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Proposal Tugas Akhir

Petrofisika Batuan Karbonat Lapangan A,

Formasi B, Cekungan C

Submitted by :

MUHAMMAD ALI AKBAR RAMADHANI

270110130124

FAKULTAS TEKNIK GEOLOGI

UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN

JATINANGOR
2017

CHAPTER I
Final Assignment

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of Study


As the energy needs are expanding, especially oil and gas energy, further
research on the extra-ordinary field is also needed. One of the ideas to fulfill those
achievements is also doing further research on the carbonate fields, which is
important due to the condition of the explored and unexplored field in Indonesia. A
petrophysics study could helps us adding knowledge of how do our carbonate fields
actually work.
Carbonate rocks are sedimentary rocks that contains CaCO 3, could happen as
clastic sedimentary rocks or deposits of organism. Because of its CaCO 3 contents, it
could be easily dissoluted by other fluids such as water and, more likely, acid water
(like meteoric water). Therefore, its porosity is different from ordinary sedimentary
rocks. A secondary porosity probably exist because of the diagenesis and many more
reasons.
With the complex origins and diagenesis of carbonate sedimentary roks, there
are few more studies needed in this research. So along with the petrophysics study, a
further study about carbonate itself will be needed.

1.2 Scope of Study


In order to make the research more efficient, the author restrict the study
in this research :
Well-log interpretation

Petrophysical analysis of carbonate reservoir rocks


quantitatively and qualitatively.

Determining the distribution zone of new hydrocarbon


prospects of the reservoir with physical properties of reservoir
parameters

1.3 Location and Time Study

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Location of the study will be at Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran


University. Preparation of reports done on campus Geological Engineering,
University of Padjadjaran, Bandung. Time for studies or research conducted at the
company for about 2 months, on February 2017 until early April 2017

*Schedule and location of research may be arranged by agreement and regulations of


company

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CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL BACKGROUND

2.1 Types of Wireline Log


2.1.1 Gamma Ray Log
Gamma ray logs measure natural radioactivity in formations and because of
this measurement, they can be used for identifyig lithologies and for correlating
zones.
In zones where the geologist is aware of the presence of potassium feldspar, micas,
or glauconite, a spectralog can be run in addition to the gamma ray logs. The
spectralog breaks the natural radioactivity of a formation into the different types of
radioactive material, thorium, pottasium dan uranium.

Figure 2.1. Gamma Ray Log


In sedimentary formations, the Gamma Ray (GR) log reflects the clay or shale
content. This is because the radioactive elements tend to concentrate in clays and
shales, causing a high GR log reading. Clean formations, such as sandstones or
limestones, usually have a very low level of radioactivity and consequently a low GR
log reading. Making distictions between these high and low GR log readings is the
basis of the GR measurement.

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2.1.2 Spontaneous Potential Log


The spontaneous potential log is record of direct current (DC) voltage
differences between the naturally occuring potential of a moveable electrode in the
well bore, and the potential of a fixed electrode located at the surface (Doll, 1948). It
is measured in millivolts. This difference in potential is developed due to the
differences in salinity between mud filtrate and the formation water. The SP log
cannot be record when a well is drilled with oil based mud, or when Rmf = Rw in a
cased hole

.
Figure 2.2. Spontaneous Potential (SP) Measurement

The SP response of shales is relatively constant and follows a straight line


called a shale baseline. SP curve deflection are measured from this shale baseline.
Permeable zones are indicated where there is SP deflection from the shale baseline.
The SP log will deflect to the left in sand compared to the shale where Rmf > Rw and
will deflect to the right when Rmf<Rw.

2.1.3 Sonic Log

The sonic log is porosity log that measure interval transit time ( t of a

compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of formation. The sonic log
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consists of one or more sound transmitter, and two or more receivers. Modern sonic
logs are borehole compensated devices. These device greatly reduce the spurious
effects of borehole size variations (Kobesh and Blizard, 1959), as well as errors due
to tilt of the sonic tool (Schlumberger, 1972)
The wavefronts are classified by how they move in relation to the particle
movement. There are two types of wave fronts :
1. Compressional wavefronts (P waves) move in the direction of particle
displacement.
2. Shear wavefronts (S waves) move in a direction perpendicular to the
direction of particle displacement.
Shear waves can only exist in a medium that has elastic properties such as
solids or highly viscous fluids. Shear wavefronts are slower than compressional
wavefronts, sometimes only half as fast as compressional wave.
In sedimentary formations the speed of sound waves primarily depends on the
rock matrix material and the distributed porosity.
The Wyllie et al (1958) formula for calculating sonic porosity can be used to
determine porosity in consolidated sandstones and carbonates with intergranular
porosity (grainstones) or intercrystalline porosity (sucrosic dolomites).
For unconsolidated sands an empirical correction factor needs to be used to
compute the correct porosity from the transit time.

2.1.4 Density Logs


The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron density of a
formation. It can assist the geologist to identify evaporite minerals, detect gas-
bearing, determine hydrocarbon density, and evaluate shaly sand reservoirs and
complex lithologies (Schlumberger, 1972)
The density logging device is a contact tool which consists of a medium-
energy gamma ray source that emits gamma rays into a formation. The gamma ray
source is either cobalt-60 or cesium-137.

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Figure 2.3. Density Logging

Gamma rays collide with electrons in the formation, the collisions result in a
loss energy from the gamma ray particle. Tittman and wahl (1965) called the
interaction between incoming gamma ray particles and electrons in the formation,
compton scattering. Scattered gamma rays which reach the detector, located a fixed
distance from the gamma ray source, are counted as an indicator of formation
density. The number Compton Scattering collisions is a direct function of the number
of electrons in a formation (electron density). Consequently, electron density can be

related to bulk density ( b of a formation in gm/cc.

Figure 2.4. Equation of porosity from density

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ma (gm/cc)

Sandstone 2.648
Limestone 2.710
Dolomite 2.876
Anhydrite 2.977
Salt 2.032
Table 1. Matrix Densitiies of Common Lithologies. Constants presented here
are used in the Density Porosity Formula (after schlumberger, 1972)

2.15 Neutron Logs


Neutron logs are porosity logs that measure the hydrogen ion concentration in
a formation. In clean formation (i.e. shale-free) where the porosity is filled with
water or oil, the neutron log measures liquid-filled porosity.
Whenever pores are filled with gas rather than oil or water, neutron porosity
will be lowered. This occurs because there is less concentration of hydrogen in gas
compared to oil or water. A lowering of neutron porosity by gas is called gas effect.
Neutron log responses vary, depending on, differences in detector types,
spacing between source and detector, and lithology (sandstone, limestone and
dolomite).

Figure 2.5. Neutron Logging

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2.1.6 Resistivity Logs


All the open hole logs are affected by invasion process. The lithology and
porosity parameters do not change significantly in the invaded zone and these
measurements can be taken as representative of the virgin zone parameters. But
saturation measurement has to be made in the virgin zone, since the invasion process
changes the fluid saturation in the invaded zone. The main tools for determining
hydrocarbon saturation in open hole are resistivity tools and they are designed such
that they can read deep into the formation.

Figure 2.6. Open hole log

Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to, determine hydrocarbon
versus water-bearing zones, indicated permeable zones and determine resistivity
porosity. By far the most important use of resistivity logs is the determination of
hydrocarbon versus water-bearing zones. Because the rocks matrix or grain are non-
conductive, the ability of the rock to transmit a current is almost entirely a function
of water in the pores. Hydrocarbons, like the rocks resistivity also increases. A

geologist, by knowing a formations water resistivity (Rw), its potosity ( ) and a

value for the cementation exponent (m), can determine a formations water saturation
(Sw) from Archie equation.
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2.2 Data Preparation and Enviromental Correction

Data preparation is usually conducted in a prescribed order. The order may


vary slightly because of personal preference and the nature of available computer
programs. The order recommended here is as follows:

1. Move digital log data from logging field tapes or digitized logs
to the log processing environment
If paper copies of logs were digitized, all digital log data should be plotted
and compared with the original log hard copies.

2. Display all logging data


This way the user can become familiar with typical responses for the different
lithologies and/or formations in the study area. This is an initial quality control step
and is also used as input to the merging of logging runs.

3. Collect all information related to the logs


Locate the headers for all logs, and identify the logging tool model used on
each well and logging run. Collect all temperature data and mud properties.
Determine the top and bottom of the valid logging measurements for each curve to
be utilized for each logging run. The stacking of logging tools can lead to large
differences (several tens of feet) in the starting depth of individual measurements.

4. Merge logging runs (if required)


When merging different logging runs in a single well, the first problem is that
the depths may be different (for equivalent positions in the wellbore) from run to run.
Depth shifts between runs should be made when necessary. Run overlaps should be
noted because they allow the user to compare common-point depth measurements
from different logging runs. This comparison of two logging measurements at the
same depth aids in quality control.

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5. Edit logs to eliminate invalid data


Erroneous data can be recorded in casing at the top of the logging run and/or
recorded with the tools setting on bottom before pick up. These data should be
deleted (replaced with a missing data flag) on the edited copy of the logging curve.
Logging data that are invalid because of environmental conditions (such as hole
washouts or gas in the drilling mud) should also be deleted. This will result in data
gaps, but these are preferable to erroneous data. If the data gaps occur within
potential reservoirs, a replacement value of all reservoir parameters (such
as porosity and water saturation) should be estimated from other logging
measurements if at all possible. Logging data can also be incorrect due to incorrectly
calibrated or malfunctioning logging tools.

6. Depth shift all log curves not recorded with the base curve or
log
When logging tools are run in sequence, differences always occur in depth
from tool to tool and from run to run. Even when the logging tools are run in a single
string there are potential depth differences due to differential cable stretch. Stretch
can be pronounced when the logging tool string sticks or temporally hangs up in the
hole. All logging measurements must be adjusted to a common depth reference
before data processing can continue. A depth shift of 3 ft can destroy an otherwise
good correlation among logging measurements or between well logs and cores.

All depths should be referenced to what is termed a base log. The base log is
selected from a logging tool where strong or forceful tool positioning is not used.
Free-moving tools travel through the borehole more smoothly than tools that are
pushed with great force against the borehole wall, such as the density log. For this
reason, strongly centralized tools are not selected as the base log. A resistivity
log (induction or laterolog) is usually selected as the base log. For example,
if gamma ray logs are available from both the density tool and induction tool strings,
it is wise to select the gamma ray from the induction tool as the base log. The gamma
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ray from the density curve and all curves recorded with the density are then shifted to
match the induction log depths. The base curve should also be selected based upon
its expected strong correlation with the curves to be depth matched.
Depth-shifting programs are commonly of two types: (a) automatic depth-
shifting programs in which mathematical correlations are made among curves from
different tool strings and the shifting is accomplished without user input, or (b) visual
correlation programs in which the curves to be shifted are laid beside or on top of the
base curve, allowing the user to instruct the program by noting correlative points on
each log and calculating the depth offset. With older programs, the correlations can
be made by using log prints and the shifts input to the screen or a file. Most programs
allow the user to carry or cause the same shift to be performed on other curves
recorded on the same tool.
The depth-shifting operation necessarily stretches or shrinks the curve being
shifted, thus it should be kept in mind that data are both created and lost in the
process. For this reason, subsequent depth shifts (corrections) should start with the
original raw logs, not with a previously depth-shifted copy.

7. Depth shift core data to logs


The depth correlation of log data to core data is frequently characterized by
numerous abrupt changes in the amount to be shifted. Every trip with the core barrel
is potentially a change in the relative core or log depth, even if continuous cores are
taken. Zones flagged as lost core zones often are not where they were interpreted to
be. Because of this, automatic depth shift procedures generally do not work when
shifting core data to well log data. An overlay procedure is recommended where the
core is segmented by core run and again where missing data occurs within a core.
The core is then usually shifted by segments. Segments can separate or overlap.
Separation is caused by incomplete or poor core recovery, and overlap can be caused
by poor core-handling procedures. Review of the field core description can help
clarify some of these problems. (For more information on cores, see Conventional
coring, Core handling, and Core description.)
A core gamma ray can be a valuable aid in establishing depth correlations
between core and logs. Boyle's law core porosity and core grain density can be used
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to construct a core bulk density curve to correlate with log bulk density to determine
the amount of depth shifts required. Core bulk density usually correlates well with
the density log because lithologic variations are eliminated, resulting in two similar
curves being correlated.
While interpolation is a necessary step in the depth matching of wireline logs,
it is highly undesirable when shifting cores. Interpolation should not be done when a
core segment is shifted. Also, core data should not be resampled if least squares
correlations are planned for calibrating logs or developing porosity
and permeability relationships. Linear resampling of permeability destroys porosity
and permeability relationships and can make statistical inference incorrect when
making core to core or log to core data correlations. It is recommended that in any of
these correlations the logs be resampled, not the core data.

8. Perform environmental corrections on logs


Well logs are recorded in the hostile borehole environment where borehole
size, temperature, pressure, mud properties, and other environmental factors affect
logging tool responses. Logging tools are calibrated to make correct measurements
only when specific environmental conditions exist (that is, an 8-in. borehole diameter
at standard temperature). The purpose of environmental corrections is to correct the
logging measurements to these standard conditions. Environmental corrections can
be large. Some logging tools work over a much broader range of environmental
conditions than others (see Table 1 or service company charts for more details).
9.

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2.3 Data Log Analysis


2.3.1 Qualitative Log Analysis
The analysis is done by observing the relative form of log curve configuration .
This analysis is useful to determine the type of lithology, estimate reservoir with good
porosity and type of fluid contained in the reservoir.

a) Determination of lithology type


1. Sandstone, generally characterized by:
Small Deflection of Gamma ray
Deflection of Neutron and density logs are relatively small. Generally
occurs cross-over, except in the tight sandstones
High reponse of SP log if in conditions not contained shale, HC and
thin bed
2. Mudstone or shale, characterized by:
High deflection of gamma ray
Deflection of neutron and density logs are relatively large.
SP respons relatively constant
3. Limestone (limestone), characterized by:
GR deflection is relatively small (less than sandstones)
Log density generally greater than sandstone (2,71)

b) Determination of Fluid Type


1. Gas, characterized by :
High value of resistivity log (log LLD>>MSFL)
Small value of density and neutron logs, occurs cross over with big
separation
2. Oil, characterized by :
High value of resistivity logs (log LLD > MSFL)
The value of density and neutron logs small, occurs cross over with a
small separation coincide
3. Water, characterized by :
Low value of resistivity logs
High value of density and neutron logs

2.3.2 Petrophysical Analysis (Quantitative Logs)


Reservoir rock is a porous rock containing the oil and gas (Koesomadinata,
1980).

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A key aspect of petrophysics is measuring and evaluating these rock


properties by acquiring well log measurements in which a string of measurement
tools are inserted in the borehole, core measurements in which rock samples are
retrieved from subsurface, and seismic measurements. These studies are then
combined with geological and geophysical studies and reservoir engineering to give
a complete picture of the reservoir.
Petrophysical analysis is a method to determine the petrophysical parameters
(petrophysical properties) of a reservoir rock. This analysis can be performed toward
the log data or core data. Petrophysical parameters is needed to be determined shale

volume (Vsh), effective porosity ( e), water resistivity (Rw), water saturation

(Sw) and permeability (Dewan, 1983).

a. Volume Shale (VSH)


Shale volume is total volume of shale that contained in reservoir when its
researched. In petroleum industry, often arise problem about shaly sand (sandstone
containing clay). Because shale is more radioactive than sand or carbonate, gamma
ray can be used to calculate volume of shale in porous reservoirs. The volume of
shale can then be applied for analysis of shaly sands.
Calculation of the gamma ray index is the firts step needed to determine the
volume of shale from a gamma ray log (the following formula from schlumberger,
1974).

GR log GR min
I GR =
GR max GR min

Where :
I GR
= gamma ray index

GR log
= gamma ray reading of formation

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GR min
= minimum gamma ray (clean sand or carbonate)

GR max
= maximum gamma ray (shale)

If shale index parameter is specified, then the shale volume can be calculated
by the following equation :

( V sh )GR =I SH [ ]

sh

Where :
Vsh = the total value of the pore volume of shale
= average density log readings on the reservoir under study
sh = average density log readings shale layer closest

b. Porosity ( )

Porosity is the ratio between the cavity pore volume to the total volume of
rock that is commonly expressed in percent (%). In its application, the porosity is
often used is the total porosity (), and effective porosity (e). Effective porosity is
the ratio between the interconnected pores with total volume of rock. Pores of rock
that interconnected will allow the fluid to flow when it will be produced. Porosity
calculations using log data would have been done in evaluating formations. Neutron,
density, and sonic logs are often used in measurement. Scale quality of porosity is as
follows (Levorsen, 1967 vide Donny, 2003) :

1. 0-5 % : negligible
2. 5-10 % : poor
3. 10-15 % : fair
4. 15-20 % : good
5. >20 % : very good

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a. Porosity calculation Using Sonic Log

t log t ma
sonic = ( t f t ma) x 1/Cp

Where :
sonic
= sonic derived porosity

t log
= intercal transmit time of the matrix

t ma
= interval transmit time of formation

tf
= interval transmit time of the fluid in the well bore (fresh mud = 189; salt

mud = 185)
Cp = compaction factor

The compaction factor is obtained from the following formula:

t sh xC
Cp=
100

Where :
Cp = cimpaction factor
t sh
= interval transit rime of formation

C = a constant which is normally 1.0 (Hilchie, 1978)

b. Porosity calculation Using Density log ( Dewan , 1983 ) :


At cleans sand formation
mab
D=
maf

at shaly sand formation

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mab ma sh
DC= (V sh)
maf maf

Where:
DC = porosity with densiry corrected (%)

ma = matrix density (2,65 for sandstone) (gr/cc)


b = bulk density (gr/cc)
f = fluid density (gr/cc)
sh = shale density (gr/cc)
Vsh = shale volume

c. Porosity calculations using neutron log (Dewan, 1983):


For clean sand formation, porosity value can be read from log then corrected
to lithology type. For shaly sand formation, must be corrected toward the shale
volume value with equation :

V sh . nsh
nc=n )

Where :
n : neutron porosity from logs

nc : corrected neutron porosity

nsh : neutron porosity of shale

Vsh : shale volume

Determination of effective porosity using a combination of density and


neutron log (Dewan, 1983) :

In pores indicated by oil


dc+ nc
e=
2

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In pores indicated by gas

e=
dc 2 +nc 2
2

Where :
e = neutron density porosity

dc = density porosity

nc = neutron porosity

c. Water Resistivity (RW)


Resistivity is measurement of resistance, the reciprocal of resistivity is
conductivity. In log interpretation, hydrocarbon, the rock and freshwater all act as
insulators and are, therefore, non-conductive and highly resistive to electrical flow.
Saltwater, however, is a conductor and has low resistivity.
Water resistivity is resistivity value of water is contained in the formation.
Calculation value of Rw needs to be done to determine the value of water saturation
(Sw). At intervals can not be obtained Rw of the sample and no clean sand formation
that contains water used the other method. For the first, determine the value of Rwa,
we well get on the water zone Rw value after corrected with value of temperature in
formation using chart like seen below:

Rwa=Rt x t 2

Where :
Rwa : apparent water resistivity
Rt : reading of deep resistivity after corrected by invasion factor
t : total porosity (D N)

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Figure 2.7. Chart correction Rwa-Rw (Dewan, 1983)

d. Water Saturation (SW)


Water saturation is the percentage of pore volume in a rock which is occupied by

Sw
formation water. Water saturation is measured in percent and has the symbol ,

which can be seen physically through rock sample as a core or from petrophysic
calculation results with log data (Bigelow 1995). Water bound to the shale is not
included, so shale corrections must be performed if shale is present . We calculate
water saturation from the effective porosity and the resistivity log. Hydrocarbon
saturation is 1 (one) minus the water saturation.
Porosity is the capacity of the rock to hold fluids. Saturation is the fraction of
this capacity that actually holds any particular fluid. Porosity, hydrocarbon
saturation, the thickness of the reservoir rock and the real extent of the reservoir
determine the total hydrocarbon volume in place. Hydrocarbon volume, recovery
factor, and production rate establish the economic potential of the reservoir.
Irreducible water saturation (SWir) is the minimum water saturation
obtainable in a rock. Water is usually the wetting fluid in oil or gas reservoirs, so a
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film of water covers each pore surface. The surface area thus defines the irreducible
water saturation. Formations at irreducible water saturation cannot produce water
until water encroaches into the reservoir after some oil or gas has been withdrawn.
Small pores have larger surface area relative to their volume so the irreducible water
saturation is higher. If pores are small enough, the irreducible water saturation may
be 1.0, leaving no room for oil or gas to accumulate.
Amount of water saturation in a shaly sand formation could be known from
calculation result by using Smandoux formula, because in a real condition, intead of
adjusting with needed parameters in calculatio, for example resence or absence of
sonic log.

S w=
C . Rw
e2 [ 5 e 2 Vsh 2 Vsh
( )
+
Rw R t Rsh

Rsh ]
Where:
Sw = water saturation
C = constanta (0,4 for sandstone and 0,45 for limestone)
Rw = formation water resistivity
e = effective porosity

Rw
= formation water resistivity

Rt
= deep resistivity readings in the reservoir under study

Vsh = shale total volume

Rsh = average resistivity of closest shale layer

e. Permeability
Permeability is a calculation about level of ease from flowing fluids in stone
formation (Harsono, 1997), unit is darcy. One darcy is defined as permeability from
1cm3 per second with 1 centi poise consistency. It flows in 1cm3 big tubes gradien
pressure 1 atm/cm. In reality, one darcy is too big, so that we use lower unit,
milidarcy (mD). Rock is permeable if it has relation of porosity. Beside that influence
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factors are ( pore size, sand grain, and continuity ). To do this calculation, the value
of permeability from log could be got based on fixier equation (Dewan, 1983) who
found relation between porosity, Swi, and permeability. With assumption that the
value of Swi = Sw that makes thickness of reservoir < 200 ft, so its hard to observe
the change of Sw to constant.

250 3 2
K=( )
Swi

Where :
K = permeability in mD
Swi = frictional number

Sand in field, to describes the quality from permeability used semi


quantitative (Koesoemadinata , 1980) :
1. < 5 mD : tight
2. 5 10 mD : fair
3. 10 100 mD : good
4. 100 1000 mD: very good

2.4 Log Pattern


According to Kendal (2004), log patterns usually show changes in
depositional energy which ranges from high energy (sand) to low energy (shale). In
geological interpretation, a jump is always done from the depositional energy with
depositional processes to depositional environments. Generally, there are four types
of log pattern, which are:
a. Cylinder shape or blocky pattern, which are cylinder shapes that shows a
non-constant energy levels throughout the depositional process.
b. Funnel shape or coarsening upward pattern, which shows the upward
increase of depositional energy.
c. Bell shape or fining upward pattern, shows the upward decrease of
depositional energy.

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d. Symmetrical Pattern, which starts out coarsening upward then ends in


fining upward. This pattern is generally seen in the lowstand slope fans with
thickness from hundreds to thousands of feet.
e. Irregular, a curve with irregular basic shape that interpreted as composite of
deposit between clean sand and shale without pattern. This one explain about
heterogenity of reservoir rock.

Figure 2.8 Login Curve Shape Pattern (Emey, 1960).

Based on the log pattern, channel facies can be recognized through a


deflection pattern on the GR curve on the channel, indicated by a sharp change, a
surface erosion on the lower side and a striking change in grain size from coarse to
fine, which is the change from sandstone to shale. This deflection pattern on channel
deposits is shaped like a cylinder or a bit graded, or even shaped like a bell. Channel
deposits are usually seen in fluvial plain or delta plain environments. One such
example is the incised valley system (IVS) where it consists of fluvial channel that
cuts into the bed below because of a drop in sea level. IVS has depth ranging from a

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few meters to tens of meters and width reaching tens of kilometers. Fluvial deposits
from IVS has a lot of potential to be a reservoir.

2.5 Core Analysis


Core analysis is an important part of this analysis. Which the core provide us
with the actual physical rock subsurface and lithological appearance. The data core
can be use to interpreted depositional cycles occur and rock stratigraphy, which can
further be hypothesized to determine the depositional environment and facies
changes vertically and reservoir which occurred during the deposition period. Core
data matched with the recordings wireline log on same depth. If there is a difference
between log with cores, then before made the description in advance, core must get
correction (adjustment).
Final result from core description will be used as base in doing facies analysis
and determination of the depositional environment. Basic principle of facies
interpretation is by combining some datas (ex : colors, stone layer, litology
composition, textures, sediment structures, fossil trace, and fossil content )and then
comparing with available datas.

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Data


Data used during this research are: well data comprising of mechanical log
(log sample) that has been recorded by observing ditch cuttings, thin section, CT
scan, DST. cores, wireline log and composite log data from a particular trajectory
that goes through several of the wells. Tools that are used are: Well trajectory map
and wireline logs that consists of gamma ray log (GR), spontaneous potential (SP),
resistivity log, neutron log, density log and sonic log.
Sample log, core log and marker, drafting tape, colored pencils, tracing paper, and a
ruler.

3.2 Research Workflow


The method used in this study is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of data
that includes the analysis of the well logs and other supporting data. Media maid in
this study is the work stations equipped with the software. Stages of this research
are :
a. Preparation stages : a preliminary study of the conditions include
regional, recognition software, collecting the required data, and data
collection during the research literature that helps .
b. Stages of research and data processing :
Well log analysis : evaluating formation based on well log data
Data analysis perforation
Advanced analysis : determining reservoir - reservoir potential as a
new zone and a zone for perforated back

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

c. Further study and report generation : the last stage in the form of
advanced study carried out in conjunction with data processing and
proceed with preparing reports.

Figure 3.2. Research Method Scheme

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

CHAPTER IV

CLOSING

With this proposal, I hope whom might concern with this program will
understand the purpose of the activity and pleased to give me permission to do my
final assignment in the company that Mr / Ms / Mrs within. Ill be very grateful,
appreciate and open mind for any suggestion and /or constructive criticism of this
proposal in order to be better. May God Almighty bless this activity run smoothly
and can provide benefits to all parties whom concerned with. Thank you for the
support and the cooperation.

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

Reference

Dewan J.T. 1983. Essentials of Modern Openhole Log Interpretation. Tulsa,


Oklahoma : Pennwell.

Asquith, George and Charles Gobson. Basic Well Log Analysis For Geologists. The
American Sssociation of Petroleum Geologists

Schlumberger Well Services, inc. 1972. Log Interpretation Manual/Principles, vol I :


Houston, Schlumberger Well Service, inc

Schlumberger Well Services, inc. 1972. Log Interpretation Manual/Applications, vol


II : Houston, Schlumberger Well Service, inc

Koesoemadinata, R.P., 1980, Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi, Edisi kedua. Institut
Teknologi Bandung, Bandung.

Harsono, A., 1997, Evaluasi Formasi dan Aplikasi Log: Sclumberger Oil Field, Edisi
ke 8, Jakarta.

E. R. (Ross) Crain, P.Eng. The Log Response Equation For Petrophysical Analysis [Online].
Present : https://www.spec2000.net/01-responseequation.htm

E. R. (Ross) Crain, P.Eng. Permeability Basics [Online]. Present :


https://www.spec2000.net/01-responseequation.htm

Kobesh, F. P., and W. P. Biggs. 1967. Using Log-derived Values Of Water Saturation
And Porosity: Soc. Professional Well Log Analysts, 8th Ann. Logging Symp.
Trans., paper O.

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

J.Tittman and J. S. Wahl. 1965. The Physical Foundation Of Formation Density


Logging (Gamma-Gamma). Geophysiscs

TAMBAHAN:
Tucker, E. Maurice. 1990. Carbonate Flatforms Facies, Sequences and Evolution.
International Association of Sedimentologist. Melbourne.

Zarza, A.M. Alonso dan Tanner, L.H. 2010. Carbonates in Continental Settings:
Geochemistry, Diagenesis and Applications. New York : Elsevier

AHR., Wayne M. 2008. Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs: The Identification,


Description, and Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in Carbonate
Rocks. A&M University. Texas: Wiley.

Archie., G. E. 1952. Classification of Carbonate Reservoir Rocks and Petrophysical


Considerations. Texas : Bulletin of AAPG vol. 36 No 2 PP 278-298, 5 FIG.
VUGGY separate vug touching vug, turtoisy factor, SPI selisih porositas densitas
neutron dan porisitas sonic,

PERTANYAAN :
Kualitas reservoir, volumetric, rock type

Goal: zona produktif reservoir batugamping dan karakteristik berdasarkan data log
sumur, dst, core.

Data: log, dst, core.


>>>> nilai SPI> touching vuggy krn pada lingkungan vadose
Rocktype sbg karakteristik setiap fasies pda setiap sumur sehingga dapat dijadikan
perhitungan permeabilitas

Well log: porositas , permeabilitas, saturasi air


SPI: u/ touching vuggy, dan interpretasi lingkungan pengendapan
Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)
m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
Final Assignment

Core: visible porosity (touching uggy), nilai m. dan crossplot poro perme shingga
ada bbrpa rocktyo

Perbedaan rocktype dipengaruhi fasies dan diagenesis vadosediagenesis dipengaruhi


disolusi
Menurut Lucia (1983) porositas sekunder dinamakan vuggy.
Separate vuggy: mldic, shelter, dan intrafossil
Touching : cavern, fracture, breccia, fenestral.
Dari analisis log bisa dihitung SPI nya dari selisih yg tadi

Di punya kakmel, difokusin touching vug sbg parameter permeabilitas yang baik
pada reservoir. Porositas vuggy dipengaruhi oleh faktor sementasi/ turtoisy facor (m),
sebagai kemampuan reservoir ngalirin fluida. Kalo separate vug m>2 kalo touching
m<2. Therefore,utk nentuin m setiap fasies, setiap sumur dgn fasies yg beda dibagi
jadi rocktype yg beda brdasarkan crossplot permeabilitas dan porositas core untuk
memntukan nilai m, dipengaruhin jg si M sama porositas seknder tadi.

Di cekungan jawa timur, yg ngadung karbonat itu ada formasi ngimbang.

Cik tehmel teh, s


1. Bgmn ieu si litopasies na pada formasi ngimbang dari data
core
2. Eletropasies dari data well log
3. Bgmn zona reservoir produktif batugamping pada formasi
ngimbang
4. Bgm touching vuggy yg terdpt pd formasi ngimbing
5. Pengaruh diagenesis dan tektonik trhadap porositas
sekunder(touching vuggy.
Menurut ellis dan singer, 2008 well logging merupakan perekaman
karakteristik dari suatu formasi batuan yang diperoleh melalui pengukuran pada
sumur bor

Muhammad Ali Akbar Ramadhani (270110130124)


m.aliakbaram@gmail.com
Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University