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Verbal Reasoning Section Test 4

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Verbal Reasoning
Time: 85 Minutes
Questions 1-60



DIRECTIONS: There are nine passages in this Verbal

Reasoning test. Each passage is followed by several questions.
After reading a passage, select the one best answer to each
question. If you are not certain of an answer, eliminate the
alternatives that you know to be incorrect and then select an
answer from the remaining alternatives.

Passage I (Questions 1-7)

The recent centennial of the founding of the American 45 Adams, possessed no formal historical training. And it is
Historical Association has given historians a properly heartening to read of a time when, despite its academic
historical reason for considering the present state of their institutional setting, cultural alienation was not asserted as a
discipline. The professions introspectionist analysis may be sign of intellectual sophistication and certification.
5 said to have begun a few years ago with the publication of Although by no means uncritical, the authors of the
The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing in 50 essays in Twentieth-Century American Historians have
the United States, an upbeat and self-congratulatory volume
approached their subject with an attitude of respectful
intended by the sponsoring AHA as a demonstration of admiration for the accomplishments of their intellectual
state of the art historiography. Introducing this volume, mentors. It is unusual, moreover, to find in contemporary
10 editor Michael Kammen stated that after a changing of the
scholarship the open-mindedness to conservative points of
guard in the 1970s, the professional historical community is 55 view, and immunity to orthodox liberal assumptions, that
mainly concerned with questions of social history, inform this volume.
intergenerational conflict, and human responses to structures
of power.
15 Having repudiated the basic commitments to
nationalism and the ideal of scholarly detachment that had
always sustained historical writing in the United States,
professional historians found themselvesnot surprisingly,
one might addcut off from their cultural environment.
20 That this situation is markedly different from the formative
period of historical scholarship can be seen in centennial
numbers of the American Historical Review, the most recent
expression of the professions reflective tendency, which
have explored the nature of historical thinking at the time of
25 the associations founding a century ago.
What has been all but ignored in these official efforts at
intellectual stocktaking is the enduring body of historical
writing produced by American scholars between the end of
the founding period in the early twentieth century and the
30 onset of the excitement of the 1970s. Perhaps it is the
thoroughness with which scholars have for two decades
described the shift from progressive consensus to New Left
history that accounts for this neglect. Whatever its reason,
however, the oversight is fortunately rectified by the
35 appearance of an unofficial volume on American
historiography, Twentieth-Century American Historians
which describes an approach to history that reminds us that
until very recently history faithfully maintained its literary
orientation and narrative character. It is a bit astonishing to
40 learn that historians like Douglas Southall Freeman were
nationally known figures whose books sold in the hundreds
of thousands. It is instructive to recall that several of the
most widely read and influential writers of history, such as
Allan Nevins, Claude G. Bowers, and James Truslow


1. If the claims made in the passage are correct, how 4. Suppose that the American Historical Association has
would contemporary historians of the American decided to sponsor a volume of essays about the
Historical Association be expected to respond to a American governments decision to enter World War
work that provides a nationalistic interpretation of II. How would this information affect the passages
American history? claim about the current orientation of that
A. They would probably embrace it because it organization?
reflects the New Left approach to American A. It would tend to undermine the passages claim.
history. B. It would tend to support the passages claim.
B. They would probably embrace it because it C. It would tend to undermine the passages claim
appeals to their sense of national pride. only if it could be shown that the essays
C. They would probably denounce it because it concentrate mainly on social questions.
conflicts with their philosophical orientation. D. It would tend to support the passages claim only
D. They would probably denounce it because it if it could be shown that the essays focus
violates the principle of scholarly objectivity. primarily on military matters.

2. If the author of the passage was interested in further 5. In the context of the passage, the phrase intellectual
justifying the position made within the context of this stocktaking (line 27) refers to:
passage, he would most likely find merit with which of
A. attempts to attack the orientation of the American
the following books?
Historical Association.
A. A book about popular resistance to government B. assessments of the New Lefts influence on the
policies written from an orthodox liberal writing of American history.
perspective C. efforts to assess the intellectual development of
B. A book about the origins of the Civil War written American historiography.
for an intelligent middle-class audience D. changes in the ability of middle-class individuals
C. A book about parent-child conflict in the to follow historical debates.
American family during the First World War
written for professional historians
D. A book about the development of American 6. In pointing out the distinctions of later American
nationalism written for New Left scholars historians, the author notes earlier twentieth-century
American historians. Implicit in the authors
discussion of these historians is the assumption that:
3. Based on information in the passage, which of the
A. these historians ignored the concept of scholarly
following statements in NOT true?
A. Contemporary historians have largely overlooked B. contemporary historians almost never write from a
the scholarly contributions of historians who liberal perspective.
published in the early decades of this century. C. New Left thinking has enriched the presentation
B. Contemporary historians are generally less of American history.
interested in economic history than social history. D. historical scholarship should be accessible to the
C. Contemporary historians are generally not intelligent layman.
receptive to conservative interpretations of
D. Contemporary historians have usually closely 7. Which of the following assertions would most
analyzed the works of earlier historians such as strengthen the authors claim that many contemporary
Allan Nevins, Claude G. Bowers, and James historians are cut off from their cultural environment
Truslow Adams. (line 19)?
A. They are very familiar with the writings of earlier
historians like James Truslow Adams.
B. The only people who read their books are other
professional historians.
C. They are criticized by the authors of essays in
Twentieth-Century American Historians.
D. Their intellectual sophistication has made them
receptive to the conservative perspective.


Passage II (Questions 8-15)
One of the most important tasks of ethical analysis is to Taylor does deserve praise because he avoids many of
deliver us from our unrecognized prejudices about right and the errors of earlier theorists of environmental ethics. For
wrong. For ethicist Paul Taylor perhaps no prejudice is so example, Taylor explicitly rejects Leopolds highly
deeply ingrained as speciesism, the view that members of questionable belief that inanimate objects can be moral
5 the human species deserve treatment superior to that 60 subjects; he also disavows an organicist or Gaia view of
accorded members of other species. environmental ethics, as pursued by Leopold, Goodpaster,
In place of speciesism, Taylor proposes a new theory of Lovelock, and others, and shows why organicism errs in
giving no place to the good of individual organisms.
environmental ethics based on the biocentric outlook.
This outlook asserts that humans are equal members of the
10 earths community of life and that they and members of
other species are interdependent. It further sees all
organisms as teleological centers of life in the sense that 8. The author points out that Taylor argues that humans
each is a unique individual pursuing its own best interests are equal members of the earths community of life
by its own means and that humans are not inherently and that they and members of other species are
15 superior to other living things. interdependent. Based on information in the passage,
Taylor claims that the theory provides the foundation which one of the following situations would NOT
and justification for respect for nature, the only moral violate one of Taylors four rules?
attitude suitable to have towards earths creatures. Respect A. Going into a rain forest to collect rare plant
for nature requires both recognizing that wild plants and specimens for medical purposes
20 animals have inherent worth, and following the moral norm B. Getting rid of termites to improve the sales value
that living things ought not to be harmed or interfered with
of a residential property
in nature. Taylor claims that human behavior toward
C. Keeping nearly extinct wild birds in captivity to
nonhumans ought to be guided by the rules of
ensure their survival as a species
nonmaleficence and noninterference, as well the rule of
25 fidelity and the rule of restitutive justice. These rules D. Picking berries off plants during a hike in a
prohibit, respectively: harming any entity in the natural mountain wilderness
environment; restricting the freedom of natural entities or
ecosystems so that they cannot exist in a wild state;
mistreating any wild animal, as often occurs during hunting 9. Which of the following statements reflects one of the
30 or fishing; and failing to make amends when one wrongs a authors criticisms of Taylors theory?
wild plant or animal in any way. A. The theory denies the claim that humans have
One problem is with Taylors scheme that both accords moral responsibilities to inanimate objects.
inherent worth to all plants, animals, and humans, and B. The theory fails to take into account the
then requires compensation for every intrusion, use, or superiority of humans to other species.
35 control (done even for a good reason) affecting any living C. The theory is overly concerned with the welfare of
entity. If everyone has duties of compensation to virtually individual organisms.
every other living entity, as indeed we must under Taylors D. The theory is not comprehensive enough to deal
scheme, then applying Taylors ethics is complex, with many ethical issues.
cumbersome, and unworkable. There is also the problem
40 with the applicability of Taylors concepts and duties.
He claims repeatedly that all wild living things in the
Earths natural ecosystems possess inherent worth. Yet he
admits that there are very few wild things in genuinely
natural ecosystemsecosystems wholly free from any
45 human intrusion. This raises at least two problems. First,
why does Taylor claim that we have duties only to wild
living things in natural ecosystems? If we have only these
duties, and if most living things are not wild and not in
natural ecosystems, then Taylor may fail to deal with the
50 bulk of problems arising in environmental ethics. Also, if
natural ecosystems are those that have experienced no
human intrusion or control, then Taylor seems to say that
humans are not part of the natural world. This contradicts
Taylors claim that humans are members of earths
55 community in the same sense as plants and animals.


10. According to the passage, which of the following 14. Suppose that a family feared for the safety of their cat.
behaviors is most likely to be exhibited by people who To protect it, they prevented the cat from leaving the
practice speciesism? house because the cat would be unable to defend itself
A. They take their family to see the wild tigers and against neighborhood dogs. Would the family be
elephants in the zoo. violating one of Taylors four rules?
B. Their diet consists mainly of fruits and vegetables A. No, because the cat is not a wild animal living in a
rather than meat and fish. natural environment.
C. They plant a new tree for every one that they cut B. No, because the family is trying to protect the cat
down for their own use. from harm.
D. They almost always live in rural areas where C. Yes, because the family is preventing the cat from
farming is necessary for survival. living in its natural environment.
D. Yes, because the cat has an inherent right to exist
as a wild animal.
11. Suppose that one is hiking in the Sierra Nevadas
outside of Yosemite and is suddenly attacked by a
mountain lion. One could save oneself from the attack, 15. According to the author, all of the following are
but only by seriously injuring or killing the mountain problems with Taylors theory EXCEPT:
lion. According to Taylors ethical scheme, what
A. living ethically would be virtually impossible due
should one do?
to the inevitable danger humans impose on plants
A. One should kill the mountain lion in order to save and animals.
oneself. B. environmental ethics would not apply to the vast
B. One should not kill the mountain lion and thereby majority of living things.
sacrifice oneself. C. the Gaia view overlooks the importance of
C. One should attempt to seriously injure but not kill organisms as individuals.
the mountain lion in order to save oneself. D. humans cannot be members of the natural world.
D. Taylors scheme does not give a clear answer
about what to do in this case.

12. In the context of the passage, the phrase biocentric

outlook (line 8) refers primarily to:
A. viewing humans as subordinate to plants and
animals in a natural state.
B. the notion that inanimate objects have the same
rights as living organisms.
C. viewing life with a focus on an interdependent
natural world.
D. the idea that humans are not part of any natural

13. If Taylor were in a position of influence with regards

to the government, he would probably give his
greatest support to which of the following actions?
A. Restricting the use of domesticated laboratory
animals in medical experiments
B. Preventing commercial farmers from harvesting
crops that they planted
C. Outlawing the practice of strip mining in
wilderness areas
D. Stopping pet owners from putting their sick cats
and dogs to sleep


Passage III (Questions 16-21)
Every four years voters across the United States elect a
president. Various factors such as choices in campaign
locations, the candidates adherence to polling data and use 16. For which of the following claims does the passage
of the Internet by candidates to reach potential voters all provide some supporting evidence or explanation?
5 influence the preference of those voters, but perhaps none of
these is so persuasive as a candidates performance on A. News organizations tend not to cooperate with
nationally televised debates just prior to the election. each other unless they are forced to do so.
Newspapers and television news programs generally attempt B. Most presidential candidates fare poorly in
to provide thorough coverage of the debates, further televised debates because they are not good public
10 augmenting the effect of good or bad candidate speakers.
performances. C. Current news coverage of presidential debates
limits the information available to the public.
In this way, the news media fulfill the traditional role of
D. Foreign news organizations have generally been
educating the public and enabling voters to make better
informed decisions about elected officials. However, the uninterested in American presidential debates.
15 same technology which brings live debates into millions of
living rooms across the nation also limits the availability of
debate coverage by use of pool coverage, the sharing of 17. In spite of what her challengers might argue, the
news coverage with other news organizations. The author of this passage would probably give her
alternative is unilateral coverage, in which each news greatest support to which of the following actions?
20 organization covers the event independently. Most events A. A decision to allow more news services to cover
subject to pool coverage are so planned by the sponsors presidential debates
because of space limitations or safety concerns for B. A decision to allow fewer news services to cover
prominent people attending or participating in the events. presidential debates
Since the television media require more people and
C. A decision to ban presidential debates until more
25 equipment than their print counterparts, television usually is
news services are allowed to cover them
affected more frequently.
D. A decision to ban presidential debates until fewer
The pool system, when employed to cover debates news services are allowed to cover them
between presidential nominees of the major political parties,
violates the first amendment. The Constitutions mandate
30 for a free press allows restrictions on press coverage only
when there is a compelling governmental interest at stake.
Presidential debates involve no interest sufficient to justify
the admission of one news organization to the exclusion of
all others.
35 Pool coverage of a presidential debate means that
individual broadcasters are unable to cover the event in their
own way and, consequently, to convey a unique account to
their viewers; they must purchase and use coverage
provided by the pool representative or have no coverage at
40 all. The networks participate reluctantly. Pool coverage
denies an opportunity to gain maximum insight from the
debate. Indeed, the first amendment freedoms afforded the
press exist largely to ensure that the public benefits from the
free flow of information. The Supreme Court has noted that
45 it is the right of viewers and listeners, not the right of the
broadcasters, which is paramount.
To overcome the problem of restricted access,
television news media could be divided into four categories:
domestic networks, foreign news services, domestic news
50 services, and independent broadcasters. Some broadcasters
would be denied access, but the critical point is that in the
end, the viewers will benefit, for they will have seen
different debate coverage and, ultimately, will be better


18. Assume for a moment that the claims made in the 21. Based on information and argumentation given by the
passage are completely correct. In light of this, what author in the passage, which of the following
prediction could be made regarding how presidential statements is NOT true?
candidates would to react to the pool system?
A. Domestic news services are allowed greater
A. They would support the pool system but ask for
access to presidential debates than foreign news
modifications to it.
B. They would strongly endorse the pool system as it
B. Concern for the safety of presidential candidates is
now stands.
one reason why media access to presidential
C. They would strongly reject the pool system as it
debates has been limited.
now stands.
C. An important influence on voter behavior in
D. They wouldnt necessarily endorse or reject the
presidential elections is candidate performance in
pool system.
presidential debates.
D. The contemporary pool system provides adequate
news coverage of presidential debates.
19. In discussing the reluctance of networks to participate
in pool coverage, the phrase maximum insight (line
41), in the context of the passage, refers to:
A. the thoroughness with which presidential
candidates present their opinions during debates.
B. the relative quality of debate coverage provided
by domestic and foreign news organizations.
C. the level of political awareness viewers could
have if the pool system was modified to permit
more varied debate coverage.
D. the extent to which voters take into account what
they have heard during debates when choosing
candidates in elections.

20. According to the passage, which of the following

would be the most likely outcome of a Supreme Court
decision that abolished the pool system in favor of
greater media access to presidential debates?
A. Independent broadcasters would have fewer
opportunities to cover presidential debates.
B. Voters would be better informed about the
policies advocated by presidential candidates.
C. Television news would replace newspapers as the
primary source of information for voters.
D. Presidential candidates would be less enthusiastic
about debating their electoral opponents.


Passage IV (Questions 22-28)
Tribal immunity is the doctrine of sovereign immunity The proprietary acts of Native American tribes have not
applied on behalf of Native American tribes. Under the 55 been distinguished from the governmental functions of
Indian Commerce Clause, Congress has plenary authority tribes, although this distinction has been made in cases
over the tribes. Courts have held that these tribes cannot be concerning other sovereigns. In fact, some courts have
5 sued without the consent of Congress. The doctrine of tribal specifically upheld that the fact that a tribe was engaged in
immunity, however, is a judicially created doctrine that the an enterprise private or commercial in character, rather than
federal courts have independently fashioned. 60 governmental, is not material. Thus courts continue to find
a broader immunity for Native American tribes than is still
At least one Supreme Court Justice has noted the
necessity of a more principled analysis of the doctrine of recognized for any other sovereign.
10 tribal immunity, expressing doubts about the continuing
vitality in this day of the doctrine of tribal immunity as it
was enunciated in the case of the United States v. United
States Fidelity and Guaranty Co. and the view that that
doctrine may well merit re-examination in an appropriate 22. Law is not static in the United States judicial system.
15 case. New evidence in this argument based on legal
The doctrine first emerged in the case of the United precedent could surface in the courts at any time.
States v. United States Fidelity and Guaranty Co., where the Which of the following legal decisions would most
Supreme Court held Indian nations exempt from suit weaken the authors claim about the immunity granted
without congressional authorization. The Supreme Court to Native American tribes?
20 suggested two grounds for the doctrine. First, Native A. A decision to permit a Native American tribe to
American tribes enjoy immunity as a result of being sue a foreign corporation
recognized as sovereigns. B. A decision to prevent a Native American tribe
Within the last decade, the court has reaffirmed this from suing the federal government
position, holding that these tribes retain all sovereign C. A decision to permit a business corporation to sue
25 powers except those expressly terminated by Congress a Native American tribe
and inconsistent with their status. These powers are not, D. A decision to prevent the federal government from
in general, delegated powers granted by express acts of suing a Native American tribe
Congress, but rather inherent powers of a limited
sovereignty which has never been extinguished. A second
30 basis for tribal immunity stems from the desire to protect 23. Based on information in the passage, which of the
tribal resources. following statements is NOT true?
While the Supreme Court did not explicitly pronounce A. It is more difficult to sue a Native American tribe
the protection of tribal resources as a ground for its decision, than a business corporation.
it cited cases in support of its ruling that were primarily B. It is more difficult to sue the federal government
35 concerned with such protection. Unlike the immunities
than a Native American tribe.
enjoyed by states, the federal government and foreign
C. It is less difficult to sue a foreign government than
countries, no limitations have been placed on the scope of
a Native American tribe.
tribal immunity. Courts continue to apply the doctrine
uncritically in a wide variety of cases, sometimes D. It is less difficult to sue a state government than a
40 acknowledging that, had the defendant been a state or Native American tribe.
municipal government, the federal government or a foreign
nation, it would have been amenable to suit in either state or
federal courts.
For instance, courts consistently hold that a Native
45 American tribes immunity can be waived only by its
express consent or the consent of Congress. In contrast to
other governments, implied waivers are generally not
recognized even in cases where commercial activity by a
tribe on or off its reservation has taken place. Similarly, the
50 purchase of insurance by a tribe does not serve to waive
immunity. Tribal immunity is, therefore, broader in this
respect than is the immunity possessed by states, the federal
government, and foreign countries.


24. Based on information in the passage, each of the 28. Suppose that the judicial system allowed a state
following statements is a plausible explanation of why government to sue a Native American tribe for breach
the judicial system has not changed the rules of contract involving an agreement to allow the state to
governing tribal immunity EXCEPT: develop land belonging to the tribe. How would this
A. Native American tribes are sovereign entities that information affect the claim about tribal immunity
cannot be sued without their consent. made in the passage?
B. the resources possessed by Native American tribes A. It would support the claim.
should remain under tribal control. B. It would contradict the claim.
C. Native American tribes have generally been C. It would neither support nor contradict the claim.
unable to purchase insurance. D. It would support the claim only if the President
D. the sovereign powers of Native American tribes objected to the lawsuit.
differ from those of other governments.

25. Assume that one of the following actions is taken by

the judicial system. The author of this passage would
probably give his greatest support to which of these
A. Efforts to circumscribe Native American
immunity to lawsuits
B. Efforts to limit the Supreme Courts legal
authority over Native Americans
C. Efforts to stop non-Native Americans from taking
Native American resources
D. Efforts to reduce congressional authority over
Native American tribes

26. In the context of the passage, the phrase proprietary

acts (line 54) refers to:
A. actions of a non-governmental nature.
B. actions initiated by the Supreme Court.
C. actions initiated by Congress.
D. actions of Native American individuals.

27. For which of the following claims does the passage

provide some supporting evidence or explanation?
A. The Indian Commerce Clause has been rendered
obsolete by more recent legislation concerning
Native American rights.
B. Corporations have pressed Congress to re-
examine the question of Native American tribal
C. Native American tribes are prepared to waive their
right of tribal immunity under certain
D. The legitimacy of the current interpretation of
tribal immunity has been questioned within the
judicial system.


Passage V (Questions 29-34)
The palette of sights and sounds that reach the 29. According to the passage and with regards to words
conscious mind are not neutral perceptions that people then like bargulum, juvalamu, and chakaka, preconscious
evaluate: they come with a value already tacked onto them processing (line 14-15) would most influence which
by the brains processing mechanisms. Tests show that these of the following?
5 evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied
even to things people have never encountered before, like A. Subconscious memories concerning traumatic
nonsense words: juvalamu is intensely pleasing and childhood events
bargulum moderately so, but chakaka is loathed by B. Perception of a stranger on first sighting
English-speakers. These conclusion come from C. Formulation of arguments after intense research
10 psychologists who have developed a test for measuring the D. Thought processes involved in creating an
likes and dislikes created in the moment of perceiving a intricate novel
word, sound or picture. The findings, if confirmed, have
possibly unsettling implications for peoples ability to think
and behave objectively. This is all part of preconscious 30. Which of the following, if true, would serve to most
15 processing, the minds perception and organization of strengthen the argument of an opponent to the author?
information that goes on before it reaches awarenessthese
A. Many of our actions are influenced by perceptions
judgments are lightning fast in the first moment of contact
between the world and the mind. unknown to our consciousness.
B. In Swahili, juvalamu and chakaka mean
Some scientists disagree with the claim that virtually enjoyable and severe pain, respectively.
20 every perception carries with it an automatic judgment, C. Peoples actions are most regulated by conscious
though they, too, find that such evaluations are made in thought patterns rather than unknown feelings.
many circumstances. These scientists believe that people D. Humans perceive their surroundings subjectively.
dont have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, for
areas of interest.
25 In responding to a stimulus, a signal most likely travels 31. According to the author, information retrieved from
first to the verbal cortex, then to the amygdala, where the these types of perception experiments could best be
effect is added, and then back. The circuitry involved can do used by psychologists to:
all this in a matter of a hundred milliseconds or so, long
before there is conscious awareness of the word. This A. help patients with language barriers.
30 creates an initial predisposition that gets things off on a B. map out the pathological thought patterns in a
positive or negative footing. These reactions have the power murderers mind.
to largely determine the course of a social interaction by C. identify attitudes that cause a Hispanic and an
defining the psychological reality of the situation from the Anglo to repeatedly clash on various issues.
start. D. determine why one sibling has math skills while
the other excels in literature classes.
35 The quick-and-dirty judgment tends to be more
predictive of how people actually behave than is their
conscious reflection on the topic. This may represent a new,
more subtle tool for research on peoples attitudes, allowing
scientists to assess what people feel without their having
40 any idea of what exactly is being tested. You could detect
socially sensitive attitudes people are reluctant to admit, like
ethnic biases because these automatic judgments occur
outside a persons awareness, as part of an initial perception.
They are trusted in the same way senses are trusted, not
45 realizing that seemingly neutral first perceptions are already
Conclusions from both camps are based on a method
that allows them to detect subtle evaluations made within
the first 250 millisecondsa quarter of a secondof
50 perception of words. The measurement of liking can be
made outside the persons awareness because if the first
word is presented in less than a quarter of a second the
reaction to it never registers in consciousness, though it can
still be read.


32. Scientists that disagree with the idea that humans place
a value on all perceptions would most likely agree
with which of the following statements?
A. Most perceptions receive a value due to a
familiarity with the stimulus.
B. The mind cannot possibly interpret information in
an interval as short as a quarter of a second.
C. Preconscious processing would have no effect on
behavior patterns.
D. The senses are not used when placing a value on
stimuli presented during an experiment.

33. Based on information in the passage, in the author's

view, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Information regarding external stimuli is
processed so quickly that it does not become part
of our conscious awareness.
B. Automatic judgments occur on stimuli with which
there is great familiarity.
C. Nonsense words have little or no effect on a
persons mood.
D. Ethnic biases may be influenced by attitudes of
which we are unaware.

34. If given the chance to expand on his arguments put

forth in the passage, the author of this passage would
most likely propose:
A. to use this type of experimentation to map the
pathway through which brain signals travel.
B. that the evidence presented in the passage is
inconclusive and directs psychologists in no
specific direction.
C. that automatic judgments have little or no effect
on important behavior patterns.
D. to continue with further experimentation, so that
in the future a more reliable type of testing can be
used to identify the roots of problems found in
human relationships.


Passage VI (Questions 35-39)
As opera becomes more popular in America the scarcity the singers, it makes their position almost untenable, even
of theaters and the unconscionably costly logistics of the when led by an experienced opera conductor.
lyric stage make it difficult to meet the demand. Many a
good-sized and well-to-do community would be able to
5 operate and maintain a modest but live opera theater, but are
unwilling to do so because it would unfavorably compare
35. Which of the following statements seems most in
with the splendors of New Yorks Metropolitan Opera.
agreement with the attitude of most good-sized and
It is not realized that the rich operatic culture of Italy well-to-do communities regarding opera?
and Germany is mainly due to their many small municipal
10 theaters which alternate repertory theater with opera. These A. Certain pleasures can only be appreciated by the
circumstances have led to concert or semi-staged educated.
performances which, formerly an exception, now occupy B. Much can be achieved even if inherent limitations
entire companies expressly formed for this purpose. exist.
However, stage music, real operatic music, often fails to C. There is no sense in trying if you cant be among
15 exert its full power in the frozen formality of the concert the best.
platform. In a true opera the particular charm and power of D. The opinions of your neighbors are more
the music does not come through without staging and important than those of strangers.
acting, for gesture is an expression of feeling, and the decor
and costumes summarize the external aspects, providing a
20 vision of the whole action. Both are to a considerable degree
determined by the music, but they also complement it.
An opera is a play in music. If it is presented in concert
version, then it should not offer a half-hearted gesture
towards the theater. Indeed, the partly staged
25 performances are even more unsatisfactory than the concert
variety. The tenor is all excited, but you do not know why;
the soprano is obviously dying, but she remains on her feet.
Nor does the stationary chorus, its members turning the
pages of their scores without looking at the person they sing
30 about, contribute to the illusion.
Different aesthetic laws of governance apply to concert
music and theatrical music, for they are incongruous worlds
calling for an entirely different sort of imagination from
both performers and audience. Opera is theater, the most
35 involved, elaborate, and exciting form of theater. The
Italian term opera is far more inclusive than its English
interpretation, for it embraces not only the musical score but
the whole theater, the work.
Without the stage, paucity of musical ideas immediately
40 becomes evident, often painfully so. Take for instance
Richard Strauss, some of whose late operas are being
performed in concerts. Strauss was a composer who knew
every facet of the lyric stage as few have known it, yet what
can be quite pleasant on the stage, even if it is not
45 particularly inventive, appears bare and contrived when
removed from its natural habitat.
Some may say that the end justifies the means. I can see
merit in the concert performance of an opera which
otherwise could not hope to be heard, or of one deficient in
50 true theatrical qualities yet of genuine musical value. But
neither Strauss, nor Bellini, nor Donizetti qualifies for such
a role. Even if we forget the vital function of staging, it is
practically impossible, for purely musical reasons, to present
such a work on the concert platform. The large orchestra
55 belongs in the pit; when placed on the stage, together with


36. Based on the information in the passage, with which of 40. In the passage, the author uses the phrase the end
the following statements would the author most likely justifies the means. In context of the passage, what is
NOT agree? doing the justifying is:
A. Staging and acting are an integral part of the A. the exposure of the public to operatic music.
operatic work. B. the resolution to discourage the concert
B. Some acting in a concert is better than no acting at performance of operatic works.
all. C. the placement of the large orchestra on the stage
C. An opera is a much more involved production next to the singers.
than is a concert. D. the performance of an opera on a concert platform
D. Understanding the characters is essential to an without staging or acting.
appreciation of operatic music.

37. The author discusses opera in a very particular way

in the fourth paragraph of the passage. Implicit in the
authors discussion of the term is the idea that:
A. Italian words typically have broader meanings
than English words.
B. the term opera in English refers to only some
part of the theatrical work.
C. the same word can have different meanings in
only two different languages.
D. there is a fundamental difference between Italian
and American opera.

38. Take, as an example, an opera that contains strong

musical ideas throughout its score and suppose that it
will be performed in concert. According to the
passage, the presentation will:
A. succeed, because without staging the strong
musical ideas will become evident.
B. fail, because the orchestra will have to be on stage
with the singers.
C. succeed, because the composer knew every facet
of the lyric stage.
D. fail, because the music is secondary to the staging
and acting in an opera.

39. Bellinis works have historically been considered to

possess both true theatrical quality and genuine
musical value. What is the relevance of this
information to the passage?
A. It supports the authors claim that many great
works have no hope of being heard.
B. It supports the authors claim that Bellini does not
meet his criteria for concert performance.
C. It weakens the authors claim that Strauss and
Bellini exhibit a paucity of musical ideas.
D. It weakens the authors claim that presenting an
opera in concert can tarnish its image.


Passage VII (Questions 41-56)
Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural 41. Fathers who exhibit which of the following actions
bias of exalting motherhood at the expense of fatherhood. could count on the author of this passage to give them
Sigmund Freud considered the mother, but not the father, to his greatest support?
have a prominent role in infant development. Gadpaille
5 argues that maternalism is instinctual to females, not only in A. Buying educational toys for their children
the species but in mammals generally. He warns that anyone B. Reading bedtime stories to their children
advocating male mothering may bring harm to everyone C. Leaving their children with female babysitters
concerned. Strongly influenced by such psychological D. Working in order to pay for family expenses
theory, our culture has been taken in by the superiority of
10 mother theory.
42. Suppose that different studies each brought out one of
Benjamin Spock, in a six-hundred-page book on child
the following findings respectively. The existence of
care, devotes just three pages to the role of fathers. While he
which of the findings would most strongly challenge
admits that a man does not sacrifice his masculinity, Spock
thinks child care is something the father should do only Sigmund Freuds opinion as it is presented in the
15 occasionallyjust to help the mother out. Fathers who win passage?
custody of children in divorce proceedings are often advised A. The personality of infants is strongly influenced
that they should immediately hire full-time housekeepers to by their mothers
function as surrogate mothers. B. The personality of infants is strongly influenced
But, alas, mothers who win custody are not told to by their fathers
20 provide surrogate fathers for them. Margaret Mead, the C. The personality of infants is weakly influenced by
famous anthropologist, once remarked that fathers are a their siblings
biological necessity but a social accident. Throughout the D. The personality of infants is weakly influenced by
nineteenth and much of the twentieth century, our culture their grandparents
has been quite comfortable with this stereotypical view of
25 fathers. Less than ten percent of the scientific studies of
parents have taken the fathers role into account, in spite of 43. For which of the following claims does the passage
the fact that half of all parents are fathers. Society has not provide some supporting evidence or explanation?
yet changed in any major ways with regard to fathers as
nonparents. However, researchers have finally realized that A. Mothers are teaching their male children to
30 the motherhood role is not an inherited behavior pattern, become nurturing parents.
but a learned set of social skills. B. Fathers are rejecting the advice to hire surrogate
Female children begin learning these social skills at a C. Mothers are turning over more child-rearing
very early age; society makes no effort to see that boys learn responsibilities to fathers.
these same social skills. Theories of maternal instinct and
D. Fathers are becoming more involved in raising
35 attachment or bonding as being exclusively maternal are
their children.
now being called into question. Infants bond with both the
mother and the father. A growing body of literature now
reveals that fathers do have potential nurturance just as
mothers do. Men are increasingly demanding to be accepted
40 as nurturant parents rather than just the provider and
Young men are beginning to reject the models of
parenting provided by their fathers and are searching for
ways to become parents as well as fathers. A radical
45 restructuring of maleness and fatherhood is currently under
way. Fathering and mothering are two distinct parental
roles. When a male is nurturant, he is fathering, not
mothering. Both mothering and fathering are valid roles, but
they are by no means identical.


44. In the context of the passage, the phrase maternal
instinct (used in the fourth paragraph) refers to:
A. the argument that motherhood is based on role
B. the argument that motherhood is based on learned
C. the argument that motherhood is based on
inherited behavior.
D. the argument that motherhood is based on mother-
infant bonding.

45. Based on information provided by the author in the

passage, which of the following statements is NOT
A. The author contends that both males and females
should participate in raising children.
B. Gadpaille asserts that females do not have to learn
about raising children.
C. Benjamin Spock argues that males should not be
heavily involved in raising children.
D. Margaret Mead believed that males have a major
role to play in raising children.

46. All of the following statements about men and their

role in parenting and the family would be consistent
with the authors attitude toward young men in todays
society EXCEPT:
A. men can enjoy the role of parenting equally with
B. young men are rejecting traditional ideologies
concerning parenthood.
C. men have the capacity to learn the qualities that
allow women to be maternal.
D. young men are resistant to leaving the workplace
in order to provide care in the home.


Passage VIII (Questions 47-53)
The last ice age has left its telltales written quite clearly evidence of volcanic activity prior to the buildup of glacial
across the landscape. When Louis Agassiz first promulgated debris, others do not.
his theory that ice had once covered the Swiss countryside, Such traces are the currency of sciencedataand like
he looked to the valleys there that retain glaciers to this day. money, a richness of data both buys you some credibility
5 Like other observers, he noted the presence of strange
60 and ties you down, eliminating at least some theoretically
boulders, called erratics, tossed down in valleys like plausible explanations. For this early period, theorists have
flotsam after a flood had drained away. He saw the strange come up with a variety of ideas to explain the ancient ice
polish along the bedrocka sheen imparted as if by some
ages, all elegant and mostly immune to both proof and
massive swipe of sandpaper; he saw the debris of rocks and criticism. For example, a change in the earths orbit could
10 boulders fringing the margin of existing glaciers. He saw 65 have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the planet.
what can be seen still, markings in stone that indicated that However, the only physical signature of such an event that
ice once flowed over vast stretches of land now clear and would show in the rocks would be the marks of the glaciers
The first great glaciations must have scored the earth as
15 deeply in their turn, and, in principle, we ought to be able to
track the history of the early ice ages by following the same
reasoning Agassiz used to persuade himself and his
47. According to the passage, which of the following is
contemporaries that ice once covered the earth. But the
most likely to be true about the relationship between
marks left by these earlier glaciations are quite subtle, tracks
20 turned ghostly with great age. There are, however, telltale the amount of data one has about a phenomenon and
deposits of ancient rocks that strongly suggest that they had the number of theoretically plausible explanations?
been ground together and laid down by the spread of ice. A. The greater the amount of data, the greater the
The Australian climate historian L.A. Frakes has number of theoretically plausible explanations.
prospected through various theories proposed to account for B. The greater the amount of data, the fewer the
25 those early ice ages. He isnt terribly enthusiastic about any number of theoretically plausible explanations.
of the possible culprits, but his choice for the least unlikely C. The smaller the amount of data, the fewer the
of them all emerges out of the recent revival of what was number of theoretically plausible explanations.
once a radically unorthodox idea: that continents drift over D. There is no connection between the amount of
the face of the planet. Frakes argues that the glaciers data and the number of theoretically plausible
30 originated at sites near the poles and that the ice ages began explanations.
because the continents of the early earth had drifted to
positions that took more and more of their land nearer to the
polar regions. 48. Based on the passage, with which of the following
More land near the poles meant that more precipitation statements would the author most likely NOT
35 fell as snow and could be compacted on land to form disagree?
glaciers. With enough glaciers, the increase in the amount A. Recent geological events can be substantially
of sunlight reflected back into space off the glistening white easier to investigate than ancient ones.
sheen of the ice effectively reduced the amount by which B. Deposits of ground-up rocks always indicate that
the sun warmed the earth, creating the feedback loop by an ice age occurred.
40 which the growth of glaciers encouraged the growth of more C. Discovering the cause of the ancient ice ages will
glaciers. Rocks have been found in North America, Africa have important practical consequences.
and Australia whose ages appear to hover around the 2.3
D. Each of the early ice ages had a different
billion-year-old mark. That date and their spread are vague
proximate cause.
enough, however, to make it almost impossible to determine
45 just how much of the earth was icebound during the possible
range of time in which each of the glacial deposits was
Uncertainties about both the timing and the extent of
these glaciers also muddy the search for the cause of the
50 ancient ice ages. The record is so spotty that geologists are
not sure whether areas near the equator or nearer the poles
were the coolest places on earth. Its also possible that
volcanic eruptions had tossed enough dust into the
atmosphere to screen out sunlight and cool the earth. While
55 some of the glacial records in the rocks do indeed contain


49. There is an implicit assumption in the statement that 53. In order to evaluate Frakes theory about the origin of
geologists dont know whether the coolest places on the glaciers and the ice ages, it would be most helpful
earth were near the poles or near the equator. The to know from him:
assumption is that: A. why the idea of continental drift had fallen into
A. both polar and equatorial glacial deposits have disfavor in the past.
been found. B. how much snow is required to form a glacier.
B. certain geological information can be considered C. what could have broken the glacier growth
lost forever. feedback loop.
C. it is more important to determine the date of the D. how soon the continents will again drift toward
ice ages than the extent of the glaciers. the polar regions.
D. the glaciers were extremely mobile in spite of
their mass.

50. Suppose that an advocate of the change in orbit

theory of the ancient ice ages criticizes a defender of
the volcanic eruption theory on the grounds that
only some of the glacial records contain evidence of
prior volcanic activity. The defender might justifiably
counter this attack by pointing out that:
A. a change in the earths orbit would have increased
rather than reduced the sunlight reaching the
B. volcanoes could not possibly release enough dust
to block the atmosphere.
C. a theory that has some supporting evidence is
better than a theory that cannot be proved.
D. a theory should be so constructed as to be immune
from proof.

51. Suppose paleobotanists discover that during geological

periods of reduced sunlight, ancient forests died away,
leaving fossilized remains. What is the relevance of
this information to the passage?
A. It supports the claim that dust from volcanic
eruptions caused the ice ages.
B. It weakens the claim that dust from volcanic
eruptions caused the ice ages.
C. It supports the claim that ice ages were
accompanied by widespread loss of vegetation.
D. It weakens the claim that the only evidence of a
change in orbit would be glacier marks.

52. In the context of the passage, the term physical

signature (line 66) refers primarily to the:
A. proper attribution of a theory to its creator.
B. concrete evidence that the earths orbit changed.
C. the impetus that pushed the earth out of its orbit.
D. the growth of the glaciers at the polar caps.


Passage IX (Questions 54-60)
The recurring theme of equality in the United States has Americans do not have an ideology that assigns clear
flared into a fervent moral issue at crucial stages: the priority to one value over any other. At every historical
Revolutionary and Jacksonian periods, the Civil War, the 50 juncture where equality was an issue, its proponents failed
populist and progressive eras, the New Deal, and the 1960s to do all that they had set out to do. Swings in the equality
5 and 1980s. The legitimacy of American society is of social conditions are restrained not just by institutional
challenged by some set of people unhappy with the degree obstacles but by fundamental conflicts of values that are a
of equality. New claims are laid, new understandings are traditional element of American politics. Faith in the
reached, and new policies for political or economic equality 55 individualistic work ethic and belief in the legitimacy of
are instituted. Yet the equality issue endures outside these unequal wealth retard progression to the egalitarian left. As
10 moments of fervor. Ideologies in favor of extending equality for conservatism, the indelible tenet of political equality
are arrayed against others that would limit its scope; firmly restrains the right and confirms a commitment to the
advocates of social justice confront defenders of liberty. disadvantaged. In seeking equal opportunity over equal
60 result, Americans forego a ceiling, not a floor.
In the moments of egalitarian ascendancy, libertarians
are on the defensive. In the moments of retrenchment,
15 egalitarians cling to previous gains. And in either period the
enemy is likely to be the special interests that have too
much power. In egalitarian times, these are the moneyed 54. Suppose there is a government plan to raise taxes to
interests. In times of retrenchment, these are labor or big pay for more social programs for the disadvantaged. If
government and its beneficiaries. the information that the author presents in the passage
20 The moments of creedal passion, in Samuel about libertarians is correct, how would libertarians be
Huntingtons words, have usually been outbursts of expected to react this plan?
egalitarianism. In part, the passion springs from the self- A. They would support the plan because they think
interest of those who would benefit from a more equal
that the government should help the
distribution of goods or political influence. But the passion
25 also springs from ideology and values, including deep
B. They would condemn the plan because they do
religious justifications for equality.
not think that the government should use its
The passion accompanying the discovery or rediscovery power to redistribute wealth.
that ideals do not match reality is particularly intense when C. They would neither support nor condemn the plan
the ideal is as deeply felt as is equality. Yet there can be because it does not address political values.
30 passion on the nonegalitarian side as well. The self- D. They would call on the government to let private
interested passion to protect an established position may be welfare agencies look after the disadvantaged.
even more powerful than the passion to redress inequality,
though its expression may be more muted.
Devotion to inequality may also be based on ideals,
35 such as liberty, individualism, and the free market, which
are no less ancient and venerable. Like the ideals of
equality, these alternative ideals serve as yardsticks for
measuring whether society has moved away from its true
40 Yet the spirit of reform during Reconstruction
dissipated in the face of spent political struggles, sluggish
social institutions, and outright mendacity. Societys
entrepreneurial energy was channeled into economic
activity, and the courts failed to endorse many of the
45 reformers grandest visions. The egalitarian thrust of the
Populists around the turn of the century inspired an anti-
egalitarian counterthrust over the next two decades.


55. The existence of which of the following would most D. It partly contradicts the authors claim about the
strongly challenge the authors view about the motives of those movements.
American publics ideology?
A. A study that demonstrates that Americans have
always favored equality above all other political
B. A book that asserts that Americans have always
believed in the economic principle of unequal
C. An article that suggests that Americans are willing
to support the taxation of the rich in order to assist
the poor
D. A lecture that shows that Americans have grown
increasingly tolerant of minority political views
since the turn of the century

56. In political discussions, the word enemy is bandied

about with little regard for its precise meaning. In the
context of the passage, the word, as used in the second
passage, refers to:
A. those who are associated with the political left.
B. those who promote the redistribution of Americas
C. those who oppose the prevailing view of
American equality.
D. those who favor a return to populist and
progressive ideals.

57. According to the passage, none of the following

statements are true EXCEPT:
A. the political upheaval of the Civil War increased
the popularity of progressive ideals among the
American public.
B. eras of egalitarian reform in American history
have been followed by eras of retrenchment.
C. those who endorse nonegalitarian ideals have
generally been less committed to their position
than those who endorse egalitarian ideals.
D. special interests have always had too much
political power within the American government.

58. A history professor contends that American egalitarian

movements have been motivated entirely by selfish
concerns. Which of the following best characterizes
the relevance of this information to the passage?
A. It is not relevant to the authors claim about the
motives of those movements.
B. It completely supports the authors claim about
the motives of those movements.
C. It completely contradicts the authors claim about
the motives of those movements.

59. In an effort to gain support for their respective causes,
egalitarians and libertarians claim that powerful
special interests oppose their policies. This claim
seems most likely to be:
A. perhaps false, given the information presented in
the passage.
B. perhaps true, and supported by information
presented in the passage.
C. perhaps true, but not supported by any
information presented in the passage.
D. necessarily false, given the information presented
in the passage.

60. The author would see all of the following as not

uncharacteristic of American Society EXCEPT:
A. uneven distribution of wealth and power.
B. recurring interest in issues of equality.
C. an ideology that clearly recognizes some values as
more important than others.
D. passion toward maintaining inequality.




1. C 11. D 21. D 31. C 41. B 51. D

2. B 12. C 22. C 32. A 42. B 52. B
3. D 13. C 23. B 33. C 43. D 53. C
4. A 14. A 24. C 34. D 44. C 54. B
5. C 15. C 25. A 35. C 45. D 55. A

6. D 16. C 26. A 36. B 46. D 56. C

7. B 17. A 27. D 37. B 47. B 57. B
8. B 18. D 28. B 38. B 48. A 58. D
9. D 19. C 29. B 39. B 49. A 59. B
10. A 20. B 30. C 40. A 50. C 60. C

Material used in this test section has been adapted from the following sources:

Herman Belz, Twentieth-Century American Historians and The Old South: A Review Essay.
1985 by Civil War History.

Daniel Goleman, Brain May Tag All Perceptions With a Value. 1995 by New York Times.

Paul Henry Lang, Critic at the Opera. 1971 by W. W. Norton and Co.

Thomas Levenson, Ice Time. 1989 by Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.

Jerry W. McCant, The Cultural Contradiction of Fathers as Nonparent. 1987 by Family Law

From Thomas P. McLish, Tribal Sovereign Immunity: Searching for Sensible Limits. 1988 by
Columbia Law Review.

Sidney Verba and Gary R. Orren, The Meaning of Equality in America. 1985 by Political
Science Quarterly .

Kristen Shreder-Frechette, Book Review of Paul Taylors Respect for Nature. 1987 by Ecology
Law Quarterly.

Wendy S. Zeligson, Pool Coverage, Press Access, And Presidential Debates: Whats Wrong
With This Picture? 1988 by Cardozo Law Review .



Topic and Scope:

The author reviews two books that analyze historical writing, praising ones approach over the other.

Mapping the Passage:

1 introduces the first book (The Past Before Us...) and takes quick stock of modern historiography.
2 describes the drawbacks associated with modern approaches to history.
3 points out a body of history ignored by the first book and introduces a second book (20th Century American Historians) that does
evaluate it.
4 describes the virtues of the second book.

Strategy Points:

In a book review passage, particularly one with multiple books, be sure to keep track of different points of view. Be aware not only
of what each book is saying and how they contrast, but what the author thinks also.


1. (C)

Where is nationalism mentioned? At the beginning of 2, where the AHA is said to have repudiated it. The author clearly believes
theyre doing so on principle; choice (C) fits perfectly.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. Theyd reject it precisely because it doesnt.
(B): Opposite. Again, theyd reject it because national pride isnt their cup of tea.
(D): Out of Scope. While theyd surely denounce it, theres nothing in the passage to indicate that theyre too concerned with
objectivity. In fact, the author mentions that theyve rejected scholarly detachment right along with nationalism.

2. (B)

What does the author praise or criticize in the passage? Predict quickly: Hell like solid, old-fashioned histories like those praised by
Twentieth-Century American Historians and look down on liberal, self-referential histories. A quick scan of the answer choices gets
rid of all but (B), which is exactly the sort of straightforward stuff the author likes.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This is exactly the sort of book the AHA would love, and the author would scorn.
(C): Opposite. Self-referential, social history-ish. Sounds like another book the author would target.
(D): Opposite. The author wouldnt be a fan of books written for New Left scholars.

3. (D)

Be sure to paraphrase the authors main ideas before jumping to the answers so that you can spot an answer choice that contradicts.
Hit the choices with frequent reference to your map and the passage. Only (D) isnt supported, and (D) in fact is exactly the opposite
of what the author says has happened: contemporary historians have overlooked this particular group (3).

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This is simply the opposite of (D). If you noticed this when you got to (D), you could be sure that it was the right
answer for the same reasons you eliminated this one.
(B): Opposite. A point the historians themselves make in 1.
(C): Opposite. The author makes this point in 3.

4. (A)

The authors main critique of the AHA is that its overly concerned with social history at the expense of national histories. How would
essays about the governments decision to enter World War II affect this? It has the nationalist element, and doesnt seem to be social
at all. Were looking for our standard weakening answer, and choice (A) fits the bill.

Wrong answers:
(B): Opposite. Simply the opposite of what were looking for.
(C): Opposite. If it could be shown that the essays concentrated on social issues, the authors argument would actually be supported,
and the AHA would be following the author's idea of them.
(D): Opposite. If it did focus on military matters, the authors claim that the AHA was too oriented towards social history would be
weakened still further.

5. (C)

Use your map to guide yourself to the relevant text. The author is referring back to the AHAs attempt to analyze itself, as described in
1 ("the profession's introspectionist analysis"). (C) recommends itself immediately.

Wrong answers:
(A): Faulty Use of Detail. The author makes this attempt, but this phrase clearly refers to the AHA, not the author.
(B): Out of Scope. The author mentions this only obliquely, and not in reference to the phrase in question.
(D): Distortion. The author mentions the middle class in 3 in a context far removed from this phrase.

6. (D)

Before hitting the answer choices, keep in mind the authors generally favorable opinions of earlier twentieth-century historians.
While three answer choices make statements the author would certainly disagree with, (D) reflects a positive opinion of these
historians: the idea at the end of 3 that these historians had a valuable connection with the educated middle class (or "intelligent

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. We know from 2 that "scholarly detachment" was one of the things that the made these historians great.
(B): Opposite. The author repeatedly states that modern historians do write like this.
(C): Opposite. The author believes that the New Lefts approach compares unfavorably to that of the earlier historians.

7. (B)

Why does the author argue that professional historians are cut off from their culture? Refer back to the text to see that this comes right
on the heels of the argument that the AHA is too self-referential and too focused on social history. Look for an answer that would
exemplify one or both of these points: Choice (B) fits the former perfectly.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author claims in 3 that they arent familiar with this group of historians. If this were true the authors argument
would be weakened.
(C): Out of Scope. Even if this were true, it would have no effect on whether theyre cut off from their culture.
(D): Opposite. If this were true, it would counter the authors arguments in the last paragraph. Theyd be more closely in touch than
the author gives them credit for.


Topic and Scope:

The author reviews Paul Taylors "biocentric" theory of environmental ethics and discusses drawbacks to the theory.

Mapping the Passage:

1 introduces Taylor's disdain for the "prejudiced" theory speciesism.

2 describes Taylor's theory, with a "biocentric outlook."
3 gives details of the theory and its 4 rules.

4 describes a problem with Taylors idea of compensation.

5 describes two problems with applying Taylor's ideas.

6 praises Taylors advances over earlier theorists.


8. (B)

Focus on the rules listed in 3, looking for a situation that wouldnt violate Taylors approaches. (B) involves termites, non-wild
animals in a non-wild setting, which would seem to fall outside Taylor's scope.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. Wild things in a natural ecosystem would be harmed, which would violate Taylors rules.
(C): Opposite.This violates the second rule "restricting the freedom of natural entities."
(D): Opposite. Another instance of potentially harming a wild organism without any sort of compensation.

9. (D)

The question basically asks you to find a paraphrase of one of the authors two criticisms. Quickly review them: its impractical, and it
doesnt go far enough (s 4 and 5). (D) fits the latter.

Wrong answers:
(A): Faulty Use of Detail. Taylor does "reject [the] ... belief that inanimate objects can be moral subjects" (lines 58-60), but the author
approves of this rejection.
(B): Opposite. The author doesn't dispute Taylor's claim that humans shouldnt be considered superior.
(C): Opposite. The author likes this part of Taylors theory (final sentence of the passage).

10. (A)

A difficult question to predict. Were looking for a sort of person or action that would violate Taylors principles by practicing the
theory he rejects. A scan of the answer choices shows only one instance where animals are clearly being exploited: (A) has what you

Wrong answers:
(B): Out of Scope. While Taylor might argue that harm is being caused to the fruits and vegetables, theres no evidence theyre being
eaten for reasons of speciesism.
(C): Opposite. This would seem to fit Taylors idea that harm should be accompanied by compensation.
(D): Out of Scope. No hint of speciesism here.

11. (D)

An application question; try to apply the new situation to Taylors principles. Taylor argues that species shouldnt be hurt simply
because one considers humans superior to other species, but never addresses anything that could touch on self-defense. (D) reflects the
idea that this situation is outside of Taylors scope.

Wrong answers:

(A): Out of Scope. Taylor offers no suggestion that this is the best option.
(B): Out of Scope. Taylor never suggests that humans should sacrifice themselves for nature.
(C): Opposite. More tempting than the other choices because it saves the individual species, but theres nothing to go on in Taylor's
rules one way or the other.

12. (C)

As with all vocabulary-in-context questions, research the relevant text. The phrase is being used to describe a perspective from which
Taylors view came about. Look for an explanation of biocentric outlook just after the word comes up and it mirrors (C).

Wrong answers:
(A): Distortion. Taylors biocentric view never goes so far.
(B): Opposite. Taylor disavows this theory of Leopolds in 6.
(D): Opposite. Taylor claims that humans and...other species are interdependent (2).

13. (C)

Review Taylors main points, and check each answer choices against what you know about Taylors views. While three answer
choices deal with domestic organisms, with which Taylor doesnt concern himself, (C) alone deals with harm caused to a wild

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. Taylor isnt concerned with domestic animals.
(B): Out of Scope. As above.
(D): Out of Scope. As above.

14. (A)

A domesticated animal: use the same point thats been recurring from question to questionTaylors theory is concerned with wild
animals, not domestic ones. Looking for answer choice that fits this immediately turns up (A).

Wrong answers:
(B): Out of Scope. Taylor doesnt deal with domestic animals at all, and so the motives for the action toward the animal are irrelevant.
(C): Out of Scope. Taylor doesnt argue that all domesticated animals should be set free.
(D): Out of Scope. As above.

15. (C)

Review the problems the author has with Taylors theory as well as the authors own views. Knock out answer choices that fit the
authors critiques. All can be eliminated from the passage except (C), which is mentioned in 6 as a theory that Taylor departs from.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. Mentioned in 4.
(B): Opposite. Mentioned in 5.
(D): Opposite. Mentioned in 5.


Topic and Scope:

Pool coverage of televised live debates violates the first amendment and should be changed.

Mapping the Passage:

s1 and 2 define the pool system.
3 argues that the pool system violates the first amendment.
4further defines the pool system and describes the consequences of it.
5 proposes a solution to the pool system.

Strategy Points:

Straightforward passages make excellent starting points in a verbal section. Take a short amount of time before starting a verbal
section for passage triage.


16. (C)

Remember that the right answer must not only be a claim made by the passage, but also must have supporting evidence in the passage.
(C) is the only claim actually made, and is also supported by evidence throughout the passage, especially 4.

Wrong answers:
(A): Distortion. While the author claims that news organizations participate in the pool system reluctantly, theres no indication that
theyre forced to cooperate.
(B): Out of Scope. The author never discusses this point.
(D): Opposite. The author recommends that foreign news organizations be given a place at debates, suggesting that they are
interested in them.

17. (A)

Make sure youre clear on the authors apparent purpose for writing the passage, as well as any suggestions she offers. Scan the
answer choices for something that reflects these key ideas. (A) is exactly what the author is arguing for; take the quick points.

Wrong answers:
(B): Opposite. Precisely what the author is arguing against.
(C): Distortion. The author argues that the current system is flawed, but not that debates should be abolished altogether as a result.
(D): Opposite. Again, the author wants more news services.

18. (D)

Ask yourself how candidates would react to the change. The author never mentions candidates reactions to the current system, and
theres no indication that a change would impact the candidates themselves. Look for an answer choice that matches this so what?
prediction. (D) rewards the paraphrase.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. Theres no evidence of this in the passage.
(B): Out of Scope. As above.
(C): Out of Scope. As above.

19. (C)

Back to the passage: the phrase is used in the context of something being denied the voters because of the pool systems limitations.
Search for an answer choice that matches up with this. (C) just restates maximum insight as what would come about if the
limitations of the pool system werent in place.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author never mentions the thoroughness of candidates.
(B): Faulty Use of Detail. The author proposes this in the last paragraph, but it would be a step towards achieving maximum
insight, not the insight itself.

(D): Faulty Use of Detail. The author discusses this in 1, but not in the context of maximum insight.

20. (B)

Consider how the author would respond to this. She would look favorably on it because it would rectify a First Amendment violation
and increase voters access to diverse ideas. (B) fits in with these ideas nicely.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. A court decision like this would be designed precisely to give independent broadcasters more opportunities.
(C): Out of Scope. The author never mentions the relative prominence of the two media in the passage.
(D): Opposite. Just as in question 18, the author isnt concerned with what the candidates think.

21. (D)

Form a rough prediction by reviewing the basic arguments within the passage: The pool system is unfair and inadequate and needs to
be changed. Eliminate the things that must be true based on the passage and keep an eye out for something that violates a claim in the
passage or has no effect on it. The first three can be knocked out quickly, but even without elimination (D) jumps out as saying exactly
the opposite of what the passage is trying to demonstrate.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. You can infer this from the last paragraph.
(B): Opposite. This is stated more or less explicitly in 2.
(C): Opposite. This is one of the big points of 1.


Topic and Scope:

The author discusses tribal immunity and the legal consequences.

Mapping the Passage:

1 introduces the concept of tribal immunity.

2 quotes an Supreme Court Justice who believes that the limits of tribal immunity should be reexamined.
s3 and 4 present the legal justifications for tribal immunity (U.S. v. U.S. Fidelity & Guaranty Co.).
s5 and 6 argues that tribal immunity is far broader than immunities granted to other governments.
7 notes that unlike with other governments, courts havent distinguished between tribes economic and governmental activities.

Strategy Points:

Always pay attention to proper names, quotations, and anything in italics. Theyre often an easy way to isolate the main events and
points of view in the passage.


22. (C)

The authors argument is that tribes have immunity thats overly broad. Tribes can only be sued with authority from Congress, not the
Court (as happens in the question stem). So if the question stem is true, then this immunity rule wouldn't hold up. (C) fits.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. Immunity, as discussed in the passage, only has to do with the defendant of a suit, not the plaintiff.
(B): Out of Scope. As above.
(D): Opposite. This would strengthen the authors idea that tribes have far-reaching immunity.

23. (B)

Recap the authors main argument: tribal immunity is problematically broad. Keep an eye out for an answer choice that contradicts
something the author says or is completely irrelevant. While all three incorrect answers have support in the passage, the author
suggests the opposite of what (B) is saying.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author argues this in 7.
(C): Opposite. This is mentioned in 5.
(D): Opposite. Also in 5.

Strategy point:
Paraphrase difficult phrases or double negatives into something easier to understand. Less difficult reads far more smoothly as

24. (C)

As in the last question, look to eliminate three answer choices supported by evidence and keep an eye out for one that clashes with the
passage. (C) directly contradicts the authors point in 4 that tribes have been able to buy insurance.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author mentions this throughout the first few paragraphs.
(B): Opposite. This is the topic of s4 and 5.
(D): Opposite. The author argues this throughout the second half of the passage.

25. (A)

Always be aware of the authors purpose in writing the passage. In this case, the authors purpose seems to be to argue for a more
limited sort of tribal immunity. Remembering this before hitting the answers makes it easy to spot (A).

Wrong answers:
(B): Out of Scope. The author isnt concerned with this.
(C): Out of Scope. This, too, has no impact on the authors opinion of immunity.
(D): Out of Scope. Another topic the author expresses no opinion on.

26. (A)

Go back to the text of the passage. Keeping your map in mind will help you to remember that this paragraph deals with tribes
commercial activities, a summary backed up by a quick rereading of the phrase in context. (A) matches up.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. Nothing in the text to indicate this,
(C): Out of Scope. ...or this.
(D): Distortion. Though the activities arent governmental in nature, that doesnt mean that theyre individual. The author clearly
states that the tribe as a whole is engaged in the commercial activities.

27. (D)

Keep the authors purpose in mind, as main points of the argument are the ones most likely to be backed up with some sort of
evidence. Search for a claim made in the passage that also has supporting evidence. It will help to remember that most of the evidence
in the passage has taken the form of quotes from various court cases or legal opinions. Keeping this in mind makes the search for (D) a
quick one.

Wrong answers:

(A): Distortion. Though the author mentions in 1 that the doctrine of tribal immunity has been fashioned independently from the
Clause, that doesnt necessarily mean that the legislation is obsolete.
(B): Out of Scope. Theres no indication in the passage that this has happened.
(C): Distortion. The author mentions that tribes have this right, but doesnt ever mention an instance in which theyre willing to
exercise it.

28. (B)

Just as in question 22, you have a situation in which the courts are allowing a tribe to be sued. Since the author argues that this
generally doesnt happen without Congress's express permission, the authors claim would be weakened. Choice (B) alone fits.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. Were looking for something that weakens.
(C): Opposite. As above.
(D): Out of Scope. Theres nothing about the President anywhere in the passage, nor would the claim be supported in any case.


Topic and Scope:

The author outlines a theory of human cognition: people have unconscious biases towards words and ideas that influence later thought.

Mapping the Passage:

1 introduces the theory that the brain preconsciously assigns a value to all perceptions.
2 describes an objection some scientists have to the theory.
3 outlines the physiological mechanism of processing and its implications on social interactions.
4 discusses the potential applications for the theory.
5 describes the mechanisms used to test preconscious perceptions.

Strategy Points:

Authors often use examples to illuminate complicated or abstract principles; take advantage of them!


29. (B)

Read the relevant lines to get a feel for whats going on, which is made easier by the fact that the author defines the term immediately
after using it. Were looking for an answer choice that involves forming an opinion on something near-instantly. Choice (B) fits this

Wrong answers:
(A): Distortion. A basic understanding of the difference between subconscious and preconscious (line 14) is crucial here.
(C): Opposite. This would involve consciousness, not preconsciousness.
(D): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.

30. (C)

We need to find something that disputes the idea that many impressions are formed preconsciously. (C) says exactly the opposite of
what the author argues, while the other three choices are all things with which the author would agree.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This is the authors primary argument.

(B): Opposite. This would reinforce the idea that preconscious perceptions can influence conscious behavior, in this case, language
(D): Opposite. The author makes this same point in 1.

31. (C)

Where does the author discuss possible uses for this information? Hit 4, summarizing why the author thinks that this information will
turn out to be useful. Choice (C) is simply an example of the authors argument that the info could be used to pinpoint ethnic biases.
The wrong answer choices simply arent mentioned.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author never makes this claim.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(D): Opposite. As above.

32. (A)

How do these scientists fit into the authors argument? Theyre the ones disagreeing with it in 2. Look for a statement that would
challenge the authors point of view. Choice (A) would contradict the idea that values are placed automatically on things such as
unfamiliar words.

Wrong answers:
(B): Distortion. The author mentions in 5 that even the scientists who disagree rely on the idea that the mind can make
interpretations in the first 250 milliseconds.
(C): Distortion. 2 states that the scientists who disagree admit that "such evaluations are made under many circumstances," just not
all. Note that the phrase "no effect" makes this choice too extreme.
(D): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.

33. (C)

Keep focused on the map when evaluating the answer choices. Look for three things that fit in with the authors argument, keeping an
eye out for one that might simply contradict the authors point outright. In this case, (C) is unusually easy to spot: it contradicts the
basic conclusion of the experiment the author cites in 1.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This is the author's main argument.
(B): Opposite. The wording "these evaluations are...applied even to things people have never encountered before" implies that they
also apply to things with which people are familiar.
(D): Opposite. 4 discusses this.

34. (D)

Consider the word propose in the context of the passage: it sounds like the answer choices will have an element of action: an
application question. This would fit in with what the author discusses in the last paragraph. Choice (D) is a logical extension of what
the author describes there, particularly the "measurement of liking."

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author seems less concerned with the physiological process than with what it indicates about human behavior.
(B): Opposite. The author certainly believes the opposite, as indicated by the last paragraph.
(D): Opposite. The author argues the opposite throughout the passage.


Topic and Scope:

The author argues that opera should be performed as the combination of acting and music in which it was conceived, rather than
performed just as a concert.

Mapping the Passage:

1 describes the limitations of American opera.

2 explains how the limitations have led to opera in concert form and introduces the authors objections to this.
3 attacks semi-staged performances as even worse than pure concert versions.
s 4 and 5 elaborate on why acting is necessary for a true opera.
6 summarizes the authors argument that operas and concerts are separate art forms.

Strategy Points:

Dont get bogged down in difficult passages; the authors point will usually become clearer as the passage progresses or summarize
points at the end.


35. (C)

Find the authors discussion of these communities: they appear in 1. The author argues that they dont produce operas because they
wont be as good as New Yorks enormous opera. Looking for an attitude that would reflect this immediately yields (C). Paraphrasing
in advance usually means quick points!

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author never says anything about education and opera.
(B): Opposite. This would more accurately reflect the opinion of a community that did produce opera..
(D): Out of Scope. Theres nothing in the passage that reflects this distinction.

36. (B)

The author has a strong point throughout the passage: operas and concerts dont mix. Look for a statement that the author would
actively dispute, or eliminate the three answers that hed agree with. (B) turns up as a statement that distorts what the author spends 3

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This is the point of the passage.
(C): Opposite. This is implicit in the idea that communities stage concerts when they feel they cant do justice to an opera.
(D): Opposite. The author mentions this in 3.

37. (B)

Look to the fourth paragraph for this information. The author argues that the term opera in English does not connote the full
experience of the theatrical work (as it does in Italian); choice (B) mirrors this.

Wrong answers:
(A): Faulty Use of Detail. This could possibly be inferred from the passage, but the author is not trying to make this point.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail/Distortion. The author never goes so far as to limit the scope of the discussion to only two languages.
(D): Distortion. The author does not imply this, he is only saying that the way we think of opera is different.

38. (B)

An application question. Break the situation down into pieces that can be evaluated against the authors argument. The performed-in-
concert part of the situation is likely the easier to evaluate. The author will surely think that it will fail because of his idea that operas

shouldnt be done in concert. While the author mentions musical ideas in 6, theres no reason to think that even if this were fixed the
author would still think a concert was a good idea. (B) refers to a failure based on one of the author's criticisms in 6.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author argues that operas are failures without staging.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail. Though the author mentions in 5 that Richard Strauss was such a composer, his point is that even this isnt
enough to avoid failure if the opera is performed in concert.
(D): Distortion. While the author argues that staging is necessary, theres nothing in the passage to indicate that its superior to the

39. (B)

A tricky question. Think carefully, and reread the relevant text. Where is Bellini mentioned? Go through the last paragraph again,
being sure to paraphrase. The author argues that concerts might be fine for operas that wouldnt be heard or that are up to snuff
musically but not theatrically. He then argues that Bellini, among others, doesnt qualify for such a role. What is the role? The
concert treatment. The author must therefore think that Bellinis operas have both the musical and theatrical quality needed for a fully
staged opera. The information in the question has to therefore support this belief, ergo (B).

Wrong answers:
(A): Distortion. While the author says that some works might not be heard outside of concert, Bellini doesnt fit in this category (if
you haven't heard of Bellini, note that as he is mentioned alongside Strauss, he is clearly a famous composer).
(C): Opposite. The author implies just the opposite when talking about Bellini.
(D): Opposite. The author would argue that if this is true about Bellini, presenting his operas in concert would cause all sorts of harm
to the opera.

40. (A)

Go back to the last paragraph to analyze the statement. It might be easier to start with the means for which some argue. (When an
author uses the passive voice to say that some might say... its almost certain that the author disagrees!) The means must be the
concert treatment, which would make the end the performance of the opera itself. This is backed up in the next few lines. Choice (A)
reflects this.

Wrong answers:
(B): Opposite. The people using this phrase would argue for concert performances.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail. While this does happen in concert performances, this isnt the end itself for which the concert promoters
are hoping.
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. Again, though this might be what actually happens, its the means rather than the end.


Topic and Scope:

The author argues for an expanded idea of the role of fatherhood.

Mapping the Passage:

1 introduces society's focus on maternalism (Freud, Gadpaille).

2 describes the lack of focus on fatherhood (Spock).
3 describes scientific and societal bias against the role of the father (Mead).
4 suggests that the motherhood role is learned rather than biological.
5 argues that fatherhood is a unique and necessary role.

Strategy Points:

Move quickly through long paragraphs filled with examples. Passages will often include multiple examples to illustrate the same basic
point. Remember to note key people (i.e. Freud) mentioned. Questions will often contrast the author's opinions with the opinions of
people mentioned within the passage.


41. (B)

The author only makes two major points in the passage: fatherhood should get more respect, and fathers should play more of a role in
raising their children. Lines 39-41 state that a father should be more than "the provider and protector." Only (B) goes beyond those
roles. .

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This fits the "provider" role.
(C): Opposite. This is almost identical to the situation outlined at the end of 2, of which the author clearly disapproves.
(D): Opposite. This also fits the "provider" role.

42. (B)

Paraphrase Freuds opinion, as stated in 1: mothers have a major role in infant development; fathers dont. Were looking for the
opposite. With the paraphrase and careful thought beforehand, (B) yields instant points.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. This would support Dr Freud.
(C): Out of Scope. The passage doesnt deal with siblings....
(D): Out of Scope. ...or grandparents.

43. (D)

Remember that a passage is most likely to provide evidence or explanation for its main points, in this case, that fatherhood is good and
is on the rise as an actively practiced role. Compare the answers to the passage, remembering to look not only for the point in the
answer, but also for evidence to back it up. The first few lines of 5 reflect the idea outlined in (D); the rest of the paragraph backs it

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author never makes this claim.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(C): Opposite. As above.

44. (C)

Check the phrase in context. The author argues that maternal instinct doesnt exist, but is rather learned behavior. Therefore maternal
instinct is the opposite: search for an answer choice that defines maternal instinct as non-learned, biological behavior. (C) fits.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. This isnt mentioned in the context of the phrase.
(B): Opposite. The author argues this, but the term itself defines the opposite.
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. This is a detail mentioned in 4.

45. (D)

The author is big on fatherhood; look for an answer choice that either disputes this or would challenge a claim made in the passage.
Alternatively, you can eliminate the three statements that fit with the authors goals. (D) runs directly counter to the point of the
Margaret Mead quote.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The passages main point.
(B): Opposite. Mentioned in 1.
(C): Opposite. Also in 2.

Strategy Point: Note how quick researching this question is if you jotted down the names of experts on your map. The MCAT almost
always asks questions about expert opinions, particularly if they oppose the author's opinions.

46. (D)

Research the authors points on young men in 4 and 5. Theyre basically doing what the author says they should do: rejecting
traditional models and trying to become active parents. (D), were it true, would run counter to this trend and would therefore be
inconsistent with the authors points.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The authors main point.
(B): Opposite. The author mentions this in 5.
(C): Opposite. If maternalism is learned, as the author argues in 4, the author must also believe this.


Topic and Scope:

The lack of definite evidence for the early ice ages and one scientists preferred theory of their cause.

Mapping the Passage:

1 describes Agassizs reasons and evidence for theorizing an ice age.

2 demonstrates that evidence for the early ice ages is thin, making it difficult to reconstruct dates and causes.
3 describes Frakes favorite theory: continental drift promoted glaciation.
4 and 5 demonstrate further that evidence for the early ice ages is thin.
6 suggests that relatively little data lets scientists run wild in their theorizing.

Strategy Points:

Watch out for double negatives! Paraphrase them to make sense, writing in the margins if necessary. In this passage, misinterpreting
least unlikely could hurt a test-taker rushing through without paraphrasing.


47. (B)

Where does the author discuss this? All of 6; paraphrase the point: the less data one has the freer one is to form explanations. It may
take a little scanning to get to (B); remember to look for the converses of your prediction in questions like this.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author argues that a greater amount of data ties you down.
(C): Opposite. This is just the flip-side of (A), and also opposite.
(D): Opposite. The author spends 6 arguing that there is a connection.

48. (A)

What is the authors main purpose of writing the passage? Its a bit more difficult to paraphrase purposes in an objective passage, but
the author clearly intends to show that data on the ancient ice ages is sketchy. The author argues throughout the first half the passage

that its hard to understand much about the earlier ice ages because the evidence is so much older than that of later glaciations. This
would suggest that investigating later ice ages, and geologic events in general, is easier: (A).

Wrong answers:
(B): Distortion. Though ground-up rocks appear in the end of 2 as evidence of an ice age, theres nothing to suggest that the author
believes they always indicate an ice age (note the extreme word "always").
(C): Out of Scope. The author isnt concerned with the consequences of the theories, only the theories and evidences themselves.
(D): Distortion. While the author argues that there are different theories, each ice age didn't necessarily have a different cause.

49. (A)

Try to get a basic prediction for assumption questions if possible. If scientists dont know whether the poles or the equator were the
coolest, they must have some sort of evidence that both were awfully cold. (A) fits this. If unsure, try the denial test: If glacial deposits
havent been found at both, then one should be demonstrably colder than the other.

Wrong answers:
(B): Distortion. The argument that scientists are unsure doesnt depend on the idea that some geological information is forever gone.
While this may be true, its not why scientists are unsure.
(C): Out of Scope. This has nothing to do with the statement.
(D): Out of Scope. Even if this were true, it still wouldnt explain why geologists were unsure which part of the earth had been the

50. (C)

The author mentions both of these theories; paraphrase what is said about them: the volcanic theory has some evidence in glacial
records; the orbital change theory has no evidence at all. The volcano-scientist would be quick to point this out in his defense; (C) says
the same thing.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. We have no way of knowing from the passage the consequences of a change of orbit.
(B): Opposite. The advocate of the volcano theory wouldnt help his cause with this.
(D): Distortion. While the author mentions that these theories are immune from proof, thats not necessarily something in their favor,
nor would it distinguish the vulcanologists argument from that of the orbital theorists.

51. (D)

What would cause reduced sunlight? Only an orbital change. Think back on what the author says about the orbital change theory: its
only evidence is the glaciation itself. This new evidence would therefore weaken the authors argument about the orbital theory: (D).

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. Though volcanic eruptions can lead to a reduction in the amount of sunlight that reaches earth, it isn't necessarily
the case here.
(B): Out of Scope. As above. This evidence is outside the scope of the volcanic theory.
(C): Opposite. The author never makes this claim.

52. (B)

Look at the phrase in context: the author argues that the only evidence of the orbital theory would be glacial marks on the rocks. With
the quick read back, (B) is an easy pickup.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. This isnt mentioned in the context of the phrase.
(C): Out of Scope. The author is talking about evidence rather than causes.
(D): Opposite. This isnt mentioned together with the phrase either.

53. (C)

Go back to the passage to review what Frakes says. The third paragraph gives you what you need: land masses moved towards the
poles, snowfall increased, and a feedback loop was established. This begs the question: if there was a positive feedback loop, why
isnt the world still covered by glaciers? (C) matches up. Even if you didnt make this prediction, this is the only answer choice that
fits the scope of Frakes evidence.

Wrong answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The theorys popularity isnt useful to evaluate the theory itself.
(B): Out of Scope. The theory doesnt depend on this point.
(D): Out of Scope. This isnt relevant to the theory either.


Topic and Scope:

The author describes the conflict between values of equality and other values in American society.

Mapping the Passage:

1 describes historical examples of Americas push for equality.

2 describes the historical conflict between equality and libertarianism.
3 and 4 argue that passions from ideology spring partially from self-interest and partially from ideology (Huntington).
5 points out that alternative ideals also incite passion.
6 argues that pushes toward equality provoke backlashes.
7 argues that Americans hold multiple competing ideologies that check one another.

Strategy Points:

Difficult passages can often be made easier by keeping an eye out for contrasts. A single principal contrast will often be the
organizing force behind the passage. Questions will usually reward you for understanding the contrast even if much of the rest of the
passage is confusing.


54. (B)

Why does the author talk about libertarians? To describe an ideal that tends to conflict with equality, the principle behind the action in
the question. Libertarians would probably therefore attack the plan precisely because it was promoting equality. (B) says the same.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. Libertarians as the author describes them think just the opposite.
(C): Opposite. The author clearly thinks that libertarians would have an opinion on an action that runs counter to their principles.
(D): Distortion. Though theyd support private enterprise, they wouldnt support private enterprise promoting an ideal contrary to
their own.

55. (A)

The author talks about the American publics ideology throughout the passage, but most thoroughly in the last paragraph. When
hitting the answer choices, start with the most likely paragraph and work from there. In this case, (A) rewards you immediately for the
prediction: The point of the last paragraph is that America is bound by several more-or-less equal ideals, a view that (A) would
certainly challenge.

Wrong answers:
(B): Opposite. The author mentions this in 6.
(C): Opposite. This is also suggested in 6 by the commitment to the disadvantaged.

(D): Out of Scope. Increased tolerance of minority views would have no effect on the authors argument about balanced American

56. (C)

Hit the passage to read the phrase in context. The author is using the phrase to refer to the opponents of the drives towards equality.
Choice (C) fits perfectly.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The political left would promote equality, since equality is the progressive viewpoint of the times the author refers to
in this paragraph.
(B): Opposite. This would also be in keeping with the proponents of equality rather than the enemy of that ideal.
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. This distorts the discussion of these keywords in 1, which have nothing to do with the contrast the author
sets up here.

57. (B)

First keep track of all the negatives in the question! You're actually looking for the one true statement. Choice (B) summarizes the
point of 6 that pushes towards equality lead to backlashes.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author would argue that fervor for equality during the Civil War would lead to a backlash against it rather than an
increase in support for it.
(C): Opposite. The point of 4 is that passion can exist equally on both sides of the debate.
(D): Out of Scope. The author mentions special interests in 2 but doesnt argue that they always have too much power. In fact, they
seem to fluctuate in power and identity depending on the dominating ideal of the time.

58. (D)

Where does the author talk about motives? Check your map and go back to 3. If pushes for equality were always born out of selfish
motives, the authors argument would be half wrong in that he cites selfish and unselfish reasons. Choice (D) says just that.

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The author definitely takes on this subject in the passage, so it must have an effect on the argument.
(B): Distortion. It does support one of the two claims...
(C): Distortion. ...and contradicts the other.

59. (B)

Search back for the text on special interests in 2. Scanning the answer choices vertically shows you what youre looking for: true or
false with a cause. The author seems to be sympathetic to the claim he cites, identifying the special interests as powerful forces with
something to lose and a motive for opposition. Subsequent paragraphs provide some support for the claim. This narrows it down to

Wrong answers:
(A): Opposite. The information in the passage supports the claim that action meets with an opposite reaction.
(C): Distortion. The author cites periods of backlash in 6 as support for the claim.
(D): Opposite. The author doesnt refute the contention at all.

60. (C)

Again, watch the negatives in the question stemyou're looking for the choice that is uncharacteristic. Keep the map in mind, and
eliminate three characteristics or search for the odd one out. While three are scattered throughout the passage, (C) contradicts the
authors contention in the last paragraph that the competing ideologies more or less keep each other in check.

Wrong answers:

(A): Opposite. This is mentioned in 7.
(B): Opposite. This is the main focus of 1.
(D): Opposite. This is the point of 4.