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Six Types of Oral Communication Activities

There are six broad types of oral communication activities that might be incorporated into curricula in many fields of study. Most
are conducive to either formal or informal assignments. Some are realistically possible only in smaller classes or recitation
sections, while others are appropriate for large lectures as well.

On their own, any of them can help students learn course materials or ways of thinking (speaking to learn). Incorporated more
systematically into a broader curriculum or major, they can together help move students to become more proficient speakers by
the time they graduate (learning to speak).

1. One-on-One Speaking (Student-Student or Student-Teacher): Can range from moments punctuating a lecture, where students
are asked to discuss or explain some question or problem with the person next to them, to formal student conferences with their

2. Small-Group or Team-Based Oral Work: Smaller-scale settings for discussion, deliberation, and problem solving. Appropriate for
both large lectures and smaller classes and allows levels of participation not possible in larger groups.

3. Full-Class Discussions (Teacher- or Student-Led): Typically less agonistic, argument-based, and competitive than debate and
deliberation but still dialogic in character. Often times has the quality of creating an atmosphere of collective, out-loud thinking
about some question, idea, problem, text, event, or artifact. Like deliberation and debate, a good way to encourage active

4. In-Class Debates and Deliberations: A structured consideration of some issue from two or more points of view. Debates
typically involve participants who argue one side throughout, while deliberation allows for movement by individuals within the
process. Both feature reason-giving argument. Can be applied to issues of many kinds, from disputed scientific facts to theories,
policy questions, the meaning of a text, or the quality of an artistic production. Can range from two participants to a lecture hall.

5. Speeches and Presentations: Classically, the stand-up, podium speech delivered by an individual from an outline or script. Also
includes group presentations or impromptu speaking. A strong element of monologue, but dialogue can be built in with question
and answer or discussion with the audience afterward.

6. Oral Examinations: Can take place in the instructors office, in small groups, or before a whole class. Range from one oral
question on an otherwise written exam to an oral defense of a written answer or paper to an entirely oral quiz or examination.
Difficult with very large groups, but an excellent way to determine the depth and range of student knowledge and to stimulate
high levels of preparation.


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Nature Communicationssort :

Nature Communications is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010. The
editor in chief is Lesley Anson. It is multidisciplinary in scope, with coverage that includes all topics in physics, chemistry, and
biology. The online-only journal is specifically designed to fill in gaps for research articles where there is no dedicated journal
available in the Nature Publishing Group journals. For example coverage of this journal includes developmental biology, plant
sciences, microbiology, ecology and evolution, palaeontology and astronomy. Cross-disciplinary research such as biophysics,
bioengineering, chemical physics and environmental science, are also published. However, all cross-disciplinary works are
considered for publication. The journal is indexed in the following databases:

Publisher Nature Publishing Group

Country United Kingdom

History 2010-present

7 Major Elements of Communication Process

Seven major elements of communication process are: (1) sender (2) ideas (3) encoding (4) communication channel (5) receiver
(6) decoding and (7) feedback.

Communication may be defined as a process concerning exchange of facts or ideas between persons holding different positions
in an organisation to achieve mutual harmony. The communication process is dynamic in nature rather than a static

Communication process as such must be considered a continuous and dynamic inter-action, both affecting and being affected by
many variables.

(1) Sender: The person who intends to convey the message with the intention of passing information and ideas to others is known
as sender or communicator.

(2) Ideas: This is the subject matter of the communication. This may be an opinion, attitude, feelings, views, orders, or

(3) Encoding: Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its further passing requires use of certain
symbols such as words, actions or pictures etc. Conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.
(4) Communication Channel: The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the channel for sending the required
information, ideas etc. This information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or

(5) Receiver: Receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is meant for. It is the receiver who tries
to understand the message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired objectives.

(6) Decoding: The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so
that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.

(7) Feedback: Feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message and understood in the same sense
as sender meant it.

What is Physical Fitness?

Physical fitness is an important part of life. It is an indicator which shows whether you have the ability to perform and enjoy day
to day physical activities with ease.

Physical fitness is generally achieved through -

physical activity and exercise,

correct nutrition,

enough rest (good quality sleep),

Stress management and relaxation.

Definition of Physical Fitness:

So what is Physical Fitness after all?

Physical fitness is defined as the state of general well being, physically sound and healthy, along with mental stability.

Previously fitness was commonly defined as the capacity of the person to meet the physical demands of daily life and carry out
the days activities without undue fatigue.
However, because of increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles rendered this definition insufficient. These days, physical fitness
is considered a measure of the bodys ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to
resist hypo-kinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.

The 5 Components of Physical Fitness

We all have an idea of what "fit" should look like. For some people, it means having a sleek Hollywood body, while others want to
have massive muscles or a perfect hourglass figure.

But fitness isn't defined by appearance! There are five components of physical fitness you need to consider:

1. Muscular Strength : This is the "power" that helps you to lift and carry heavy objects. Without muscular strength, your body
would be weak and unable to keep up with the demands placed upon it.

The way to increase strength is to train with heavy weights, working in the 4 - 6 or 12 - 15 rep ranges. The heavier the weight,
the fewer reps you should perform!

2. Muscular Endurance: Endurance is the ability of your muscles to perform contractions for extended periods of time. Rather
than just lifting or carrying something for a few seconds, the muscles are used for minutes.

The way to increase strength is to train with light weights, working in the 20 - 25 rep range. Working with lighter weight will train
the muscle fibers needed for muscular endurance, and the higher rep range leads to a longer period of exercise.

3. Cardiovascular Endurance: Cardiovascular endurance is your body's ability to keep up with exercise like running, jogging,
swimming, cycling, and anything that forces your cardiovascular system (lungs, heart, blood vessels) to work for extended
periods of time. Together, the heart and lungs fuel your body with the oxygen needed by your muscles, ensuring that they have
the oxygen needed for the work they are doing.

The Cooper Run (running as far as possible in 12 minutes) is a test commonly used to assess cardiovascular endurance, but many
trainers use the Step Test (stepping onto a platform for 5 minutes). Both are accurate measures of a subject's cardiovascular

4. Flexibility: Flexibility is one of the most important, yet often overlooked, components of physical fitness. Without flexibility, the
muscles and joints would grow stiff and movement would be limited. Flexibility training ensures that your body can move through
its entire range of motion without pain or stiffness.

To test your flexibility, lean forward and try to touch your toes. Those with good flexibility will usually be able to touch their toes,
while those with limited flexibility will not. The sit and reach test (sitting on the floor and reaching toward your toes) is another
good way to assess your flexibility. The more flexible you are, the closer you will come to touching your toes and beyond.
5. Body Fat Composition: Body fat composition refers to the amount of fat on your body. For example, a 100-pound person with a
25% body fat composition will have a lean body mass of 75 pounds.


Ang wika ay isang bahagi ng pakikipagtalastasan. Kalipunan ito ng mga simbolo, tunog, at mga kaugnay na batas upang
maipahayag ang nais sabihin ng kaisipan. Ginagamit ang pamamaraang ito sa pagpapaabot ng kaisipan at damdamin sa
pamamagitan ng pagsasalita at pagsulat. Isa rin itong likas na makataong pamamaraan ng paghahatid ng mga kaisipan,
damdamin at mga hangarin sa pamamagitan ng isang kaparaanang lumilikha ng tunog; at kabuuan din ito ng mga sagisag sa
paraang binibigkas. Sa pamamagitan nito, nagkakaugnayan, nagkakaunawaan at nagkakaisa ang mga kaanib ng isang pulutong
ng mga tao.

KAHALAGAHAN: Kung wala ang wika, mawawalan ng saysay ang halos lahat ng gawain ng sangkatauhan, sapagkat nagagamit ito
sa pakikipag-ugnayan katulad ng sa pakikipagkalakalan, sa diplomatikong pamamaraan ng bawat pamahalaan, at
pakikipagpalitan ng mga kaalaman sa agham, teknolohiya at industriya.[1]Mahalaga ang wika sa pakikipagtalasan maging sa
pagtungo, paghahanapbuhay, at paninirahan sa ibang bansa.

ETIMOLOHIYA: Nag-ugat ang salitang wika mula sa wikang Malay. Samantalang nagmula naman sa Kastila ang isa pang
katawagan sa wika: ang salitang lengguwahe. Tinatawag ding salita ang wika. Katulad ng language - tawag sa wika sa Ingles -
nagmula ang salitang lengguwahe o lengwahe sa salitang lingua ng Latin, na nangangahulugang "dila", sapagkat nagagamit ang
dila sa paglikha ng maraming kombinasyon ng mga tunog, samakatuwid ang "wika" - sa malawak nitong kahulugan - ay anumang
anyo ng pagpaparating ng damdamin o ekspresyon, may tunog man o wala, ngunit mas kadalasang mayroon.


Kabilang ang mga sumusunod sa mga kaantasan ng wika:

Kolokyal/pambansa - ordinaryong wika na ginagamit ng mga kabataan sa kanilang pang-araw-araw na pakikipag-usap na

kadalasang malayang pinagsasama ang mga wikang Ingles at Filipino

Kolokyalismong karaniwan - ginagamit na salitang may "Taglish"

Kolokyalismong may talino - ginagamit sa loob ng silid-aralan o paaralan

Lalawiganin/panlalawigan - wikang ginagamit ng isang partikular na lugar o pook.

Pabalbal/balbal (salitang kalye) - pinakamababang uri ng wikang ginagamit ng tao, na nabuo sa kagustuhan ng isang partikular
na grupo na nagkakaroon ng sariling pagkakakilanlan. ito rin ay maaring nabuo sa pag-baliktad ng mga salitang
Pampanitikan - wikang sumusunod sa batas ng balarila at retorika.

May ibat ibang katangian ang wika

1. Ang wika ay likas at katutubo, kasabay ito ng tao sa pagsilang sa mundo

2. May kayarian at nakabubuo ng marming salitang may mga kahulugan ang isang wika

3. May pagbabago ang wika, di napipigilan para umunlad

4. May sariling kakanyahang di-inaasahan, ang wika ay nalilikha ng tao upang ilahad ang nais ipakahulugan sa kanyang mga
kaisipan (nanghihiram sa ibang wika upang makaagapay sa mga pagbabagong nagaganap sa kapaligiran)

5. May kahulugan ang salita na batay sa taglay na ponolohiya, palatunugan at diin

6. Nauuri ang wika sa kaanyuan, kaantasan, ponolohiya at kalikasan.