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Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia 2014

INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT


The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation
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Contact:
Mr. Arief Yuwono
Deputy Minister of Environmental Degradation Control and Climate Change
Ministry of Environment of the Republik of Indonesia

Jl. DI. Panjaitan Kav 24 kebon Nanas


Jakarta 13410 Indonesia
Phone/Fax: 62-21-85904923
Website: www.menlh.go.id

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Contents
Preface 4

The Indonesian Archipelago, The Indonesian Lake 7

Condition and Problems of the Indonesian Lakes 13

Solution to Save the Indonesian Lakes 27

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PREFACE
Minister of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia 2014

In general, the lakes have various characteristic, in terms of morphogenesis, the community, even to the social and economic condition of the country.
morphology, and social and economic condition of its surrounding community.
Consequently, they have specific and unique problems in terms of social, Given those serious problems, Indonesian government cq. Ministry of Environment
economic, cultural and ecological conditions. intentionally mitigates the lake problem by formulating policy and strategic action
plan in rehabilitating the lakes ecosystem as it is documented in GERMADAN or
A lake is not only a water resource, but also serves as, among others: an important The Movement for Conserving and Rehabilitating the Lakes Ecosystem. As the
element to balance ecosystem, control of flood, drought, and climate change, first phase, we have 15 priority lakes for the year 2009 2014.
habitat of biodiversity, sources of protein such as by aquaculture, ecotourism,
research, education, energy, and culture preservation. In Indonesia, lake has very We understand that we cant solve the problem by ourselves. We need to synergize
important function related to human life, not only in supplying their daily needs, with all relevant ministries, local government, civil society and even with our
but also in supporting their economy and even influencing their local culture and parliament. In GERMADAN, we focus on the three pillars, they are: technology
wisdom. implementation, institutional arrangement, and community involvement.

In the contrary, pressures to the lake have been significantly increasing for In 2009, the Ministry of Environment and its eight colleagues e.i., Minister of Home
decades. As a result, they have caused severe impacts mainly to the lake Affairs, Minister of Forestry, Minister of Public Works, Minister of Agriculture,
ecosystem. Subsequently, it may influence the social and economic condition of Minister of Energy and Mining Sources, Minister of Marine and Fishery, Minister

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of Research and Technology, and Minister of Tourism and Creative Economic, conservation of endemic species;
convened the First National Lake Conference in Bali. Ever since, the nine 2. Increasing effort to prevent introduction of invasive alien species in lake
institutions have committed to rehabilitate and mitigate the lakes in coordination ecosystem, especially in the aquatic zone;
with Ministry of Environment, and importantly enough, supported by the parliament. 3. Increasing international cooperation for the implementation of technology
to conserve and rehabilitate the lake ecosystem;
Considering the magnitude of the lake problem in Indonesia, we are initiating 4. Increasing attention for preservation and conservation of some unique lake,
and facilitating the formation of Indonesia Lake Center or ILC. The ILC will mainly such as karst lake and peat-land-lake, as a global heritage; and
functions as the center of excellence in terms of conducting researches, transfer 5. Increasing attention of lakes for setting up mitigation plans related to
of knowledge, providing data and information, and other relevant functions to lake climate change.
conservation, mitigation and rehabilitation.
In this context, I would like also to take my deliberation to invite all stakeholders
In this opportunity, herewith, I convey some initiatives for global action to save the ideas, knowledge, experiences and cooperation to commonly solve our lakes, to
lake ecosystems: enable all of us, in achieving our objectives in a mutually supportive manner, in the
1. Increasing global attention on biodiversity in lake ecosystems, especially for context of Sustainable Lake Management

Jakarta, August 2014

Minister of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia


Prof. Dr. Balthasar Kambuaya

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CHAPTER 1

The Indonesian Archipelago,


The Indonesian Lake
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world, consists of five major islands and about 30
smaller islands groups. The figure for the total number of islands is 17,508. The Indonesian
archipelago is on a crossroads between two oceans, the Pacific and the Indian oceans, and
bridges two continents, Asia and Australia. This strategic position has been always influencing the
cultural, social, political and economic life of the country.

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INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT - The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation

Dimension of some lakes in Indonesia

Moreover, Indonesia is divided geologically as the western part that associated to According to ecology, lake is defined as a lentic habitat or inland body of water, or
Eurasian plate and Eastern part that close to the Pacific and Australian plates, and a basin area that was formed by natural occurrence or man made where water from
characterized by active tectonics and high volcanic activities. Also, it is divided the ground, rain, stream or river is accumulated and stored. Lake is a significant
by Wallace Line biogeographically, western and eastern parts. The land area is water resource and is part of the ecosystem that continuously supporting life. Lake
generally covered by thick tropical rain forests, where fertile soils are continuously is a cantilever of bio-diversity functions, source and place of protein formation,
replenished by volcanic eruptions. controlling toxicity in water body, dampening flood in the river, source to fill in the
groundwater, climate control, transportation, sports and tourism means, and last but
The country is predominantly mountainous with some 400 volcanoes, of which not least it is central in community tradition, culture and religion.
100 are active. Indonesia rich of biodiversity, has roughly 12 percent of the worlds
mammals, 16 percent of the worlds reptiles and amphibians, 17 percent of the Indonesia, a country that is located in an active tectonic areas with various types of
worlds birds, 25 percent of fish and each year it finds more. Such a dynamic natural lakes according to the manners of their formations that define their characteristics.
framework constrained all natural phenomena. Many rivers flow throughout the Tectonic, volcanic, crater and caldera are generally located on high elevation around
country, and a number of islands are dotted with scenic lakes. mountain or mountains, with deep basin and relatively stable nature, whereas
the flood plain lake is located on the low elevation and tend got silted due to
It is estimated more than 840 major lakes and 735 small lakes spread throughout sedimentation that complemented by aquatic plants development.
Indonesia. The lakes can accommodate 500 km3 of water or 72% of the total
surface water supplies in Indonesia. The number of lake in Indonesia would These lakes in Indonesia have vital potential in supporting human being live. There
complete about 10 acres scatter in most of the islands especially Sumatera, are many function and benefits of lakes; there are lakes with only single function
Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua. Furthermore, three of the twenty lakes in and there are lakes with multi-functions. Moreover, besides its ecological function
Indonesia are ones of the deepest in the world (i.e.: more than 400 m depth). and richness of bio-diversity, lakes support for human being in economic and
Indonesian lakes are varies in their ecosystems, morphogenesis, morphology and non-economic ways are excessive. The function and benefit can be grouped as
social-economic conditions, rich in biodiversity, culture and local wisdoms. described in the bellow table.

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Tabel 1. Morphogenesis of Some Lakes in Indonesia

No Morphogenesis Lake Description

Diatas, Dibawah, Lindu, Matano, Paniai , Poso,


1 Tectonic lake Formed due to an earthquake
Singkarak dan Towuti
Tiga Warna, Segara Anak, Rawa Danau, Tondano,
2 Volcanic lake Formed due to a volcanic eruption
Batur

3 Tecto-volcanic lake Toba, Maninjau, Kerinci, Ranau Formed due to an earthquake and volcanic eruption

4 Shallow volcanic lake Tondano, Sentani, Rawa Danau, Rawa Pening

Located at high elevation in the vicinity of mount, having a


5 Crater lake Mount Kelud and Mount Galunggung
deep bottom and relatively stable
Located at high elevation in the vicinity of mount, having a
6 Caldera Maninjau and Batur
deep bottom and relatively stable

7 Faulted lake Bratan-Buyan-Tamblingan

Located at low elevation in the vicinity of mount, shallow,


Sentarum, Semayang, Melintang, Jempang, Limboto
8 Flood plain lake and suffered continuous sedimentation due to puddling
and Tempe
and growing of aquatic plants

9 Oxbow lake Lake at Teluk di Jambi

10 Landslide/ earthquake lake TSentani, Ranau and Bandung Purba

11 Dissolved lake Paniai and Dolina in Biak, Papua

12 Morai Lake/Gletser Ertzberg Lake in Papua

Formed due to intensive tectonic process, as a fault/


13 Karst Lake Ayamaru Lake in West Papua
crack which cut carbonate materials at the area
Located at the shoreline, brackish water due to intrusion
14 Brackish lake Bunung Lake in North Sulawesi
from the sea

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Tabel 2. Morphometry of Some Lakes in Indonesia

Maximum Category
No. Lake Area (km ) 2
Volume (Billion m )
3
Depth (m) Depth
Area Area Volume

1 Toba 1.130 240.000 529 Medium Very large Very deep


2 Maninjau 99,5 10.400 165 Small Large Deep
3 Singkarak 107,8 16.100 268 Medium Large Very deep
4 Kerinci 42 1,6 116 Small Small Medium
5 Tondano 44,38 595 35,3 Small Medium Shallow
6 Limboto 25 23 2,5 Small Small Very shallow
7 Poso 368 71.811 384 Medium Large Very shallow
8 Tempe 90 ND 5 Medium - Very shallow
9 Matano 164 43.000 588 Medium Large Very deep
Mahakam Cascade :

10 Semayang 103 390 3,5 Medium Small Very shallow


Jempang 146 ND 8 Medium - Very shallow
Melintang 89 ND 2,0 Small - Very shallow
11 Sentani 93,6 ND 140 Small - Deep
12 Sentarum 890 ND 14 Medium - Shallow
13 Rawa Danau 22,6 180 5 Small Medium Shallowl
14 Batur 16,05 815 88 Small Medium Medium
15 Rawa Pening 25 52 14 Small Small Shallow

Note: ND = no available data

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Table 3. Lakes Function and Utilities in Indonesia

Function and Benefit Description


Direct Function
1. Flood and drought control Menampung kelebihan air pada musim penghujan dan menyalurkan cadangan air pada musim kemarau.
2. Recharge of ground water and prevention of
Protection of ground water and surface water from intrusion of sea water
intrusion of sea water
3. Transportation Transportation lane
4. Recreation Lake with aesthetic value is interesting for recreation
5. Research and education As a source of earth science fro research and education
Ecological function
6. Sediment trap and water purifying Certain rooting system and veetation can trap sedimentation and purify the water
7. Hold and provide nutrient Water body and vegetation in the lake can hold and provide nutrient
8. Restrain and control pollution Water body and all component of the lake can decrease poison of pollutant
9. Stabilize micro climate Hydrology and material balance in the wetland kan stabilize micro climate, especially rainfall and temperatura
10. Control of global climate Lake can absorb and restore carbon, so it may control release of carbon to the atmosphere, which directly impact to
the global climate change.
Economic and non-economic production
11. Water supply for community around As raw water for several needs
12. Recharge of ground water Air permukaan yang terdapat di danau dapat mengisi akuifer melalui pori-pori tanah.
13. Water recharge of wetland Kelebihan air pada suatu danau dapat mengairi ekosistem lahan basah lainnya yang berada di dekatnya sehingga
lahan basah tersebut dapat tetap menjalankan fungsi-fungsinya.
14. Source of fishery Lake is habitat for fishery
15. Support of agriculture Source of water irrigation for agriculture, especially for paddy fileds
16. Source of energy Energi yang dihasilkan dari pergerakan air danau dapat dikonversi menjadi energi lain (misalnya listrik).
Attributes
17. Habitat of biodiversity Lake is a habitat for several plants and animals, either for their part or the whole life
Uniqueness of tradition, culture and heritage Many lakes have specific aesthetic vakues, as a part of culture of the local community
18. Habitat for a part or the whole lifecycle of plants
Lake is a place of reproduction, growing, and sources of feed of several plants and animals
and animals

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CHAPTER 2

Condition and Problems


of the Indonesian Lakes
In the realm of community social and economic living, lake in Indonesia is used for various means
such as raw water for drinking water, agriculture, fisheries, hydroelectricity, flood mitigation and
tourism.

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INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT - The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation

According to the ecological problems, the problem of lake ecosystem can be occurred decomposed into inorganic materials where nutrients compound of nitrogen and
in catchment area, riparian zone of the lake, and body water. The common damage in phosphorus potentially fertilize the lake water.
the watershed area, lakes water catchment area, and riparian zone of the lake are as
follows: Some of the organic materials coming from domestic waste that go into the lake will
environmental damage and land erosion due to illegal deforestation and be absorbed by the hydrophyte. The rest, together with the product of decomposition
land mismanagement that is not aligned with its carrying capacity; and of the hydrophytes heaviness, will be settled to the bottom of aphotic waters. When,
littering by community, industrial, mining and agriculture that cause lake at anytime, there are reversals of water heaviness from photic to aphotic zones,
water pollution. algae bloom threats the waters life. The threads usually happen in the night due to
competition of getting the oxygen between plants and animals. When the reversal of
Meanwhile, many activities are carried out in the lake that potentially would damage water heaviness comes from hypolimnion column, the situation even will be worse,
aquatic ecosystem, such as: not only in the night but also in day time. This can happen because besides anaerobe,
Overfishing in a way that causing resource damage the water heaviness of hypolimnion column contains of toxic gasses such as H2S
Uncontrolled fish cultivation that use floating net cages and potentially (hydrogen sulphide), NH3 (ammoniac), and CH4 (methane). The sediment material
causing disposal waste fish feed and water pollution in the bottom of the lake is a time bomb to the lake waters life. Lake overturn was
Lake water withdrawal to be used as raw water or hydroelectricity that once occurred in Maninjau Lake and Singkarak Lake where toxic gasses arise from
are not considering balance of lake hydrology and causing conversion the bottom to the top of the lake and killed the endemic fish and the cage farming fish
of the lake water surface characteristics and the riparian zone of the (bilih fish of Singkarak Lake).
lake.
Decrased of Biodiversity
Various resource and impacts of the above problems have created lake ecological As the resource of sperm and genetic plasma, lake waters has lots of fish varieties.
damage. Some of the damages are discussed below: Endemic fish live in fresh water lake such as Toba, Maninjau, Singkarak, Limboto,
Poso, Matano, Mahalona, Towuti, and Sentani.
Lake Silting
Some of lake silting occurs in some silted lakes such as Lake Tempe and Lake Threatens to biodiversity of the fresh water ecosystem caused by five factors. They
Limboto. The sedimentation and narrowing have changed the ecosystem and lead are:
to flooding since the storage capacity of the lake is decreased. Silting was also a) Over exploitation of fish using methods that damage all of water
happened to the deep lake like Lake Sentani. This beautiful lake is a fishery and biota;
tourism resources where largest landfills fails to be identified; it is a place where any b) Habitat destruction due to sedimentation, silting and water level
soil and materials were dumped. Moreover, many of the medium type of lake and reduction and narrowing of the lake waters
deep-lake, like volcanic and tectonic types of lake that are located at steep water c) Water quality damage due to pollution from watershed, water
catchment area, got silted due to the soil from the erosion/landslide. catchment area, riparian zone of the lake and activities;
d) Changes of river flow pattern
Water Pollution e) Exotic animals invasion
The source of lake water pollution is domestic waste in the form of organic materials
of community residential at the water catchment area and riparian zone of the lake. Lake water utilization for electricity or other types of utilization by developing a
Moreover, activities such as agricultural, animal husbandry, home industry and tourism building at the lake outlet disturb way of some fish. Fish is spawning at upstream
will increase organic materials waste that dumped into the lake. The waste will be river or lake (anadromous fish) and fish that is spawning at the downstream river or

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Table 4. Utilities of Some Lakes in Indonesia

No. Lake Use Hydropower Installed capacity


1. Toba RW, Ir, F, El, FC, Tr PLTA Asahan I 2 90 MW
4 71, 5 MW (PLTA Sigura-gura)
PLTA Asahan II 4 79,2 MW (PLTA Tangga)
2. Maninjau RW, Ir, F,El, Tou PLTA Maninjau 4 17 MW
3. Singkarak RW, Ir, F, El, Tou, Tr PLTA Singkarak 4 43,75 MW
4. Kerinci RW, Ir, F, Tou - -
5. Tondano RW, Ir, F, El, PW PLTA Tonsealama 14,34 MW
PLTA Tanggari I 2 9 MW
PLTA Tanggari II 2 9,5 MW
6. Limboto RW, Ir, F, Tou, FC, Tr - -
7. Poso RW, Ir, F, El, Tou, Tr - -
8. Tempe B, Ir, F, Tou PLTA Balambano 137 MW
9. Matano El, Tou, CET PLTA Larona 3 65,46 MW
10. Kaskade F, Tou, Tr, FC - -
Mahakam

(Semayang-
Melintang-
Jempang)
11. Sentani RW, Ir, F, El, Tou, Tr -
12. Sentarum FC, Tr, NP - -
13. Rawa Danau RW, Ir, CA - -
14. Batur F, Tou - -
15. Rawa Pening RW, Ir, F, El, FC, Tou, Min PLTA Jelok 4 5,12 MW
PLTA Timo 3 4 MW

Source: Data processed, Pedoman Pengelolaan Ekosistem Danau, KLH (2008) and Profil 15 Danau Prioritas Nasional (2011)

Note: RW Raw Water, Ir Irrigation/Agriculture, F Fishery/Aquaculture, El Electricity/Hydropower, FC Flood Control, Tou


Tourism, Tr Transportation, CA Conservation Area/Nature Reservation, NP National Park, CET = Conservation Area for
Ecotourism, Min Sediment mining

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Ecosystem Status
No. Lake Catchment Littoral/ Riparian Trophic Level
Area Zone
Sumatera
1 Aneuk Laot Devastated Threatened Eutrophic
2 Laut Tawar Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
3 Toba Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
4 Maninjau Devastated Devastated Hypereutrophic
5 Singkarak Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
6 Kerinci Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
7 Di Atas Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
8 Di Bawah Threatened Threatened Mesotrophic
9 Ranau Devastated Threatened Mesotrophic
Jawa & Bali
10. Rawa Danau Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
11. Rawa Pening Devastated Threatened Hypertrophic Tabel 5.
Ecosystem Condition Status of Some Lakes in Indonesia
12 Batur Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
Source: KLH (2012) and Sri Haryani, G (2014)
Kalimantan
13 Sentarum Devastated Thratened Eutrophic
14 Mahakam
Cascade:
Semayang Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
Melintang Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
Jeumpang Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
Sulawesi
15 Limboto Devastated Devastated Eutrophic
16 Tondano Devastated Devastated Eutrophic
17 Tempe Devastated Threatened Eutrophic
18 Poso Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
19 Matano Threatened Threatened Oligotrophic
20 Towuti Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
Papua
21 Sentani Threatened Threatened Eutrophic
17
22 Ayamaru Threatened Threatened Mesotrophic
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INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT - The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation

the sea (catadromous fish) such as eel would get difficulties due to the presence Changes and Fluctuations in Surface Water and Broad Lake
of the building. Fishways construction to avoid disturbing the fish would be a wise Some fluctuation changes in lake surface water caused by the damage to watershed
consideration although its construction is considered costly. and water catchment areas. The changes of water flow during rainy and dry seasons
happen due to the inability of soil absorbing and storing the rainwater. The damage
Aquatic plants/ Aquatic Weeds and Algae Bloom of watershed and water catchment area impacts flood debit fluctuations during rainy
The blooming of Algae Microcytic in Lake Maninjau distracts the waters especially as season and very little debit during the dry season with extreme differences. As a
pungent aroma occurs. Microcytic dispense a kind of toxin, microcystin, that can kill consequence, the lakes size and deepness also vastly changed according to the
other organism. It is difficult for fish to digest microcytic because its body is shrouded season as what happened to shallow lake and flood plain lake (i.e.: Lake Tempe and
with lignin. The mass growth of aquatic plants and alga happen because of waters Lake Limboto).
eutrophication with dense nutrients of nitrogen and phosphors.
Riparian zone of the lake that formed as a consequences of waters lake depreciation
The development of aquatic plants in lake waters very much depends on the waters and constriction impacts lake ecosystem transition into swampy marsh ecosystem,
nutrient readiness, so it can indicate the water lake fertility that generally limited in the and as a result there are changes of surrounding community ownership and
littoral area. Indonesia has some of the aquatic plants that can be grouped as weeds management of the riparian zone of the lake and its resulting land. Lake water
(plant pests). Three of them are dominant weeds such as water hyacinth (eichhornia withdrawal to be used as raw water, irrigation and hydropower potentially disrupt
crassipes), kariba (salvinia molesta), and hydrilla (hydrilla verticilata). Two types of ecological stability in the riparian zone of the lake. Over water withdrawal can cause
weeds where the first is floating weeds and the last one is submerged weeds. receding water surface of the lake that in the end will change the waters ecosystem as
when the water is stagnant riparian zone of the lake and its surrounding borders are
Water pollution caused by increased water nutrient would trigger vegetation growth habitat and life resource for the water biota.
that can disrupt aquatic animals life. Vegetation in form of mycro and macro plants
have positive and negative dual role. The positive role of aquatic plant is as aquatic The ecological status of some lakes in Indonesia are vary but they demonstrate certain
animal food, shelter and proliferating. Moreover, it is the means of oxygen supplier conditions and need to be conservation and rehabilitationd.
through photosynthesis processes. On the other hand, besides decreasing water
volume and accelerate the rate of evaporation, aquatic plants interfere in the transport Ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation of a lake relates to the supporting
and tourism aesthetic. Moreover, they restrict hydroelectricity turbine when the lake is institution. At the moment, there are some forums and institutions that focusing their
not equipped with trash boom. work on lakes in their respective areas.

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Tabel 6. Problems of Same Lakes in Indonesia
Problems
No. Lake
Catchment Area Littoral/Riparian Zone The Aquatic Zone

1. Toba Illegal logging , Illegal mining, land Eutrophication, water pollution from domestic waste , agriculture,
illegal excavation, occupation (for settlement aquaculture, small enterprises, transportation, livestocks, and
unsustainable and tourism facility), source growing of aquatic plants (eceng gondok)
agriculture of waste (from municipal and
livestock)

2. Singkarak Land conversion for Illegal logging, land Sedimentation, water pollution from domestic waste and
settlement, agriculture erosion, and unappropriate livestocks, and growing of aquatic plants (eceng gondok)
and livestocks settlement
3. Maninjau Unplanned of Settlement, agriculture, land Sedimentation; water pollution from aquaculture, domestic waste,
settlement, source occupation (for settlement agriculture and transportation; eutrophication; and decreasing of
of domestic waste, and tourism facility), population of endemic species
industrial waste and livestocks
waste from livestock

4. Kerinci Illegal logging, illegal Unappropriate of land use, Sedimentation, water pollution from domestic waste and
mining, and land and land occupation and land aquaculture
forest fire conversion (for settlement,
and agriculture), and land
erosion
5. Rawa Danau Sand excavation and Land occupation and land Sedimentation, water pollution from municipal and industrial waste,
water pollution from conversion (for settlement, eutrophication, and decreasing of water level
industrial waste agriculture etc) and land
erosion
6. Rawapening Land conversin and Land conversion and Sedimentation, occupation of aquatic zone, water pollution from
land occupation (for land occupation (for domestic waste, agriculture, livestocks, industry, and aquaculture,
settlement, mining and settlement, livestocks, overfishing, and decreasing of population of biodiversity
industry), land and agriculture, excavation and
forest degradation, infrastructure), and land
and high slope of the erosion
land

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Problems
No. Lake
Catchment Area Littoral/Riparian Zone The Aquatic Zone

7. Batur Illegal mining, illegal Land conversion and land Increasing of water level, sedimentation, eiutrophication, water
logging, and land occupation (for settlement, pollution (from domestic waste, agriculture, fisheries, garbage and
erosion tourism facility, mining, water transportation), increasing of aquatic plants (eceng gondok/
livestocks and agriculture) invasive species), and decreasing of biodiversity

8. Tempe Critical land, illegal Land erosion, land Sedimentation, change of lake morphometry, eutrophication,
logging, unappropriate occupation (for settlement, water pollution (from domestic waste, agriculture, livestocks and
settlement, land small scale industries, aquaculture), growing of aquatic plants (eceng gondok as an
erosion, land tourism facility, livestocks invasive species), decreasing of biodiversity, flood, and decreasing
conversion, and and agriculture), and dam of water level
improper of spatial construction
plan

9. Matano Land conversion, Land occupation (for Sedimentation, eutrophication, decrease of water level, water
ilegal logging, forest settlement, industry, mining pollution (from domestic waste, agriculture, mining, tourism,
fire, mining, and and agriculture), land erosion aquaculture and industry), decrease of biodiversity and endemic
unappropriate spatial species, and introduction of invasive species
plan

10. Poso Land conversion, Land erosion, construction of Sedimentation, decrease of biodiversity and endemic species,
illegal logging. Land hydropower and tourism water pollution from water transportation, aquaculture and
degradation which agriculture
cause land erosion
11. Tondano Illegal logging and Land occupation (for Aquaculture with fish cage, sedimentation, eutrophication, growing
land conversion, land settlement, agriculture, of aquatic plants (eceng gondok), development of tourism facility,
erosion, and water livestocks, tourism facility decrease of water level,
pollution from sand and industry), land erosion
mining And decrease of water quantity and quality

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Problems
No. Lake
Catchment Area Littoral/Riparian Zone The Aquatic Zone

12. Limboto Land conversion, Land tenure problems, land Eutrophication, sedimentation, change of lake morphometry,
illegal logging, conversion (for settlement, growing of eceng gondok, water pollution from domestic waste,
and lake boundary livestocks, tourism and other flood, decreasing of water quality, and decreasing of population oif
problems enterprises) and source of endemic species
domestic waste

13. M a h a k a m Illegal logging, land Land occupation for Sedimentation, growing of eceng gondok, decrease of biodiversity,
Cascade conversion and mining settlement and mining, land decrease of population of endemic species, decreasing of
conversion, land erosion and population of endemic species, degradation of water body,
(Semayang, industrial waste eutrophication and flood
Mlintang,
Jempang)
14. Sentarum Settlement, illegal Land occupation for Sedimentation, water pollution (from domestic waste, agriculture
logging, peatland and settlement, agriculture and and livestocks,), eutrophication, and aquaculture with fish cage
forest fire, improper livestocks, land conversion
pattern of fish capture and land erosion
(with poison), and land
conversion
15. Sentani Critical land, illegal Land occupation (for Water pollution (from domestic waste, agriculture, livestocks,
logging and land settlement, agriculture, tourism, aquaculture with fish cage, and garbage), sedimentation
conversion (for livestocks, soil excavation, and eutrophication.
settlement and sand/ tourism and water
soil excavation) transportation), land
conversion, land erosion and
industry

Source: Pedoman Pengelolaan Ekosistem Danau, 2008, Profil Ekosistem 15 Danau Prioritas, 2011

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Tabel 7. Critical Landss Area of Some Lakes in Indonesia Desired Ideal Condition
The desired ideal condition of lake ecosystem is improvement of
management and utilization of lake ecosystem that reflected in preservation
Catchment Critical Land of function, supporting capacity and recovery capability of the lake
No. Lake %
Area (Ha) Area (Ha) ecosystem in supporting the social economic quality of the community
1. Toba 377.834 110.441 29,2 living nearby the lake and other beneficiaries of the lake in harmonious,
balance and sustainable ways. Moreover, the richness of varieties
2. Maninjau 23.581 161 0,7
and uniqueness of the resource of lake ecosystem can be maintained
3. Singkarak 54.885 5.425 9,9 through awareness, attitude and behavior of all community elements and
4. Kerinci 103.031 53.261 51,7 beneficiaries of the lake in utilizing and managing the lake to increase
comfort and quality of human being and the nature so they are in harmony
5. Tondano 23.491 2.826 12
today and in the future.
6. Limboto 89.161 32.437 36,4
7. Poso 177.011 2.413 1,4 From the time being, the desired ideal condition for ecosystem
management consists of several factors as follows:
8. Tempe 607.934 137.980 22,7
9. Matano 46.221 4.598 9,9 1. Spatial Plan of Lake Ecosystem;
2. Rescuing the Watershed and Water Catchment Area;
10. Mahakam Cascade 7.155.226 43.695 0,6
3. Rescuing the Riparian Lake Zone Ecosystem;
(Semayang, Melintang,
Jempang) 4. Utilizing Waters Lake Resources
5. Developing Monitoring Evaluation and Information System of Lake
11. Sentarum 167.506 17.331 10,3 Ecosystem
12. Sentani 87.163 19.957 22,9 6. Developing Capacities, Institutionalization and Coordination
7. Increasing Community Roles and Participation
13. Rawadanau 22.456 252 1,1
8. Sufficient funding
14. Batur 10.434 2.589 24,8
15. Rawapening 27.109 229 0,8

Source: Ditjen BP DAS PS, Kementerian Kehutanan (2012)

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Tabel 10. Ideal Condition of Lake Ecosystem Management

No. Parameter Ideal Condition

Spatial Plan
1.1 Spatial Plan of the Lake Area The lake area has spatial plan and detailed spatial plan, included zoning of the aquatic area
2. Catchment Area
2.1 Land cover of the catchment area > 30 %
2.2 Land erosion of the catchment area Erodivity below the tolerable level
3. Littoral/Riparian Zone
Riparian zone No build-area
Flood plain No build-area

No agriculture, especially which use fertilizer


4. Aquatic Zone
4.1 Trophic Level Oligotroph Mesotroph

4.2 Water Quality The 1st or 2nd Category


4.3 Biodiversity Preserved of the endemic species
4.4 Food web Balance food web
4.5 Aquatic Plants Controlled, not wide-spread, and not .... rkendali, tidak menyebar, dan tidak mengganggu fungsi danau

Maximum cover: 1% of the lake area (except for the floodplain or shallow lake, maximum cover 5%)
4.6 Algae/Microcystis Small cover
4.7 Aquaculture Fish production and feeding appropriate to assimilative capacity of the lake
4.8 Waste No waste disposal to the lake

4.9 Sedimentation No sedimentation


4.10 Waste Polluion control appropriate to the assimilative capacity of the lake
5. Use of the Lake Water
5.1 Tourism Environmentally friendly of tourism (appropriate to the spatial plan, no garbage disposal, etc)
5.2 Water transportation Not generate high wave which may distruct the riparian zone, and no oil disposal to the lake

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No. Parameter Ideal Condition

5.3 Fish cage Appropriate to the assimilative capacity of the lake


5.4 Sand/soil excavation The excavation not cause lake degradation
5.5 Use of hydropower Not change the characteristik of the flood plain and water surface

The powerplant not distruct fish migration way from the lake to the river and sea, and the way back
to the lake
5.6 Raw water intake Not change characteristic of the flood plain and water surface, and not distruct the aquatic ecosystem
6. Enhancement of Monitoring, Evaluation and Information of Lake Ecosystem
Monitoring, evaluation, and information Available data and information on lake ecosystem, included:
system of lake ecosystem
Maps and data of lake environmental quality

Information on aquatic biodiversity

Information on type and area of aquatic invasive plants

Evaluation of lake environmental condition

Information system can be accessed by stakeholders, especially local community


7. Strengthened Institutional Capacity
7.1 Development of Institution Availability of local regulation for saving the lake ecosystem

Strengthened of capacity and coordination to sabe the lake ecosystem


8. Increasing Community Participation
8.1 Community empowerment in conser- Increasing quality of life of local community
vation and use of lake
Increasing of people concern to to the lake ecosystem

Local wisdom in conservation and use of the lake

Development of institution for saving the lake ecosystem


9. Proper funding
9.1 Funding for lake ecosystem Availability of national budget, private sector and local community

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26
CHAPTER 3

Solution to Save
the Indonesian Lakes
Having considered the numbers of lakes in Indonesia that reach 840 of big and small lakes, to
develop a policy on Saving the Lake Ecosystem priorities of phases need to be established. To do
this it should be started with prioritizing the lakes. The priority phases of rescuing lake ecosystem
is outlined in the Grand Design of Rescuing Lake Ecosystem in Indonesia.

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INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT - The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation

Having considered the numbers of lakes in Indonesia that reach 840 of big and small
lakes, to develop a policy on Saving the Lake Ecosystem priorities of phases need to
be established. To do this it should be started with prioritizing the lakes. The priority
phases of rescuing lake ecosystem is outlined in the Grand Design of Rescuing Lake
Ecosystem in Indonesia.

In addition, considering the importance of lakes for human being and the ecosystem
the agreement for managing the fifteen lakes that were prioritized are signed by
the Minister of Environment, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Energy and Mineral
Resources, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Forestry, Minister of Culture and
Tourism / Tourism and Creative Economy, Minister of Public Works, Minister of
Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and State Minister of Research and Technology. Thus,
the agreement becomes a focused activity especially in relation to lakes that are
conducted by nine of the ministries to ensure realization of vision for rescuing lake
ecosystem in Indonesia.

During the National Conference on Indonesia lake that was conducted in 2009, it
agreed that Sustain Lake Management in the 15 lake Ecosystem will be the priority
lakes in the period of 2010-2014 (Phase I). The primary lakes were chosen according
to some criteria such as level of damage (i.e.: sedimentation, pollution, eutrophication,
significant quality and quantity reduction of water), variety of lake utilization, lakes
strategic value, level of biodiversity and level of disaster risk. The fifteen lakes are
Toba Lake (North Sumatera), Maninjau Lake and Singkarak Lake (West Sumatera),
Kerinci Lake (Jambi), Rawa Lake (Banten), Rawapening Lake (Central Jawa), Batur
Lake (Bali), Tempe Lake and Matano Lake (South Sulawesi), Poso Lake (Central
Sulawesi), Tondano Lake (North Sulawesi), Limboto Lake (Gorontalo), Sentarum Lake

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29
(West Kalimantan), Kaskade Mahakam lake (Semayang, Melintang,
Jempang) at East Kalimantan, and Sentani Lake in Papua.

Moreover, in the next period (2015-2019) the lakes that will be


prioritized during the second phase are Diatas Lake (West Sumatera),
Dibawah Lake (West Sumatera), Ranau Lake (South Sumatera
and Lampung), Dendam Tak Sudah Lake (Bengkulu), Lindu Lake
(Central Sulawesi), Towuti Lake (Sulawesi Selatan), Mahalona (South
Sulawesi), Bratan (Bali), Paniai (Papua), Laut Tawar Lake (Aceh),
Aneuk Laot Lake (Aceh), Kelimutu Lake (Eastern Nusatenggara),
Taliwang Lake (Western Nusa Tenggara), Rinjani Lake (West
Nusa Tenggara), Tasik Zamrud (Riau). The steps of rescuing lake
ecosystem are strated with first phase where 15 lakes are prioritized
and the next phases other lakes are taking care of so that in the
end all lakes ecosystems in Indonesia are in the holistically and
integrated in the sustainable management.

Concerning the magnitude of the lake problem in Indonesia, we


are initiating and facilitating the formation of Indonesia Lake Center
or ILC. The ILC will mainly functions as the center of excellence in
terms of conducting researches, transfer of knowledge, providing
data and information, and other relevant functions to lake
conservation, mitigation and rehabilitation.

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INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT - The Indonesian Movement for Lakes Ecosystem Conservation and Rehabilitation

Three pillars of the GRAND DESIGN OF INDONESIAN LAKE MANAGEMENT


Grand design is primary design consists of policy direction, planning and
Indonesian Lake Management: program for lake conservation and rehabilitation in the period of 2010-2015
that will be implemented in three road map phases of five years (2010-
2014, 2015-2019, 2020-2025). The vision of the Grand Design of Indonesia
lake Ecosystem Conservation and rehabilitation is realization of healthy,
efficient and sustain lake ecosystem. And the mission of the Grand Design
is to conservation and rehabilitation the Indonesia lake ecosystems through
discontinuation of damage rate and recapture lake functions for the sake
of ensuring sustain lake utilization according to its carrying and storage
capacities.

The purpose of the grand design of lake ecosystem conservation and


rehabilitation is to give direction for Policy, Planning and Program
implementation of lake ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation in Indonesia
in the period of 2010 -2024 so that the lake ecosystem in Indonesia get
healthier and will be sustain for utilization. The objective of the grand design of
lake ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation development is the realization
of healthy and efficient lake ecosystem in Indonesia for the interest of all
people.

Some of the legislations where the lake ecosystem management based on


are the National System on Research, Development and Implementation of
Knowledge and Technology Act, Agriculture Cultivation System Act, Fishery
Act and Environmental Protection and Management Act.

The Grand Design is focused on handling current problem, achieve the


objectives, methods of achieving it and success indicator, duration and
parties who are responsible for the implementation and monitoring evaluation
for policy, planning and program. The Grand Design of lake Conservation
and rehabilitation is expected to be corner stone of all parties in developing
planning for lake conservation and rehabilitation that integrated and sustain
where its cover the funding and institution aspect as well.

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Tabel 11. Program and Activities For Conserving and Rehabilitating the Indonesian Lakes

No. Program Activities


1. Spatial Plan of the Lake Ecosystem Area
1. Formulating General Spatial Plan and Detail Spatial Plan for the Lake Eco-
system Area
2. Strategic Environmental Assessment for the formulation of the Spatial Plan
3. Formulating Zoning Regulation for the Lake Ecosystem Area
2. Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Aquatic Area of the Lake
A. Water Pollution Control A. Determining and Legislation
1. Water Classification
2. Trophic Level of the Water
3. Determining assimilative capacity of the lake (based on the Total Maximum
Daily Load)
B. Control
1. Aquaculture with Fish Cages
2. Control of Waste Water Disposal from some activities: industry, tourism,
agriculture, livestocks
3. Agriculture at the flood plain area, and settlement
4. Oil waste from the water transportation
C. Monitoring and Evaluation
1. Periodic monitoring of water quality
2. Determining water wuality
B. Lake revitalization 1. Excavation of the sediment in the bottom of the lake and in the riparian
zone
C. Flood Control 1. Surveiy Investigation, and Design of Flood Control Technology
2. Construction of Specific Dam for Flood Control

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No. Program Activities

A. Control of Algae and other invasive A. Technic/mecanic


aquatic plants
1. Providing technology for clearing the weeds
(Eceng Gondok) 2. Providing machine for cutting/processing the weeds
3. Constructing border for limiting the weeds area
B. Biocontrol Technology (by Fish Koan)
C. Providing special boat for clearing the weeds
D. Providing dumping area for the weeds
E. Buid dockside for the boat in terms of clearing the weeds

E. Control and Use of Sediments Excavating the sediments/muld (not for peatland)
Use of sediments (mineral soil) for plant fertilizer
Use of sediment (mineral soil) for making bricks
F. Conservation of Biodiversity 1. Formulating program for lake-fishery
2. Build minatorium
3. Increasing capture fisheries
4. Build reservat for endemic species
5. Control of catching technic
6. Cotrol of catching endemic species
7. Restocking of endemic species
8. Feasibility study for introduction of alien species

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No. Program Activities

3. Conserving the Riparian Zone


A. Use of the Riparian Zone 1. Determining riparian area as a protection area in the spatial plan of the lake
ecosystem
2. Put up the border sign of the riparian zone of the lake
3. Planting perrenial plant at the riparian zone as a protection plant
4. Relocate settlement at the riparian zone
5. Construction road as a border of the lake
6. Constructing dockside and other facility for waste disposal
7. Regulation for use of riparian zone and flood plain
8. Control of tourism facility
9. Control of issuing of permit for land tenure
10. Control of stockpiling of sediments in the riparian zone
B. Control of Waste at the Riparian 1. Build of drainage and sanitation facility
Zone
2. Management of domestic waste
3. Build of municipal waste water treatment
4. Build of septic tank for the settlement
5. Control of waste water
6. Solid waste management
7. Use of the waste for fertilizer and biogas

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No. Program Activities

4. Concerving the catchment area of the lake


A. Management of the critical land, 1. Soil conservation of the catchment area
erosion, flood and sedimentation
a.Build terasering/gully control/gully plug
b.Build check dam/sedimentation trap
2. Vegetation
a. Agroforestry
c. Countour cropping.
3. Control of water discharge and sediment
4. Build the sediment embankment
5. Build water outlet
7. Cuarrying for catchment wells and biopori
8. Rehabilitation of the critical land and forest
9. Social forestry and plantation
11. Providing seeds of the forest plant for the local community participation
B. Pollution Control at the Catchment 1. Determining assimilative capacity (by calculating total mximum daily load
Area and at the Watershed of the river arround)
2. Build waste water treatment
3. Build spetictank for the sttlement
4. Build communal and integrated waste water treatment
5. Control of permit for waste disposal
6. Restriction for sand/soil mining
7. Solid waste management
C. Sustainable Agriculture 1. Use of organic fertilizer
3. System Rice Intensification
4. Plantation management
5. Management for Organik Feertilizer
6. Drainage facility for agricultural waste (separated from the irriga-
tion)

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No. Program Activities

D. Restriction for mining around the 1. Restriction of mining around the lake
lake
2. Alternative economic for local community
5. Use of Water Resources
A. Masterplan for Use of Water Re- 1. Feasibility studyfor hydropower construction
sources
2. Considering fishway and other aspects for the sustainability of the ecosys-
tem
3. Sustainability of drinking water
6. Monitoring, Evaluation and Information System of the Lake Ecosystem
A. Monitoring, Evaluation and 1. Database for:
Information System for the Lake
Ecosystem a. Maps and characteristic of the lake

b. Lake environmental condition

c. Condition of the catchment area

d. Morphology and hydrology of the lake

e. Biodiversity in the lake

f. The endemic species

g. Use of water resources

h. Water quality

Pollution and degradation of the lake


3. Evaluation of the Status/Condition of the Lake Ecosystem (at catchment
area, riparian zone and the water body)
4. Early warning system for the overturn of the lake

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No. Program Activities

7. Enhancement of Institutional Capacity and Coordination


1. Increase coordination between national and local government

2. Formulate regulation for conservation and rehabilitation of the lake ecosys-


tem
8. Increase of Community Participation
A. Community Empowerment 1. Socialization for community awarenense
2. Training, transfer knowledge and assistance for community participation in:
a. Sustainable fisheries
b. Preservation of endemic species
c. Use of organic fertilizer
d. Use/recycle the aqutic weeds for several product: handycraft, biogas,
fertilizer and comfeed
e. Use of sediments
f. Domestic waste water management
g. Education for Land Conservation
h. Use of agriculture, livestocks and domestic waste for fertilizer and
biogas)
i. Sand mining
3. Identifikation and preservation of the lokal wisdom for the lake conservation
4. Form community forum for lake management
B. Sustainable Tourism 1. Tourism destination management
2. Community empowerment for tourism
3. Geopark
4. Develop tourism facility

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Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia 2014

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