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Adertising Agencies

In addition to these discourse-organizing functions, Advertising Agencies


adverbial clauses have been found to serve interac-
tional functions in face-to-face conversation (Ford An advertising agency is an independent service
1993). Thus initial adverbial clauses are often found at company, composed of business, marketing, and
the beginning of relatively large speech units exactly creative people, who develop, prepare, and place
when the speaker has maximum control of the oor. advertising in advertising media for their clients, the
Final adverbial clauses also seem to serve a special advertisers, who are in search of customers for their
conversational purpose, more exactly those nal goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between
clauses which are separated from the main clause by three dierent but interlocking social groups: industry,
an intonation break. They tend to be used preferably media, and consumers. The history of advertising is
at those points in informal conversation where the largely the history of the advertising agencies that have
interactants negotiate agreement. More specic inter- served the needs of these three groups (see Adertising:
actional tasks can be identied for individual semantic General). They link industry and media by creating
types of adverbial clause. new forms for messages about products and services;
See also: Generative Grammar; Grammar: Functional industry and consumers by developing compre-
Approaches; Grammatical Relations; Semantics hensive communications campaigns and providing
information thereon; and media and consumers by
conducting audience research to enable market
Bibliography segmentation.
Couper-Kuhlen E, Kortmann B (eds.) 2000 CauseCon-
ditionConcessioncontrast: Cognitie and Discourse Per-
specties. De Gruyter, Berlin
1. Origins and Early Deelopments
Crevels M 2000 Concessives on dierent semantic levels: A Advertising agencies are the most signicant
typological perspective. In: Couper-Kuhlen E, Kortmann B organizations in the development of advertising and
(eds.) CauseConditionConcessionContract: Cognitie
marketing worldwide. They came into existence in the
and Discourse Perspecties. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 31339
Ford C E 1993 Grammar in Interaction: Aderbial Clauses in United States in the mid-nineteenth century and, later,
American English Conersations. Cambridge University Press, elsewhere because of the mutual ignorance of the
Cambridge, UK needs of newspaper publishers and would-be
Hengeveld K 1998 Adverbial clauses in the languages of Europe. advertisers and because of the opportunity for prot
In: van der Auwera J (ed.) Aderbial Constructions in the provided by both parties desire for economic as-
Languages of Europe. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 335420 sistance. Initially, advertising agents facilitated the
Ko$ nig E 1995 The meaning of converb constructions. In: purchase and sale of space. In so doing they promoted
Haspelmath M, Ko$ nig E (eds.) Conerbs in Cross-linguistic the general use of advertising, helped advertisers nd
Perspectie. de Gruyter, Berlin
cheaper and more eective ways of marketing goods,
Kortmann B 1991 Free Adjuncts and Absolutes in English:
Problems of Control and Interpretation. Routledge, London and served to inform the public of the existence of
Kortmann B 1997 Aderbial Subordination: A Typology and those goods. They acted as a crucial bridge between
History of Aderbial Subordinators Based on European Lang- the activities of selling products and of mass com-
uages (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology 18). de munication at a time when both were undeveloped
Gruyter, Berlin and expanding rapidly (see Journalism; Mass Media,
Kortmann B 1998 The evolution of adverbial subordinators in Political Economy of ).
Europe. In: Schmid M S, Austin J R, Stein D (eds.) Historical The rst advertising agents were colonial post-
Linguistics 1997, Selected Papers from the 13th International masters in America who accepted advertisements for
Conference on Historical Linguistics, DuW sseldorf, 1017 August
inclusion in newspapers. In 1843, Volney B. Palmer set
1997. Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 213428
Nedjalkov I 1998 Converbs in the languages of Europe. In: van up the rst independent agency, soliciting orders for
der Auwera J (ed.) Aderbial Constructions in the Languages of advertising, forwarding the copy, and collecting pay-
Europe. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 42156 ment on behalf of newspapers that had diculty in
Sweetser E E 1990 From Etymology to Pragmatics. Metaphorical getting out-of-town advertising. This newspaper
and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure. Cambridge agency was the rst of four stages through which the
University Press, Cambridge, UK business of the advertising agent proceeded to pass. In
Thompson S A 1985 Grammar and written discourse: Initial vs. the second space-jobbing stage, the agent became an
nal purpose clauses in English. Text 5: 5584 independent middleman who sold space to advertisers
Thompson S A, Longacre R E 1985 Adverbial clauses. In:
and then bought space from newspapers to ll his
Shopen T (ed.) Language Typology and Syntactic Description.
3 vols. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol. II, pp. orders, driving a hard bargain with both. In 1865,
171234 George P. Rowell initiated the third space-wholesaling
van der Auwera J (ed.) 1998 Aderbial Constructions in the phase when, anticipating the needs of advertisers, he
Languages of Europe. de Gruyter, Berlin bought wholesale from publishers large blocks of
space that he then resold in smaller lots at retail rates.
B. Kortmann Finally, in 1867, some agents contracted annually with

167
Adertising Agencies

the publications they represented to buy in advance growth, and commanding presence of American
the entire advertising space of particular newspapers, agencies in most advertising industries worldwide,
thereby acquiring the adertising concession in a although English agencies tend to have a strong
publication. Similar processes of development can be presence in former British colonies. In Japan, too, a
found outside the United States, in countries such as buoyant domestic market has led to the growth of
England, France, and Japan, where advertising major Japanese advertisers served by Japanese
agencies also owe their early existence to the buying agencies that have resisted American dominance and
and selling of newspaper space. followed their clients abroad, especially into East and
Although the early agency business was often a Southeast Asia (see International Adertising).
confusing amalgam of these dierent arrangements,
one element was common to them all and has
continued to some extent to the present day. Ad- 2. Full Serice Agencies
vertising agents found themselves in an equivocal
position as they attempted to serve two masters: on the What is known as a full-service agency is an agency
one hand, the publishers, on whose behalf they sold that handles the planning, creation, production, and
advertising space and, on the other, the adertisers, to placement of advertising for its clients. It may also
whom they acted as expert and impartial advisors in handle sales promotion and other related services as
the placement of their ads. In other words, right from needed by individual advertisers. In short, a full-
the start, the advertising agency business has invited service agency oers its clients a complete range of
conict between the diverse interests of the advertiser, services beyond the preparation and placement of
the agent, and the media in which advertising is their advertising.
placed. The development of the full-service agency goes
It was in order to overcome such a potential conict back to the last quarter of the nineteenth century,
of interests caused by space brokering that the idea of when mounting competition forced agents to think of
an open contract plus commission was introduced. other services that they might oer (potential)
For the rst time, in 1875, N. W. Ayer & Son entered customers besides the placement of their advertising.
into a formal arrangement that enabled a client to use One of these was marketing. In 1879, N. W. Ayer &
the agencys services exclusively in exchange for Son conducted its rst market survey in a successful
payment of a xed compensation based on the amount attempt to wrest a large advertising account from a
of advertising it billed each year. This so-called billing competitor. This led to the implementation of ad-
system soon spread and is still widely used by vertising planning, as agencies gradually took over the
advertising agencies. It is the gross billings posted by functions of studying the actual and possible markets
advertisers, rather than the actual payments received for the commodities sold by their customers and of
by agencies from their clients, which are today used to devising plans to t into the general strategy for
gauge the relative size of the worlds advertising tapping those markets (see Market Research).
agencies and their industries. It was at this time, too, that agencies rst became
There were two important social consequences of involved in what is now known as creative work.
the introduction of a contract between agency and N. W. Ayer & Son, and Catkins and Holden were
advertiser. First, under the space brokerage system, among the rst agencies to help advertising become a
advertising agents were in constant danger of being profession rather than a mere business transaction
squeezed between advertisers and publishers. The when they began to write advertisements for their
open contract, however, permitted the agent to rep- clients, instead of simply placing their nished ads in
resent the advertiser as well as the publisher. Not only newspapers. As a result, as well as sending salesmen
this, but it established the agencys relationship to a out to sell space to customers, some advertising
client rather than to a customer which hitherto had agencies began to create, plan, write, and design the
given its business to various dierent agents. copy and artwork that went into every ad. They then
Second, by entering into a contract with an ad- produced the necessary plates, and placed them with
vertiser, an agencys prots were tied to the amount the publishers.
that its clients billed. Its growth was thus linked to the There were two signicant reasons underlying
economic well-being of the advertisers it represented, agencies, at rst reluctant, move into the creative side
so that even today an agencys prosperity is totally of advertising. First, they recognized that the
determined by the prosperity of its clients. When the ineectiveness of a poorly written advertisement (con-
economy is buoyant, advertisers spend and agencies tracted or written by the advertiser) was sure to
ourish; when there is a recession, advertising redound against their edgling business. Second, they
appropriations are cut back, and agencies struggle. found themselves operating in a highly competitive
Such close ties can extend to agencies organizational environment in which increased skill was demanded in
expansion. When advertisers business interests lead the writing of advertising in order to make it stand out
them to set up international oces abroad, their eectively. Moreover, new forms of advertising
agencies often follow. This explains the establishment, (magazine and outdoor) were being introduced. This

168
Adertising Agencies

necessity for distinction in the preparation of copy was merchandizing, telemarketing, and e-commerce. The
made more urgent by technical advances in the commercial sponsorship of sports, art, and other
printing and engraving trades. These made possible a cultural events that became prominent in the 1980s
more plentiful use of color and illustration, but they and 1990s has also been driven by advertising agencies
also complicated the work of advertising agencies. which now look for further opportunities to show
Later technological innovations created further their skills in matching their clients needs for publicity
opportunities for agencies to develop into new areas of and advertising to the everyday lives of consumers (see
expertise and so come to be seen as essential partners Mass Media and Sports). This development of
in the advertising endeavor. Radio, for example, promotional culture has led to agencies participating
oered an entirely new medium of entertainment (and in everything from the development of animation
advertising) dependent on sound alone (see Radio as programs in consultation with television networks,
Medium). Within three years of its rst transmission, supported by product placement and character
and in spite of the immense technical diculties merchandizing on the part of toy and other manu-
involved, agencies had begun to take an active facturers, on the one hand, to the arrangement of
part, not only in the preparation of advertising marriages between celebrities, on the other. In many
commercials, but in the planning and production of respects, agencies can best be described as the black
radio programs. These included continuity drama or boxes of cultural continuity and change.
soaps which, almost from the very rst, were
supported by advertising and publicity (see Soap
Opera\Telenoela).
The advent of television, which became popular in 3. Agency Organization
most industrialized countries from the 1950s, also
obliged agencies to sail further into uncharted Many agencies in Europe and the United States have
territorythis time by learning how to combine sound been founded by two entrepreneurs: one a creative
and images in cinematic form (see Teleision: General). person, the other a salesman or account manager. For
As television advertising became ever more popular, example, the J. Walter Thompson (JWT) agency was
dominating print advertising in many parts of the founded by husband-and-wife team of Stanley Resor
world, and as agencies continued to be active in the and Helen Resor who focused on management and
planning and production of media outputs, they found copywriting, respectively. While, at rst, they may
themselves coming into more frequent contact with have handled all aspects of their advertising business
production companies, celebrities, model agencies, themselves, eventually they were obliged to take on
lm studios, stylists, photographers, animators, and employees with dierent areas of expertise and add
others in the entertainment world. The latter decades divisions to handle the basic areas of responsibility in
of the twentieth century, therefore, have seen the a full-service agency. Although agencies dier in the
formation of increasingly close ties among the ad- way they are organized, the main functional areas of a
vertising, media, and entertainment industries (see full-service agency are: (a) account management, (b)
Celebrity; Entertainment). account planning or research, (c) media planning and
Besides above-the-line advertising in the four main buying, (d) creatie services, and (e) internal services
media of television, newspapers, magazines, and radio, (dealing primarily with nance, personnel, and trac).
full-service agencies have found themselves moving They are usually led by a chief executive ocer (CEO)
into below-the-line activities involving all sorts of and one or two vice presidents, who may oversee a
areas of contemporary life hitherto untouched by board of directors whose members represent dierent
advertising. Somelike the ads found on the backs of areas of their agencys responsibility.
Australian postage stamps during the reign of Queen The exact weight given to the work of each func-
Victoria and of British dog licenses in the 1920s and tional area has varied over time and diers also both
1930shave ceased to exist. Most others, however, by agency and by country. During the rst half of the
remain. At this point it seems unlikely that the twentieth century, emphasis was placed by such
advertising currently found on airport baggage famous copywriters as Claude Hopkins on a scientic
trolleys, grand prix racing cars, telephone cards, approach to advertisingan approach supported by
professional sports equipment, and the backs of tickets the founding of research organizations by A. C.
of all kinds will, short of legislation, fall into disuse. Nielsen, George Gallup, and others. Later, in the
To further improve the services that they already 1960s, led by such creative advertising people as
oer their clients, advertising agencies have in many Marlboro man Leo Burnett, David Ogilvy, and
respects acted as cultural intermediaries between the William Bernbach, art, inspiration, and intuition
economy and culture of contemporary societies. This became the industrys buzzwords. The 197090s saw a
means that they have begun to move away from the return to hard-sell advertising in what was called the
four main media that sustained the advertising in- era of accountability.
dustry throughout the whole of the twentieth century, How do these dierent areas of responsibility work
and to invest in new business opportunities, including in practice? When an agency wins a new account, it

169
Adertising Agencies

generally forms a cross-department account group, or and concerns the dierent attitudes towards adver-
account team, composed of an account supervisor tising held by account planners, on the one hand, and
(who is often supported by account executives), creative people, on the other. The very raison deV tre of
account planners and media buyers, as well as a account planning is to form marketing strategies based
creative team made up of copywriter and art director on objective, scientic criteria derived from in-depth
with, as necessary, a producer (for television and\or qualitative and quantitative data. These data then
radio commercials). The account group proceeds have to be transformed into creative images by
along more or less predetermined lines. First, the copywriters and art directors who usually claim to
account planning department works out and solves a work according to intuitive, artistic ideas that may
marketing problem by conducting new, and making have little actual relationship to the expressed mar-
use of previous, research to nd out who the targeted keting aims. Sometimes conict between the two types
consumers (known as prime prospects) are; what of advertising agency employee results and adversely
their demographic characteristics might be; how the aects the work of the account group which, ideally,
product to be advertised ts into their lifestyle; what needs to blend harmoniously to achieve its clients
they think of this and competing products; what the aims.
most suitable advertising medium for the product in
question might be; and so on. On the basis of answers
to these questions, account planners (who are some- 4. Agency Compensation
times simply referred to as marketers) formulate a
strategy that positions the product in relation to It was noted earlier that advertising agencies started
targeted consumers and emphasizes the attribute(s) out as brokers of space on behalf of newspaper
that will appeal to them. publishers who paid them a commission for their
Once the overall marketing strategy has been services. Traditionally, this commission has amounted
determined, the agencys creative team works on an to 15 percent of the media cost. It may be more for
appropriate creative strategy, writes copy, and some kinds of advertising (for example, outdoor), or
prepares rough layouts and storyboards. At the same less for certain advertisers whose account an agency,
time, the media buyers need to work out a media plan for one reason or another, prizes highly enough to
that accords with the marketing strategy, to select an accept a lower commission. In addition to media
appropriate mix of media, and prepare schedules with commissions, agencies may charge a production com-
costs. These three separate plans are then amal- mission for production work subcontracted (type,
gamated into a single package by the account super- photography, and illustration). Here the client is
visor and presented to the client, which may or may charged the cost of the work involved, plus a 17.65
not get involved in dierent stages of the agencys percent commission.
preparations along the way. The extent to which an As seen above in the actual creation of an ad-
advertiser interferes in its agencys work depends vertising campaign, agencies have often found them-
very much on the company concerned. However, selves dealing with the conicting interests of two
evidence suggests that, for reasons that will be dierent partners. The very existence of the com-
explained below, agencies tend to work much more mission system has, historically, encouraged the ad-
closely with their clients in Japan than they do vertiser to try to pay less than the sum demanded by
elsewhere in the world. the medium in which it sought to place its advertising.
One of the main organizational diculties facing As a result, advertising agencies often found them-
any account group is that it invariably nds itself selves caught between a desire for prot, on the one
having to deal with two dierent audiences whose hand, and a need to retain its business, on the other.
interests may not be the same. On the one hand, This has led, and in some parts of the world still leads,
account planners and the creative team focus their to agencies playing o one partner against the other,
attention on how to advertise and sell a product to a as they seek rebates from the media in which they place
particular targeted group of consumers. On the other, their clients advertising, but pass on the full cost to the
the account supervisor and his supporting account advertisers concerned.
executives need to liaise between the adertiser and the It is to oset this problem of business ethics that fees
agency, being responsible for interpreting the clients have been introduced. This form of compensation is
marketing needs to their colleagues, on the one hand, comparable to that used to pay lawyers or
and selling the marketing, creative, and media plans to accountants. Agency and client agree an hourly fee for
the client, on the other. Since it is the advertiser who the agencys work, to which are added charges for out-
pays the agency for its services, it may disagree of-pocket expenses, travel, and other standard items.
withand occasionally overrulethe consumer- No commission is paid on media costs which are billed
oriented strategy proposed by its agencys account net of commission. As a rule, advertiseragency
group. compensation arrangements are negotiated according
A second organizational diculty that often to the specic requirements of the advertiser and the
emerges in the work of an account group is internal willingness and ability of the agency to full those

170
Adertising Agencies

needs at a mutually agreeable cost. Over time, the fee and do not object to the same agency handling a
system has come to predominate over the commission number of competing accounts. Thus large advertisers
system in the United States, although in many other like Toyota or Kao, for example, contract more than
countries the commission system, or a combination of half a dozen dierent agencies to handle the ad-
fee and commission, is still the norm. It seems likely vertising of their numerous products. These same
that in future the fee system will prevail, in which case agencies may also be handling the accounts of rival car
the traditionally close reciprocal ties between ad- or toiletries manufacturers.
vertising agencies and media organizations will prob- The split account system has advantages for both
ably weaken to some extent. agencies and advertisers. Precisely because the overall
advertising appropriation is divided, accounts in
Japan are not nearly as large as they are elsewhere.
5. The Account System This is to an agencys nancial advantage when it loses
an account, since the sheer number of accounts in
The sum of money put aside by an advertiser and circulation means that it can usually make up the
allocated to an agency for the purpose of selling a nancial shortfall and is not obliged, as it might be in
particular brand or product group, sometimes through the United States or Europe, to lay o sta. In this
a selected medium, is called an account. It is an respect, the split account system contributes to the
advertising agencys job to persuade an advertiser that overall stability of the advertising agency, and of the
it is best suited to take on a particular account. To this industry of which it is a part.
end it will embark on active solicitation with the aim of Advertisers are able to use the split account system
being asked to participate in a competitive presen- to play o one agency against another since they alone
tation or pitch in which, together with other agencies, have full knowledge of their overall marketing strat-
it will present marketing and creative strategies based egy. This not only enables advertisers to minimize the
on the advertisers initial orientation of its needs. The problem of condentiality that so worries those
successful agency will be asked to take on an account, working in advertising industries elsewhere. They can
usually for a xed period, and will then enter into use their knowledge strategically to operate a system
partnership with its new client. of divide-and-rule that obliges agencies to keep in
The relationship between agency and client is ideally constant touch with client personnel, as well as with
a professional one, involving a considerable exchange other agencies and media organizations, in order to
of condential information which may include, for gain as much information as possible about their
example, plans for new products or marketing clients overall plans and activities. In other words, the
strategies. As a result, when awarding an account, an split account system encourages much closer inter-
advertiser will not usually permit its agency to handle action among the three main players in the advertising
companies or products with which it is in direct industry.
competition. This is known in Europe and the United There are disadvantages to the system. One result of
States as the competing account rule. the need for Japanese agency account executives to
The rule about an agencys not handling competing keep in constant touch with their clients is that
accounts means that, whenever it wins a new account advertising decisions tend to be based on personal
that conicts with one already being handled, it has to likes and dislikes, rather than on more objective
decide which of the two accounts it wishes to keep. professional criteria. Another, claimed by agencies, is
Competing accounts are also often a deciding factor that they are prevented from producing eective
when, as has happened frequently since the 1980s, advertising because their clients do not give them
agencies decide to merge, although many such large access to their total marketing strategy. All in all,
agencies run their local oces independently. This however, the advantages appear to outweigh the
they do in the hope that their clients will not regard the disadvantages within the Japanese advertising indus-
same type of account being handled in another oce try. In this respect, it is signicant that in the autumn
as being in competition and thus not raise an objection. of 1999, Procter & Gamble, one of the worlds biggest
So far as the organization of the advertising industry spending advertisers, decided to divide its worldwide
is concerned, the competing account rule ensures two advertising appropriation into nine dierent brands
things: rst, that there is a continuous circulation of and to distribute these accounts among nine dierent
accounts among agencies; and second, that no agency advertising agencies. It is possible, therefore, that in
ever becomes excessively large. As a result, by com- future the system of split accounts will become more
parison with other industries, the organizations that popular with advertisers outside Japan, thereby
make up the advertising industry are quite small. altering the relationship hitherto developed between
Although the competing account rule is the norm in an agency and its clients.
almost all countries of the world, an alternative system
of distributing advertising appropriations exists in See also: Advertising and Advertisements; Adver-
Japan where advertisers split their accounts by prod- tising, Control of; Advertising: Eects; Media Eects;
uct, media, or a combination of product and media, Media, Uses of

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Adertising Agencies

Bibliography as a form of market information. Their denition of


information, however, is usually limited to prices and
Hower R 1939 The History of an Adertising Agency: N. W. Ayer
& Son at Work, 18691939. Harvard University Press, availability. To the extent that advertisements in-
Cambridge, MA corporate other non-information (such as prestige
Jones P 1999 The Adertising Business. Sage, Thousand Oaks, claims or sex appeals), advertising becomes an ex-
CA ogenous variable, constitutive of tastes, and there-
Leiss W, Klein S, Jhally S 1990 Social Communication in fore present in the system only as noise or interference.
Adertising: Persons, Products and Images of Well-being, 2nd As long as advertisements serve to notify markets of
edn. Routledge, London supply and price, however, the institution of ad-
Lien M 1997 Marketing and Modernity. Berg, Oxford, UK vertising operates neatly within the range of traditional
Miller D 1997 Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. Berg,
economic models. Indeed, to the extent that adver-
Oxford, UK
Moeran B 1996 A Japanese Adertising Agency: An Anthropology tising supports stable demand, allowing producers to
of Media and Markets. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, become price-makers rather than price-takers, it
HI becomes an important aid to microeconomic planning.
Schudson M 1984 Adertising: The Uneasy Persuasion. Basic The realization of economies of scale that accrue from
Books, New York such an arrangement, so the argument goes, tends to
Wells W, Burnett J, Moriarty S 2000 Adertising: Principles and reduce prices to consumers in the long run.
Practice. Prentice-Hall, London Critics and consumer groups often charge that
advertising merely adds to the prices paid by
B. Moeran consumerssometimes raising them as much as
100%but such claims do not hold for most goods in
Copyright # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. the long run. For example, simple bar soap was sold
All rights reserved. 100 years ago in the US at a price that included
advertising expenses equal to direct costs (thus repre-
Advertising and Advertisements senting about 50% of each units price). As con-
sumption of soap grew, however, the advertising
1. Denition expenditures leveled o (advertisement budgets reach
The way the terms advertising and advertisement a plateau of eectiveness beyond which it makes no
are dened depends to a great extent on the authors sense to spend at higher levels). Consequently, the
perspective, training, and agenda. Even so, an en- percentage of each units price represented by ad-
cyclopedia entry seems to beg for an authoritative vertising steeply declined. Since advertising expense is
denition. This article oers the following: an ad- only one of the economies of scale created by mass
vertisement is a message paid for, but not delivered, by marketing and production, the total unit price of each
the sender, that (a) incorporates technologies or forms bar of soap also dropped dramatically, allowing many
other than speech, (b) appears in a public forum, and US citizens to wash regularly for the rst time. Today,
(c) attempts to persuade receivers to behave in a way it is only the very extraordinary soap that would
that brings direct economic benet to the sender. This include an advertising expense more than 3 percent of
denition allows for most of what is customarily its unit price. The same is true for most well-
considered advertising, while excluding other acts or established, mass-produced, and heavily advertised
forms that, while sharing some characteristics with products.
advertisements, are not generally considered such. For In the Marxist critique of capitalist consumer
instance, this denition would not include a salesmans culture, advertisings most central function is to ensure
pitch, but would encompass any brochures he used. capitalism continues: by stimulating ever-increasing
Political speeches, whether made in Parliament or levels of demand, advertising forces an always-grow-
during the breaks on 60 Minutes, would not be ing array of goods into consumers homes, regardless
advertisements because the expected behavioral out- of need or utility. Here too, advertisements that inform
come is not directly economic. Corporate image audiences of availability and prices are not typically
messages would count, even when purchase is not the thought problematic. However, the fetishization of
object, as such advertisements ultimately have an objects by advertisements that name, sing, or tell
economic goal, such as aecting the value of stock by stories is seen as a sinister form of industrial magic
increasing the prestige of the corporation. through which consumers are made to value products
for the wrong reasons. By adding this dubious
exchange value to the objects use value, advertising
2. Function serves to rob workers and pad the pockets of capitalists
with unearned prots.
The function of advertising likewise will vary in The cultural critics picture of advertising as a
description based upon the education, focus, and guarantee of long-term prots is sharply at odds with
motive of a particular author. Economists tradition- the way advertisings function is actually viewed in
ally have allowed advertising into their models only practice. Though the most obvious reason for a

172

International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences ISBN: 0-08-043076-7