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SATORP/TR INTERVIEW QUESTIONNARE (WELDING)

1) What is the package number and explain?


Package one stands for Distillation & Hydro treating unit.
Different units are
91/92- High Pressure Hydro Desulphurization
101/102- Low Pressure Hydro Desulphurization
111/112-Naphtha Hydrotreater Unit
151/152- Distillation and Hydro treating Hydrogen Unit
155- Off Gas PSA Unit
150-Hydrogen storage unit
011/012- Crude Distillation Unit/ Vacuum Distillation Unit

2) What are the duties & responsibilities of a welding inspector?


Perform material inspection.
Perform consumable inspection.
Application of inspection gauges, instruments and tools.
Check equipment and accessories.
Witness procedure qualification test.
Witness welder qualification test.
Perform visual inspection.
Review / witness NDT
Witness mechanical test.
Monitor heat treatment
Observe production and fabrication welding.
Interpret and assure compliance to Code / Standard / Specification.
Review technical drawing.
Witness weld repair.
Prepare and compile inspection records.

3) What is the formula for heat input?


a. Heat Input (j/cm)= Voltage x Amperage x 60 / Travel
Speed(cm/min)

4) What are welder qualification limits?


Base metal qualification limits. (P no. and Thickness)
Filler material qualification limits.(F No.)
Pipe diameter and position qualification limits.
Weld metal thickness qualification limits.
5) What is WPS?
The WPS is a written document that provides direction
to the welder for making production welds in
accordance with Code/Standard requirements.

6) How is the Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) different


from the WPS?
Procedure Qualification Record certifies that test welds
performed in accordance with the WPS meet Code
requirements and summarizes the specific test results.

7) What is PQR?
A record of welding variables used to produce an acceptable test
weldment and the results of tests conducted on the weldment to qualify a
welding procedure specification.

8) What are essential variables?


a. Essential Variable (Procedure) A change in a welding
condition which will affect the mechanical properties
(other than notch toughness) of the weldment . E.g.
change in P Number, welding process, F number, electrode, preheat or
postweld heat treatment.
b. Essential Variable (Performance) A change in a
welding condition which will affect the ability of a
welder to deposit sound weld metal. E.g - change in
welding process, deletion of backing, electrode, F
number, technique etc.

9) What are supplementary essential variables?


a. The change in a welding condition which will affect the
notch toughness properties of a weldment is known as
supplementary essential variable.

10) Can we use two welding process in a WPS?


Yes (E.g.: GTAW + SMAW)

11) What is PWHT?


Postweld heat treatment (PWHT),defined as any heat treatment after
welding, is often used to improve the properties of a weldment.

12)Why we are using PWHT?


To increase the resistance to brittle fracture and relaxing residual stresses.

13) Mention the drying temperatures for low


hydrogen SMAW electrodes?
260-430C for 2 hrs min (A5.1)
370-430C for 2 hrs min(A5.5)
120-250C for 2 hours minimum. (SS and
Non-Ferrous electrodes)

14) What do you meant by low hydrogen


consumables?
Low hydrogen consumables are defined as less than or
equal to 8 ml of hydrogen per 100 g of deposited weld
metal.

15) What are dissimilar metal welds?


Any weld joint (excluding weld overlays or strip lining)
between ferritic steel and either austenitic stainless
steel, duplex stainless steel, or nickel-based alloys, or
Use of stainless steel or nickel-based filler metals on
ferritic steels.

16) Explain about 31.3?


The piping which is generally found in petroleum refineries, chemical,
pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semi conductor and cryogenic plants, and
related processing plants.
This section includes
a) Acceptable material specifications and component standards, including
dimensional requirements & pressure temperature ratings.
b) Requirements for design of components and assemblies, including
piping supports.
c) Requirements and data for evaluation and limitation of stresses,
reactions, and movements associated with pressure, temperature
changes, and other forces.
d) Guidance and limitations on the selection and application of materials,
components, and joining methods.
e) Requirements for the fabrication, assembly, and erection of piping.
f) Requirements for examination, inspection, and testing of piping.

19)What are the types of Mechanical tests?


Tension Tests
Guided Bend Tests
Fillet Weld Tests
Notch Toughness Test
Stud Weld Test

20)The term used to describe delay in the production schedule to permit


inspection is __________
Hold Point

21) Equation for Heat Input?


H = 60EI / 1000S
Where,
H -- Heat Input (KJ/mm)
E -- Arc Voltage (volts)
I Current (Amps)
S Travel Speed (in/min)

22)What is the Procedure Qualification Thickness Limits?

ASME SEC IX QW 452

i) It is the test coupon < 1 - Size welded (Dia)


ii) Thickness always 2T T Thickness of Test Coupon
iii) Minimum Thickness Qualified 1.5mm

23)What are the essential variables for PWHT?


Heating rate
Temperature attained
Choking temperature and
Cooling rate.

24) What is the gap of socket weld?


1.5 mm to 3 mm

25)Formulae for carbon equivalent?


CE = C + (Mn)/6 + (Cr+Mo+V)/5 + (Ni+Cu)/15

26) What do you mean by ITP?


It is a mandatory item in the Quality Plan to guide and assure
quality in a specific type of work in a specific sequence of QC
activity steps.

27) What is NCR?


NCR: (Non Conformity report): A record reporting the variation from the
specified requirements.

28) How do you calculate the weld repair


percentage?
% RR = (Lr/Lw) X 100
Where, % RR Percent repair rate
Lr -- Total length of repair in one week
Lw --Total length of weld radiographed
in one week
29)RT % of M, D, Normal and Sever cyclic service?
D Service : a) if rating is 1500 lb, 100 % RT
b) If MDT -29C, 5% RT
c) Hydrocarbon service, 100%

M service : a) if rating is 600 lb, 100 % RT


b) If MDT -29C, 20% RT
c) Hydrocarbon service, 100%
HP Service : 100% RT
SC Service : 100% RT

30) What should be the distance b/w two parallel


welds?
20mm or three times the wall thickness of the joint,
whichever is greater.

31)What factors (give at least four) are taken into account when selecting and
designing a joint for a welding application?
Strength
Accessibility for welding
Minimize distortion
Cost of welding
Accessibility for inspection

32)What is the difference b/w stud bolt and machine bolt?


Machine bolt has a head on one side and nut on other side but stud bolt
have nuts on both sides.
33)Which standard do you refer for the welding equipment calibration?
BS 7570.

34)What are the tests required for verifying supplementary essential variables?
Notch toughness tests-
Charpy V- Notch test
Drop weight.

35) What is the chemical composition of a low


hydrogen electrode E7018?
E7018 C 0.15, Mn 1.60, Si 0.75, P 0.035, S 0.035, Ni
0.30, Cr 0.20,
Mo 0.3, V 0.08.

36) What does L stands for 316L and the


composition?
Low Carbon.

37) Mention the drying temperatures for low


hydrogen SMAW electrodes?
260-430C for 2 hrs min (A5.1)
370-430C for 2 hrs min(A5.5)
120-250C for 2 hours minimum. (SS and
Non-Ferrous electrodes)

37) What are the different factors that cause HIC?


A sensitive microstructure
A sufficient level of hydrogen
A high level of stress
38)What is the minimum thickness of pipe that requires stress relieving to be
done as per B31.3?
19 mm

39)What is the function of shielding gas?


Stabilises the arc roots on the material surfaces.
Ensures smooth transfer of the molten metal from the
wire to weld pool.
Forms the arc plasma.
40) If welder is qualified in 3G position in pipes, he can weld all
position?

3G position in pipe not mentioned in ASME Sec IX,


The pipe positions are 1G, 2G, 5G and 6G as per ASME Sec IX.

41)If Mechanical damage occurred on base metals what will be your course of
action?
If any Mechanical damage found on the base metal, conduct the thickness
measurement and Magnetic Particle Test or Penetrant Test to be conducted, if it
is within tolerance accept it otherwise submit the report to higher authority for
further action.

42)You have observed in the specimen certain defects, why do you consider it as
important and do the report of it, state two planar defects? What are causes for
the occurrence of it and how will you avoid it?
Defects: Is a rejectable one i.e., a discontinuity which exceeds the code limits is
defects. Depending up on the conditions and severity it has to be repaired.

The two planar defects are i) Lack of side wall fusion ii) Undercut.

i) Lack of side wall fusion: Contaminated surface may due to oil, grease, and
rust etc., and too narrow gap, current very low and improper manipulation of
electrodes.

Prevention: Bevel ends shall be thoroughly cleaned and free from detrimental
contaminants, appropriate root gap, welding parameter within the WPS range
and right manipulation of electrodes.

ii) Undercut : Due to excessive current, travel speed too high.

Prevention : Appropriate travel speed, welding parameters under control and


shall be within the WPS range.

43)What is the P No; for CS & SS?


CS- P1
SS-P8

44)Buttering or weld build up on the prepared surface shall not exceed


Exceed the lesser of 1/3rd of base metal thickness or 10mm without the
prior approval of the company.

45) Internal misalignment of Butt joints shall not exceed


1.5 mm
46)Fillet Weld Profiles
Convex, Concave, Mitre

47)Explain E 8018
E Electrode
80 Tensile Strength
1 for all Position
8 Coating

48)The preheat shall be established over a minimum distance of


75mm on each side of the weld.

49)Electrodes, filler wires, flux which standards to be used?


ASME SEC II C

50)What equipment will use to determine oxygen level?


Oxygen Scavenger

51)What is the surface temperature of PT?


5 C to 52C

52)What is the F number for the filler wire ER70S?


6

53) What are the duties of a QC Inspector for Consumable


receiving inspection?

i. Check the Test Certificates (T.C.) of each batch of electrodes for the
conformance of parameters with respect to project requirements.
ii. Check the availability of labels on each package units (Pack or Box) and
completeness of the information in them.
iii. Check the condition of the package and electrode / filler wire. If any
damage found, it is reported for the corrective action.
iv. Check the correctness of the batch No.; Electrode/Filler wire diameter and
other data with respect to the Test Certificate.
a. After inspection, the welding materials are stored in the warehouse or in
the welding consumables control room under ambient temperature.
b. All welding consumables shall be stored in racks, off the floor, in such a
way as to prevent any physical damage or contamination. Consumables
for the use on various types and grades of material shall be clearly
segregated by type and size to minimize possibility of error in distribution.

54) What is the exposure time for low hydrogen electrode?


The electrodes may not be exceeded more than four hours, the exposure
may be extended to 8 hours if the electrodes are continuously stored in a
portable oven upto 65C minimum.

55)What are the things to be checked in sockolets?


All fitting bores are to be concentric within 0.76mm for all sizes.
To prevent cracking of a fillet weld install a 1.5 cardboard washer or
withdraw the pipe 1.5 mm from bottom of the socket before welding.

56)Why post heating is done on some pipe after the welding is over?
To maintain uniform homogeneous structure.

57)What are weldolets and sockolets? And where they are generally used?
Weldolets and sockolets are self reinforced fittings.
Weldolets are used for butt welded branch connections where standard
tee is not available due to size restrictions and the piping is at a
critical/high pressure service.
Sockolets are used to socket welding branch connection which requires
reinforcing pads.

58)What is the density of steel?


7.86 kg/m

59)In 316L, what is the L stands for?


L stands for low carbon steel

60)If heat input increases what will happen?


Yield strength decreases
Tensile strength decreases
Percent in elongation increases
Notch toughness slightly increases and then decreases
Hardness decreases
Cooling rate decreases ( R 1/ T0H) Where R is the cooling rate, T0 is
the preheat temperature, H is the heat input.

61) What is the cause of porosity?


The presence of gas pores in a weld caused by entrapment of gas during
solidification is termed as porosity. The pores are in the form of small
spherical cavities either clustered locally or scattered throughout the weld
deposit. Sometimes entrapped gas give rise to a single large cavity called
Blowholes.
Cause: -
A. Chemically imperfect welding consumables, for example, deficient
in deoxidiser.
B. Faulty composition of base material or electrode, for example, high
sulphur content.
C. Presence of oil, grease, moisture and mill scale on the weld
surface.
D. Excessive moisture in the electrode coating or submerged-arc flux.
E. Inadequate gas shielding or impure gas in a gas shielded process.
F. Low welding current or too long an arc.
G. Quick-freezing of weld deposit.

62) How do you calculate concave fillet weld?

Calculated by throat
Fillet weld size is the leg length of the largest isosceles right triangle which
can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.

63)How do you calculate the convex fillet weld?


Calculated by
Leg size
Convexity is the maximum distance from the face of convex fillet weld
perpendicular to line joining the weld toes.

64)What is annealing and normalizing process?


Annealing process is a heat treatment in which a sold state is heated and then
cooled at a slow rate.
The annealing temperature and the rate of cooling depend on the material and
the purpose of the treatment. Annealing is used to effect any of the following
changes in metal:
To relieve stress
Induce softness
Alter mechanical properties, electrical, magnetic or physical properties.
Refine crystalline structure
Remove gases
Produce a definite microstructure.
Normalizing process is a process in which a ferrous metal is heated to a suitable
temperature above the transformation range and is subsequently cooled in still
air at room temperature.

65)What are the characteristics of good welding cable?


Wear and abrasion resistant
High electrical resistance
Good heat resistance
The size of the cable required for a particular application depends on the
maximum amperage to be used for welding, the length of the welding circuit
(welding and work cables combined), and the duty cycle of the welding machine.
66)What are the tests required for analysis of consumables?
Chemical Analysis ( ASME SEC II C )
PMI (JERES-A-206)

67)What are the tests required for verifying supplementary essential variables?
Notch toughness

68)What is an isotope? Different types of isotope? Explain the characteristics of


isotope?
Atoms of the same element which are identical in their chemical behavior but
different from one another in the number of neutrons contained in their nuclei, and
thus have different atomic weights.
Isotopes also act as flow tracers for detecting leaks in buried or inaccessible
equipment.
Isotopes such as cobalt-60, cesium-137, and iridium-192

69) Name the instrument used for measuring density of photographic or


radiographic film?
Densitometre

70) What are the factors on which the density of radiographic film depends?
The density of radiographic films depends upon the following: -
A. Total amount of radiation emitted by X-ray or gamma ray.
B. Amount of radiation reaching the specimen.
C. The amount of radiation passing through the specimen.
D. Intensifying action of the screen if used.

71)How will you calculate the geometric unsharpness in radiographic film?


Geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall be determined in accordance
with:
Ug = Fd/D
where
Ug = geometric unsharpness
F = source size: the maximum projected dimension of the radiating source
(or effective focal spot) in the plane perpendicular to the distance D from
the weld or object being radiographed, in.
D = distance from source of radiation to weld or object being
radiographed, in.
d = distance from source side of weld or object being radigraphed to film.
72)What is the welder qualification based on f number?

73)Which markers are used on SS materials?


Low halogens and Low sulfur less than 200 ppm

74)Define Arc blow?


The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic
forces.

75)What are the standards for welding as JER Standard?


JERES-W-011-Welding Requirements for On-Plot Piping
JERES-W-010-Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels
JERES-W-012-Welding Requirements for Pipelines
JERES-W-014-Weld Overlays and Welding of Clad Materials
JERES-W-016-Welding of Special Corrosion-Resistant Materials

76)Write the weld layers?

I. Root
II. Hot Pass
III. Fill
IV. Cap

77)What are the Weldment Terms?


i. Weld Face
ii. Weld Root
iii. Fusion Zone
iv. Fusion Boundary
v. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)
vi. Weld Toes
vii. Weld Width

78)Write Small Bore Fittings?

Weldolet
Sockolet
Threadolet
Elbolet
Nippolet

79)Dry developers?
Can be applied by spraying, flowing pricy solvent can be applied by
electrostatic spray particle should be (-) and high voltage shock all to be
done in a log chamber so we can sauce the 80% of the material

80)Principle of UT.
Reflection of Sound

81)What is the use of Couplant?


To remove the air gap between the transducer and object.

82)What is the Welding Process?

a) GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)


b) SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)
c) SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
d) FCAW (Flux Coated Arc Welding)
e) GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)
f) PAW (Plasma Arc Welding)

83)Welding Position
Pipe 1GR, 2G, 5G, 6G,
Plate 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
PIPE:-
1G: - A Pipe is Horizontal Position and weld beed is a vertical position. The
Pipe will be rotated.
2G: - A Pipe is Vertical Position and weld beed is Horizontal Position
5G: - A Pipe is Horizontal Position and weld beed is Vertical Position
6G: - A Pipe is a 450 Position
PLATE:-
1G: - Plate is Horizontal and weld is Horizontal
2G: - Plate is Vertical and weld is Horizontal
3G: - Plate is Vertical and weld is Vertical
4G: - A Plate is in Overhead Position weld is Horizontal Position

84) What are the preheat requirements as per JERES?

PREHEAT REQUIREMENTS
MATERIAL WALL THICKNESS MIN PREHEAT
Upto 30mm 20*
CS/LTCS 30-50 mm 20**
> 50 mm 100
P 4( P11) ALL 150
P5B( P5, P9) ALL 250
SS ALL 10
* If ambient temp. is below 5C, preheat to 40C is mandatory.
** 80C min, if specified UTS 490 Mpa & heat i/p < 20 KJ
Max interpass temp. for SS( P8) : 177C
Max interpass temp. for CS, alloy (P5,P9,P11) :315C

85)Why we maintain the interpass temperature?


The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of the weld metal are both a
function of the interpass temperature.
High values of interpass temperature tend to reduce the weld metal
strength. Additionally, higher interpass temperatures will generally provide
a finer grain structure and improved Charpy V notch toughness transition
temperatures.

86)What is the difference b/w tensile test & yield test?


A tensile test is a test to obtain an accurate assessment of the strength and
ductility of a material or a weld, or in an all-weld-metal test, to determine
mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation,
and reduction in area.
A yield test is to obtain the strength at some arbitrary amount of extension
under load or a permanent plastic strain (offset).
87)Low hydrogen electrode handling and ovens?

When containers of low hydrogen electrodes are opened, they will be


immediately placed in an electrode baking oven. The welding material
store shall be a controlled access area. Unauthorized personal
including welder & welding operated shall be prohibited consumables
from out it.
The maximum electrodes issued shall be for about 5 hours. From
heating oven, as a good practice, electrodes to be placed below the
electrode still into the holding oven.
Baking will be done for low hydrogen electrodes e.g. 7018 at
temperature 350O C in accordance with the manufacturer
recommendation.

88)While welding of pipe trunion to pipe/reinforcement pad you have to put a hole
or leave some portion of welding why?
For venting of hot gas which may get generated due to welding.

89) What is the affect if the quantity of hydrogen induced in weld metal is
more?
When hydrogen is more in weld metal, it tends to make the material
brittle & subsequently leads to cracking. These cracks are called
hydrogen induced cracking or delayed crack. To avoid this the electrode
before using is backed at 250C to 300C for one hour in mother oven &
then cooled down to 100C in the same oven & finally transferred to
portable oven for use where temperature is maintained at 60to 70C

90) List 3 disadvantages of RT over other NDT Methods.


Radiation Safety Precautions, Planar defects not readily detectable,
heavy equipment.

91)Why dont we take a branch for Cryogenic Service from bottom side though
the fluid is in liquid state?
There is the chance of Ice formation during normal operation and since
ice flows from the bottom of the pipe it will block the branch pipe
connection.

92)From which side of pipe will you take a branch connection?


When Fluid is Gas, Air or Steam and Cryogenic Service Topside.
When Fluid is Liquid Bottom Side.

93) What are the different types of hardness tests carried out?
Brinell hardness Test.
Rockwell Hardness Test.
Vicker Hardness Test.

94) What is a theoretical throat?


The distance from the beginning of the joint root perpendicular to the
hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the
cross section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based on the
assumption that the root opening is equal to zero.

95) What is the procedure for application of wrapping and


coating?
Procedure for application of Coating and wrapping: -
A. Prior to application of wrapping & coating, the surface of pipe should be made
free from all loose Mill scale, dirt, rust, grease, moisture and other foreign
material. This is achieved by blast cleaning to grade Sa 2 .
B. The pipe exterior surface or blast surface shall be coated with primer within
four hours of shot blasting. The primer shall not be applied when the pipe surface
temperature is below 7C and above 70C. When moisture is present on the
surface, the same is heated for sufficient time to dry the surface.
C. The pipe after priming shall be coated with two-flood coat of hot enamel
incorporating the simultaneous application of inner & outer wrapping.

96) How you will measure linear indications and acceptance?


Material thickness size
thk16mm 1.6mm
16mm thk < 50mm 3.2mm
thk 50mm 5mm

97)What is a duplex stainless steel?


The term duplex stainless steel describes steel with microstructure
containing austenite and ferrite in which the lesser phase is at least 30%
by volume. First generation duplex stainless steels (typically 26% Cr, 4.5%
Ni, and 1.5% Mo) were about 5 to 80% ferrite.

98) What is DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE POSITIVE (DCEP)?


The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the electrode
is the positive pole and the work piece is the negative pole of the welding
arc.

99)What is DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (DCEN)?


The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the electrode
is the negative pole and workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc.

100) What are grains?


Groups of crystals presenting metal after it have solidified.

101) What are the types of gasket?


Based on construction
A. Full face.
B. Spiral wound metallic.
C. Ring type.
D. Metal jacketed.
E. Inside bolt circle.
Based on material
A. Synthetic rubber
B. Solid Teflon
C. Compressed Asbestos
D.CS (High pressure fluid)
E. SS (High fluid corrosive)
F. Spiral Wound a) Teflon b) CS c) SS

1) What are the types of flanges?


Based on pipe attachment
Slip on. - The Slip-on type flanges are attached by welding inside as
well as outside. These flanges are of forged construction.
Socket Weld. : - The Socket Weld flanges are welded on one side only.
These are used for small bore lines only.
Screwed: - The Screwed-on flanges are used on pipe lines where
welding cannot be carried out.
Lap Joint. : - The Lap Joint flanges are used with stub ends. The stub
ends are welded with pipes & flanges are kept loose over the same.
Welding Neck. : - The Welding neck flanges are attached by butt welding
to the pipe. These are used mainly for critical services where the weld
joints need radiographic inspection.
Blind. : - The Blind flanges are used to close the ends which need to be
reopened.
Reducing. : - The reducing flanges are used to connect between larger
and smaller sizes without using a reducer. In case of reducing flanges,
the thickness of flange should be that of the higher diameter.
Integral. : - Integral flanges are those, which are cast along with the
piping component or equipment.

Flanges are classified based on pressure temperature ratings as: -


A. 150
B. 300
C. 400
D. 600
E. 900
F. 1500
G. 2500

Flanges are classified based on facing as: -


A. Flat face. (FF)
B. Raised face. (R/F)
C. Tongue and groove. (T/G)
D. Male and female. (M/F)
E. Ring type joint. (RTJ)
based on face finish as: -
A. Smooth finish.
B. Serrated finish.

102) What is tack weld?


Tack weld is the temporary weld to maintain joint alignment. All tack welds
shall be made by qualified welders. Recommended tack thickness is 3.2
4.8mm & length is 12.5 - 25.4 mm. the minimum number of tack welds for
3.5 inch and below are 3 equally spaced tacks. Above 3.5 inch 4 equally
spaced tacks.

103) What is Schedule Q?


Schedule Q stands for Owners minimum quality requirements for
Contractor/Subcontractor quality system.

104) What type of cutting used is SS? Types of Grinding wheel and how to
identify them?
Plasma arc cutting and grinding wheel
Types for grinding wheel are: Iron oxide, zirconium, Aluminum oxide.
Identification by color coding.( blue)

105) What are the common welding defects?


A. Lack of penetration.
B. Lack of fusion.
C. Undercut.
D. Slag inclusion.
E. Porosity.
F. Crack.
G. Faulty weld size & profile.
H. Distortion

106) Types of Orifice Plates

Concentric Orifice
Electric Orifice
Segmetal Orifice

107) What is the Profile Imperfection?


i) Spatter
ii) In Completely filled Groove
iii) Lack of Root Fusion
iv) Incomplete Root Penetration
v) Shrinkage Grooves
vi) Root Concaring
vii) Crater Pipe
viii) Excess Penetration
ix) Burn Through

108) What does sensitivity depends on?

Definition and Control

109) Types of Probe in UT?

Normal probe, Angular probe, triangular probe (45, 60, 70).

110) Hydrophilic emulsifies are?

Water miscible liquids used to emulsify the excess oil fluorescent


penetrant.

111) The discontinuities would be impossible to detect using PT?


Internal inclusions

112) What is an alloy steel?


Iron based alloy- c < 2%, Mn >.25 %, min qualtities of one or more
alloying elements other than Mn, silicon and Cu, that does not specify Cr
content 10%