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International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research (IJBR)

ISSN 0976-2612, Online ISSN 2278599X,


Vol-7, Issue-4, 2016, pp2222-2227
http://www.bipublication.com

Research Article

Biogas Reception from Various Compositions of Some


Cellulose-Containing Waste

Kakhramon Davranov1, Vyacheslav V. Shurigin 1,


Otabek D. Eshonkulov1 and Diyorbek Kosimov 1
1
National University of Uzbekistan
*
Corresponding author: Email: slaventus87@inbox.ru, Tel: +99893 5047522

ABSTRACT:
The article is devoted to study of complex effect of various factors (crushing, application of the adapted methanogens
association, use of various substrate compositions) on biogas formation, and also to selection of optimal substrate for
the maximum yield of methane. As a result of researches it is shown, that substrate grinding and use of the
methanogens adapted association raises qualitative and quantitative parameters of methanogenesis process. It is stated,
that the mixture of ground biomass of foliage, grass and wheaten straw (40%), domestic waste (40%) and livestock
manure (20%) at inoculation with the microbial adapted association is the most suitable for production of biogas with
high methane content (60.7%).

Keywords: biogas, methanogenesis, plant residues, waste

[I] INTRODUCTION
The majority of fundamental and biotechnological connection frequently applied various and not
researches are devoted to study of biogas always cheap means of cellulose-containing raw
formation from the animals manure, sewage materials preprocessing which can include
sedimental sludge and different types of organic mechanical crushing and milling, pyrolysis at
waste materials that is widely reflected in the temperatures above 300C, use gamma-and
literature [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Much less information is superhigh-frequency (microwave) radiation [10,
presented about such substrate, as cellulose. Thus 11]. The rate of cellulose hydrolysis in a big
cellulose and hemicellulose are frequently prevail degree depends on activity of microorganisms
in a solid organic domestic waste [6, 7, 8]. which are a part of microbial community. Thus, in
Recently the interest to conversion of paper raw comparison with pure mesophilic cultures of
materials into biogas is recommenced, that is Clostridium cellulolyticum or Ruminococcus
releted, in particular, to active introduction of albus, the microbial communities consisting of
technologies of the rubbish separate collection in several (many) species of microorganisms, appear
many countries. more effective [6, 12, 13].
The stage of cellulose hydrolysis in general is Till now some factors influencing biogas
speed-limiting period at anaerobic cleavage of the formation are to some extent investigated.
cellulose containing substrates, that, basically, is However till now the complex influence of
bound to presence of lignine [9]. In this various factors on methanogenesis is not studied.
Biogas Reception from Various Compositions of Some Cellulose-Containing Waste

The study of complex influence of various factors The experiments on biogas reception are carried
(crushing, application of the adapted association out in laboratory methane-tanks in volume of 5
of methanogens, use of various compositions of liters. The methane-tanks loaded by substrate,
substrate) on biogas formation, and also selection were seated in a thermostat at temperature 35.
of optimal substrate for the maximum yield of
[III] RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
methane was the purpose of our research.
Research on biogas reception from plant residues
[II] MATERIALS AND METHODS were made in model experiments in laboratory
As substrate for biogas reception used 3 kinds of a methane-tanks. As substrate we used the biomass
waste: 1) biomass of various higher plants foliage, of higher plants foliage, grass and wheaten straw,
grass and wheaten straw, 2) livestock manure, 3) and also domestic waste. The laboratory
domestic waste. experiments were made on not ground substrate.
For carrying out of methanogenesis process we In work the connatural association of
did not add any microbial associations, because methanogens was used. During all period of tests
natural associations of microorganisms living in we took samples on methane content and noted
this or that kind of a waste should react. Also the maximum indexes of pressure.
specially selected adapted association of The comparative analysis of a biogas yield
microorganisms initially taken from silt deposits showed, that at fermentation of higher plants
of sewage was used. foliage, grass and wheaten straw biomass, the
For the experiments used both the ground biogas concentration increase begins after 16 days
substrate and not ground. of cultivation, thus pressure indexes reach 1-1.5
The definition of 4, 2 and 2 concentrations atm [Figure-1]. It is necessary to notice, that after
carried out by gas chromatography method with draining off the gas pressure quickly within 1 day
the Crystal 2000 chromatograph raises to initial.
(Chromatech, Russia), equipped with At use of domestic waste as fermentable substrate,
microcapillary column FFID (1500x0.05 mm). observed the long log-phase in formation of a
The carrier gas - argon, the gas consumption was biogas, which only after 20 days passes in
15 ml/mines, detector temperature was 200, and substantial growth of a biogas yield and the
thermal gradient in a thermostat was from 70 to pressure in the tank raised and reached 1 atm and
160. The results are analyzed by means of more [Figure-2].
Chromatech Analytic 2.5 software.

Fig: 1. The dynamics of biogas formation from not ground biomass of higher plants foliage, grass and straw with use
of methanogens connatural association.

Kakhramon Davranov, et al. 2223


Biogas Reception from Various Compositions of Some Cellulose-Containing Waste

Fig: 2. The dynamics of biogas formation from not ground domestic waste with use of methanogens connatural
association.

Gas mixture analysis shows, that the process of necessary to notice, that such low speed of
methanogenesis goes more intensively in a variant methanogenesis confirms by presence of hydrogen
with biomass of foliage, grass and straw, than with sulphide in a gas mixture in two variants. The
domestic waste. So on 17 day in a variant with a analysis of the received results shows, that for a
biomass of foliage, grass and straw the quantity of methanogenesis process intensification the
methane was 51%, in a variant with domestic application of special methods and activators is
waste - 38% [Table-1]. Thus it is necessary.
Sample name Days CH4 H2S CO2
Biomass of foliage, grass and straw + methanogens
17 51 17 3.73
connatural association
Domestic waste + methanogens connatural
17 38 19 4.11
association
Ground biomass of foliage, grass and straw with
addition of livestock manure (20%) + methanogens 10 57.1 13 2.28
adaptive association
Ground domestic waste with addition of livestock 17 38 17 3.15
manure (20%) + methanogens adaptive association
Mixture of foliage, grass and wheaten straw (40%),
domestic waste (40%) and livestock manure (20%) 10 60.7 12 2.06
+ methanogens adaptive association
Table: 1. The results of the samples chromatographic analysis (%).
Apparently from the previous experiments, the For the purpose of definition of methanogenesis
process of gasification of the foliage, grass and optimal parameters in laboratory conditions the
straw biomass, and also domestic waste goes with biomass of foliage, grass and straw was ground to
insufficient rate, therefore for a maximum increase a powdery state. Also the cattle manure (20%
of biogas yield and process speed enhancing it is from the general vegetative mass) was added. It is
necessary to consider some factors which possibly known, that high ratio of substrate grinding
should intensify the process. Such factors are the promotes augmentation of a surface accessible to
application of the methanogens adapted microbial influence.
association, substrate crushing, and also drawing For reception of the methanogens adapted
up of substrate various compositions. association we used the method of consecutive

Kakhramon Davranov, et al. 2224


Biogas Reception from Various Compositions of Some Cellulose-Containing Waste

adaptation of microorganisms to each kind of used biogas composition: the quantity of methane
substrate. reached 57.1% [Figure-3, Table-1].
The usage of active association of methanogens on Similar results received in experiments with other
well prepared substrate (crushing to 1 mm - 90%) substrate - domestic waste. In this case it is shown,
promoted intensive formation of a biogas for 1 that crushing ratio, and also addition of a
day, thus, pressure in the tank rose to 1.5 atm and livestock manure (20%) also promotes
within first ten days there is a gas maximum methanogens association activity, however gas is
quantity. It is necessary to notice, that for 10 days formed a little bit later [Figure-4].
occurred qualitative and a quantitative change of a

Fig: 3. The dynamics of biogas formation from the ground biomass of foliage, grass and straw with addition of
livestock waste (20 %) with use of the methanogens adapted association.

Fig: 4. The dynamics of biogas formation from the ground domestic waste with addition of livestock waste (20 %)
with use of the methanogens adapted association.

Kakhramon Davranov, et al. 2225


Biogas Reception from Various Compositions of Some Cellulose-Containing Waste

Comparative analysis of a biogas formation with Another direction in the processes of


application of grinding and without additional methanogenesis intensification can be use of
grinding with manure addition showed that the various compositions of substrate. On the
methane yield in this case reaches only 38-51% assumption of this, we carried out research on
for 17-20 days [Table-1]. reception of a biogas from the following mixture:
It is necessary to notice, that biogas at the first the ground biomass of foliage, grass and straw
stages of methanogenesis contains basically (40%), domestic waste (40%), livestock manure
carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and negligible (20%). The analysis of the received results shows
quantity of methane. The quantity of methane that the volume of biogas starts to increase from 3
starts to increase by the end of the second phase of days, and the maximum content of methane in it is
methanogenesis. Additional stirring in methane- observed for 9-10 days and reaches 60.7%
tank in the biginning of the process increases a [Figure-5].
biogas yield by 2-3%.

Fig: 5. The dynamics of biogas formation from the ground biomass of foliage, grass and wheaten straw (40%), on the
ground domestic waste (40%) and livestock manure (20%) with use of the methanogens adapted association.

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