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5/12/2017

Identify the type of


subordinate clause (pg. 74)
a. These days there is little time for yachting, which is his
other passion. = non-restrictive rel. cl., peripheral dep.
b. If you are already a member, you can obtain these
Language Analysis benefits immediately. = factual if-clause
c. Has he told his parents that he wants to leave home? =
(that) noun clause (functioning as direct object)
Lecture 10 d. She has not heeded the advice that she was given. =
Beyond the clause 1 restrictive rel. cl., post-head modifier (that = which)
e. He claims that he is a doctor. = noun clause (dir. obj.)
f. Ill leave you everything I own. = zero pron. in rel. cl.
g. I dont know if they will offer her the job. =noun clause
(closed interrogative, dir. obj.)

Basic sentence patterns -


SVOCA (1) Adjuncts
SV The girl was sleeping. My sister enjoys parties very much,
SVO Her mother was dressing the baby. usually.
SVC Little James seemed very happy. Usually my sister enjoys parties very
SVA He was sitting at the table. much.
SVOO Mrs Bates gave her kids all her love. My sister usually enjoys parties very
SVOC Most people considered her a perfect much.
mother.

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Information packaging/
Verbalize this proposition thematic systems
End-focus

     End-weight
Theme-rheme

John give/book Mary

End-focus Which text reads better?


(given before new) (2) (3,4) cf. distribution of colour
(3)An excellent example of an epic poem is The Odyssey. A
(2) When shall we know what Marys long narrative or story is usually included in epic poems.
Certain conventions almost always mark this story. The epic
going to do? simile is one of these. The stature of a great hero is enhanced
through its use. The ideals of particular societies are
personified in such a hero. The trait of bravery, naturally, is
among these ideals. But courtesy always accompanies
bravery. And many particular ways of acting are included in
a. Next week we shall know. this courtesy.

(4) The Odyssey is an excellent example of an epic poem. Epic


b. Its next week we shall know. poems usually include a long narrative or story. This story is
almost always marked by certain conventions. One of these is
c. Shell tell us next week. the epic simile. It is normally used to enhance the stature of a
great hero. Such a hero personifies the ideals of particular
societies. Among these ideals, naturally, is the trait of
d. Next week she will tell us. bravery. But bravery is always accompanied by courtesy. And
this courtesy includes many particular ways of acting.

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End-focus
(given before new) Link to intonation
Geoff used to live in Cairo. In fact a The Odyssey is an excellent
houseboat was where he lived. The example of an epic POem.
bank of the river Nile was where the Epic poems usually include a long
houseboat was located. narrative or STOry.
Geoff used to live in Cairo This story is almost always marked
In fact he lived in a houseboat. It by certain conVENtions.
was located on the bank of the river
Nile.

End-weight (5a) End-weight (5b)


= it-extraposition

?That all efforts to convince them of It is a pity that all efforts to


the importance of spending a year convince them of the importance of
abroad have been in vain is a pity. spending a year abroad have been
in vain.

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End-weight (6) Topic comment (7)


(6) a. [The time to decorate the Also known as: theme rheme
house for Christmas] had
come.
(7) a. Madonna is one of the most
b. The time had come to famous pop singers.
decorate the house for b. One of the most famous
Christmas. pop singers is Madonna.

= discontinuous NP

Sentence topic -> text (8) Themes/Topics (9 - top)


(8) It was a hobbit-hole, and that means In the earliest times, people carved or
comfort. It had a perfectly round door painted messages on rocks. Later on, people
wrote on pieces of leather, rolled into scrolls.
like a porthole, painted green, with a During the Middle Ages, heavy paper
shiny yellow brass knob in the exact called parchment was used for writing, and
middle. The door opened on to a tube- books were laboriously copied by hand. Then
shaped hall like a tunnel: a very in the middle of the fifteenth century, with
comfortable tunnel without smoke. The the invention of the printing press, the
tunnel wound on and on, going fairly birth of the modern printing industry was
but not quite straight into the side of possible. And now the advent of computers
is rapidly revolutionising the process of
the hill. (Tolkien: The Hobbit) communication.

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Themes/Topics (9 - bottom)
Rocks, on which messages were carved
or painted, were the earliest medium of
written communication. Pieces of leather,
however, had the advantage of being portable
when rolled into scrolls and they replaced
rock carvings. These leather scrolls were in
The passive
turn replaced in the Middle Ages. Parchment
books took over and were laboriously copied
by hand until the invention of the printing
press. Printed books have been central to
communication for centuries but various
forms of electronic media will undoubtedly
replace them in the end.

Passive: form (10) Ditrans + passive (11)


(10) a. The inspector confronted (11) a. John gave Mary the money.
Jim. b. Mary was given the money
b. Jim was confronted by the by John.
inspector. c. The money was given to
Mary by John.
?Jim was confronted.

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Subtypes: adjectival
Prepositional passive (12) passive (13)
(12) a. People are looking into the (13) a. The vase was broken by
matter.  .. Tim.
This matter is being looked = verbal passive (dynamic)
into. b. The vase was already
b. Someone has slept in this broken.
bed.  .. = adjectival passive (stative)
This bed has been slept in. c. The vase was broken.
= ambiguous

Subtypes: adjectival Subtypes: get-passive


passive (13) (14)
(13) a./c. *The vase was very (14) a. He got (was) married.
broken (by Tim). b. Mary got (was) arrested (by)
c. John got (was) bitten by a
b./c. The vase was already snake.
broken and dirty.
get hit, get left, get stuck,
get involved

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Uses of passive Given before new (4)


Given before new "The Odyssey" is an excellent example of an
epic poem. Epic poems usually include a long
Topic-comment narrative or story. This story is almost always
marked by certain conventions. One of these
Omission of agent is the epic simile. It is normally used (?by the
author) to enhance the stature of a great
Avoidance of first-person pronouns hero. Such a hero personifies the ideals of
particular societies. Among these ideals,
Allocation of different semantic roles naturally, is the trait of bravery. But bravery
is always accompanied by courtesy. And this
courtesy includes many particular ways of
acting.

Topic-comment (15) Omission of agent (16-19)


(15)P: Have you read Loves (16)A: Whats happened to Joe?
Labours Lost? B: Hes been taken to hospital (by).
S: No, but Ive read some (17)Diving gear stolen.
other dramas by Milton. (18)The book was published in 1933.
P: But Loves Labours Lost (19)The enemy opened fire and five
was written by Shakespeare. of our men were killed instantly.
(But SHAKEspeare wrote
Loves Labours Lost.)

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Avoidance of 1st person Allocation of semantic


pronoun (20) roles (21)
(20)S: Sorry Im late sir. (21)a. The protesters were
T: You have been warned arrested by the police.
about lateness before. ~ b. The police arrested the
(I have warned you about protesters.
lateness before.)
cf. Q: And where is the general now? cf. The protesters clashed with
A: He is believed to be abroad. the police.

Mediopassive (22)
(22) a. This book reads well.
b. This fabric washes easily.