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LESSON NOTES

Upper Intermediate S1 #8
Descubrimiento o invasin?

CONTENTS
2 Spanish
3 English
4 Spanish
6 English
7 Vocabulary
8 Sample Sentences
9 Grammar
10 Cultural Insight

# 8
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SPANISH

1. JORGE: Oiga, hermano, me ha hecho pensar con lo que usted dijo sobre
las influencias clsicas en la literatura.

2. ALEJANDRO: Usted sabe qu?, le digo si nuestro mundo es el resultado de la


evolucin, lo mismo que ocurre en la cultura en general, ocurre en
la literatura en particular.

3. JORGE: Vaya filsofo! Y qu relacin tiene el indigenismo con Darwin!?

4. ALEJANDRO: Jejeje.... Usted bromea, pero le aconsejo que se ponga a pensar


en lo siguiente - los griegos influyeron en toda Europa; los
europeos, en el resto de su mundo conocido y despus, en
Amrica.

5. JORGE: O sea que se est refiriendo al hecho del descubrimiento de


Amrica por los europeos...?

6. ALEJANDRO: Descubrimiento...? De repente, as fue para los europeos. Tal vez


usted quiso decir el encuentro de las culturas, no?. Dese cuenta,
hermano, de que los americanos ya ramos pueblos con culturas
muy desarolladas... Algunos las comparan con la cultura china...

7. JORGE: A ver, a ver, a ver... Usted est hablando de la conquista o de qu?

8. ALEJANDRO: Cmo se le ocurre!? Eso no fue una conquista, quizs los


brbaros europeos pensaron que era una conquista. Sin embargo,
eso fue un atropello, una invasin, una felona, hombre! - un
crimen de lesa humanidad! Tiene que pensar como ser humano.

9. JORGE: Qu me quiere decir, Alexito? Ahora soy yo el culpable?

CONT'D OVER

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10. ALEJANDRO: Mire, chapetn, yo solo te pido que razones, pienses, medites, en
un hecho histrico trascendente. Eso debi ser un matrimonio de
culturas, pero no tuvieron esa visin que los hubiera hecho
grandes. Perdieron su oportunidad.

11. JORGE: Alejando, entiendo su posicin, y pues... admiro su integridad


moral. A pesar de lo que me ha dicho, no podemos negar que los
europeos s trajeron su cultura, ciencia y letras.

12. ALEJANDRO: Pero esa cultura, ciencia y letras las trajeron para su propio
servicio. Nosotros, los seores de nuestra tierra americana, ya
tenamos nuestra propia cultura, ciencias y letras. Jorgito, despierta.

ENGLISH

1. JORGE: Hey, brother, you have made me think about what you said
concerning the classic influences on literature.

2. ALEJANDRO: You know what? I'll tell you what - if our world is the result of
evolution, what occurs in culture in general also occurs in literature
in particular.

3. JORGE: Look at you, Mr. philosopher! And what's the relationship between
Indigenism and Darwin!?

4. ALEJANDRO: Hehehe... You joke, but I suggest you think about the following - the
Greeks influenced all of Europe; the Europeans, the rest of the
known world and afterwards, America.

5. JORGE: That is, you are referring to the discovery of America by the
Europeans...?

CONT'D OVER

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6. ALEJANDRO: Discovery? Maybe that is how it was for the Europeans. Perhaps
you meant to say the meeting of cultures, did you? You have got to
recognize, man, that we Americans were already peoples with very
developed cultures... Some compare them to the Chinese culture...

7. JORGE: Wait, wait, wait... are you talking about the conquest or what?

8. ALEJANDRO: How could you!? That was not a conquest, perhaps the European
barbarians thought that it was a conquest. However, it was an
outrage, an invasion, treachery, man! - a crime against humanity!
You have got to think like a human being.

9. JORGE: What are you trying to tell me, Alex? Am I the one who's guilty now?

10. ALEJANDRO: Look, Mr. Iberia, I only ask that you reason, that you think, that you
mediate, that you use reason to understand transcendent historical
fact. That should have been a marriage of cultures, but they did not
have the vision that would have made them great. They missed
their opportunity.

11. JORGE: Alejandro, I understand your position, and well... I admire your
moral integrity. Despite what you have told me, we cannot deny that
the Europeans did indeed bring over their culture, science and
letters.

12. ALEJANDRO: But they brought that culture, science and letters for their own sake.
We, the masters of our American land, already had our own culture,
science and letter. Jorgito, wake up.

SPANISH

CONT'D OVER

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1. JORGE: Oye, hermano, me has hecho pensar con lo que dijiste sobre las
influencias clsicas en la literatura.

2. ALEJANDRO: Sabes qu?, te digo - si nuestro mundo es el resultado de la


evolucin, lo mismo que ocurre en la cultura en general, ocurre en
la literatura en particular.

3. JORGE: Vaya filsofo! Y qu relacin tiene el indigenismo con Darwin!?

4. ALEJANDRO: Jejeje.... Bromeas, pero te aconsejo que te pongas a pensar en lo


siguiente - los griegos influyeron en toda Europa; los europeos, en
el resto de su mundo conocido y despus, en Amrica.

5. JORGE: O sea que te ests refiriendo al hecho del descubrimiento de


Amrica por los europeos...?

6. ALEJANDRO: Descubrimiento...? De repente, as fue para los europeos. Tal vez


quisiste decir el encuentro de las culturas, no?. Date cuenta,
hermano, de que los americanos ya ramos pueblos con culturas
muy desarolladas... Algunos las comparan con la cultura china...

7. JORGE: A ver, a ver, a ver... ests hablando de la conquista o de qu?

8. ALEJANDRO: Cmo se te ocurre!? Eso no fue una conquista, quizs los


brbaros europeos pensaron que era una conquista. Sin embargo,
eso fue un atropello, una invasin, una felona, hombre! - un
crimen de lesa humanidad! Tienes que pensar como ser humano.

9. JORGE: Qu me quieres decir, Alexito? Ahora soy yo el culpable?

CONT'D OVER

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10. ALEJANDRO: Mira, chapetn, yo solo te pido que razones, pienses, medites, en
un hecho histrico trascendente. Eso debi ser un matrimonio de
culturas, pero no tuvieron esa visin que los hubiera hecho
grandes. Perdieron su oportunidad.

11. JORGE: Alejandro, entiendo tu posicin, y bueno... admiro tu integridad


moral. A pesar de lo que me has dicho, no podemos negar que los
europeos s trajeron cultura, ciencia y letras.

12. ALEJANDRO: Pero esa cultura, ciencia y letras las trajeron para su propio
servicio. Nosotros, los seores de nuestra tierra americana, ya
tenamos nuestra propia cultura, ciencias y letras. Jorgito, despierta.

ENGLISH

1. JORGE: Hey, bro', you've made me think about what you said concerning
the classic influences on literature.

2. ALEJANDRO: Ya' know what? I'll tell you what - if our world is the result of
evolution, what occurs in culture in general also occurs in literature
in particular.

3. JORGE: Look at you, Mr. philosopher! And what's the relationship between
Indigenism and Darwin!?

4. ALEJANDRO: Hehehe... You joke, but I suggest you think about the following - the
Greeks influenced all of Europe; the Europeans, the rest of the
known world and afterwards, America.

5. JORGE: That is, you're referring to the discovery of America by the


Europeans...?

CONT'D OVER

S PANI S HPOD101.COM UPPER I NT ERMEDI AT E S 1 #8 - DES CUBRI MI ENT O O I NVAS I N? 6


6. ALEJANDRO: Discovery? Maybe that's how it was for the Europeans. Perhaps you
meant to say the meeting of cultures, did you? You've got to
recognize, man, that we Americans were already peoples with very
developed cultures... Some compare them to the Chinese culture...

7. JORGE: Wait, wait, wait... are you talking about the conquest or what?

8. ALEJANDRO: How could you!? That was not a conquest, perhaps the European
barbarians thought that it was a conquest. However, it was an
outrage, an invasion, treachery, man! - a crime against humanity!
You've got to think like a human being.

9. JORGE: What are you trying to tell me, Alex? Am I the one who's guilty now?

10. ALEJANDRO: Look, Mr. Iberia, I only ask that you reason, that you think, that you
mediate, that you use reason to understand transcendent historical
fact. That should have been a marriage of cultures, but they didn't
have the vision that would've made them great. They missed their
opportunity.

11. JORGE: Alejandro, I understand your position, and well... I admire your
moral integrity. Despite what you've told me, we can't deny that the
Europeans did indeed bring over their culture, science and letters.

12. ALEJANDRO: But they brought that culture, science and letters for their own sake.
We, the masters of our American land, already had our own culture,
science and letter. Jorgito, wake up.

VOCABULARY

S panish English C lass

aconsejar to advise verb

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descubrimiento discovery masc. noun

conquista conquest fem. noun

brbaro, -a barbarian adjective

invasin invasion fem. noun

felona treachery fem. noun

chapetn, -a Mr. / Mrs. Iberia (pejorative) adjective

integridad integrity fem. noun

SAMPLE SENTENCES

Te aconsejo que te laves los Antes del descubrimiento de


dientes despues de cada comida. vacunas, las personas moran por
enfermedades que ahora pueden
"I advise you to brush up your teeth
ser controladas.
after each meal."
"Before the discovery of vaccination,
people died due to illness that can
now be controlled."

Ests hablando de la conquista o Qu brbaro que pudiste venir!


de qu?
"It's great that you were able to
"Are you talking about the conquest come!"
or what?"

La etimologa de la palabra La invasin rabe de Espaa


'brbaro' procede del griego. ocurri en el siglo once.

"The etymology of the word "The Arab invasion to the Spaniards


'barbarian' derives from Greek." occurred in the eleventh century."

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Felona es cualquier crimen que es Mira, chapetn, yo solo te pido que
castigado con ms de un ao de razones.
crcel o con la muerte.
"Look, Mr. Iberia, I only ask that you
"A felony is any crime that is reason."
punished with more than a year in
prison or with the death penalty."

En una sociedad donde crece la desconfianza, la integridad es un desafo


impresionante en los negocios.

"In a society where distrust grows, integrity is a challenge in business."

GRAMMAR

Today we look at the sequence of tenses when going from the Indicative to the Subjunctive
Mood:

Formation
Independent Clause + que + Dependent Clause

(Subject 1 + verb of emotion [indicative] + que + Subject 2 + verb [subjunctive]

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE:
{yo/I + estoy contento/ am content + que/that + ustedes/you all + estudien/study}

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE:
{ella/she + me aconsej/advised me + que/that + yo comprara el carro/I buy the car}

Note how the Indicative always comes before the Subjunctive. In the following two phrases
we contrast the Subjunctive Mood in the Present and Imperfect Tenses for you to distinguish
the two and see the sequence of tenses:

PRESENT:
"Quiero que me llames." (I want you to call me.)
Indicative + que + Subjunctive

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IMPERFECT (Past Tense):
"Quise que me llamaras." (I wanted you to call me.)
Indicative + que + Subjunctive

For a complete explanation that includes how to form the Subjunctive in various Tenses as
well as other information on the topic, visit the Grammar Bank in the Learning Center.

CULTURAL INSIGHT

Un argumento comn entre los indigenistas es que las Amricas no fueron descubiertos por
los espaoles sin que fueron conquistados. Desde el punto de vista indigenista, las mericas
ya contaban con una sociedad desarollada cuando llegaron los colonizadores europeos. La
conversacin de hoy nos muestra este punto de vista. Si pensamos en el encuentro de los
espaoles y los nativos americanos como descubrimiento, negamos la presencia de las
culturas autctonas de las Amricas.

Adems, en la conversacin de hoy ambos personajes usan ciertas exageraciones para


mostrar la seriedad con la que apoyan sus posiciones. Este tcnico nos ayuda a atraer la
atencin de la persona con quien hablamos y mostrar la gravedad de lo que se est
diciendo.

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