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The Bollard Guide

Trelleborg Marine Systems | Takes the pressure off


Contents 1. Introduction
Whether its a Tee, Horn or Kidney whatever the shape or size of bollard your application requires,
1. Introduction 3 Trelleborg has a high-performance option to suit. Trelleborg bollards are precision engineered and
manufactured in a variety of metals including premium grade SG ductile iron and cast steel to offer
2. Bollard Range / Technical Information 4 unprecedented levels of service life and resistance to corrosion and impact. We understand that
safety is your number one priority. Thats why Trelleborg Marine Systems provide safety-critical bollard,
2.1 Tee bollards
anchoring and fixing solutions quickly to our customers bespoke specification.
2.2 Horn bollards This guide is designed to take the pressure off by providing you with detailed and specific information
2.3 Kidney bollards of our full range of bollard solutions including installation, maintenance and specification advice, plus
much more.
3. Bollard Materials and Manufacture 8
3.1 Design

3.2 Materials

3.3 Micro Structure

3.4 SG Iron Vs Cast Steel Bollards

3.5 Material Specification

3.6 Quality Assurance

3.7 Coating Systems

4. Bollard Selection 10
4.1 Selection

4.2 Mooring Line Angles

5. Installation 12
5.1 Introduction

5.2 Concrete Recess

5.3 Fixing Options

6. Maintenance 13
7. Bollard Information 14
8. Reference Material 15
8.1 Codes and Guidelines

2 3
2. B
 ollard Range / 2.1 Tee bollards
Technical Information
Features
Trelleborg bollards come in many popular shapes
and sizes to suit most docks, jetties and wharves. General purpose applications up to 300 tonnes
Standard material is spheroidal graphite (commonly Suitable for steeper rope angles
called SG or ductile iron) which is both strong and
resistant to corrosion, meaning Trelleborg bollards
enjoy a long and trouble free service life.
The shape of Trelleborg bollards has been refined
with finite element techniques to optimize the
geometry and anchor layout. Even at full working
load, Trelleborg bollards remain highly stable and
provide a safe and secure mooring.

Features
High quality SG iron as standard
Strong and durable designs
Very low maintenance
Large line angles possible 1 Tee bollard 2 Horn bollard 3 Kidney bollard Bollard capacity (tonnes)
Dimension
Standard and custom anchors available 15 30 50 80 100 150 200 300
A 40 40 50 70 80 90 90 125
B 235 255 350 380 410 435 500 670
C 340 350 500 550 600 700 800 980
D 410 450 640 640 790 900 1000 1200
E 335 375 540 550 640 750 850 950
F 80 100 150 160 175 200 225 200
G 155 175 250 250 325 350 375 475
I 160 200 260 280 350 400 450 550

J 205 225 320 320 395 450 500 600


K 130 150 220 230 245 300 350 350
L1 30 30 30 15 10 10 L* L*
L2 45 40 40 L* L*
L3 60 60 60 N/A 80 80 L* L*
Anchors M24 M30 M36 M42 M42 M48 M56 M56
Qty 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 10
Anchor
500 500 500 800 800 1000 1000 1000
length

P* 60 60 70 90 100 110 110 140

P* =bolt protrusion = recess depth [units: mm]


L* P
 Lease contact Trelleborg Marine Systems
for corrosponding anchor locations
4 5
2.2 Horn Bollards 2.3 Kidney bollards

Features Features
General purpose applications up to 200 tonnes General purpose applications up to 200 tonnes
Suitable for steep rope angles Avoid steep rope angles where possible
Two lines may share a single bollard Suitable for warping operations
(subject to bollard capacity)

Bollard capacity (tonnes)


Dimension
15 30 50 80 100 150 200 Bollard capacity (tonnes)
Dimension
A 40 40 50 70 80 90 90 15 30 50 80 100 150 200
B 370 410 500 520 570 585 660 A 40 40 50 70 70 80 90
C 400 440 600 660 750 850 930 B 260 280 320 330 350 405 435
D 410 480 640 650 800 920 1000 C 340 370 480 530 550 728 800
E 335 405 540 560 650 770 850 D 320 360 540 560 590 760 1000
F 80 100 150 160 175 200 225 E 320 360 540 460 490 660 850
G 155 175 250 250 325 350 375 F 175 250 300
I 160 200 260 300 350 400 450 G 175 250 300
J 205 240 320 325 400 460 500 F+G 220 260 400 320 350 500 600
K 130 165 220 235 250 310 350 H 220 260 400 420 450 600 750
L1 30 30 30 15 10 10 0 I 160 200 260 280 300 400 450
L2 45 40 40 36 J 160 180 270 280 295 380 475
L3 60 60 60 N/A 80 80 K 160 180 270 180 195 280 375
L4 36 L 50 50 50 50
Anchors M24 M30 M36 M42 M42 M48 M56 Anchors M24 M30 M36 M42 M42 M48 M56
Anchor length 500 500 500 800 800 1000 1000 Anchor length 500 500 500 800 800 1000 1000
P* 55 55 65 85 95 105 105 P* 55 55 65 85 85 95 105
Qty 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 Qty 4 4 4 5 7 7 7

P* =bolt protrusion = recess depth [units: mm] P* =bolt protrusion = recess depth [units: mm]
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3. B
 ollard Materials Ductile cast iron is the preferred material for all 3.5 Material Specification 3.6 Quality Assurance
bollard applications. Grey cast iron is cheaper per
and Manufacture unit weight, but the need for thicker wall sections
Trelleborg bollards are produced to the highest Bollards are safety critical items and quality is
specifications. The table gives indicative standards paramount. Independant 3rd party witnessing of
and poor impact strength outweigh this. Cast steel test available at additional cost on request. A typical
3.1 Design and grades but many other options are available
remains popular in some countries but needs regular quality documentation package will include:
Bollards and holding down bolts are designed with a on request.
painting to prevent corrosion.
minimum Factor of Safety against failure of 3.0 for Dimensioned drawings of bollard and accessories
Material Standards* Grade(s)*
SG Iron material grade 65-45-12.
3.3 Micro Structure Bollard and anchorage calculations (if required)
EN-GJS-450 or
Designs are typically based on the following: Ductile Cast Iron BS EN 1563
500 65-45-12
(Spheroidal Graphite Iron) ASTM A 536
or 80-55-6 Inspection and test plan
BS 5950:2000 Structural Use of Steelwork
ISO 898 Gr 8.8 (galvanised)
BS 6349 Part 2:1988 Marine Structures Anchor bolts (galvanised) BS 3692 Gr 8.8 (galvanised) Factory inspection report including certificate
A325 (galvanised)
ASTM of conformance
AS 3990:1993 Mechanical Equipment Design Ductile cast iron (SG) Grey iron
Blasting (standard)
Blasting (high N/A ISO 12944
Sweep blast Physical, chemical and materials properties
Detailed calculations can be supplied on request. 3.4 SG Iron Vs Cast Steel Bollards performance)
SA2.5
report for casting and anchorages
Different factors of safety can be used to suit other There is a perception that a stronger material means
national standards and regulations. a stronger Bollard. When steel is selected however,
Paint (standard) BS3416 Non-Coal Tar Installation instructions
Paint (high performance) ISO 12944 Epoxy (2 coats)
the bollards are generally made smaller to achieve
3.2 Materials the same SWL capacity and safety factors. Smaller 3.7 Coating Systems
* In all cases equivalent alternative standards may apply.
Trelleborg bollards are offered in Spheroidal Graphite Bollards have the disadvantage of having a smaller Other high performance paint systems available on request.
Bollards are supplied as factory standard with
Cast Iron (SG Iron), referred to as Ductile Cast Iron, bend radii for the mooring lines. As longevity of
a protective coating suitable for most projects.
because of its superior strength and resistance mooring ropes is a factor of their loading cycle High performance epoxy or other specified paint
to corrosion. Ductile cast iron combines the best and bend radii, decreased mooring line life can systems can be factory applied on request in
attributes of grey cast iron and cast steel without be expected. a choice of colours and thicknesses. Standard
the disadvantages. available coatings include (uncoated, zinc oxide
Where cast steel bollards must be used please primer or high performance epoxy).
contact your local office for pricing, availability and
Benefits Disadvantages
lead time. It may be possible to utilise the relevant Bitumous coatings (Coal Tar)are no longer
Ductile Lowest service life cost SG iron pattern a cast steel bollard. commercially available and in most countries no
Cast Iron High strength Good longer allowed in marine installation. They have
(Spheroidal impact resistance High
Graphite) corrosion resistance been discontinued on Trelleborg bollards.
Low cost per weight Ductile Cast Iron Grey Cast Iron Cast Steel
Grey
Excellent corrosion
Low strength Low
(Spheroidal
Bollard anchors are typically supplied Hot Dip
Cast Iron impact resistance
resistance
Graphite) Galvanised (HDG) with a minimum coating
High strength High thickness of 85 microns. High strength stainless
Regular maintenance Lowest service Low cost per High strength
Cast Steel impact resistance Good steel anchors may be available on request.
to prevent corrosion
cost per weight life cost weight
High strength Excellent High impact Wear and abrasion from ropes means paint
The standard material for Trelleborg Marine Systems corrosion resistance coatings need regular maintenance. Ductile iron
Bollards is ASTM A536 Grade 65/45/12 Spheroidal resistance bollards are far less susceptible to corrosion than
Graphite Cast Iron. Good impact Low strength Good cost per cast steel bollards, which can rust quickly and will
resistance weight need frequent painting to retain full strength.
This material has been selected as it has superior High corrosion Low impact Regular
corrosion resistance over cast steel and is the resistance resistance maintenance to
prevent corrosion
best consolidation of price, performance and
material strength.

8 9
4. Bollard Selection 4.2 Mooring Line Angles

4.1 Selection Mooring line angles are normally calculated as part


of a comprehensive mooring simulation. Standards
Bollards should be selected and arranged according and guidelines such as BS6349: Part 4, ROM 0.2-90
to local regulations or recognised design standards. and PIANC suggest mooring line angles are kept
The design process should consider: within the limits given in the table below. In some
cases much larger line angles can be expected.
Mooring pattern(s) Trelleborg bollards can cope with horizontal angles
of 90 and vertical angles up to 75. Please check
Changes in draft due to loading and discharge with your local office about applications where
expected line angles exceed those given in the table
Wind and current forces as these may need additional design checks on
anchorages and concrete stresses.
Swell, wave and tidal forces
Suggested Line Angles
Mooring line types, sizes and angles (BS6349, ROM 0.2-90, PIANC)
Ice forces (where relevant) Head & stern lines* 45 15

Breast lines* 90 30
Mooring loads should be calculated where possible,
Spring lines* 510
but in the absence of information then the following
table can be used as an approximate guideline. Vertical line angle (x) <30

* Relative to mooring angle


Displacement Approx. bollard rating

Up to 2,000 tonnes 10 tonnes

2,00010,000 tonnes 30 tonnes

10,00020,000 tonnes 60 tonnes

20,00050,000 tonnes 80 tonnes

50,000100,000 tonnes 100 tonnes

100,000200,000 tonnes 150 tonnes

over 200,000 tonnes 200 tonnes

Where strong winds, currents or other adverse loads


are expected, bollard capacity should be increased
by 25% or more.

10 11
5. Installation 5.3 Fixing Options 6. Maintenance
5.1 Introduction Like all equipment in the marine environment,
regular inspection and maintenance is critical to
Bollards must be installed correctly for a long
achieving maximum life expectancy.
and trouble-free service life. Anchors should be
accurately set out with the supplied template. Trelleborg recommend a regular scheduled inspection
Bollards can be recessed (as shown) or alternatively of equipment such as bollards as part of any berth.
surface mounted. Once the grout has reached full Key items that need to be focussed on during the
strength, anchors can be fully tightened. Mastic is inspection and maintenance include:
often applied around exposed threads to ease
future removal.
1. Paint
Fuse bolts available on special request.
5.2 Concrete Recess Bollards are supplied as factory standard with a
protective coating suitable for most projects. High
performance epoxy or other specified paint systems
are usually applied at the factory on request in a
choice of colours and thicknesses.

Wear and abrasion from ropes means paint coatings


need regular maintenance. Like all epoxy coating 2. Grout
systems, maintenance is integral to increasing life
expectancy. Trelleborg recommend regular inspection Installation and grout filling requires extra care to
of the bollards avoid damage to factory applied coatings. Similarly
regular inspection and possible repair of grout under
*refer to dimensions tables and around the bollard is critical to the ongoing
Repair and upkeep of the coating system is
Recessing the bollard is generally recognised as dependant upon the coating system selected. integrity of bollard performance. Should grout be
superior to surface mounting. Recessing the base Trelleborg try to utilise commercially available coating cracked or damaged it is recommended that it
prevents the bollard from working loose on its bolts systems to ensure local products can be sourced be replaced.
or cracking the grout bed especially relevant for and system repair procedures are in line with the
high use locations. coating system manufacturers guidelines. 3. Hold Down Bolts
Hold down bolts are critical to bollard performance.
Ensuring correct torque settings will ensure bollards
and hold down bolts achieve optimum performance.
These are critical to be checked during installation.

Visual checks on hold down bolts should be


undertaken during regular maintenance to
ensure no loosening of bolts has occurred.

4. Bollard Materials
Ductile iron bollards are far less susceptible to
corrosion than cast steel bollards, which can rust
quickly and will need frequent painting to retain full
strength. Regular inspection of the bollard materials
is recommended.

Trelleborg are happy to assist in providing inspection


services on berthing and mooring equipment.

12 13
7. Bollard Information
Calculations Standard Designs
Bollards are provided with engineering calculations, The standard Bollard range has been developed is impossible to calculate actual breakaway load 8. Reference Material
which describe bolt group pullout forces, shear based on the requirements of many facilities making it highly unpredictable.
loadings and bolt tensions. throughout the world. Some clients may request
Numerous injuries, deaths and damage to 8.1 Codes and Guidelines
different designs based on familiarity, history etc.
Jetty Design equipment have occurred due to broken mooring
However the Trelleborg range meets most functional
lines and mooring equipment. As a responsible
Consideration of the suitability of the jetty structure mooring requirements. ROM 0.2-90 (1990) Actions in the Design of Maritime and
manufacturer Trelleborg Marine Systems will not Harbor Works
is by others. This includes concrete structure
Grout recommend these types of devices.
reinforcement for reduced edge distances and BS6349: Part 4 (1994) Code of Practice for Design of
shear bracing. Matters concerning the structural Trelleborg recommends a non shrink grout, either For more information please contact your local Fendering and Mooring Systems
requirement of the jetty should be forwarded to the cementious or epoxy type, with a minimum Trelleborg Systems office.
compressive strength of 60MPa. PIANC Report of WG24 (1995) Criteria for Movements of
jetty designer. Use of Anchor Plates Moored Ships in Harbours A Practical Guide (1995)
Jetty Construction Materials For Recessed Bollards Trelleborg recommends low Extensive testing by European, Australian and EAU (2004) Recommendations of the Committee for
viscosity high flow grouts to ensure full penetration American design institutes has determined that a
Calculations are based on a concrete strength Waterfront Structures
around and under the base plate. standard bolt head will produce the same pullout
of 40MPa as this is commonly used at many
cone as similar bolts with an anchor plate. Trelleborg PIANC Report of PTC II-30 (1997) Approach Channels: A
new facilities. Holding Down Bolt Specification
Guide for Design (Appendix B Typical Ship Dimensions)
does not provide anchor plates with their standard
A higher safety factor has been applied to the The holding down bolts are described in the product bollard systems. Anchor plates may be added if Ministry of Transport, Japan (1999) Technical Note No.911
concrete strength to allow for special variations in list and each general arrangement drawing. required without any detriment to the system.
Ship Dimensions of Design Ships under given Confidence
Limits
jetty structures, which means that it is acceptable to The bolts are all ISO898-1 Grade 8.8 and hot dip Load Testing ROSA Defenses Daccostage (2000) Recommandations
use 30MPa concrete however the safety factor for galvanised, with one nut and washer set. It should pour Le Calcul Aux Etats-Limitesdes Ouvrages En Site
this part of the system is reduced. Final design of the be noted that as bollard bolts are so large that the Trelleborg does not carry out any physical load Aquatique defenses Daccostage
jetty including steel reinforcement, edge distances, testing criteria in most fastener codes are therefore testing of Bollards. The Bollards and holding down
PIANC Report of WG33 (2002) Guidelines for the Design of
shear bracing and concrete strength is always the not applicable. Proportional testing methods are bolt systems are designed to sustain the applied Fender Systems (2002)
responsibility of the jetty designer. used at half the bolt radius according to ASTM F606. tension and shear with adequate safety factors and
physical testing is considered unnecessary. ETAG 001 (1997) Guideline for European Technical Approval
Bollard Selection Holding Down Bolt Grades of Metal Anchors for use in Concrete
Non Destructive Testing
The engineering required to select, locate and Standard Bollards use Grade 8.8 bolts only.
orientate Bollards is dependant on a range of Each foundry heat is accompanied by a material
Alternative bolt materials can be used but require
parameters including vessel size, local weather, mechanical property test report to evidence that the
re-engineering, including calculations and drawings.
bathometry, currents, tides and the jetty material has met the minimum strength requirement.
Any modification to holding down bolt materials
configuration. The analysis to determine the layout of should be reviewed and approved by a qualified and Magnetic Particle Inspections, Die Penetrant
the jetty is the responsibility of the jetty designer and certified engineer. Inspection or Ultrasonic Testing may be applied at
not the Bollard supplier. an additional cost dependent on the extent of testing.
Breakaway Bollards
Technical Support
Due to the magnitude of the loads applied to
Technical advice, design and enquiries should be Bollards it is extremely dangerous to have them
directed through your local Trelleborg Marine Systems breakaway in an uncontrolled manner. Due to
office (see back page for details). variations in material properties and tolerances it

14 15
Trelleborg Marine Systems | Takes the pressure off

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