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ATOLL GSM/GPRS/EDGE FEATURES

Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

GSM/GPRS/EDGE Overview

Frequency Hopping Overview

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GSM/GPRS/EDGE Overview

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)


Second digital norm for mobile telephony (2G) established in 1982

Initially dedicated to voice services

Addition of GPRS (General Packet Radio Service 2,5G) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates
for GSM Evolution 2,75G)
Packet-switched services and high data rates

Use of Coding Schemes


According to radio link quality, selection of robustness dependent coding scheme
Good quality : least robust coding schemes for high throughput
Poor quality : most robust coding schemes for high security (lower throughput)

CS1 to 4 for GPRS (GMSK modulation) up to 171,2 kbps per frame (


GPRS in Atoll

MCS1 to 9 for EDGE (8PSK modulation) up to 384 kbps per frame


EGPRS in Atoll

DAS5 to 12 and DBS5 to 12 for EDGE Evolution (16 and 32QAM modulations) up to 1 Mbps
per frame
EGPRS2 in Atoll
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GSM/GPRS/EDGE Overview

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)


8 Timeslots per frame
1 user per TS in FR
2 users per TS in HR
Use of codec modes (e.g. Half-Rate) to
compress voice and increase network
capacity in good radio conditions

Signalling on BCCH
Broadcast en TS 0
Up to 7 TS for traffic (TCH)

Channel bandwidth = 200 KHz

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


Optional definition of cell hierarchy (Umbrella, Macro, Micro, Pico, ..cells)
Traffic served on priority on highest priority layers
Priority may not be respected for signal strength or mobility reasons
(e.g. pico cells dedicated to low mobility users)

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GSM/GPRS/EDGE Overview

Interference in GSM/GPRS/EDGE
Measured by C/(I+N) parameter

Occurring between co and adjacent channels


Example : if on an overlapping area, a receiver is covered twice by the same channel and if the signal
strength received from the interferer is close to the serving signal strength, the receiver is interfered

Main issue of GSM/GPRS/EDGE


Reduction of capacity
No service of codec modes
No service of coding schemes

Solutions to interference
Frequency hopping
Frequency diversity in order to diversify the interferers
Against frequency selective fading
Average interference level over all the mobile station assigned frequencies

Uplink power control (currently not modelled in Atoll)

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Frequency Hopping Overview

Hopping Modes
Non Hopping (NH)
Mobile always attached to the same channel
Mobile Station Allocation : Channel

Base Band Hopping (BBH)


One frequency per TRX
Mobile hops over TRXs
In Atoll, base band hopping is made over TRXs of a given subcell
Definition of a Mobile Allocation List (MAL) : list of frequencies defined in in the subcell to which the MS
is attached
Mobile Station Allocation : MAL

Synthesized Frequency Hopping (SFH)


One frequency list per TRX
Mobile linked to a TRX
TRX hops over frequencies
Definition of a Mobile Allocation List (MAL) : list of frequencies defined in the TRX to which the MS is
attached
Definition of a Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) used as a starting point in the channel hopping
sequence
Mobile Station Allocation : MAL-MAIO

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Hopping Parameters

HSN : Hopping Sequence Number


Defined at the subcell level

Synchronisation : hopping synchronisation of several subcells


Defined at the subcell level
By default, all the subcells of a site are synchronised

MAL : Mobile Allocation List


Defined from available frequencies in TRXs

MAIO : Mobile Allocation Index Offset


Defined at the TRX level

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Use of Parameters In Hopping Modes

BBH
Hops only over TRXs of a given subcell
MAL : list of frequencies defined in subcells
HSN
Synchronisation

SFH
MAL : list of frequencies defined per TRX
HSN
Synchronisation
MAIO
Association (MAL, MAIO)

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Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

2G Features Supported in Atoll

2G Workflow in Atoll

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2G Features Supported In Atoll

Multi-layers Networks (HCS)

Concentric Cells (Overlay/Underlay)


Inner and outer subcells
Dual band stations, multi-bands networks

Advanced Voice Modelling


Support of FR, HR, EFR, AMR
Quality Indicator Predictions (BER, FER, MOS)

GPRS and GPRS/EDGE Networks


Support of standard EDGE (EGPRS) and EDGE evolution (EGPRS2)
Modelling of Traffic Parameters
Dimensioning of Multi-technology Networks
Coding Scheme, Throughput and BLER Predictions

Frequency Hopping
Base Band Hopping/Synthesized Frequency Hopping
HSN, MAIO, Synchronisation level
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2G Workflow In Atoll
Open an existing project or
create a new one

Network Configuration
- Add Network Elements ACP
- Change Parameters

Basic Predictions
(Best Server, Signal Level)

Traffic Maps Dimensioning User-defined Values


Required Number
of TRXs

Neighbour Allocation

Automatic Frequency Allocation (AFP) Manual Frequency Allocation

List of Frequencies

Frequency Plan Analysis GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

Prediction Reports
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Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

Resource Overview

Frequencies, BSICs and HSNs

Transmitter Parameters

Codec Configurations

Coding Scheme Configurations

Manual Resource Allocation

Automatic Resource Allocation : Overview

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Resource Overview

Resources to be managed
Frequencies
BSICs
HSNs

Management from the Parameters Explorer

Description of frequency bands

Definition of Domains and Groups

Frequencies, BSICs, HSNs

Splitting resources over validation domains:


Domain = set of groups
Group = set of resources (channels, BSICs, HSNs)
Allocated resources must belong to the related domains

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Frequencies

Domains and Groups of frequencies

Frequency band related


to the domain

Description of groups
The group 1 contains all the channels between 55 and 87 except the channel 60.
The group 2 contains all the channels between 10 and 30 and the channel 35.

One frequency domain assigned to each TRX type per cell type
Frequencies allocated to TRXs manually or automatically (using an AFP)

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BSICs

Domains and Groups of BSICs


BSIC BCCH : cell identifier

Made of 2 codes
Network colour code (NCC 0 7) + BTS colour code (BCC 0 7)

Default format : octal (base 8)


NCC 5 + BCC 4 BSIC 54

Format selection in the transmitters context menu

Same procedure and GUI as the one available for frequency domain and group definition

One BSIC domain assigned to each transmitter

One BSIC allocated to each transmitter manually or automatically (using an AFP)

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HSNs

Domains and Groups of HSNs

HSNs (hopping sequence number)


Random sequence generator
Description of the frequency hopping sequence
64 available values [0..63]
Pseudo-random sequences except HSN = 0 (cyclic hopping)

Same procedure and GUI as the one available for frequency domain and group definition

One HSN domain assigned to each TRX type per cell type

One HSN allocated to each subcell per transmitter manually or automatically (using an AFP)

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Transmitter Parameters

Transmitter Properties : General Tab

HCS layer which the


transmitter belongs to

Specific layer
admission threshold
(optional) which
overwrites the default
layer threshold

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Transmitter Parameters

Definition of Service Layers


Priority of the HCS layer
Highest value has the highest priority
Used in coverage predictions

Default reception threshold to be attached to a HCS layer


Used in coverage predictions with the layer priority parameter.
Highest priority layer will be considered only if the its signal level is
higher that this threshold.
May be used as layer border

Each transmitter can belong to a HCS layer (optional)

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Transmitter Parameters

Transmitter Properties : TRXs Tab (1/2)

Choice of a cell type =


Template for Subcells
Each transmitter must
Specific max number of
refer to a cell type
TRXs
(mandatory)
(Only used for
Initialisation of subcell
Dimensioning)
parameters in
transmitters

Frequency band
related to the BCCH
Allowed propagation
subcell frequency
range for the considered
domain (used by
transmitter
propagation
models)

Transmitter identification
Reselect offset used for
parameters: BCCH, BSIC
the best idle mode
domain and BSIC value
reselection criterion (C2)
(NCC-BCC)

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Transmitter Parameters

Transmitter Properties : TRXs Tab (2/2)

Subcell settings
properties initialised by
Scrolling box to select
the values given to the
the different views of the
selected cell type
subcell table (Standard,
Traffic Data, AFP Parameters related to
Indicators) dimensioning
Parameters related to
frequency hopping

List of TRXs
Allocated channels Button to access the
(automatic or manual) selected subcell property
Parameter related to dialogue
frequency hopping

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Transmitter Parameters

Transmitter Properties : "Cell Type" = Template for Subcells


Description of each TRX type you may have within a transmitter

Each transmitter must refer to a cell type (mandatory)


Initialisation of subcell parameters in transmitters

Properties of a standard
macro cell 1800

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Codec Configurations (1/5)

Codec Modes and Configurations (Voice Only)

Read only list of all possible


codec modes (can be edited in
database format)

List of the available codec configurations


in the current project

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Codec Configurations (2/5)

Codec Configurations Properties

Quality Indicator used to select the


codec mode in case of ideal link
adaptation. For a given quality, the
codec mode with the best Quality
Indicator is selected (quality threshold
tab). Unless the codec mode is
selected according to the quality
thresholds defined in the adaptation
threshold tab

Noise of the receiver used to


establish the current graphs.
To be compared with the
actual noise of the studied
terminal

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Codec Configurations (3/5)

Codec Mode Selection


Defines the required quality to select each
codec mode in case of non ideal link
adaptation. For several compliant codec
modes (supported by the base station and
the terminal), the one with the highest priority
(as defined in the codec mode table) is
selected

Defines the Quality Indicator graphs


for each codec mode. In case of ideal
link adaptation, for a given quality, the
codec mode with the best Quality
Indicator is selected. This graphs are
also used for Quality Indicator studies
such as a Quality Indicator value (BER,
FER or MOS) is provided from a
quality (C/N or C/I+N) in input

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Codec Configurations (4/5)

Codec Configuration Assignment

Transmitter Properties : Configurations Tab

Type of
configuration
installed on the
transmitter

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Codec Configurations (5/5)

Codec Configuration Assignment

Terminal Properties

Codec configuration
supported by the terminal
(optional, used as a filter
on the selected codec
configuration on base
station side)

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Coding Scheme Configurations (1/5)

Coding Schemes List and Configurations (GPRS/EDGE Only)


Read only list of all possible Coding Schemes
(can be edited in database format)

Max served
RLC/MAC
throughput

List of the available Coding Coding Scheme Technology: GPRS, standard Type of modulation. A power
Scheme configurations in the name as displayed EDGE (EGPRS) or EDGE backoff is applied for GMSK,
current project in predictions evolution (EGPRS2) 16 and 32QAM
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Coding Scheme Configurations (2/5)

Coding Scheme Configurations Properties

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Coding Scheme Configurations (3/5)

Coding Scheme Selection Definition of


graphs
C and C/I throughput/TS vs.
admission C or C/I
thresholds for
each Coding
Scheme

List of possible
Coding Schemes
in the Coding
Scheme Possibility to define
configuration specific threshold
according to
mobility types,
frequency bands,
frequency hopping
Tool to adapt the and MAL Length
admission thresholds
for a maximum user-
defined BLER value

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Coding Scheme Configurations (4/5)

Coding Scheme Configuration Assignment

Transmitter Properties : Configurations Tab


Defines the capability
(or not) of the station to
support or not packet-
switched traffic

Type of
configuration
installed on the
transmitter

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Coding Scheme Configurations (5/5)

Coding Scheme Configuration Assignment


Terminal Properties

Support of voice only


(GSM) or with packet
switched traffic (GPRS or
GPRS\EDGE)

Coding Scheme
configuration supported by
the terminal (optional, used
as a filter on the selected
Coding Scheme
configuration on base
station side)

Max supported GPRS or


EDGE CS by the terminal

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Manual Resource Allocation (1/3)

Allocation of frequencies for each requested TRX of a subcell

1 BCCH TRX mandatory

Depends on the hopping mode defined in subcells


Non hopping or BBH mode : 1 frequency per TRX
SFH : 1 frequency list per TRX + MAIO

Depends on the allocation strategy : group constrained or free


Group constrained: only frequencies belonging to a same group in a frequency domain which are not
excluded for a given subcell can be allocated
Free: all the frequencies of a frequency domain excepted the ones excluded from the subcell can be
allocated

Allocation of the BCCH and the BSIC to each transmitter

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Manual Resource Allocation (2/3)

Subcells and TRXs parameters in Transmitter Properties

TRX allocation : entire frequency Synchronisation site


HSN domain selection
group if Allocation strategy = used to calculate
and HSN allocation
Group Constrained collision probabilities
No. of TRXs to be
created per subcell

Channel allocation:
Allowed domains
1 per TRX (NH or BBH)
for related TRXs
List in SFH

List of TRX types to List of possible channels in the defined


To be filled when
be created empty by domains (Entire frequency group if
using SFH
default Allocation strategy = Group Constrained)

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Manual Resource Allocation (3/3)

Allocation of frequencies in the TRX table

By copy-paste

Using the table generic import


From any ASCII text file
From any table exported using the generic export feature within Atoll

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Automatic Resource Allocation Overview (1/2)

Generic dialogs in Atoll for any AFP model

Possibility to allocate
Frequencies, Frequency Hopping Groups (MALs), HSNs, MAIOs, BSICs

Possibility to select AFP-dependant strategies


Azimuth-oriented allocation, optimisation of the number of TRXs to increase the correctly
served traffic,

Goal of AFP
Find optimal allocations that minimise interferences over the network and comply with a set of
constraints (separation, frequency domain limitation)

Principle of an AFP model


Convergence criterion based on a cost function
The cost function consists of two main components
Cost component due to interferences
Cost component due to separation constraint violations
The AFP model tries to minimise the value of the cost function

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Automatic Resource Allocation Overview (2/2)

AFP Process

AFP Progress

AFP Launching

AFP Results

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Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

Available Predictions

Examples of Service Area Definition

Service and User Modelling

Coverage Predictions

Point Analysis Tool

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Available Predictions

Coverage Predictions
Basic Quality Predictions
Interfered areas prediction
Coverage by C/I level

Circuit Service Dedicated Prediction


Circuit Quality Indicators

Packet Service Dedicated Predictions


Coding Scheme coverage
Packet throughput coverage

Point Analysis
Reception and Interference Analysis at a Given Point

Principles
Prediction Calculated for a given frequency plan

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Definition of the service zone of each transmitter

Selection of the server

All

Best signal level

Second best signal

Best signal level per HCS layer

Second best signal level per HCS layer

HCS servers

Highest priority HCS server

Best idle mode reselection criterion (C2)


Using the reselection offset defined at the transmitter level

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Network Model
Stations
3 tri-sectors base stations on a micro layer
1 omni base station on a macro layer
1 omni base station on an umbrella layer

Cells

Layers

Mobilities
3 mobilities defined in the network : pedestrian (3, 50 and 90 km/h)

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

All Servers

No competition between cells and between layers


Overlapping of all the layers
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm)

-105 dBm -102 dBm

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Best Server

Layers not considered


Competition between cells whatever their layer is
No overlapping
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm) and its ability to be the best
server

Best
server
limits

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Second Best Server

Layers not considered


Competition between cells whatever their layer is
No overlapping
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm) and its ability to be the second
best server

2nd best
server
limits

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Best Server per HCS Layer

One best server prediction per layer


Competition between cells on each different layer
Overlapping between layers is possible
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm) and its ability to be the best
server on each layer

-105 dBm -102 dBm

Best server
limits on the
micro layer

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Second Best Server per HCS Layer

One second best server prediction per layer


Competition between cells on each different layer
Overlapping between layers is possible
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm) and its ability to be the second
best server on each layer

Only 1 server on the macro layer


and on the umbrella layer
No second best server on these
layers

-102 dBm

2nd best server


limits on the
micro layer

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

HCS Servers

One best server prediction per layer


Competition between cells on each different layer
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm), its HCS admission threshold
(-105/-90-84 dBm) and its ability to be the best server on
each layer
Overlapping between layers is possible

-84 dBm
-90 dBm

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Highest Priority HCS Server

Competition between cells and between layers


On each pixel, the coverage corresponds to the best
server on the highest priority layer, assuming the highest
priority is defined by the priority value (0:lowest) if the
received signal level exceeds the HCS layer threshold.
Overlapping between layers is not possible
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm), its HCS admission threshold
(-105/-90-84 dBm) and its ability to be the best server on
the highest priority layer
In the case of same priority, the server with the highest
signal level difference from its layer threshold is selected.

-84 dBm

-90 dBm
-105 dBm

Zones where the


Zones where the micro micro layer has
and the macro layers the highest
have an higher priority priority
than the umbrella layer

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Definition of Service Areas in GSM/GPRS/EDGE

Server with the Best Idle Mode Reselection Criterion (C2)

Layers not considered


Competition between cells whatever their layer is
No overlapping
C1 = reception level - subcell reception threshold
When C1>0, C2 = C1 + cell reselection offset
Border of each cell defined by its BCCH reception
threshold (-105/-102 dBm) and its ability to have the best
C2

Best C2
criterion
limits

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Basic Quality Predictions (1/6)

Generic Dialog for all the predictions (General, Condition, Display tabs)

Available Coverage Prediction Templates


Coverage by C/I level prediction: global analysis of the network quality
Interfered areas prediction: areas where a Rx is interfered

Definition of the zone to study in the Condition Tab

Definition of the service zone of each transmitter


Server selection
All
Best signal level / second best signal
Best signal level per HCS layer / second best signal level per HCS layer
HCS servers
Highest priority HCS server
Best idle mode reselection criterion (C2)
Shadowing considered or not + Cell Edge Coverage Probability
Indoor coverage or not (receiver located indoor)
Subcell or user-defined reception thresholds

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Basic Quality Predictions (2/6)

Interference Condition
Interference studied on a TRX type (or All)
Calculation of C/I and comparison with upper and lower thresholds
Subcell or user-defined C/I thresholds
Optional Interference Computations
Consideration or not of the receiver noise N (or user-defined value)
Consideration of C/I levels satisfied by at least one TRX or the worst one
Possibility to evaluate interference level on a specific channel
Separated study of the contribution of co and/or adjacent channels, external sources of interferences
(e.g. UMTS network)
Modelling of the DTX with a voice activity factor
Consideration of the traffic load per subcell
Detailed results
NH : per TRX type
BBH : per TRX type and MAL
SFH : per TRX type and MAL-MAIO

Colouring depending on attributes


C/I level, Max C/I level, Min C/I level
Transmitter
Any transmitter attribute...

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Basic Quality Predictions (3/6)

Coverage by C/I Level Prediction


Global analysis of the network quality

Filter the useful


signal

Filter C/I
values

Interference
calculation options
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Basic Quality Predictions (4/6)

Coverage by C/I Level Prediction

Overlapping zones
with a lower quality
(low C/I)

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Basic Quality Predictions (5/6)

Interfered Zones Prediction


Areas where a Rx is interfered

Filter the useful


signal

Filter C/I
values

Threshold under which


interferences are
considered

Interference
calculation options
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Basic Quality Predictions (6/6)

Interfered Zones Prediction

Areas where the receiver is


interfered (where the C/I is lower
than the user-defined threshold)
on the HCS server areas

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Circuit Service Dedicated Predictions (1/4)

Generic Dialog for all the Predictions (General, Condition, Display tabs)

Principles
Coverage by FER, BER or MOS according to the radio conditions (C/N or C/I+N) and the
possible codecs for terminals and transmitters

Definition of the Zone to study in the Condition Tab

Definition of the Service Zone of each transmitter


Server selection
All
Best signal level / second best signal
Best signal level per HCS layer / second best signal level per HCS layer
HCS servers
Highest priority HCS server
Best idle mode reselection criterion (C2)
Shadowing considered or not + Cell Edge Coverage Probability
Indoor coverage or not (receiver located indoor)
Subcell or user-defined reception thresholds

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Circuit Service Dedicated Predictions (2/4)

Interference Condition
Consideration or not of the receiver noise N (or based on a user-defined value)
Filter on interfered TRX types (or all)
Optional interference computations
Separated study of the contribution of co and/or adjacent channels, external sources of interferences
(e.g. UMTS network)
Modelling of the DTX with a voice activity factor
Consideration of the traffic load per subcell

Quality Indicator Calculation


Based on defined codecs
Depending on radio conditions (C/N or C/I+N)
Consideration of the receiver noise N (or user-defined value)
Consideration of specific terminal and mobilities for compliancy with selected terminals and mobilities in
codec configuration

Colouring depending on Quality Indicators


BER, FER, MOS
Best BER, best FER, best MOS

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Circuit Service Dedicated Predictions (3/4)

Circuit Quality Indicators

Type of CQI displayed


(BER, FER or MOS)

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Circuit Service Dedicated Predictions (4/4)

Circuit Quality Indicators

Overlapping zones with a lower


quality and consequently where
the BER is higher

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (1/8)

Generic Dialogs (General, Condition, Display tabs)

Available Coverage Prediction Templates


GPRS/EDGE Coding Scheme
Coding Schemes selected according to assigned Coding Scheme configuration and radio conditions

Throughput Predictions
RLC/MAC throughput/TS: gross throughput directly obtained from Coding Schemes
Application throughput/TS: obtained from RLC/MAC Throughput + scaling factor and offset defined per
service
Max throughput: Application throughput/TS multiplied by the number of TS available per connection
(defined in Terminals number of available TS + number of available carriers in case of EGPRS2 - and
in Services)
User throughput: Max throughput reduced by the reduction factor due to user multiplexing as defined in a
selected dimensioning model

Quality Predictions
BLER obtained from the difference between the served RLC/MAC throughput/TS and the maximum
RLC/MAC throughput/TS that the served Coding Scheme can provide.

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (2/8)

Definition of the service zone of each transmitter


Server Selection
All
Best signal level / second best signal
Best signal level per HCS layer / second best signal level per HCS layer
HCS servers
Highest priority HCS server
Best idle mode reselection criterion (C2)
Shadowing considered or not + Cell Edge Coverage Probability
Indoor coverage or not (receiver located indoor)

Interference Condition
Consideration or not of the receiver noise N (or user-defined value)
Filter on interfered TRX types (or all)
Optional interference computations
Separated study of the contribution of co and/or adjacent channels, external sources of interferences
(e.g. UMTS network)
Modelling of the DTX with a voice activity factor
Consideration of the traffic load per subcell

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (3/8)

GPRS/EDGE Specific Options


Limitation to GPRS or EDGE Coding Schemes only (or both)
Min Coding Scheme between C and C/I graphs or max Coding Scheme between C/N and
C/I+N graphs
Ideal link adaptation (selection of the Coding Scheme providing the highest throughput)
Consideration of specific terminal and mobilities for compliancy with selected terminals and
mobilities in codec configuration

Possibility to colour the pixels depending on


Coding Scheme, Best Coding Scheme
Throughput per timeslot, best and average throughput per timeslot
RLC/MAC Throughput/TS
Application Throughput/TS

Effective Throughput per connection, best and average effective throughput per connection
Max Throughput
User Throughput

BLER or max BLER

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (4/8)

GPRS/EDGE Coding Schemes

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (5/8)

GPRS/EDGE Coding Schemes

High quality areas of a


EDGE-capable
transmitter
MCS9

High quality areas of


High quality areas a EGPRS2-capable
of a purely GPRS transmitter
transmitter DBS11
CS4

Overlapping zones
with a lower quality
and consequently
with a lower Coding
Scheme

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (6/8)

Packet Throughput and Quality

Selection of a propagation model to extract from


it the throughput reduction factor due to user
multiplexing Only used in User Throughputs

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (7/8)

RLC/MAC and Application Throughputs

High quality areas of a


GPRS/EDGE
transmitter
High throughput

Overlapping zones
with a lower quality
Low throughput

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Packet Service Dedicated Predictions (8/8)

RLC/MAC and Application Throughputs

Application throughput
reduction compared to
RLC/MAC throughput

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Point Interference Analysis (1/3)

Interference Window of Point Analysis Tool


Selection of potentially interfered transmitter
Indoor reception or not (receiver located indoor)
Filter on interfered TRX type (or all)
Filter on interferers
Possibility to consider any combination of co-channel, adjacent channel or external interferences (e.g.
UMTS network)
Possibility to consider or not the receiver noise N
Analysis
NH : per TRX type
BBH : per TRX type and MAL
SFH : per TRX type and MAL-MAIO
Std deviation type (model or C/I) + Cell Edge Coverage Probability
Reduction factor on signal and interference levels represented by partly filled bars
Interfered reception bar: reduction due to power offset
Interferer reception bars: reduction due to power offset, adjacent channel protection level, fractional
load, mean power control
Display on the map of interferers and related contributions to total interference
Differentiation between co-channel and adjacent channel interferers

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Point Interference Analysis (2/3)

Interference Tab in Point Analysis Window

Studied
transmitter,
subcell and
Interference area
TRX
based on C/I
Signal level conditions Display of
(C) of the adjacent channel
potential interference
victim at the
receiver Display of co-
channel Received noise
interference (I) from
surrounding co-
and adjacent
channels at the
receiver
Interference
types

Resulting C/I or C/I+N value

Transmitters participating in
the noise determination
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Point Interference Analysis (3/3)

Details Tab in Point Analysis Window

Interference area
based on C/I
conditions

Signal level and


interference level
for each received
transmitter on the
receiver location

Forsk 2011 Confidential Do not share without prior permission Slide 73 of 75


Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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Neighbour Features in Atoll

Definitions

Importing Neighbours

Neighbours Automatic Allocation

Displaying Neighbour Relations on the Map

Modifying Neighbour Relations Manually

Exporting Neighbour Relations

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Definitions

Reference Cell
The cell to which you are allocating neighbours

Possible Neighbours
The cells that fulfil the requirements to be neighbours

Intra-technology Neighbours
The cells defined as neighbours that use the same technology as the reference cell
E.g., UMTS-UMTS, GSM-GSM, LTE-LTE

Inter-technology Neighbours
The cells defined as neighbours that use a technology other than the reference cell
technology
E.g., UMTS-GSM, UMTS-LTE, GSM-LTE

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Importing Neighbours (1/2)

Possibility to copy/paste or to import a list of neighbours

Prerequisites
A text file with at least 2 columns
Name of the reference cells
Name of neighbour cells

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Importing Neighbours (2/2)

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Neighbour Automatic Allocation (1/5)

Possibility to define neighbourhood constraints to be considered during the automatic


neighbour allocation

List of neighbour relations you may force


or forbid

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Neighbour Automatic Allocation (2/5)

Allocation Parameters

Maximum Number of Neighbours


Global value for all cells or value specified for each cell

Maximum Inter-site Distance

Allocation Strategy Based on the Overlapping of Cell Coverage

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Neighbour Automatic Allocation (3/5)

GSM Technology

Coverage Calculation
conditions options

Overlapping
criterion
Do not select the option if
Start allocation you want to keep existing
neighbours

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Neighbour Automatic Allocation (4/5)

GSM Technology

Overlapping Criterion

% min covered area is defined by the formula : (SA SB) / SA where :


SA is the coverage area of A restricted by HO start and HO end
SB is the best server area of Cell B B best server area
(Candidate)
A best server area
(Reference) B

A
Best signal level
for A - HO end

Best signal level


Minimum for A - HO start
BCCH of A

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Neighbour Automatic Allocation (5/5)

Allocation Result
Sorted List of Neighbours with Allocation Reasons and Importance Value (0-1)

Allocation results

Sort and filtering tools

Summary report listing existing, new Commit selected


and removed neighbours neighbours only
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Displaying Neighbour Relations on the Map (1/3)

Select the icon in the toolbar and click a transmitter on the map

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Displaying Neighbour Relations on the Map (2/3)

Additional Display Options

Click the icon from the toolbar

Symmetric link: site10_2(0) is


neighbour of site22_3(0) and
vice-versa

Direction of the neighbour


relation
Inwards link: site22_3(0) is
neighbour of site9_3(0)

Outwards link: site1_2(0) is


neighbour of site22_3(0)

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Displaying Neighbour Relations on the Map (3/3)

Possibility to display coverage area of cells neighbours according to any neighbour


characteristics on the map

Calculate and display a coverage by transmitter on the map

Display neighbour relations of the desired transmitter

Click the icon from the toolbar

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Modifying Neighbour Relations Manually

Possibility to add/remove neighbour relations on the map using the ctrl and shift
shortcuts

Possibility to add/remove neighbours in the transmitter property dialogue

Neighbour list of BRU038_G2

List of transmitters within a 30 km


radius from the selected one
(sorted in a ascending inter-site
distance order)

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Exporting Neighbour Relations

Possibility to Copy/Paste or to Export the List of Neighbours

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Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Automatic Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

Forsk 2011 Confidential Do not share without prior permission Slide 89 of 75


6. Frequency Plan Analysis

Network Consistency Checking

Find On Map Tool

Frequency Histograms

Interactive Frequency Planning

Forsk 2011 Confidential Do not share without prior permission Slide 90 of 75


Network Consistency Checking

Tool to check the consistency of a network


Recommended after an automatic or manual allocation
Available by selecting frequency plan and audit in the transmitters folder context menu

Consistency checking performed on


The active and filtered transmitters which belong to the transmitters folder for which the audit
was launched and to the focus zone (if existing or otherwise to the computation zone) as well
:TBA transmitters
The potential interferers with TBA transmitters if the option load all interferers propagating in
the focus zone (or in the computation zone if not defined)
The transmitters involved in the specified separation conditions with TBA transmitters
(neighbours, co-site transmitters, transmitters or subcells of exceptional pairs, neighbours of
neighbours in case of BSIC allocation)

Systematic checking
Unique BCCH TRX per transmitter, consistency TRXs/cell types,

Additional checking on frequencies, HSNs and/or BSICs


Domains compliance, separation constraints, no empty domain, (BSIC-BCCH) checking,

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Find On Map Tool (1/4)

Tool to visualise channel and BSIC reuse on the map

Possibility to find transmitters which are assigned a given :


Channel (of a specified type broadcast or not)
BCCH-BSIC pairs
HSNs
MAIOs
Any combination of any resource
Possibility to generate a report listing all the transmitters that use the searched channel (co-
channel) and its adjacent channels
Possibility to generate a report listing all the transmitters that use the searched (BSIC-BCCH)
pair
Possibility to generate a report listing all the transmitters that use the searched (Channel-
HSN) pair

Way to use this tool

Create and calculate a coverage by transmitter with a colour display by transmitter

Open the Find on Map tool available in the toolbar

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Find On Map Tool (2/4)

Channel Reuse on the Map


Select the GSM Channel option

Search type

Search
options

Colours given to transmitters


Red: co-channel transmitters
Orange: co-channel transmitters and different subcell
Yellow: multi-adjacent channel (-1 and +1) transmitters
Green: adjacent channel (-1) transmitters
Blue: adjacent channel (+1) transmitters
Grey + Thin Line Symbol: other transmitters

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Find On Map Tool (3/4)

BSIC-BCCH Reuse on the Map


Select the BSIC-BCCH Pair option

Search type

Search options
(BSIC given in value
or in NCC-BCC)

Colours given to transmitters


Red : searched transmitters
Grey : others

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Find On Map Tool (4/4)

Channel-HSN Reuse on the Map

Search type

Search
options

Colours given to transmitters


Red : searched transmitters
Grey : others

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Frequency Histograms

Display of the Frequency Distribution

Available by selecting frequency plan and channel distribution in the transmitters folder
context menu

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Interactive Frequency Planning

Aim : verify the current frequency allocation


For each single transmitter
Interactively propose alternative solutions to the current allocation
Addition of new TRXs by selecting the most appropriate channel(s)

Selection of an available AFP model


Use of an AFP license
Use of the settings of the selected AFP model
Use of the active Interference Matrices
AFP : selection of channels according to the lowest overall cost over all the network
IFP : selection of channels according to the lowest cost obtained on the selected transmitter

Powerful graphic user interface


Variable thickness arrows to each interfered or interfering transmitter
Thickness defined according to interference probability
Possibility to filter transmitters according to their contribution to the AFP cost

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Interactive Frequency Planning

IFP running Selection of a Selection AFP


command on transmitter of an AFP properties,
the selected and a TRX model settings and
subcell type related tables

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Interactive Frequency Planning

Selected Alternative Filtering Interference


subcell actual allocations and according to cost probabilities
allocation associated cost

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Interactive Frequency Planning

Selection of an
alternative
channel

Commit of the
new channel
allocation

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Interactive Frequency Planning

Selection of a
different subcell

Case of 1
missing TRX

Selection of the
channel to be assigned
to the new TRX

Commit of the
TRX creation
Actual
considered item
(new TRX)

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Interactive Frequency Planning

Using the
same
interface,
possibility to Analysis in case
analyse the the selected Interference
IM subcell is either probabilities
probabilities victim or interferer
for a given
subcell Probability given
for co-channel or
Victim of
adjacent channel
interferer filtering
interferences

Forsk 2010 Confidential Do not share without prior permission Slide 102 of 125
Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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7. Frequency Allocation

Automatic Frequency Planning Overview

AFP Standard Parameters

Interference Matrices

Automatic Frequency Allocation With AFP

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Automatic Frequency Planning Overview

Generic dialogs available for any AFP model

Possibility to allocate
Frequencies, Frequency Hopping Groups (MALs), HSNs, MAIOs, BSICs

Possibility to select AFP-dependant strategies


Azimuth-oriented allocation, optimisation of the number of TRXs to increase the correctly
served traffic,

Goal of AFP
Find optimal allocations that minimise interferences over the network and comply with a set of
constraints (separation, frequency domain limitation)

Principle of an AFP model


Convergence criterion based on a cost function
The cost function consists of two main components
Cost component due to interferences
Cost component due to separation constraint violations
The AFP model tries to minimise the value of the cost function

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AFP Standard Parameters

Weights
To increase or decrease importance of subcells and transmitters during AFP
Defined at Tx and subcell levels

Subcell Quality Requirements


Minimum C/I threshold
Maximum percentage of interferences

Domain Resources
Frequency and HSN : subcell level
Possibility to allocate within preferred frequency groups
BSIC : Tx level

Locking Options
To keep an existing allocation
Possibility to keep
Channel(s) assigned to a TRX
HSN assigned to a subcell
HSNs assigned to all the subcells of a Tx
BSIC assigned to a Tx

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AFP Standard Parameters

Requirements
Number of required TRXs per transmitter (existing dimensioning results)

Existing neighbour allocation

Definition of subcell hopping mode

Optional Interference Matrices (calculated or imported)

Possibility to start an AFP on all the transmitters, on a group of transmitters, or on a


single transmitter

Allocation Steps
Setting AFP inputs

Loading and checking the network and starting the AFP

Analysing allocation results

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Interference Matrices

Calculation of Interference Matrices

Computation of C/I probabilities between pairs of victim/interferer subcells (for hypothetic co-
channel interferences)

Interference probability defined


in % of interfered area or traffic

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Interference Matrices

Import of Interference Matrices

Loading of ASCII files containing C/I probabilities between pairs of victim/interferer subcells,
coming from OMC statistics or measurement analysis

4 formats supported
Clc : per pair of subcells, 1 histogram containing the
probabilities of having certain values of C/I, formatted in
columns (dictionary file .dct mandatory)
Im0 : per pair of subcells, 1 histogram containing the
probabilities of having certain values of C/I, formatted in rows
Im1 : per pair of subcells, 1 histogram containing the
probabilities of having certain values of C/I, formatted in
columns (no dictionary file needed)
Im2 : per pair of subcells, 1 Interference Matrix containing
the probabilities of having C/I value lower than the min C/I
threshold defined in the victims subcell.

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Interference Matrices
Displays the Interference Matrix
scope and statistics

Interference Matrices Properties

User-defined parameters, set


according to the Interference
Matrix type
(Used by the AFP model for
the matrix combination)
Definition of the
interference type

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

1st Step : Involved Items


Planning of different resources
User-defined strategies
Possibility to allocate AFP indicators

Selected AFP
model

Resources to
be allocated

Possibility to run specific


allocation strategies
(depending on the model)

Possibility to allocate
additional indicators
(depending on the model)

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

2nd Step : Separation Constraints

Definition of inter-channel separation constraints


Exceptional pairs
Co-site, co-cell and neighbours distinction
Traffic and control subcell distinction

Highest priority separation


rules (relax or increase the
default separation
constraints

Default
separation
rules

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

3rd Step : Advanced AFP Settings


Selection of the subcell type to be allocated
Other subcells are considered locked for this allocation
Possibility to lock existing TRXs regarding to their TRX type
Traffic load source (user-defined or from the default capture)
Consideration of not of the DTX mode (+ voice activity factor)

Selection of
Selection of subcells to be
the TRXs not
allocated. Only selected
to be re-
types may have their TRXs
allocated
created or re-allocated

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

4th Step : Loading And Checking The Network

Network Loading

The transmitters to be allocated : TBA transmitters


Active and filtered transmitters which belong to the transmitters folder for which the AFP was
launched and to the focus zone (if existing or otherwise to the computation zone) as well

The potential interferers with TBA transmitters if the option load all interferers propagating in the focus
zone (or in the computation zone if not defined)

The transmitters involved in the specified separation conditions with TBA transmitters
Neighbours, co-site transmitters, transmitters or subcells of exceptional pairs, neighbours of
neighbours in case of BSIC allocation

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

5th Step : Last Settings Before Starting AFP

Network consistency checking


Non-blocking warnings : values
out of range, inconsistencies of the
existing allocation
Blocking errors : empty domains

Event viewer

The strategy used by the


AFP model depends on the
specified time

The path to a solution is


initialised by a seed
number

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

6th Step : Checking Result Progress


Information About AFP Progress

AFP progress

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

6th Step : Checking Result Progress


Information About AFP Progress

Costs and
components of all
the solutions having
improved the
frequency plan

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

6th Step : Checking Result Progress


Information About AFP Progress

Cost and load


histograms

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

7th Step : Analysing Allocation Results


Frequency Plan Output Dialogue : Summary Tab
Total number of
Initial plan allocation weighted
information Erlangs in the
AFP scope

Best plan allocation


information
Elapsed and
target
computation
times

Costs and components


of all the solutions Number of
having improved the evaluated
frequency plan (same as solutions at this
in the AFP progress step
dialogue)

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

7th Step : Analysing Allocation Results


Frequency Plan Output Dialogue : Allocation Tab
Information on Possibility to
Allocated resources
separation violation keep existing
or existing
results

Resource coloured
according to its
allocation status

Information to be
displayed

Reset plan to previous one

Deletion of TRXs violating


separation constraints Possibility to
resume or assign
Export results in text the obtained
files frequency plan

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Automatic Frequency Planning Process

7th Step : Analysing Allocation Results


Frequency Plan Output Dialogue : Subcells Tab

Cost components
and AFP indicators
(possibly depending
on the selected
strategy when having
run the AFP) before
and after the
allocation

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Training Programme

1. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Concepts

2. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Planning Overview

3. Modelling a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network

4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Predictions

5. Neighbour Allocation

6. Frequency Plan Analysis

7. Frequency Allocation

8. Using Drive Test

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Drive Test Features in Atoll

Drive Test Import

Drive Test Management

Drive Test Graphic Analysis

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Drive Test Import

Drive Tests
Field measurements are collected to evaluate and analyse the network performances in
terms of signal level and quality.

Supported files for Import


Any ASCII text file (with tab, semi-colon or blank character as separator)
Tems FICS-Planet export (*.Pln)
Tems text export (*.Fmt)

Mandatory file structure


Measured data
Header

Measured data
Cell Identifier 1

Cell Identifier n
Transmitter 1

Transmitter n
Coordinates

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Drive Test Import

Import Procedure
Right-click on the Drive Test Data folder to access the Import option

Setup of different parameters:


Receiver height, gain and losses
Measurement points position (X and Y coordinates)
Identification
At transmitter level
BSIC/BCCH pair or Cell ID in GSM/GPRS/EDGE
At cell level
Scrambling Code or Cell ID in UMTS/HSPA
Physical Cell ID in LTE
Preamble Index or Cell ID (BSID) in WiMAX
PN Offset or Cell ID in CDMA2000

Import configuration files can be saved


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Drive Test Management

Table
List of all the measurement points with their attributes and additional information

Standard content management and tools (filters, copy-paste, etc...)


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Drive Test Management

Management of Measurement Path Points

Option of extracting a field related to a


specific transmitter along a path

Creation of any prediction on the


transmitters measured along the path

Option of creating as many CW measurement


paths as the number of involved transmitters
along the path. These data can be used to
calibrate any propagation model

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Drive Test Management
Possibility to save the
current filter settings
in a configuration file
Management of Measurement Path Points

Filter per type(s)


of clutter

Advanced filter on
additional survey Permanent
data deletion of out-of-
filter points

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Drive Test Management

Management of Measurement Path Points

Using the Atoll display dialog, you can display the


points according to any data contained in the
measurement table

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Drive Test Management

Management of Measurement Path Points

List of existing
predictions in the
measurement table

Option of preparing additional prediction


studies along the path using the existing
transmitter parameters (antennas, propagation
models, etc)

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Drive Test Management

Management of Measurement Path Points

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Drive Test Graphic Analysis

Test Mobile Data Analysis Window

Display on the map

Transmitters measured
and indexed for the
current point.

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Drive Test Graphic Analysis

Test Mobile Data Analysis Tool (1/2)

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Drive Test Graphic Analysis

Test Mobile Data Analysis Tool (2/2)

Synchronisation
Option of displaying table map
variation of any measurement
selected numeric field window
along the selected
path

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THANK YOU!