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# WEEK 12: APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the week, students should be
able to:
1. perform catchment discretization to identify
catchment area type and area extent (CO3);
2. propose appropriate drain sections for the peak flow
rate calculated (CO3);
3. apply engineering hydrological concepts in urban
stormwater design (CO3)
MSMA
Manual Saliran Mesra Alam Malaysia
Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Msia
http://www.water.gov.my

## Qp = C I A Refer MSMA Sec.14.5

Time of Concentration
tc = t0 + tf Refer MSMA Sec.14.4
Upstream divide

t0
t0 = overland flow time (inlet time)
tf = channel flow time tf

## Typically small catchments (<50km2) are more

likely to have constant intensity over entire area, and
hence travel time is relatively short (tc < 20min).
Inlet Time t0
MSMA Eq. 14.1 (Friends formula)

## 107nL1/ 3 t0 = sheet flow time (min)

t0 L = sheet flow length (m)
S n = Mannings coefficient
S = surface slope (%)

(MSMA Sec.14.4.2(C))
In urban drainage, inlet time is primarily roof drainage
flow time which is very small and considerably uncertain
hence, a minimum of 5min may be adopted.
Mannings roughness
Channel Flow Time tf
MSMA Eq. 14.4 a & b (Mannings eq.)

## L tf = channel flow time

tf L = channel length
V
V = assumed velocity

## Generally, V > 0.9m/s to avoid water ponding.

tc for Natural Catchment
(with mixed flow path)

Fc L
tc
A1/10S 1/ 5

## tc = time of concentration (min)

L = catchment length (from outlet to upstream divide) (km)
Fc = conversion factor = 58.5
S = slope of stream flow path (m/km)
A = catchment area (km2)
Minimum tc
Rainfall Intensity Qp = C I A

## ln I = a + b ln t + c (ln t)2 + d (ln t)3

where t = tc
a,b,c,d are constants obtained from Appendix 13.A
MSMA Appendix 13.A
Return Period
(Annual Recurrence Interval, ARI)
Short Duration Storm
MSMA Section 13.2.7

## Appendix 13.A is only valid for 30 < t < 1000min

For shorter duration,
Pt = P30 FD (P60 P30) 5 < t < 30min

## where Pt is the rainfall depth for a duration t

P60 & P30 can be obtained from Appendix 13.A
FD can be obtained from Table 13.3
Hence I = Pt / t
2-yr ARI Daily Rainfall Map
(Figure 13.3, MSMA)

Table 13.3
2
P24 (mm)
Duration
(min) West Coast East Coast
<100 120 150 >180 All
5 2.08 1.85 1.62 1.40 1.39
10 1.28 1.13 0.99 0.86 1.03
15 0.80 0.72 0.62 0.54 0.74
20 0.47 0.42 0.36 0.32 0.48
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.0

0.9
Runoff Coefficient

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

## interpolate linearly to C = 0.9

0.3
at I = 400mm/h
0.2

0.1

0
200 300 400
Equivalent Runoff Coefficient Qp = C I A

A1
A2
Ce
CA
i i

A i A3

## C value is the least accurate in Rational Method

always adopt higher value for conservative design
tcritical = (tc)max Refer MSMA Sec.14.4.2

1. Estimate tc
2. Determine I
3. Determine C
4. Calculate Qp A
5. Design drain tf
t0
B t c = t0 + t f
tf

C t0
D
tf tf
tc1 , tc2
E
tc t0 = tcritical
Qp = C I A

Moving downstream,
tc (hence t) , I , A A
tf = 4min
Qp
t0 = 5min
B
t0t=
c =9min
9min

tf = 4min
t0 = 5min
D C
tf = 6min tf = 4min
tc1 = 13min
E tc2 = 9min
tc = 19min t0 = tcritical = 13min
Partial Area Effect (Sec 14.5.7)

## The use of tc is based on the assumption that peak flow occurs

when the whole catchment is contributing flow to the outlet.
Due to partial area effect, peak flow may occur when only part of
the catchment is contributing flow to the outlet.

Consequently,
A1
tc , I , A Non-urban
A2
Qp Urban
Figure 14.2: General Procedure
Select ARI

Discretise sub-catchment

Estimate tc

Determine i

Determine C

Calculate Ce

Qp = C I A
MSMA Section 14.5.3
Assumptions of Rational Method:
Peak flow occurs when entire catchment is contributing to flow
Rainfall intensity is the same over the entire catchment
Rainfall intensity is uniform over a time duration equals to tc
ARI of the computed flow is the same as ARI of the rainfall
intensity

## Rational method is NOT recommended where:

ponding in catchment is significant
design & operation of large/ major drainage facilities (esp. storage)
Drain Section



m
Length


Location
Return Period

yr

Sub-area

## Area  

ha
Catchment

Overland flow


min
Drain time


min
Time of
Flow time


min
concentration

Critical Time of


min

Concentration

Intensity


mm/h

Runoff Coefficient


Equivalent Runoff


Coefficient

Total Equivalent
Rational Method

ha


Area

Discharge


m 3/s

Drain Section
MSMA Appendix 16.A.2


Calculation Worksheet (I)

Gradient


1 in

Capacity


m 3/s

Actual Velocity


m/s
Drain Design

Flow Time


min
m

Invert Level

Proposed development

## 15nos Terrace houses 20x80

10 nos Shop offices 24x125

12m road
6m backlane
15m road

18m road
15 nos Terrace houses 20x80
9m backlane

## 15 nos Terrace houses 20x80

15m road
6m backlane
Proposed Drainage Layout

## 15nos Terrace houses 20x80

10 nos Shop offices 24x125

18m road
15 nos Terrace houses 20x80

## 10nos Shop offices 24x105

15 nos Terrace houses 20x80
Drain Catchment
Drain Catchment (Plan view)

## Existing earth drain

Drain Catchment (Area identification & calculation)

## Existing earth drain

D2
D2_R

D3 D3_R
D3_B
10 nos Shop offices 24x125
D1 D4_B(a)
D1_R

D4
D4_R
D4_B(b)
10 nos Shop offices 24x105
Location Catchment Flow time
        

Critical Time of
Overland Flow

Concentration
Return Period

concentration
Drain Section

Drain time
Sub-area

Time of
Length

Area
m yr ha min min min min
D1 108 5 D1_R 0.08 5 0.9 5.9 5.9

## D3 109.5 5 D3_R 0.09 5 0.9 5.9 5.9

D3_B 0.14
D4 72 5 D4_R 0.06 5 0.6 5.6 5.6
D4_B 0.25
Note: assumed V = 2m/s
Location Catchment Flow time
        

Critical Time of
Overland Flow

Concentration
Return Period

concentration
Drain Section

Drain time
Sub-area

Time of
Length

Area
m yr ha min min min min
D1 108 5 D1_R 0.08 5 0.9 5.9 5.9

## D3 109.5 5 D3_R 0.09 5 0.9 5.9 5.9

D3_B 0.14
D4 72 5 D4_R 0.06 5 0.6 5.6 5.6
D4_B 0.25
Note: assumed V = 2m/s
Location Catchment Rational Method
         

Equivalent Runoff
Runoff Coefficient

Total Equivalent
Critical Time of
Concentration
Return Period
Drain Section

Coefficient

Discharge
Sub-area

Intensity
Area

Area
yr ha min mm/h ha m 3/s
D1 5 D1_R 0.08 5.9

## D3 5 D3_R 0.09 5.9

D3_B 0.14 Less than 30 min!!
D4 5 D4_R 0.06 5.6
D4_B 0.25
T a b c d

Say
Calculation of Intensity (5 < t < 30min)

## t (min) a b c d RHS I (mm/h) P (mm)

30 4.9709 0.546 -0.2176 0.0113 4.7553 116.2 58.1 =P30
60 4.9709 0.546 -0.2176 0.0113 4.3342 76.3 76.3 =P60
t (min) FD Pt (mm) It (mm/h)
5.9 1.7 27.2 272
6.6 1.6 29.0 268
5.6 1.8 25.3 276

## ln I = a + b ln t + c (ln t)2 + d (ln t)3

Location Catchment Rational Method
         

Equivalent Runoff
Runoff Coefficient

Total Equivalent
Critical Time of
Concentration
Return Period
Drain Section

Coefficient

Discharge
Sub-area

Intensity
Area

Area
yr ha min mm/h ha m 3/s
D1 5 D1_R 0.08 5.9 272 0.91 0.91 0.08 0.05

## D3 5 D3_R 0.09 5.9 272 0.91 0.87 0.23 0.15

D3_B 0.14 0.84
D4 5 D4_R 0.06 5.6 276 0.91 0.85 0.31 0.20
D4_B 0.25 0.84
T a b c d

Say
Location Drain Design
         

Actual Velocity
Drain Section

Drain Section

Invert Level
Drain time

Flow Time
Discharge

Gradient

Capacity
Length

D1 108 0.9 0.05

D2 87 0.7 0.10

D4 72 0.6 0.20

## Design structure (drain) so that

Qcapacity > Qpeak
freeboard

1
Q AR 2 / 3 S 1/ 2
n
Use n = 0.011 (Table 14.2)
Type Depth P A R
m m m2 m
A-12 1.5 3.048 0.554 0.182
B-12 1.4 2.743 0.484 0.176
C-12 1.2 2.438 0.415 0.170
D-12 1.1 2.134 0.345 0.162
E-12 0.9 1.829 0.275 0.151
F-12 0.8 1.524 0.206 0.135
G-12 0.6 1.219 0.136 0.112
Location Drain Design
         

Actual Velocity
Drain Section

Drain Section

Invert Level
Drain time

Flow Time
Discharge

Gradient

Capacity
Length

## m min m 3/s 1 in m 3/s m/s min m

D1 108 0.9 0.05 G-12 1000 0.09 0.67

D2 87 0.7 0.10

D4 72 0.6 0.20

## V = Q/A, t = L/V Note: V < 0.9m/s !!

Location Drain Design
         

Actual Velocity
Drain Section

Drain Section

Invert Level
Drain time

Flow Time
Discharge

Gradient

Capacity
Length

## m min m 3/s 1 in m 3/s m/s min m

D1 108 0.9 0.05 G-12 500 0.13 0.94 1.91

D2 87 0.7 0.10

D4 72 0.6 0.20

## V = Q/A, t = L/V Note: Actual V Assumed V (= 2m/s)

tf = 1.91min
tc = t0 + tf = 5 + 1.91 = 6.91min
T = 5 yrs
I = 255 (previous = 272mm/h)
Ce = 0.91 (usu. minor diff!!)
Qp = 0.05 (usu. minor diff!!)

## Typically, recalculations are not necessary

Location Drain Design
         

Actual Velocity
Drain Section

Drain Section

Invert Level
Drain time

Flow Time
Discharge

Gradient

Capacity
Length

## m min m 3/s 1 in m 3/s m/s min m

D1 108 0.9 0.05 G-12 500 0.13 0.94 1.91

## Make sure 0.9 < V , 4.0 m/s

Road Level

Type Depth
H P A R
m m m2 m
A-12 1.5 3.048 0.554 0.182
B-12 1.4 2.743 0.484 0.176
C-12 1.2 2.438 0.415 0.170
D-12 1.1 2.134 0.345 0.162
E-12 0.9 1.829 0.275 0.151
F-12 0.8 1.524 0.206 0.135
G-12 0.6 1.219 0.136 0.112

Invert Level

## Total depth = 1.5 x 0.3 m + H = 1.05 m (minimum)

Convert feet to m
Example: Say RL = 34.0m, then IL = 34 1.05 = 32.95m
Vertical Profile
Drainage section are always selected based on OUTLET point.

RL = 34.0m
1:500
0.2
100
IL = 33.15m
IL = 32.95m
100m

RL = 34.0m
1:1000
0.1
IL = 33.05m 100
IL = 32.95m
100m

1/500 x 100
Design of Drain Vertical Profile
D1: Upstream D2: Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

IL = 33.15m
IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
100m

## Option 1: Increase size, match upstream

Upstream Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

Qcap

IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
IL = 32.75m
100m
Design of Drain Vertical Profile
D1: Upstream D2: Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

IL = 33.15m
IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
100m

## Option 2: Increase size, match upstream, reduce gradient

Upstream Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

Qcap

IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
IL = 32.90m
100m
Design of Drain Vertical Profile
D1: Upstream D2: Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

IL = 33.15m
IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
100m

## Option 3: Maintain size, reduce gradient, change upstream

Upstream Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m

Qcap?

IL = 33.00m IL = 33.00m
IL = 32.95m
100m
Avoid flow direction against topography
Upstream Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 35.0m
RL = 34.0m

IL = 34.15m
IL = 32.95m IL = 33.95m
100m

Upstream Downstream
RL = 34.0m RL = 34.0m RL = 35.0m

H=1.65m
IL = 32.95m IL = 32.95m
IL = 32.90m
100m
Free fall between adjacent drain
Upstream Downstream

IL = 32.95m

IL = 32.15m
IL = 31.95m
100m