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1. Design and EM-Simulation of Microstrip Edge Coupled Band Pass Filter

Beeresha R S1, A M Khan2, Manjunath Reddy H V3
1 Research Scholars, Dept., of Electronics, Mangalore University, Karnataka, India
2 Professors, Dept., of Electronics, Mangalore University, Karnataka, India
3 General Managers, RF/Microwave Design, ICON Design Automation, Karnataka, India
The wireless communication is a present trend in electronic communication. The communication system will depends on device bandwidth
for receiving and transmitting the signal. The microwave circuits are used to design band pass and band rejection filter in communication
system. The function of the filters is to pass a specific band of frequency signal and block other bands.They are various filters available for
RF/microwave applications. The filter is designed using passive components like capacitor (C) and inductor (L). This lumped component
circuit is simulated using high frequency simulator. The observed results show desired pass band with low insertion loss. The help of this
lumped network than design band pass filter using high frequency planar transmission lines. In this paper we propose 2GHz microwave band
pass filter at center frequency of 6GHz. The filter is designed using novel edge (parallel) coupled microstrip line technology. The designed
filter is simulated and optimized using microwave office NI/AWR (National Instrumentation/Applied Wave Research) tool. The scattering
parameters are used for measuring the insertion loss and return loss in terms of dB scale. The microwave filters have advantages like high
performance, smaller size, light weight and low cost. This work can be implemented in wireless communication fields like WiFi, WiMax and
Key Words: Band passes filter,Microstrip line, Passive components,Planar transmission lines, S-parameter.

1.INTRODUCTION [4]. The miniaturization of 25% achieved by using broad

side coupled structure over normal structure, but 40%
The filters play important role in many RF/Microwave
miniaturization can be achieved using edge coupled
communication applications. The particular frequency of
structure [5]. The edge coupled topology has wide
a signal will be passed or rejected depending on the range
application in the field of RF/Microwave filter design,
of desired filterpass band and stop band. In practice, it is
because it is easy to fabricate and involves less complexity
difficult to achieve pass band and rejection band perfectly
in the circuit if compared with other topologies [6].
due to harmonics. The harmonics will affects to decreases
selection and rejection efficiency of the circuits at higher This paper proposes a novel concept to designing band
frequency applications. At higher frequency, it is pass filter withgeometric calculation ofmicrostrip
challenging to achieve designdesired bands because of linelength (L), width (W) thickness (t). The microstrip
passive component effect (inductive and capacitive line is designed using RT/Duroid dielectric material of
reactance affect). To achieve this designed frequency 3.66 dielectric constant, copper conductor of 0.032mm
bands by using some standard design techniques. thickness and 0.0013 dissipation factor. The
electromagnetic simulation is done by using high
They are several techniques have been proposed to reduce
frequency NI/AWR simulation tool.
harmonics in pass band and stop band region. The cascade
coupling is an easiest way to overcome this problem, but The designed structure has 2GHz pass band and wide stop
it gives high insertion loss [1]. Another way is to design band (5GHz to 7GHz) using edge coupled technique. The
ground structure, which suppresses the spurious response. aim of this paper is to design and select the coupling region
The drawback with this design is more complex and hard to reduce the harmonics by increasing efficiency of the
to implement practically [2]. circuit with less than 3dB insertion loss at pass band
To consider parallel microstrip edge coupled topology for
designing the band pass filter and which is effectively The article is organized as follows section 2 briefly
improves the rejection and pass band regions[3]. This explains scattering parameters with block diagram. In
technique normally used in RF front end system design section 3, describe the construction and design of
KLEs, P. C. JABIN SCIENCE COLLEGE, HUBBALLI 5 ISBN - 978 - 81 - 931806 - 8 - 6
microstrip line structure.In section 4 and 5 discusses the Forward transition coefficient (Insertion loss)
general structure and equations of the edge coupled
microstripband pass filter. In section 6 and 7, present the Output reflection coefficient (Return loss)
design specifications of the filter. In section 8we In this paper, we concentrate on S11 and S12 loss on
summarize the obtained results. planar transmission lines (but S12=S21).
The S-parameter is an essential part analyzing of high The microstrip line is most widely used planar
frequency circuits design. This is one of methodto measure transmission line in the field of RF and microwave
two port networks efficiency [7]. The signal insertion loss applications [11].
and reflection loss is effectively using S-parameters. A
set of S-parameters can be seen in linear two port
networks. asas shown below in figure 1. This network
has two ports; port1 has a1and b1 terminals, and similarly
port 2 has a2 and b2 terminals.

The two port network can be analyzed using S-parameters,

namely S11, S12, S21 and S22, to measure losses in the
network. These parameters are calculated using the
following equations [8].
Fig 2:Microstrip line
1 11 1 +12 2

2 21 1 +22 2
The microstrip can be fabricated by using photo
lithographic technique and is easy to miniaturize and
Equivalently, these equations can be represented in integrate with passive and active devices [12]. The
matrix form as construction of microstrip line is shown in Figure 2. A
12 1
1 11
2 22 2
conductor of width W is placed on top layer on the
21 dielectric material; t is thickness of a conductor, h-is height
of dielectric [13].
The microstrip transmission line is used to
transport signals with relatively high frequency; the type
of propagation that a microstrip line supports is quasi-
TEM (Transfer Electro Magnetic) mode [11]. The width
and thickness of microstrip line determines the
characteristic impedance of the transmission lines.
Fig 1: Two port networks represent input and output
The two port network technology shows the incident, COMPONENTS
reflected and transmitted electromagnetic waves. The port The 5th order band pass filter is designed using passive
1 and port 2 is given by its S-parameters equivalent as [9, components like capacitor (C) and inductor (L). The basic
10]. formulas are used to calculate the suitable value of C and
Input reflection coefficient (Return loss) L for band pass filter. The LC circuit is constructed easily
with the help of NI/AWR microwave office. To select
Reverse transition coefficient (Insertion loss) desired value of the component from component list and

KLEs, P. C. JABIN SCIENCE COLLEGE, HUBBALLI 6 ISBN - 978 - 81 - 931806 - 8 - 6

join using interconnection wire. The passive component
filter is shown in figure 3.

The designed and calculated values are given in table 1.

The consideration of table data to construct a lumped
network shown in figure 3.To select suitable operating
frequency 4.4GHZ to 7.4GHZ and 6GHZ center frequency
of the circuit. The distributed network is simulated and
plot that data in rectangular graph shows the insertion
and return loss. Fig 4: 4th Order Band Pass Filter


The figure 5 shows general structure of edge coupled
microstripline band pass filter. The microstrip lines are
arranged parallel each other with certain coupling factor
as S (S-Space between two microstrip lines).

Fig-3: Passive Component Circuit Diagram of 5th order band

pass filter
Table 1: Passive Components Values

Sl. No Inductor (L) Capacitor (C)

1 L1=4.73 nH C1=1.53 pF
2 L2=0.37 nH C2=2.28 pF
3 L3=8.43 nH C3=8.59 pF
4 L4=2.84 nH C4=2.55 pF
5 L5=8.64nH C5=8.39 pF Fig 5: General Structure of Edge Coupled MicrostripLine
6 L6=2.9 nH C6=2.49 pF BPF.
7 L7=7.73 nH C7=9.36 pF
8 L8=5.18 nH C8=1.4 pF The following equations are used to design the edge
coupled filters [12].

The figure4 shows simulated result of lumped
20 1
circuit. The observed result isbetter matched with the
proposed design of 2GHz pass band with low insertion
loss of 1.09dB. The lumped circuit is too difficult to use
, 1 2
2 1
as a working model because of the frequency component.
At lower frequency the passive components allows to pass
the signal with lower loss and not consider physical For j =1 to n-1
parameters. The frequency of the signal increases it effect
to transit or process the desired signal.
This simulation study helps to construct band pass 2 1
filter using planar transmission lines. The passive
distributed components circuit is suitable low frequency Where g_0,g_1g_n are elements of ladder prototype
applications in practically but this circuit will not work low pass filter, is the functional bandwidth of band
practically. This result is taken as a reference to design (FBW) pass filter, J_(j,j+1) is characteristic admittance
these circuits using high frequency microstrip planar of J-invertors and Y_o is characteristic admittance of
transmission lines. connecting line.

KLEs, P. C. JABIN SCIENCE COLLEGE, HUBBALLI 7 ISBN - 978 - 81 - 931806 - 8 - 6

With the help of these relations characteristic admittance Using the equations (1-5) the band pass filter is
of J-inverter is easy to calculate. The characteristic im- designed. The designed width (W), Length (L) and space
pedance of even-mode and odd-mode of the parallel between the coupled lines are given in table 2.
coupled microstrip line resonator are given by [11, 13].
1 , 1 , 1 2
1 4
0 0 0

1 , 1 , 1 2
1 5
0 0 0

Where j=0 to n
Implementation of the edge coupled microstrip band pass
filter is easier using these design equations.

6. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Fig 7: 2D MicrostripEdge Coupled Schematic

The good band pass filter need for accurate transmis-

sion line characteristic to allow a desired band of signal.
The pass band should have less loss through a two port
network. The rejection band removes unwanted signals at
both higher and lower frequency ranges.
The filter is designed by 5thorder (n=5) chebyshev fil-
ter with 6GHz center frequency and bandwidth of 2GHz
or 30% of the center frequency. The insertion loss is less
than 3dB in pass band. The rejection bands are less than
5GHz at lower side and greater than 7GHZ at upper side Fig 8: 3D Band Pass Filter Structure
band. The figure 8 shows 3D mess structure of the proposed
The design is performed using the Microwave Office band pass filter. The designed structure is used substrate
material of dielectric constant is 3.66, tangent loss of 0.013,
(MWO) tools corporate with Applied Wave Research
dielectric height of 0.508mm and copper conductor mate-
(AWR) for the edge coupled band pass filter. Figure 6 rial of thickness is 0.032mm.
shows the microstrip line circuit schematic and designed Table 2, Geometric parameters of the design
Line description Width (W) Length (L) Space (S)
50 line 2.94 6.78 -
Coupled line 1 1.4 6 0.2
Coupled line 2 2.4 6 0.2
Coupled line 3 2.4 6 0.2
Coupled line 4 1.4 6 0.2
50 line 2.94 6.78 -


The design and analysis is done by using AWR Micro-
wave Office & Analyst v12 tool. The simulation is done
Fig 6: Edge Coupled Micostrip Line Circuit Schematic using system of having Intel i5 processor, 4 GB RAM and
The above shown schematic has 5microstrip coupled lines 64-bit windows operating software configuration. The
and two microstrip lines. The figure 7 shows the equiva- analyst is a full 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) based
lent 2D microstrip edge coupled layout of above figure 6. Electromagnetic simulator widely used for all RF/Micro-
wave applications.

KLEs, P. C. JABIN SCIENCE COLLEGE, HUBBALLI 8 ISBN - 978 - 81 - 931806 - 8 - 6

The authors would like to thank the ICON design Auto-
mation Pvt Ltd, for their assistance in carrying this work.
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3dB and return loss is 20dB.

KLEs, P. C. JABIN SCIENCE COLLEGE, HUBBALLI 9 ISBN - 978 - 81 - 931806 - 8 - 6