hash at
the peak of the damped sinusoid. A
dead turn to turn short cannot be detected with the impulse tests unless the waveform
can be compared to a good coil of the identical design. Even then, the wave form of a
good coil with many turns will vary only slightly from the wave form of a coil with a dead
turn to turn short of the same design.

CONCLUSION:
Bibliography:

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday%27s_law_of_induction

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Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/electromagnetism-timeline-1992475

http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/electromagnetic-induction.html

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resources.schoolscience.co.uk/CDA/16plus/copelech4pg3.html

http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/electromagnetic-induction.html

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Retrieved from http://www.electricaleasy.com/2014/02/faradays-law-and-lenzs-
law-of.html