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Social

Documentary as
a Pedagogic
Tool
A Methodology for
Dissemination level
PU Public X
RE Restricted
CO Confidential
2
Project title Europa 2111

Acronym EU2111

Programme Lifelong Learning Programme, Transversal programme, KA3

Grant Agreement N Agreement n. 2010-4084

Workpackage 5. Developing a methodology for video documentary production as


teaching and learning tool

Deliverable D20 Social Documentary as a Pedagogic Tool. A Methodology for


Practitioners
Julian McDougall, University of Wolverhampton
Authors
Richard Sanders, Newman University College, Birmingham
Contributors Europa 2111 partnership
Contractual Date of 31/01/2011
Delivery:
6/12/2011
Actual date of Delivery
This document does provide the basis for integration between
Abstract
monitoring/evaluation activities and project management.
Approval Status: Final
Method of e-mail/uploading in the Moodle/Website/Dropbox
Distribution:

Document Log

Version Date Comment Author


0.0 20/09/2011 1st release produced by the WP leaderJulian McDougall, Richard Sanders

0.1 28/10/2011 2nd release after the partners as trainers


Julian McDougall, Richard Sanders, project
workshop in Birmingham partners
0.2 06/12/2011 Final release validated by the partnership
Julian
s McDougall, Richard Sanders, project
partners, Silvia Francario

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The Europa 2111 Partnership

CENJOR PT

Gour IT

Newuman University
UK
College

Microcinema IT

Menon BE

Perspektivwechesel DE

Cineuropa BE

Mediaopera AT

Casa delle Culture IT

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the
author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained
therein.

@ EU2111 Partnership 2010-2012. Reproduction is authorised, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is
acknowledged.

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Social Documentary as a Pedagogic
Tool
A Methodology for Educational Practitioners

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................. 7

The project Europa 2111 in brief ................................................................ 8

Rationale...................................................................................................... 9
Ethnography.................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Digital ethnography ................................................................................................................................................... 10
Critical media literacy ............................................................................................................................................... 10
Principles of Transmedia Education ......................................................................................................................... 11

Understanding Documentary.................................................................... 11
The Language of Documentary.................................................................................................................................. 12
Representation............................................................................................................................................................. 12
Audience / Identity..................................................................................................................................................... 13

Comparative Analysis ............................................................................... 14


Conventional .............................................................................................................................................................. 14
Oppositional ............................................................................................................................................................... 14
Ethnographic / DIY ........................................................................................................................................... 14

Social Documentary................................................................................... 16

Method........................................................................................................ 18

Learning Steps and Key Competences .....................................................20


Plan ............................................................................................................................................................................ 24
Capture........................................................................................................................................................................ 24
Edit ............................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Share .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Review......................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Learn .......................................................................................................................................................................... 27

Exemplar Curriculum Mapping................................................................... 30

Annexes
1- Pedagogic tools:
o The technical guidance: instruction for produce
o The curriculum
2- The evaluation tool-kit

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Introduction

This document combines a pedagogical methodology with technical instructions for social
documentary making in the context of an ethnographic approach to reflecting on European
identities. As such it covers two of the key deliverables for the project Europa 2111, co-
financed by the European Commission under the EU Lifelong Learning Programme, Key
Activity 3 (ICT).
The technical instructions / guidance are hosted in Moodle a virtual learning
environment. Co-beneficiaries and research partners are provided with accounts for
access to these materials. This document contains links to those technical resources.
The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework primarily for
practitioners, but which may also be of some interest to policy makers and educators, to
develop and/or implement an innovative key competences teaching / learning approach
based on video-documentary making. This framework is drawn from the Europa 2111 work
plan and brings together a number of aspects of the plan to provide a theoretical
environment and a set of operational tools to help practitioners and other interested
stakeholders to develop their ideas and practice.
This document is the result of a collaborative work structured and coordinated by the
Newman University College and collecting contributions from each partner of Europa 2111
depending in its specific expertise and the connected key competence area, as deriving
from the Key Competence Map.
The final version of this document has been released by the authors after the partners
workshop in Birmingham, which has been held on October 4-7, 2011.
After a brief overview on the Europa 2111 project, the document is structured into two main
sections:

1) Defining the scenario: Understanding documentary, Comparative analysis and Social documentary
providing the scientific environment where the Europa 2111 approach has been developed;

2) Identifying the approach and how to develop it: Methodology, Implementing steps and an Exemplar
curriculum providing guidance on how to implement the model.

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The project Europa 2111 in brief

The operational objective of the project Europa 2111 is to investigate how innovative ICT-
based contents and pedagogy - such as the ethnographic social video-documentary -
facilitate the updating of the educational system and the starting point for new didactic
methodology for secondary schools, VET, as well as for universities and for an internal
updating of the professional areas of each throughout the whole lifelong learning domains.
It addresses four key research questions:
1. What difference does employing an innovative ICT-content and pedagogy, such as the
social documentary, as opposed to more traditional modes, such as an essay or a
presentation or a written examination?
2. Can the medium of social documentary and the approach of digital ethnography facilit-
ate critically reflective learning?
3. Is social documentary making a tool for enabling learners to meet the EU competence
for lifelong learning?
4. Is social documentary facilitating the participants development of critical media liter-
acy?

The specific objectives of EU2111 are therefore:


To develop a new pedagogical tool transversally applicable to all target groups and,
what is more important, to both informal and formal learning contexts.
To promote competences acquisition: almost the entire set of Key competences is
promoted through the curriculum on Video Documentary Production in that each of the
necessary steps for the audio-visual product corresponds to a specific competence
area.
To promote a new didactic path based on knowledge sharing processes: the sharing of
knowledge is the foundation of the model promoted by the project. The approach
requires an active participation in learning and sharing of tasks that not only involves
the learners but also the facilitators guiding the project. Not a traditional vertical
approach to teaching but a network environment that fosters conversation, exchange,
sharing of discoveries and information among teachers / trainers and students.
To apply the new approach to different typology of users from formal educational
environments to VET, adult learning and professional sectors through a dedicated
experimentation.
To synthesise and disseminate the project results to key stakeholder communities
through ICT spaces the EU2111 web-tv and through the organisation of workshops
and screenings of the videos produced during popular cultural events
To develop a capitalization and mainstreaming strategy to support future policy and
practice in the field.

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Rationale

Passionate affinity-based learning is not really new. It is just much more wide-spread
than it has ever been, thanks to digital media. (Gee and Hayes, 2011: 71).

This methodology has three key objectives and a strategy for meeting them:
1. Offer a pedagogy that will facilitate critically reflective learning through the medium of
social documentary and a digital ethnography approach to working in the medium.
2. Enable learners, through participation in social documentary making, to meet the key
EU competences for lifelong learning.
3. Facilitate learners development of critical media literacy.

4. Providing trainers and teachers with innovative tools to facilitate and support learners in
meeting the criteria for Media Literacy (as defined by EU research and policy reports)
through a form of digital ethnography / auto-ethnography that will increase learners
motivation and engagement, and providing as shift towards a learner-centred
environment.

The strategy for meeting these objectives is to construct a method digital ethnography - in
which both formal and informal learning environments can construct, harness or mirror such
passionate affinity-based learning and to provide three operational tools: the Europa 2111
curriculum, the Technical guidance and the evaluation tool-kit.

Ethnography
Ethnographic research is concerned with situation the researcher works from inside the
social setting / practice with which the research is concerned. A range of research methods
can be used in combination with an emphasis on producing data, which is grounded in the
location or activity. Crucially, the specific and often complex nature of the location or activity is
given prominence and broad generalisations are to be avoided in the analysis. The meaning of
social action, from the perspective of research participants, is prioritized over the researchers
assumptions and claims to objective observation are avoided. Ethnography, then, is:

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concerned not with presenting a distanced, scientific and objective account of the social world, with an
account that recognizes the subject reality of the experiences of those people who constitute and construct
the social world. (Pole and Morrison, 2003: 5).

An ethnographic approach seeks to analyse first-hand experiences in the context of social


action. Auto-ethnography involves research participants analyzing their own social action.
This methodology will combine ethnography, auto-ethnography and digital ethnography in
straightforward ways through the use of social documentary making.

Digital ethnography
(see Wesch, 2011) adopts the ethnographic methodology immersion in specific locations and
cultures in order for research to be situated within contexts as opposed to observed from
outside with the use of new media that allow researchers to do this in virtual ways, across
geographical boundaries. For this project, traditional auto-ethnography (documentary making,
situated in local communities, reflecting on identities in relation to European citizenship) is
combined with digital distribution of the films online, so that a cross-cultural community of
connected participants is constructed. The digital ethnography method employed for this
project is purposely low tech in order to maximize access and engagement including the
use of flip digital camcorders and imovie digital editing on macbooks and ipads - to capture,
record, edit, sequence, narrate, share and disseminate auto-ethnographic and more broadly
ethnographic reflections on the complex nature of identity.
In practice this means that teachers, trainers and other practitioners will train learners to
produce video documentaries in the ethnographic mode (ie without voice over or other framing
devices that speak on behalf of learners). Learners will thus use social documentary as a
reflective tool as opposed to a media product that necessarily adopts existing institutional
conventions in order to directly reflect and comment upon their perceptions of their identities
as more or less individual, local, national, European and global. This will include articulation of
how they imagine their local area to change in the next one hundred years. This digital
ethnography will capture the lived experience of citizenship.

Critical media literacy


combines digital competence with learning to learn, cultural and social awareness and
expression in relation to individual, local, national, European and global versions of identity.
Through this methodology we seek to combine academic approaches to this:
Critical media literacy teaching must strive to facilitate mastery in a metalanguage which gives voice
to reflexive negotiation of identity a kind of culture literacy. (Kendall and McDougall, 2011: in
press).

with EU policy objectives in this area:

Europes unique offer to an increasingly interdependent global society is its enormously


rich and distinctive cultural heritage and its traditions of democracy, intellectual freedom,
religious tolerance, uncensored publication and open debate.
The rapid development of digital technologies has made more urgent an issue that has
been pressing for some time: the need for European citizens to fully understand the
means by which information, ideas and opinions are now created, circulated and shared in
modern societies: in other words, for a media literate population.
Only if Europeans have the capacity for access to, and production and participation in the
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new media environment, acting as active and critical citizens, will Europe be able to take
advantage of the opportunities in progress and innovation that ICT generates in the
information society.
The key to ICT Access and the new communication environment is media literacy.
Promoting it among European citizens has become a strategic and integrationist objective
for the whole of Europe.
A fundamental requirement for the promotion of this new capacity is to have a suitable
model for media literacy, and to know all its dimensions, its strategic value and the specific
benefits that it can bring to the development of information society in Europe.
European Commission Report, 2011. Study on the current trends and approaches to media
literacy in Europe (http://www.euromedialiteracy.eu/)

Principles of Transmedia Education

Critical media literacy must not just be concerned with taking a critical distance from the
media so we can be less vulnerable to its influence. Nor should it just be a vocational training
route into the media industries, without any critical consideration of the implications of how the
news is constructed according to an agenda or how videogames represent women. Media
literacy is an element of lifelong learning, framed by transmedia practice. As such, this
methodology is also informed by Henry Jenkins key principles for transmedia education (2010)
in relation to the lifelong learning key competences, as follows. The questions here are posed
to learners.
How is the social documentary you produce a product of spreadability and drillability?
The first idea is about dispersal - scanning across the media landscape to find meaning. The
second is about looking more deeply (drilling down) into a particular subject in detail. Learning
should combine the two, and your praxis production work that is theoretically charged,
should demonstrate range and detail in this way. How does your documentary achieve
continuity (of classic conventions and highly influential existing documentaries) and
multiplicity (the need for cultural plurality different interpretations, alternative readings,
remix)? Next, does your documentary come from ethnographic immersion, does it reflect a
world that exists in the perception of citizens and at the same time allow for new ways of
imagining culture, or is it fixed in a stable, unchanging view of reality? How have you applied
principles of seriality the dispersal of stories in sections or units which are compelling in
themselves but also challenge and engage the reader to return? How have you dealt with
subjectivity looking at the same thing from different points of view? Have you embraced this
as a healthy part of plurality, or attempted to lay down an objective truth? Finally, your
documentary is the result of many kinds of performance. What are you being asked to do with
what you are being taught? How are you adapting this from knowledge to skill? How is this
adaptation an act of improvisation? How has the process of making your ethnographic
documentary created a space where you are able to perform the curriculum in ways which are
meaningful to your life as a citizen and a cultural activator?
Note interested stakeholder shall translate this line of questioning as appropriate for
their pedagogy.

Understanding Documentary
Understanding Documentary
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through Critical Media Literacy
The following framework combines elements proposed in pedagogic, research and policy texts
that seek to formulate and measure critical media literacy (Buckingham, 2003; Jenkins, 2010;
McDougall and Potamitis, 2010; Scarratt, 2007 and EC, 2011). They require learners to
critically assess documentary in relation to a set of classic key concepts, but also consider the
role of new digital media in challenging these. In addition, here they are mapped to both the
EU Lifelong Learning competences that more broadly frame this methodology.
Pedagogic experts working on this project should prepare learners for social documentary
making by working with them to analyse three contrasting documentaries that relate to social /
political / identity issues in the host country / region. The three documentaries selected for
discussion and deconstruction should contrast in the following ways
Conventional broadcast / film context, high authority, claims to objectivity.
Oppositional following conventions but clear opposition to power structures / clear political
agenda.
Ethnographic / DIY online context, low authority, no claim to objectivity.
The key learning outcomes from this preparatory work are:
Understand the conventions at work in documentary;

Assess the relationship between objectivity and the construction of a preferred reading;

Evaluate the difference between classic realist / conventional documentary (claims to


objectivity) and ethnographic social documentary.
The framework for deconstructing the three texts is as follows:

The Language of Documentary

CITIZENSHIP LEARNING OBJECTIVES: understand that images are constructed by the


media; develop the tools to deconstruct moving image texts.
EU KEY COMPETENCES: awareness of texts styles and registers of language, critical
interpretation.
How are the conventions of documentary combined to create particular meanings?
Conventional material - eye witness material, interviews, vox-pops, use of text and voice-over,
use of language and mode of address.
Conventional techniques invisible camera, over the shoulder interviewing.
Conventional editing (montage) combinations of shots to convey a preferred reading of the
information being documented.
Technology use of interactive features, social / trans-media elements.

Representation
Representation is the media concept most directly connected to Citizenship. It explores what is said
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about the world and what beliefs, values and attitudes are implied, endorsed or condemned.
(Scarratt, 2007:8)

CITIZENSHIP LEARNING OBJECTIVES: stereotyping; identify bias and emotive and


persuasive techniques; learn about dominant conventions of representation; compare
documentary texts to analyse current social values; compare representations of social or
ethnic groups and investigate audience responses to them.
EU KEY COMPETENCES: understanding of culture and respect for diversity. bigger
picture issues, ethics.
Realism / authority how is trust sought (and provided) for the audience?
Presence and absence who is included and excluded from the documentary and how does
this situate / influence the audience? Who is object (of the documentary) and who is expert?
Claims to objectivity to what extent does the documentary attempt to appear neutral? How
does selection and construction (including editing) influence the preferred reading?
How does the narrative structure of the documentary tell a story? What other ways of telling
this story could there be?
Who has VOICE and who is SPOKEN FOR in the documentary?

Audience / Identity

CITIZENSHIP LEARNING OBJECTIVES: compare representations of social or ethnic groups


and investigate audience responses to them; look at home videos and other representations of
themselves and people like themselves, discussing the positive and negative aspects of the
ways they have been represented; discover the potential of moving image media to represent
themselves and / or their group in a positive and effective way.
EU KEY COMPETENCES: cultural knowledge; open attitude (of critical appreciation and
curiosity).
Are there indicators of the documentary being intended for a particular group of people? On
what criteria can we decide this? Are we included in this (and why or why not)?
Reading how might we read this documentary as a text in different ways, depending on our
experiences in the world, our relationships with others and our values and opinions? What
chances do we have to respond to this text in formal and informal ways? What role does new
media technology play in this?
Social differences what can we say about the way the documentary is communicating to us
in relation to gender, social class, age, ethnicity, geography, religion, sexuality, ability /
disability and other social/ cultural factors?
Engagement what kinds of engagement / pleasure / interest might the documentary provide
for different people? How could it be MORE engaging for us? What role might social media
play in this?

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Comparative Analysis

Practitoners will select three documentaries that relate to the chosen social issue / theme and
the particular social and cultural contexts of participants / learners.
An example from a UK perspective is offered here, for adaptation .

Conventional
Broadcast / film context, high authority, claims to objectivity. POOR KIDS (True Vision /
Channel 4, 2011) this documentary uses conventional documentary techniques (voice over,
interviews, expert opinion, selection and construction through linear editing imposing narrative)
and seeks trust from viewers as objective capturing child poverty in the UK, maintaining
subject / object distinction poor kids as object of documentary, despite significant air time
given to four children speaking for themselves about their life experiences. Link to trailer -
http://truevisiontv.com/shop/product/details/84/poor-kids

Oppositional
Following conventions but clear opposition to power structures / clear political agenda.
SUPERSIZE ME (Spurlock, 2004) this documentary appears auto-ethnographic but, despite
its challening agenda (seeking to expose the effect of fast food marketing on public health) it
imposes a positivist, linear structure on the content. This is most explicit in the montage editing
and elipsis critical media literacy allows us to support / view with sympathy / be persuaded
by the political / social message but understand that the highly conventional nature of the text
manipulates space and time in order to assert a discourse. As such the textual nature of the
process of construction is not part of the critique this prevents us seeing the documentary as
ethnographic. Link to key scenes - http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=N2diPZOtty0&feature=related

Ethnographic / DIY
Peer constructed / shared and / or online context, low authority, no claim to jectivity.
REWIRING THE AUDIENCE (McDougall, 2009) as part of a research project looking at The
Wire, media audiences and education, a group of Birmingham youth workers were asked to
make a documentary film in the settings in which they work, to explore how The Wire as a text
could be mapped to the lives of youth workers as a community of practice. No further
direction was given and the films were edited by the participants with a no pre-determined
agenda for self-representation. The footage was used by the researcher as one data set,
interpreted through a reflexive, ethnographic discourse analysis. Link to published article -

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http://www.participations.org/Volume%207/Issue%201/mcdougall.htm

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Social Documentary
Social Documentary: strangers in the community

Writing about his social documentary project with New York teenagers, media educator Steven
Goodman describes the ethnographic approach as being informed by anthropologist Shirley
Brice Heath who told her students to imagine they had just been set down as strangers in
their own community (in Gooman,2003 :59).

A social documentary produced in the ethnographic mode demands two sets of pedagogic
principles: supporting learners in managing a production and supporting learners in working
ethnographically.
Managing a production: research and planning, logistics and ethics, allocation of roles, group
dynamics, time management, use of resources (including equipment), storyboarding and
scripting where appropriate, technical activities filming, lighting, sound recording, editing,
uploading, tagging and online dissemination.
Working ethnographically: avoiding authoritative voice, confidence in auto-ethnographic work,
reflexive personal communication, working as translators of own language and culture. This
demands working with (from Vygotsky) participants zones of proximal development in order to
support critical thinking from where learners are in terms of social and critical capital. A shift of
mode from schooled practices is required, as described here by Goodman:
In contrast to their traditional teacher-centred classes, students consistently report that they feel more
positive about themselves, their work and their community. A powerful sense of engagement and
excitement surrounds them when they are out on the streets talking with their peers, and talking about
subjects of immediate importance to them. It is vital for teachers to engage students effectively by
developing their sense of empowerment and possibility. This is most commonly understood as student self-
expression, or voice. (Goodman, 2003: 58)

The production of a social documentary facilitates particular kinds of critically reflexive


learning, here mapped to the EU Lifelong Learning key competences. At the heart of this
research project is the question of what difference is made by employing this pedagogic tool
as opposed to a more traditional mode eg an essay, presentation, portfolio or written
examination. The outcome of the project (the sharing of the social documentaries) is
secondary to the reflective process in the ethnographic context.

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Participating learners will research, plan, produce and share documentary film / video which
explores attitudes and reflective identity construction in relation to a contemporary social issue.
The process must not lead to a text which takes an authoritative position, claims objectivity or
speaks on behalf of the people it represents.
Participating learners must focus on a community of practice / social engagement which they
inhabit in order to work ethnographically, immersed in the situation of the documentary
subjects. As such, the film / video will be partly a work of SELF-REPRESENTATION,
harnessing the affordances of new digital and social media to realize this.
The critically reflexive learning areas this project seeks to facilitate are:
Media literacy (Cultural awareness and expression, social and civic competence, com-
munication)
Critical reflection (learning to learn)

Collaboration (learning to learn, sense of initiative, communication)

Technical skill (Cultural expression, digital competence, communication, competence


in technology): Filming | Digital Editing | Subtitling (optional) | Production and dissemin-
ation

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Method
Method: Digital Ethnography

This is an educational research project and as such the focus is on the collection of data and
the analysis of data. The forms of data will be the participants films and the evaluative
accounts of partners. Fundamentally, this is ethnographic research for the simple reason that
we view documentary making as a research exercise and, understood in this way, our
participants are agents in the research our research observes theirs. Therefore, the video
footage captured by learners should be considered to be their research data and their editing
decisions should be understood as their data analysis.
This approach views research itself as TEXTUAL and thus it acknowledges and seeks
to critique the power dynamics that are always at work in research methods and
processes. This unravelling of power is a key ethical dimension:
The reflexivity inherent in the notion of text demands that attention be paid to the textuality of
research, so how the text is written is just as important as what it is about. (Scott and Usher, 1999:
155).

Pedagogic requirements for all practitioners

Supporting learners in the production of a social documentary in the ethnographic mode


requires preparatory guidance on the conventions of orthodox, oppositional and ethnographic
documentaries (see the critical media literacy framework and the comparative analysis).
Educational practitioners must also facilitate instruction for digital competence (filming, editing,
sound, lighting, post-production), initiative (pre-production, research, planning, logistics and
dissemination / exchange) and group dynamics.
Whilst this broad methodology will be adapted for the particular learning contexts in which it
will be used, either a formal or non-formal one, the above teaching input is required to ensure
consistency across the project. Whilst types of equipment may vary and the documentary may
be produced to a more or less DIY or professional standard, the ethnographic approach
must be consistent across the project.

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Ethnographic research foregrounds the representational function of research. It is, as such,
reflexive:
Although research is generally thought of as a process of finding out about the world, there is also a
need to take account of the reflexive dimension in research. Reflexivity is about finding out how
meanings are discursively constructed within the research process. (Usher and Scott, 1999:19).
This ethnographic approach is maintained by the learners, who are themselves researchers.
Research is understood here as textual (as opposed to objectively scientific). As such, the
documentary-making process is itself a textual research activity, so the partner practitioners
are observing and evaluating the outcomes and learners reflections (learning to learn) on the
process of working in the ethnographic mode. This ethnographic mode consists of three
fundamental principles, which can be adapted to local contexts by partners:
The documentary makers are to be immersed in the situation of the communities / groups
who they will allow to self-represent in the documentary. Thus there is an auto-ethnographic
element.
Authoritative claims to objectivity / speaking on behalf of the documentary participants must be
avoided at all times in the process and outcomes. The documentaries produced will be
subjective and will portray social groups on their own terms in their real life contexts.
The documentary makers will explicitly seek out diversity, variability, creativity and spontaneity
in their capturing of social interaction in response to the documentary topic. Generalisation
will be avoided in favour of thick description (Geertz, 1973), which draws out patterns (key
discourses) in the interactions.
The core elements of the methodology and how the social documentary production may
facilitate the acquaintance of key competences, is outlines in the paragraph below, where each
single step for the production of a video-documentary is directly linked to one or more key
competences. This methodology and its operational tools aims at describing and expressing
HOW this link works and maybe implemented.

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Learning Steps and Key Competences
In this section, the learning steps that participants will take for the production of the video-documentary are connected to the EU Lifelong Learning Key Competences.

Step of the video Core elements of the Unit Teaching area Learning procedures Process making K- competence related
documentary / How to do it!
Unit of the mod-
ules
PLAN
Documentation Research methods Techniques of data collection Collect material to develop the documentary concept Cultural awareness and expres-
sion
Research Premise Writing Writing techniques Writing documentary premise Communication in mother
tongue
Individual sources Interpersonal relations Techniques of interview Preparing the scripts questionnaires Social and civic competence
Time management Learning type-Check, Cluster, MindMaps, Wordle, Project management (e.g. planning from the end to Learn to learn
Planning Personal Responsibility Timeline, "Force field analysis", Routing / Documentation the starting point): results can be: Timetable, Treat- Sense of initiative and entre-
Ability to Compromise ment, Storyboard preneurship
Freedom of expression and Law and ethics Explanation with case studies Ethical guidelines Social and civic competence
Ethics rights of personality and Cultural awareness and ex-
pression
CAPTURE
Technical skills Digital audio/video supports, Equipment's Study of recording/play backing audio/video digital stuff, Audio/Video recording, Equipment setting Digital Competence
knowledge Study of technical equipment
Language Video documentary history, Audiovisual syn- Vision of video documentaries, Critical reflection on semi- Choosing camera and microphone point, Selecting Cultural awareness and expres-
Filming tax and semantic ological elements images to record sion
Adaptation ability Sociology, Anthropology Ethnology Study of social setting Reacting to the environment stimuli Social and civic
competence/Sense of initiative
and entrepreneurship
EDIT
Technical competence related Editing software: introduction/use of the im- Analysis of how the import/playback options work and Import into the editing software the video clips cap- Digital competence
to the video clips playback and port/playback options offered; use of mark- could effect the subsequent decisions - also on a visual tured in the previous step and play them back
marking areas of interest ers level
Language Social video-doc history/classification, Audi- Analizing documentary's edit, critical reflection on time role Review the video clips marking relevant areas of in- Learning to learn
ovisual sintax and semantic, Digital ethno- in the video, how to create meaning posing picture in se- terest
graphy, elements of storytelling quence (e.g. Kulesov experiment); reflecting on how the
Review different ways the clips could be assembled would bring
different results
Judgment / Collaboration Reflexive media literacy; ethnographic re- peer review, co-operation, exchange of opinions regarding Selection of images, in coherence with the targets Learning to learn / Communica-
search the application of the principles of ethnographic research related to the theoretic guidelines tion in mother tongue
Adherence to the main Social ethnography, concept of identity Evaluation of the elements which more closely describe the Selection of images, in coherence with the need to Cultural awareness and expres-
subject / Meaning / Identity subject chosen and of the emerging traits related to the represent a specific cultural environment sion
concept of identity and cultural specificity
Technical competence related Editing: use of main tools Practice according to the possibilities offered by the soft- assembling the selected images in the narrative or- Digital competence
to the editing tools ware, work on a main sequence to give a time/space struc- der established
ture to the clips selected
Digital Editing
Expression / Narration / Iden- Digital ethnography, reflexive media literacy, exploring ways to edit and express an ethnographic, non- Assembling the images, with the intention to con- Communication in mother
tity elements of storytelling objective narrative based on the accordingly selected im- ceive a meaningful, narrative sequence coherent tongue / Cultural Awareness
ages with the conceptual cultural background and expression

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Step of the video Core elements of the Unit Process making K- competence related
documentary / Teaching area Learning procedures
Unit of the mod- How to do it!
ules
Language and Inter-cultural Foreign languages and cultures Working on the translated text and refine it in order to re- Adaptation of the translated dialogues of the selec- Communication in foreign lan-
competence spect time/space parameters (readability) ted images guages
Subtitling Technical competence: editing Editing software: functions related to text Use the editing tools in order to define the stylistic para- Editing of the titles in order to ensure a proper read- Digital Competence
tools related to the text/sub- and timing meters (e.g. font, width, position) of the titles and their dur- ability
titles ation
SHARE
Technical competences: good Internet and technical tools, overview of the "Lunch bag break", Film festival, "public beamer" Over- deciding on the question through which channels Sense of initiative and entre-
knowledge of internet and so- cinematographic industry, old and new plat- view of the different tools and platforms at our disposal, shall the video be published ---> deciding what's the preneurship
cial networks; enthusiasm and forms to promote and spread contents critical reflection on how to use them and how to reach the best tool/platform or combination of platforms (web-
sense of initiative: ability of largest audience; site/social networks/cross media); deciding how to
"selling" its own product, in the present the content in front of the audience (festival)
virtual (internet) and in the real
(festivals) world --> marketing,
managerial skills, organisation,
communication
Language and intercultural Marketing strategies, technical knowledge's Overview of marketing and communication strategies, crit- Understanding the audience (what kind of festival is Cultural Awareness and expres-
Dissemination competences (finding a "uni- ical analysis of the best practices and best examples of it? In what country? Age/background of the audi- sion
(promotion) versal language" - which com- promotional campaigns (only low budget and independents ence) and adapt exhibition/presentation strategies to
prehends words, images, campaigns will be considered) it; deciding what we want to communicate and how
sounds - to disseminate the
content through the web);
Communication: ability to in-
troduce a documentary to the
audience, ability to explain in-
volvement, reasons, outcomes
and feelings in relation to the
documentary (and to the own
project)
REVIEW
Spatial triangulation - review- Sociology, Antropholoy Comparative analysis Compare the planning and the final cut, interviewing Cultural Awareness and expres-
ing documentaries from other people on the meaning of the video documentary, sion
cultural contexts. share comments
External impact. Reviewing the theme - ver- Anthropology Sociology Peer review, critical friend. Reflection on the ethnographic Compare the planning and the final cut, interviewing
Triangulation sions of local, national, way, analyzing objective and subjective point of view people on the meaning of the video documentary,
European identity. Critical re- share comments
flection on the aims and the
outcomes
LEARN

21
Step of the video Core elements of the Unit Process making K- competence related
documentary / Teaching area Learning procedures
Unit of the mod- How to do it!
ules
Internal reflection Key critical question (1) - how The social ethnographic approach allows to Starting with Visualisations: Example - the Elephantstory By producing Videos the participants are asked to
on yourself. It did the social ethnographic deal with the question "What is objective/ (by Charles Hampdon-Turner) could be used either as text represent themselves. In this Unit they will see
can be based in process shape the learning - what is subjective?" Videos are a tool to or as a Graphic. It demonstrates that there is no objective whether there is a difference between their self-im-
a self assess- how is this different to more show aspects of real life, even though they but only subjective truth. age and the public image.
ment, or it can be traditional modes of learning? will remain excerpts
a focus group.

Learning to learn

based on abilities such as:

Key critical question (2) - re- Defining the criteria for a video-diary or a "Video-dairy": participants talk about their experiences, The Participants should develop a consciousness - reflectivity
flect on critical decisions made learning diary, e.g. does it support selfevalu- what was good / bad, what they learned in front of the that the process of capturing and editing supports
in the capturing as well as in ation or shall it monitor the pedagogical ap- pocketcam. or "Learning Diary" by writing about experi- the acquisition of keycompetences: - cricitical faculty
digital editing process and how proach? ences during the videoproducing process. or "Online video - it strengthens the self-esteem regarding the own
these shaped representation and tutorials" e.g. to show to others what they have learned ability and skills - articulateness
of theme / self-representation. in the field of audio / video language. - it gives confidence in beliving to be able to act pos-
itively during learning process, counting on his/her - patience
own potential
- it influences contexts outside the learning one, be- - optimism
ing able to take responsabiliy, to make desicions
and achieving results - empathy
- it shows them how to work in and benefit from a
group - sociableness

- intercultural comp.
Analysis of participants - are Self assessment "Silent Dialogue": large sheets of paper that already have a Asserts an insightful position and provides multiple
there shared perceptions, con- headline (the training / the group / me) is open for the parti- reasons to justify it. - ability to deal with conflicts
trasts? cipants to write their thoughts on it. There is no discussion
or commentary, but they can answer by writing to others Provides an analysis that reflects a consideration of - willingness for changes
associations and so there is the possibility to produce the complexity of the issue.
chains of thought. It is a good way for timid participants to - resilience
contribute their ideas. Possibly refutes major counterarguments or con-
or siders contexts integral to the issue (e.g., ethical,
sentence beginnings (the trainer writes various begin- cultural, social, political).
nings of a sentence (e.g. editing is to me.) on a differ-
ent sheets, the participants are asked to complete the sen-
tences and write on cards(can by anonymously).

SMS / Twitter- the participants are asked to send text


messages at the end of a meeting with not more than ficti-
tious 11 words to a person known to them (e.g. trainer), the
restricted form helps to focus on the essentials and often
generates linguistic creativity

22
Step of the video Core elements of the Unit Process making K- competence related
documentary / Teaching area Learning procedures
Unit of the mod- How to do it!
ules
Analysis of experts percep- self assessment "Learning Diary" by writing about experiences during the Reflection, planning, documentation and evaluation
tions of the above - shared videoproducing process. It addresses to the teacher / ex- of learning processes by regarding either the work-
perceptions, contrasts? pert ing results based on filmic criteria or the working
or process based on structural criteria such as time-
"one year later- the participants describe in a kind of management, goals, problems / successes, setting
external evalu- fantasy which video-documentary they will film in twelve
ation (e.g. by the months / with whom / where and so on. This is a good tool Adjustment of learning and teaching objectives
trainer) for externals to evaluate the acquired competences and
skills.

Analysis of participants - are comparative analisys in between the group sentence beginnings (the trainer gives beginnings of a Stating a position, providing valid reasons to support
there shared perceptions, con- sentence (e.g. editing is to me.), the participants are the own position, and demonstrating and under-
trasts? asked to complete the sentences. standing the complexity of the issue by considering
external evalu- and possibly refuting alternative viewpoints.
ation in dialogue
with peers

23
Here follows a detailed description of each single step and how its implementation makes
explicit the acquaintance of the related key competences.

Plan
Although ethnographic documentary making does not use scripts, planning for any video
production is essential and several key competences must be developed and evidenced in
this stage.
In researching the documentary theme / topic, existing cultural awareness must be
scaffoled by the development of knew knowledge from research. In planning interviews
and filmed discussions, communication and is essential to convey to participants the
nature of the work and how it will be used. There are serious ethical issues to be
considered here, requiring social and civic competence. Initiative is required to
persuade people to participate.
Technical planning including the testing of equipment and health and safety
reconnaissance requires digital competence and initiative.
Working in groups, it will be important to plan the project in such a way that each team
members skills are both utilised collaborately and developed further some critical
reflections on previous learning and objectives for new learning (learning to learn) are
essential at this stage.
Capture
CAPTURE consists mostly of audiovisual recording as raw material for the documentary
film production.
However, before going to the location to shoot, participants may need to be trained in
basic digital competences.
This DIGITAL COMPETENCE is connected to the use of audiovisual recording tools. The
learners will acquire the competences linked to the tools and to specific techniques for
adequate filming (rushes, or footage) that will later constitute the audiovisual documentary.
Some of the problems that the student will face are: optical skills, light sensibility
(sensitivity to the light), management of the filming aesthetics - from the colour to the
image composition (component), microphone sensitivity, possibility of choosing between
different types of filming (ie. timelapse or stereophony, subjective/objective pov). ALL OF
THIS DEPENDS ON THE LEVEL OF PRODUCTION VALUES REQUIRED AND WILL
NOT BE RELEVANT TO THOSE WORKING ON MORE LOW TECH ETHNOGRAPHIC
PROJECTS.
CULTURAL AWARNESS AND EXPRESSION concerns the issue of audiovisual language.
The learners, through the studying of social documentary film as a form of cultural
expression, will improve and strengthen their own consciousness about how the
audiovisual format has been used to represent cultural identities and social contexts.
Moreover, through the acquisition of language competences related to image/sound as
significant elements, the learners will be able to express their own ideas and represent
ideas of the participants on the chosen topic, practicing, in the active phase of the process,
the recording of video and sound. For example choosing the point of view, the listening
point and the selection of which image or person will be recorded; all these are
fundamental issues for the step CAPTURE that will demonstrate the achievement of the K-
competences.

24
SOCIAL AND CIVIC COMPETENCE and the SENSE OF INITIATIVE AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP are linked to the interaction with different social contexts where
the filming will take place. The learners who attempt the filming for the creation of a social
documentary will engage with real social environments and real people, as opposed to
actors. It is essential to have prior knowledge of the environment where it is planned to
work - this can be learned also through field study,

and an ability to react efficiently to unavoidable discrepancies that will be faced during the
active phase of the filming compared with the planning established before. The filming in
different environments and different social groups, together with the reaction of the people
involved, will provide the student not only with new relevant social information about the
chosen topic, but also with a new strength and constructivist awareness related to the K-
competences above.
Edit
In the process of video-documentary making, editing follows planning and capturing.
After having captured a series of images according to the plan, it becomes necessary to
review and assemble them in order to give shape to what will be the actual film.
The editing step is therefore crucial to the achievement of the established result, and
needs to be performed in adherence to the principles set beforehand. For this reason,
such activity does not simply require/help to develop a bulk of technical skills and
competences, being strictly connected to the theoretical body that inspires the whole
process and to the methodology through which the project is defined. IN THIS PROJECT
WE ARE CONSIDERING THE EDIT TO BE THE MOST FUNDAMENTALLY CRITICAL
ELEMENT OF DOCUMENTARY MAKING . EDITING, UNDERSTOOD IN THIS WAY,
EXERCISES THE POWER OF REPRESENTATION INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION
(SOCIAL AND CIVIC COMPETENCE).
Editing can be divided into three phases: Review, Digital Editing and Subtitling
(optional).
In all cases, since editing implies the use of specific software, it is essential to
have/acquire the necessary Digital Competence for / with the technical tools for editing
the captured images, to assemble and to subtitle them (optional).
The review of the captured images/clips is essential in that it is aimed at the selection of
the sequences of images which will give shape to the film. In cases like these, where the
final outcome needs to be consistent with a series of principles, a critical review must be
conducted after an activity of research and documentation. These are the elements that
help to develop the Learning to Learn key competence.
A critical view of the clips, at the same time, requires a deep knowledge of the social
environment which was filmed. A social documentary of an ethnographic nature must
represent and express faithfully the reality portrayed, of which the authors/editors are an
active part. Communication in Mother Tongue and Cultural Awareness and
Expression k-competences play another fundamental role, both in the selection of the
images and in the technical editing phase. The aim is to build a narrative sequence that
entails a form of peer-to-peer communication. To select and edit the images, a constructive
exchange of opinions will make for a deeper (thicker description) and more coherent form
of storytelling and expression.

25
In this case, the documentary must explore the developing, complex idea of European
identity as perceived at a specific contextual level, either local or restricted to the realm of
the specific target group. In any case, it will be necessary to develop an informed,
ethnographic familiarity with the social-cultural environment, which presents itself at the
core of the video-documentary.
To make the final product transferable to a larger, international extent, the
translation/adaptation of the dialogue and the subtitling of the film will be, in some cases,
essential (CULTURAL TRIANGULATION). In such cases, Communication in Foreign
Languages is a key competence. The translation, in the Edit phase, must be adapted
according to the particular parameters required by the subtitles: position, type of font,
width, duration and accordance with the timings of the spoken parts of the film.

Share
Once the video documentary is ready, the next step involve the enquiring about all the
possible ways of sharing it.
Thanks to the new media technologies, dissemination is far easier than in the past.
Theoretically, anybody can manage to disseminate an idea, a product, or a film through
the Internet: some basic digital competences, some time and some creativity are sufficient
to set up a low budget promotional strategy, using, for example, blogs or social networks.
This facilitates real audience pedagogy (McDougall and Trotman, 2011).
Sharing the video means here the ability of promoting the video in the virtual (internet) and
in the real world (festival). During the SHARE step, learners will get an overview of all the
possible tools at their disposal, managing to have a deep reflection on the subject and on
their own work.

Share: Teaching
Depending on the approach taken, the teacher / trainer may develop learners
understanding of the following:
- Overview of Internet tools and best ways to use them

- Promoting the video on the web: maximise the use of facebook and twitter, increase the
number of followers

- Promoting the work behind the film: creation of blogs, storify and making of

- Overview of the cinematographic industry. Understanding of the traditional dissemination


process; comparison between old and new platforms. Focus on festivals as the possibility
to directly/personally introduce a film to the audience

- Overview of marketing/promotional/communicative strategies. Reflection on the


best way to introduce a video; choice of language, images, sound and texts consid-
ering the specific audience to reach.
Sharing within EU2111 can be considered at two levels: sharing of EU2111 as a whole and
sharing of the single video-documentaries.
The latter requires the learners to directly implement the main theory of the unit and
contribute personally to the dissemination strategy development.

26
Share: competences and abilities
SHARING a video through the web requires several competences. At the end of the unit,
learners will have increased their abilities in the following areas:
Digital Competence in the technical area the Internet and of social networks;
Management sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
Organisation ability to organise a work autonomously or in groups;
Marketing ability to sell the work;
Communication ability to find the more effective way to communicate something;
Language ability to find the right language/style to promote the video and ability to use
foreign languages;
Cultural awareness ability to find a universal language to reach the largest audience with
special attention to European, multi-cultural multi-language contexts.

Review
The second last step of the video-doc process involves an evaluation of the internal and
external impacts of the documentaries.
The REVIEW step for the documentary production process, as conceived in Europa 2111,
has the added value of looking for an holistic approach towards the outcomes produced
this is because it grounded on the special / cultural triangulation which attempts to
overcome the limitations of studies conducted within one culture or subculture by making
use of cross-cultural techniques.
The core elements of this step deal with issues like reviewing documentaries from other
cultural contexts, reviewing the theme - versions of local, national, European identity and
critical reflection on the aims and the outcomes.
The videos produced following a social ethnographic approach are tools by which
the learners represent themselves working as translators of their own language
and culture and at the same time developing their sense of empowerment and
possibility - their voice.
During the REVIEW learning process the cross-cultural comparison together with peer to
peer communication and critical friend approach enable learners to develop the Cultural
Awareness and Expression competence in a broader way from the previous steps (i.e.
CAPTURE and EDIT) in which it was at a narrow level, either local or restricted to the
social-cultural environment of the specific target group.
The enhancement of Social and civic competence in this step refers to an understanding
of the different social contexts and environments which need to be evaluated in order to
analyse where the learners operated. Comparing the planning and the final cut is part of
the process together with interviewing people on the meanings of the video documentary
and share comments. This process is developed further in the Evaluation: Ethnography
section that follows later in this document.

Learn

27
The last step of the video documentary consists of internal reflection on ourself, which can
integrate self assessment, as well as an external evaluation (e.g. by the teacher / trainer).
It is based on abilities such as reflectivity, critical faculty, articulation but also on patience,
optimism, the ability to deal with conflicts and the willingness for changes just to name a
few.
The core elements of this unit deal with several questions, of which the first is - how did
the social ethnographic process shape the learning - how is this different to more
traditional modes of learning?
The social ethnographic approach sets up the critical question - "What is objective/ what
is subjective?" The videos are a tool to show aspects of real life, even though they will
remain representational moments in time. One
method of putting this aspect into a learning procedure is to work with visualisations. For
example, the Elephant story
by Charles Hampdon-Turner
could be used either as text
or as a graphic. It
demonstrates that there is
no objective but only
subjective truth.
Six wise men from India
met an elephant. They
groped carefully from its
shape, because they were
all blind. The first felt the
shock teeth: "It seems to
me that this jewel of an
elephant is very similar to
a spear." The second felt
the edge of the creature
that seemed to be high
and flat. "Aha," he said and concluded: "This animal is like a wall", the third had
touched a leg and said: "I know what we have before us all, this creature is like a
tree." The Fourth got its trunk to grasp, and said: "This so-called elephant is really
just a snake. The Fifth had the ear of the animal in his hands and ran his finger
over it. "I've got the answer: This creature is like a fan," The Sixth came across the
tail, and frisked him: "Hear my decision, this creature is like a rope." And so the
men who could not see were fighting about the shape of the elephant, and although
each was partly right, all were mistaken.
Source: Hampden-Turner, Ch. (1982): Modelle des Menschen. Weinheim und Basel

In the context of the project EU2111 this means that by producing videos the learners are
asked to represent themselves. They will see whether there is a difference between their
self-image and the public image. Through immediate triangulation with the communities in
which they work, they will measure the extent to which their peers are surprised by how
they are represented by the outcomes (see the Evaluation: Ethnography section later in
the document).

28
Another critical question reflects on critical decisions made in the capturing as well as in
digital editing process and how these shape the self-representation. One tool for self-
evaluation as well as for monitoring the pedagogical approach is to use a learning diary. In
this, the learners can write about their experiences during the video producing process. In
a media focussed project even more adequate seems to be the video diary, which means
the learnerss talk about their experiences, what was good / bad, what they learned in front
of the pocketcam. A third way to evaluate the learning process during the project can be
the development of video tutorials. By producing them the learners can show what they
have learned in the field of audio / video language.
Besides that, all these methods verify that the process of capturing and editing not only
supports the learners digital competence but as well strengthens their key competences
such as
self-esteem regarding their own ability and skills (learning to learn)

confidence in believing able to act positively during learning processes, counting on


his/her own potential

being able to take responsibility, to make decisions and achieve results (initiative)

working in and benefiting from working in a group

The learning group as a whole can work on self assessment as well by analyzing whether
there are shared opinions or different points of view on the project. Out of a wide range of
different methods we would like to point out three examples:
"Silent Dialogue": large sheets of paper that already have a headline (the training /
the group / me) are open for the learners to write their thoughts on it. There is no
discussion or commentary, but they can answer by responding in writing to others
associations and so there is the possibility to produce chains of thought. It is a good
way for reticent learners to contribute their ideas.
Sentence beginnings: the trainer writes various beginnings of a sentence (e.g.
editing is to me.) on different sheets, the learners are asked to complete the
sentences and write on cards (this can be anonymously).
"SMS / Twitter: the learners are asked to send text messages at the end of a meet-
ing with not more than fictitious 11 words to a person known to them (e.g. teacher /
trainer), the restricted form helps to focus on the essentials and often generates lin-
guistic creativity.
The analysis of a group asserts an insightful position and provides multiple reasons to
justify it. It also reflects a consideration of the complexity of the issue as well as it
considers contexts, which are integral to the issue (e.g., ethical, cultural, social, political
issues). Evaluation of the learning process can of course also have an external purpose.
By supplying information to experts or to the trainer / teacher, the learner can support them
to define the various aspects of learning. For example, we would like to mention the
exercise One year later in which the learner describe in a kind of fantasy what kind of
video-documentary they will film in twelve months / with whom / where and so on. This tool
gives external stakeholders many aspects with which to evaluate the competences and
skills the trainees have acquired during the training.

29
Exemplar Curriculum Mapping
Exemplar Curriculum Links: Citizenship
This project seeks to converge new digital media, young people and citizenship, exploring
in particular the role that easy-access, affordable technology can play in pedagogy, in the
context of reflexive learning about identity in relation to the public sphere.
Gauntlett (2011) views particular forms of online media that enhance social collaboration
and, in particular, creativity as convivial tools, paraphrasing Illich (1973). The connection
to Citizenship here is clear:
Conviviality is about having the power to shape ones own world. This is about individuals being
able to make their mark on the world, rather than only have the world stamping its mark upon
them. Of course, the World Wide Web is not the solution to the problems and social needs
outlined by Ivan Illich. Indeed, the idea that a combination of electronic hardware and software,
applied on a global scale, could eb the answer to our problems might seem laughable. But of
course, the Web is not just technology most importantly, the Web is people. Diverse,
interesting, creative people, sharing their ideas and pictures and information and stories.
(Gauntlett, 2011: 168-9).

Richards (2011) offers a view of where we are with this convergence:

Young people are often represented as uninterested in politics and in the responsibilities of
being active citizens.. The more participatory Web, Web 2.0 as it is known, facilitates a wide
range of activity, some of it directed towards issues such as climate change, some more
idiosyncratic and personal but shared. It is extremely difficult to know what the longer term
uses of these technologies might contribute to the political effectivity of young people. But there
is no doubt that the new media are, if in uneven and unpredictable ways, central to their lives.
(Richards, 2011: 150/155)

This project is concerned with new digital media as a convivial tool with which young
people, supported by educators, can experience (through the production of social
documentary) reflexive learning that is collaborative and engages them in shaping their
worlds. These aspirations can be related, in practical terms, to the UK National
Curriculums learning objectives for Citizenship in the following framework:

30
Learning Objectives Activities Learning Outcomes
Understand that images Develop the tools to Production of an ethnographic
of groups of people are deconstruct social documentary that
constructed by the documentaries, looking demonstrates critical
media for use of camera, voice awareness of how this
over, age and approach differs from
appearance, conventional documentary.
juxtaposition of images
and sequences.
Learn how to identify Deconstruct Production of an ethnographic
bias and emotive representations of a social documentary that seeks
techniques in specific social or ethnic to avoid bias and emotive
documentary and how group or a social issue techniques OR avoids claims to
these may influence and investigate objectivity.
public opinion. audience responses.
Discover the potential of Evaluate ethnographic / Production of an ethnographic
moving image media to DIY / home video (and social documentary that
represent themselves social media provides self-representation
and / or their group in a dissemination / and makes use of social media
positive and effective exchange of these). affordances for exchange and
way. interaction.

31
References
European Commission Report, 2011. Study on the current trends and approaches to
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Gauntlett, D, 2011. Making is Connecting: The social meaning of creativity, from DIY and
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Gee, J and Hayes, E, 2011. Language and Learning in the Digital Age. London: Routledge.
Geertz, 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Goodman, S, 2003. Teaching Youth Media. New York: Teachers College Press.
Illich, I, 1973. Tools for Conviviality. London: Calder and Boyars.
Jenkins, H, 2010. The 7 Principles of Transmedia Education revisited at
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Richards, C, 2011. Young People, Popular Culture and Education. London: Continuum.
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