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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Chapter 14:
Work-Energy and
Impulse-Momentum
Principles for a Particle

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Chapter 14:
Work-Energy and Impulse-Momentum Principles
for a Particle
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Work of force
14.3 Principle of work and kinetic energy
14.4 Conservative forces and the Conservation of
Mechanical Energy
14.5 Power and Efficiency
14.6 Principle of Impulse and Momentum
14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum
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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

It takes a lot of energy to


launch a spacecraft on an
interplanetary journey
See problem 14.48
How much energy is
required for the
spacecraft to escape the
earths field?

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(a) Definition of work

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(a) Definition of work

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(a) Definition of work

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(b) a constant force: external force F

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(b) a constant force: weight W

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(b) a constant force: central force F

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.2 Work of force


(b) a constant force: Spring force F

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.3 Principle of work and Kinetic Energy


- Newtons second law & Kinetic Energy (p.123)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.3 Principle of work and Kinetic Energy


- Work-Energy principle (p.123)

Work done by the resultant force acting on a particle


= change in the kinetic energy of the particle

Main advantages of Work-Energy principle

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.3 Principle of work and Kinetic Energy


- Work-Energy principle (p.123)

Main advantages of Work-Energy principle

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.7
The man slides the 100-kg crate across the floor by pulling with a
constant force of 200 N. If the crate was initially at rest, how far will
the crate move before its speed is 1 m/s? The coefficient of kinetic
friction between the crate and the floor is 0.8.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.7 (cont.)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.14
The 0.31-kg mass slides on a frictionless wire that lies in the vertical
plane. The ideal spring attached to the mass has a free length of 80 mm
and its stiffness is 120 N/m. Calculate the smallest value of the distance b
if the mass is to reach the end of the wire at B after being released from
rest at A.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.14 (cont.)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Exercises 1:
Sample Problem 14.1, 14.2
Problem: 14.1, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.18

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.4 Conservative Forces and the


Conservation of Mechanical Energy
- Conservative force:
A force is said to be conservative if its work
depends only on the initial and final positions of
its point of application.
- Potential energy:
Potential energy is the capacity of a
conservative force to work.
The principle of conservation of energy:
The total energy (sum of all forms of energy)
remains constant for a closed system.
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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.4 Conservative Forces and the


Conservation of Mechanical Energy
(a) Conservative force & Potential energy:

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.4 Conservative Forces and the


Conservation of Mechanical Energy
(a) Conservative force & Potential energy:

Work of a conservative force = decrease in


its potential energy

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.4 Conservative Forces and the


Conservation of Mechanical Energy
(b) Conservative of a mechanical energy:

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.4 Conservative Forces and the


Conservation of Mechanical Energy
(c) Computation of potential energy:

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Sample Problem: 14.4

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Sample Problem: 14.4 (Cont.)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.36
The 0.5-kg pendulum oscillates with the amplitude of max = 50.
Determine the maximum force in the supporting string.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.36 (Cont.)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Exercises 1:
Sample Problem 14.1, 14.2
Problem: 14.1, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.18
Exercises 2:
Problem: 14.28, 14.30, 14.32

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.5 Power and Efficiency


Power
Power is defined as the rate at which work is done. Letting
P be the power and U the work, we have

The power of force F

Efficiency

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.54
The conveyor dump 500-kg of coal per second into the waiting
truck. Determine the power consumed by the conveyor motor if its
efficiency is 70 percent.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.61
An electric hoist consumed 5 kW of power at a constant speed of
0.68 m/s while consuming 4.2 kW of power. (a) Compute the
efficiency of the hoist.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.61
(b) At what speed can the hoist lift 800-kg mass with the same
power consumption as in part (a)?

800-kg

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Exercises 1:
Sample Problem 14.1, 14.2
Problem: 14.1, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.18
Exercises 2:
Problem: 14.28, 14.30, 14.32
Exercises 3:
Sample Problem 14.6, 14.7
Problem: 14.56, 14.62

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


(a) Impulse of a force (L1-2)

Impulse of a constant force (L1-2)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


Impulse of a force (L1-2) in rectangular component

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


In summary:

Impulse-momentum principle; it relates


the change in the velocity of a particle
during a time interval to the force acting
on the particle.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


(b) Momentum of a particle and momentum
diagrams
The momentum p of a particle of mass m at an instant of time is
defined as

The momentum diagram for a particle is a sketch of the


particle showing its momentum vector mv. Momentum
diagrams are useful tools in the analysis of the problems
using the principle of impulse and momentum.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


(c) Force-momentum relationship

(d) Impulse-momentum principle

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.6 Impulse and momentum


(d) Conservation of momentum

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

In summary
Work-energy principle:

Impulse-momentum principle:

Caution
Quantity Defined as Unit Scalar/Vector Associated with
Work
Impulse
Kinetics
energy
Momentum
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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.68
The 100-gm ball hits the horizontal surface with the speed v0=20
m/s. If 15 percent of the energy is lost during the impact, determine
the impulse that acted on the ball during the impact.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Problem: 14.69
The velocity of a 2-kg particle at time t=0 is v = 10i m/s.
Determine the velocity at t=5 s if the particle is acted upon by the
force F = 2t i 0.6t2 j N, where t is in seconds.

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Exercises 1:
Sample Problem 14.1, 14.2
Problem: 14.1, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.18
Exercises 2:
Problem: 14.28, 14.30, 14.32
Exercises 3:
Sample Problem 14.6, 14.7
Problem: 14.56, 14.62
Exercises 4:
Sample Problem 14.8, 14.9
Problem: 14.76, 14.78

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
Angular Impulse and angular momentum are the
moments of (linear) impulse and (linear)momentum,
respectively.
Angular Impulse-momentum principle serves the same
purpose as its linear counterpart: it relates the change in
the velocity of a particle during a time interval to the
force acting on the particle.

Recall: Moment of a force F (from Fig 14.9)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
(a) Angular Impulse of a force (AA)1-2

Angular Impulse of a constant force (AA)1-2

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
Angular Impulse of a force (AA)1-2 in rectangular
component

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
(b) Angular momentum of a particle about point A (hA)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
(d) Angular Impulse-momentum principle

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

14.7 Principle of Angular Impulse and


momentum
(e) Conservation of angular momentum

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Sample Problem: 14.11

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Sample problem 14.11 (Cont.)

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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

Exercises 1:
Sample Problem 14.1, 14.2
Problem: 14.1, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.18
Exercises 2:
Problem: 14.28, 14.30, 14.32
Exercises 3:
Sample Problem 14.6, 14.7
Problem: 14.56, 14.62
Exercises 4:
Sample Problem 14.8, 14.9
Problem: 14.76, 14.78
Exercises 5:
Problem: 14.90, 14.91
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Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Andrew Pytel & Jaan Kiusalaas

End

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