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Yerevan State Linguistic University after V.

Brusov

Writing Skills

Compiled by Samvel Karapetyan

Yerevan – 2006
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Writing Skills – A textbook for students of Yerevan State
Linguistic University after V. Brusov. γ½ÙáÕ` ê³Ùí»É
γñ³å»ïÛ³Ý, -ºñ.: §ÈÇÝ·í³¦, 2006, 103 ¿ç:

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0134(01) - 2006

ISBN 99930-79 -74 -x © §ÈÇÝ·í³¦, 2006Ã.


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Contents

Lesson 1. Section 1. Spelling: English Syllables…………………….... 5


Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing.
Variations in sentence openings…………….……………...… 10
Section 3. Writing Practice. Reproduction Writing …………. 12
Lesson 2. Section 1. Spelling: Consonant Doubling…………….……. 15
Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing………… 19
Section 3. Writing Practice. Unfinished Stories……………... 21
Lesson 3. Section 1. Spelling: Mute Final e.Final –y and its
Modifications. Diagraphs -ei- and -ie-…….…………...…… 23
Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing
Inversion. Cleft Sentences………………………..…..….…… 28
Section 3. Writing Practice. Unfinished Stories ………..……. 30
Lesson 4. Section 1. Spelling: Silent Consonants……………...……… 31
Section 2. Sentence Structure. Parallel structures.
Appositives. Absolute participial construction ……………… 37
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Technique. 41
Description ………………..………………………………….
Lesson 5. Section 1. Spelling: Diagraphs -gu-, -qu-, -ch-, -ph-…...….. 43
Section 2. Sentence Structure………….…………………..… 49
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Technique.
Character Sketch …………………..………………………… 53
Lesson 6. Section 1. Spelling: Suffixes -en, -ness, -er, -or ………...…. 55
Section 2. Sentence Structure. Sentence Fragments …...……. 58
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Technique.
Character Setting …………………………………..………... 62
Lesson 7. Section 1. Spelling: Suffixes -able, -ible, -ant, ance, -ent,
-ence, -ency…………………………………………….……... 65
Section 2. Paragraph Structure…….…………………………. 69
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Writing…...…...….. 72
Lesson 8. Section 1. Spelling: Suffixes -ous, -eous, -ious, -uous.
Prefixes en-, in-, de-, dis-……………………………….……. 76
Section 2. Paraphrase: Write it in your Own Words ………… 80
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Writing……..…….. 83
Lesson 9. Section 1. Spelling: Homophones …………………...……... 85
Section 2. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing ……….. 90
Section 3. Writing Practice.Composition Writing…………… 93
Supplementary Material……………………..….………………….... 96

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Lesson 1

Section 1. Spelling: English Syllables

A. The First Type of Syllable. Vowel letters in English are


pronounced according to their position in the word, i.e. according to
the type of syllable they form. Traditionally there are four types of
syllables. The first, the open syllable, may consist of:
1. consonant + vowel: go, me, by;
2. consonant + vowel + consonant (except r) + silent e: take,
Pete, like, tone, tune;
In the open syllable the pronunciation of vowel letters (except
y) coincides with their alphabetical definition: a /ei/, e /i:/, i and y
/ai/, o /ou/, u /ju:/; however, these same sounds may be represented
by other means, i.e. other combinations of letters, and in different
position:
/ei/ represented by a) ai (in the middle of the word) or ay
(when final): main, rain, may, ray; b) ea: break, great, steak; c)
eigh: neighbour, weigh, freight; d) a followed by nge, ste: range,
strange, haste, paste; e) ei (in the middle of the word) or ey (when
final): veil, vein, grey, prey;
/i:/ represented by a) ee: sleep, meet, keep; b) ea: sea, leaf,
lean; c) ie: chief, brief, belief; d) ei: receive, perceive, seize;
/ai/ represented by a) i before mb, nd, ld: mind, mild, kind,
climb, child; b) igh: sigh, night, playwright; c) uy: buy, guy;
/ou/ represented by a) oa: coat, toast, road; b) o before ld, st:
cold, told, post, ghost; c) ou: shoulder, poultry, soul; d) ow: know,
sow, low; also remember: sew.
/ju:/ or /u:/ represented by ui: suit, bruise, cruise; /ju:/
represented by a) ew: new, few, dew; b) eu: neutral, pneumonic; /u:/
represented by oo: soon, pool, tool;

Exercise 1. Write the following words in spelling. If there are two ways of
expressing the vowel sound, give both variants, translating the words into
Armenian.

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/seil/, /breik/, /geit/, /plein/, /greit/, /weist/, /tʃein/, /ri 'mein/, /ə
'gein/, /iks 'plein/, /iks 'kleim/, /kən 'tein/, /pein/, / 'peintə/, /teil/, /meil/,
/stein/, /weit/, /peid/, /reid/, /trein/, /leid/, /reiz/, /ə 'freid/, /preiz/, /peil/,
/vein/, /meid/, /dei/, /wei/, /prei/, /trei/, /said/, /bai/, /taip/, /spi:tʃ/, /sli:v/,
/bi:t/, /bi:n/, /bri:d/, /ri:d/, /hi:l/, /sti:l/, /wi:k/, /bi:tʃ/, /ti:θ/, /gi:s/, /si:/,
/fli:/, /fi:d/, /tri:t/, /i:st/, /li:st/, /si:t/, /spi:k/, /ri:zn/, /tri:zn/, /hi:t/,
/mi:t/, /bri: δ/, /di 'zi:z/, /rein/, /'pleirait/, /tʃi:f/, /ri 'si:v/, /bi 'li:f/,
/si:z/, /pi:s/, /steik/, /stoun/, /kout/, /kould/, /louf/, /roud/, /roust/,
/fould/, /goust/, /gout/, /soul/, /bou/, /groun/, /dju:/, /sju:t/, /bru:z/,
/nju:z/, /ʤu:s/, / 'neibə/, /sait/.

B. The Second Type of Syllable, the closed syllable, consists of a


consonant + a vowel + one or more consonants including double r (a
single r forms other types of syllable).
The letter a in the syllable of this type is pronounced as /æ/:
apple, map, battle.
The letter e is pronounced as /e/: get, tell, letter. The /e/ sound
can also be represented by the letters ea: deaf, spread, health.
The letters i and y are pronounced as /i/: sit, pit, system,
mystery.
The letter o is pronounced as /ɔ/: hot, bottle, sorrow.
The letter u is pronounced as /ʌ/: hurry, butter, summer. The
/ʌ/ sound can also be represented by : a) the letter o: above, love,
among; b) the combination ou: cousin, trouble, enough; also
remember: blood, flood, twopence.

Exercise 2. Copy the sentences, choosing a suitable word given in


transcription from the list to fill in the blanks: (/'bru:ziz/, /dipt/, /ʌnjən/,
/houl/, /steik/, /hi:ld/, /bi:tʃ/, /breθ/, /wi:t/, /koul/, /slipt/, /rʌf/, /
'braidgrum/, /'leδə/, /su:p/, /dju:/ (2), /'medou/, /stil/, /gousts/, /sould/,

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/tʌf/, /toust/, /sju:/, /gouts/, /kʌpl/, /wip/, /koutʃ/, /koust/, /'kʌriʤ/,
/hei/)

1. We drank a … to the bride and … . 2. He … out of bed


and went up to the window. 3. He … his hand into the bag and
brought out a handful of … . 4. The tourists were taken to the …
in a … . 5. … waters run deep. 6. He thought how cruel it was to
… such a little boy. 7. Our ship was wrecked off the Spanish … . 8.
These shoes must be … and … . 9. His ungloved hands were …
and cold. 10. A hot … dropped from the fire and burnt a … in the
carpet. 11. Halfway up the mountain he stopped to take his … . 12.
A … is a piece of grassland especially one kept for … . 13. …
are kept for their milk, flesh and hair. 14. If the dinner waits another
minute, the … will be as … as … . 15. Tom realized that it would
take a lot of … to enter the dark and empty cave. 16. The house is
haunted by … . 17. There were drops of … on all the leaves. 18.
My salary is … tomorrow. 19. Don’t worry, your son is going to be
all right in a … of days. 20. A delicious smell of … … hung in
the air. 21. Nobody thought that Soames would … Bosinney for
that money. 22. The boy fell downstairs and the next day he was
covered with … .

C. The Third Type of Syllable. A syllable of this type consists of a


vowel followed by r (or r + another consonant). It represents a long
vowel sound.
The letter a in syllables of this type is pronounced /a:/: tar,
target, large. Remember some other ways of representing this sound
in the words: clerk, heart, hearth, and also: laugh, draught, aunt.
The letter o is pronounced /ɔ:/: sword, forth, corn. Remember
the words where this sound is represented by the letter combination
a) oar: board, boar, coarse; b) au: pause, laundry, saucer; c) aw:
law, draw, shawl, awful; d) augh and ough (before t): ought, fought,
caught, haughty; e) our: course, court, source.
The letters e, i, y, u are pronounced as /3:/: a) er: term, berth,
perfect; b) ir or yr: first, birth, myrrh, myrtle; c) ur: curve, furnish,
curse.

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Note that in some words the sound /3:/ is represented as ear:
earth, pearl, learn.

Exercise 3. Supply the missing letter (letters) for the sound /3:/. If there are
two ways of expressing the sound, give both variants, translating the words
into Armenian.

t_rm, f_r, b_rth, st_r, _ _rly, G_rman, sh_rt, s_rname, ret_rn,


b_rch, ins_rt, d_rty, s_rpent, s_rface, f_rm, n_rve, th_rsty, c_rtain,
t_rn, p_rse, m_rcy, _ _rn, sp_r, sk_rt, s_rmon, s_ _rch, p_ _rl, c_rse,
b_rn, em_rge, _rgent, h_rt, m_rth, b_rst, dist_rb, conf_rm, s_rve,
conc_rn, t_rnip, b_rst.

Exercise 4. Copy the sentences, choosing a suitable word from the list to
fill in the blanks:
(hearth, burn, fault, cause, applause, source, law, haunt, lawyers,
thaw, haughty, oar, draught, awkward)

1. The … is considered the centre of family life. 2. It’s not


my … that you don’t know anything. 3. The boy caught at the …
and his friends pulled him into the boat. 4. What is the … of your
information? 5. The meeting was at nine o’clock which was an …
time for many people. 6. You’ll catch cold if you sit in a … . 7. The
nobles used to treat the common people with … contempt. 8. His
appearance on the stage called forth a storm of … . 9. He stretched
his cold hands to the fire which was … in the fire-place. 10.
Carelessness is often the … of fires. 11. The … must take its
course; … cannot save you from punishment. 12. The wrong-doer is
constantly … with fear of being caught. 13. It usually begins … at
the end of March.

D. The Fourth Type of Syllable. A syllable of this type ends in r


followed by e or some other vowel.
A is pronounced /εə/: stare, declare, spare. Remember the
words where this sound is rendered by the letter combinations: a) air:
chair, despair, fair; b) ear: bear, wear, pear.

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E in this type of syllable renders the diphthong /iə/: here,
sphere, severe. Remember the words where this diphthong is
represented by the letters: a) eer: queer, sheer, steer; b) ear: hear,
appear, fear; c) ier: pierce, pier, fierce.
I and y render the diphthong /aiə/: wire, admire, gyre, lyre. The
same sound may be represented by the combination iar: briar, diary.
U renders the diphthong /juə/: pure, secure, furious.
O is pronounced as /ɔ:/: boring, wore, sore.

Exercise 5. Supply the missing letter (letters). If there are two (or more)
variants give both, translating the words into Armenian.

c_re, aff_ _r, p_re, h_re, f_ry, sh_ _r, sw_ _r, requ_re, w_re,
qu_ _r, f_ _rce, w_ _r, d_re, h_ _r, f_rious, nightm_re, p_ _r, d_ _ry,
sp_ _r, squ_re, st_ _r, rep_ _r, r_ _r, f_ _r, t_ _r, exp_re, d_ring.

Exercise 6. Copy the sentences, choosing a suitable word from the list to
fill in the blanks:
(spare (2), fear, admire, dairy, tear, tyre, despair, pierce, desire,
sheer, hire, sincerely, severe, diary, bear)

1. Your behaviour leaves much to be … . 2. They couldn’t go


any farther because one of the … had gone flat, and they had no …
one. 3. We … people who succeed in spite of difficulties. 4.
Reading this book is a … waste of time. 5. I … he is in great
danger. 6. English people often sign their letters: yours … ,
followed by their name. 7. If you want to get there in time, you’ll
have to … a cab. 8. Be careful, you will … your dress on that nail!
9. Few animals and almost no trees can … this … climate. 10. The
boys rushed to the rabbit. It was Bob’s arrow that had … the little
animal. 11. A … farm produces milk and butter. 12. A feeling of
… came over him as the boat sank deep into the water. 13. The
children rose half hungry after the … meal. 14. Only a few people
now keep a … .

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Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing

Variations in sentence openings. The English language is


characterized by fixed word order, which means that the subject
normally comes before the predicate. This does not mean, however,
that the subject always opens the sentence; it would be too
monotonous. A necessity may arise in the course of writing to lay a
special stress on this or that idea, detail, etc. This can be done by
various means – lexical, morphological or syntactical. Variety can be
introduced by placing appositives, attributes, adverbial modifiers or
subordinate clauses first, as you will see from the following
examples.
1) A single-word modifier:
e.g. Cardinal Richelieu was shrewd and powerful and had
enormous influence upon the King of France. – Shrewd and
powerful, Cardinal Richelieu had enormous influence upon the King
of France.
The professor closed the door to the classroom quickly. –
Quickly, the professor closed the door to the classroom.
2) A phrase modifier:
e.g. Oxford has developed rapidly as an industrial and
commercial centre since the 1930s. – Since the 1930s, Oxford has
developed rapidly as an industrial and commercial centre.
(prepositional phrase)
The inspector looked through several suitcases to find the
hidden papers. – To find the hidden papers, the inspector looked
through several suitcases. (infinitive phrase)
The Normans, after settling in Northern France, crossed to
England and conquered it in 1066. – After settling in Northern
France, the Normans crossed to England and conquered it in 1066.
(gerundial phrase)
Confucius learnt a great deal about human nature, studying
people’s actions. - Studying people’s actions, Confucius learnt a
great deal about human nature. (participial phrase)
Francis sat in silence with a dumb look on his face baffled by
what had happened. – Baffled by what had happened, Francis sat in
silence with a dumb look on his face. (participial phrase)

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The forest ranger, an expert in forest fire control, talked to
the campers about safety in the woods. – An expert in forest fire
control, the forest ranger talked to the campers about safety in the
woods. (appositive phrase)
Note that the part of the sentence placed first acquires a
special stress. The appositive phrase in this case seems to have
acquired a casual meaning, rather like: Being an expert in forest fire
control, the forest ranger …
3) A subordinate clause. When writing in complex sentences,
variety can be achieved by putting the subordinate clause before the
main clause. One should remember, however, that in this case the
idea expressed by the subordinate clause takes on a greater emphasis,
and one should therefore use this inversion with discrimination:
e.g. The gardener had to plant roses when they ran out of
carnations. - When they ran out of carnations, the gardener had to
plant roses.

Exercise 1. Rewrite the following sentences, beginning them with the part
of the sentence mentioned in parentheses.

1. Mr. Boyd was angry and began to defend his reputation


with strong argument. (single-word modifier) 2. The pioneer was
strong and healthy and lived to be 112 years old. (single-word
modifiers) 3. Many philosophy students read Plato, the author of
Socratic dialogues. (appositive phrase) 4. Shepherds are brilliant
climbers, hard-working and tireless. (single-word modifiers) 5.
Cousteau, a tireless researcher, began experimenting with skin-
diving in 1936. (appositive phrase) 6. The mosaics at the University
of Mexico, made by outstanding artists, are one of the most beautiful
things to see in Mexico City. (participial phrase) 7. Their going was
fairly easy at first. (a prepositional phrase) 8. The soft and crumbling
snow made each step a potential disaster. (single-word modifiers) 9.
A student may want to "map" ideas in his or her notebook to
visualize a concept or theory. (infinitive phrase) 10. Eggbert ate the
eggs even though he disliked them. (a subordinate clause) 11. Ending
the solemn atmosphere the children laughed in spite of the warning.
(prepositional phrase) 12. Leaves are falling, coming down in
streams of gold and brown. (participial phrase)

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Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences, beginning them with the part
of the sentence mentioned in parentheses.

1. …, the storm roared across the countryside although it


wasn’t forecast. (a subordinate clause) 2. …, Mr. Caine obviously
had a grave illness. (participial phrase) 3. …, Jane listened to music.
(infinitive phrase) 4. …, advertisers both flatter and insult women in
their campaigns. (a single-word modifier) 5. …, Jim sped down the
highway at 80 miles per hour. (infinitive phrase) 6. …, she called her
friend. (participial phrase) 7. …, the reader is insulted by the trite
and shallow editorial. (prepositional phrase) 8. …, Larry brought out
the industrial can of RAID ant spray. (participial phrase) 9. …, Jim
hit the ball. (prepositional phrase) 10. …, Dr. Jones was on-call 24
hours a day. (appositive phrase) 11. …, the skydiver, in free-fall
realized she forgot her parachute. (single-word modifiers) 12. … my
cousin Danny plays a croquet. (prepositional phrase) 13. …, one
should walk in the woods rather than read a book. (infinitive phrase)
14. …, I was just getting out of the shower. (a subordinate clause)
15. …, the troll waited for the English professor. (prepositional
phrase) 16. …, the boy pleaded innocence with his mom. (gerundial
phrase) 17. …, the swimmer struggled to the shore as waves crashed
into him. (participial phrase) 18. …, we were tired and hungry when
we arrived. (a subordinate clause)

Section 3. Writing Practice. Reproduction Writing

Reproduction is a traditional method of teaching foreign


languages, particularly their written form. Learning a language
depends largely upon our ability to imitate; it is through imitation,
through repeated copying of ready-made patterns of grammatical and
lexical usage that we achieve success in mastering a language.
However, language is in its very essence creative; thus at this
stage, reproductions should form a balanced synthesis between
imitation and creation. They are not confined to re-telling, though the
student is required to render the story in a version which remains on
the whole faithful to the original. In addition, the student may be

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asked to give his opinion of the story, to comment upon some
episode, etc.

Exercise. Read the passage and do the assignments given below.

Miss Robinson had been taking driving lessons and trying to


pass her driving test for several years, but she had failed every time
because she always became too excited and did silly things when she
was driving a car. Now she was taking her test again, but she made
so many mistakes that she was sure that she had no chance of
passing, so she was surprised when the examiner nodded at the end
of her test and said, “All right, Miss Robinson, I’m going to pass
you.”
The next morning she went out in her car alone for the first
time. Her face was red, her hands were sweating and she was hardly
able to believe that it was no longer necessary for her to have a good
driver with her in the car whenever she went out in it.
She came to the first traffic lights and was very glad when she
managed to stop the car quite smoothly and at the right place in the
street.
While she was waiting for the lights to change from red to
green, an old lady came to the window of her car, and when Miss
Robinson opened the window and looked out, the old lady asked
whether she was going into the town.
“Yes,” Miss Robinson answered, “I am. I am going to the
Public Library.”
“Will you please take me as far as the market-place?” The old
lady asked. “I have an appointment at the hospital, and there isn’t a
bus for another hour.”
Miss Robinson had still not really understood that at last she
had passed her test, and now she surprised the old lady very much by
answering, “I’m very sorry, but I can’t drive.”
(From Intermediate
Comprehension Pieces by L.
A. Hill)

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Assignment 1. Answer the following questions.

1. Why did Miss Robinson think that she would fail her test
again? 2. What had Miss Robinson had to do before she passed her
test, which she did not have to do after she passed it? 3. Why did the
old lady speak to Miss Robinson? 4. Why was the old lady very
surprised when Miss Robinson said she could not drive? 5. Why did
Miss Robinson say that she couldn’t drive?

Assignment 2. (a) Reproduce the story, including a detailed answer to


questions 4 and 5.
(b) Compose a story for the old lady to tell her friends in the evening after
the incident. Begin it in the following way: “I had a very strange experience
this afternoon. I was going to town and wanted a lift because … .” Let the
old lady also explain why she went up to Miss Robinson’s car, how the girl
at the wheel looked, and what she thought of her behaviour.

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Lesson 2

Section 1. Spelling: Consonant Doubling

A. 1. Words are spelled with –ll-, -ff-, -ss-, -zz-:


a) In the final position in monosyllables after short vowels
represented by a single letter:
-ll-: cell, fill, pull.
-ff-: stiff, stuff, Jeff.
-ss-: kiss, mess, fuss.
-zz-, mainly in onomatopoeic words: buzz, fizz, jazz.
b) Also in some words after long vowels:
-ll- (a or o): ball, tall, roll.
-ff- (a or o): chaff, staff, off.
-ss- (a in five words): brass, glass, class, pass, grass.
c) In unstressed final syllables: tariff, compass.
2. Words are spelled with –bb-, -dd-,-tt-, -gg-, -pp-, ll-, -ff-, -zz-
before the final –le when preceded by a stressed short vowel if it is
represented by a single letter: babble, pebble; fiddle, meddle, brittle,
settle; struggle; apple, dapple; ruffle, shuffle; dazzle, puzzle.

Exercise 1. Join up the left parts of the proverbs with the right ones so that
they make sense and find their Armenian equivalents:

1. I’ll trust him no farther than a. between asses but kicks.


2. Buy the cheapest market b. and ride out tomorrow.
3. Don’t curse the crocodile’s mother c. must pay the fiddler.
4. He who falls today d. have stiff horns.
5. A rolling stone e. all beer and skittles.
6. No weather is ill, f. before you cross the river.
7. Old oxen g. ‘tis folly to be wise.
8. One man’s loss h. makes a brittle wife.
9. Nothing passes i. I can throw a millstone.
10. Where ignorance is bliss j. gathers no moss.
11. They that dance k. may rise tomorrow.
12. A brilliant daughter l. if the wind be still.
13. Life is not m. is another man’s gain.
14. You saddle today n. and sell in the dearest.
15
Exercise 2. Make phrases by joining together a word from the left column
with a word from the right column:

1 sullen a. Falls
2. to shuffle b. of oneself.
3. pebbly c. the vacancy.
4. dazzling d. a sudden
5. all of e. oneself together
6. the apple f. roll
7. to pull g. of one’s eye
8. sausage h. looks
9. stiff i. sunshine
10. to fill j. beach
11. to make k. collar
12. the Niagara l. from foot to foot

B. A final single consonant letter (except r and l) is doubled before a


suffix beginning with a vowel (-able, -ing, -est, -er, etc.) if the last
syllable of the word is stressed, and the final consonant is preceded
by a short vowel represented by a single letter: red – redder, redden,
reddish; begin – beginning; thin – thinned, thinner.
It is not doubled if (a) preceded by an unstressed vowel; (b)
preceded by a vowel sound represented by two letters; (c) the suffix
begins with a consonant: open – opened, opening; limit – limited,
limiting; develop – developed, developing; repeat – repeated,
repeating; look – looked, looking; turn – turned, turning; hot – hotly
(but: hottest), forget – forgetful (but: unforgettable).
N o t e. The words handicap, kidnap, outfit, worship are
exceptions: handicapped – handicapping; kidnapped – kidnapping;
outfitted – outfitting – outfitter; worshipped – worshipping –
worshipper.

Exercise 3. a) Form the Past Indefinite and the Participle 1 of the following
verbs: slap, slim, warn, stop, slam, trim, skim, work, shrug, pat, knit,
grip, pin, leap, nag, wrap, commit, look, omit, regret, slip, open,
skin, fit, limit, grab, chat, trap, turn, worship, wed, shop, tip, wag,
grin, plan, develop, repeat.

16
b) Form the comparative and superlative degrees of the following
adjectives: big, hot, sweet, mean, weak, sad, thin, clear, broad, cool,
fat, deep, meek, dim, flat, slim, wet, low, bright, neat, lean, red.

C. Final r is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel (-able, -


ing, -est, -er, etc.) if preceded by a letter representing a stressed
vowel, no matter if it is long or short (but not a diphthong): oc'cur –
oc'currence; re'fer – re'ferred; bar – barrister; fur – furrier; stir –
stirring; ab'hor – abhorrent. But: 'differ – 'differed; appear –
appeared; pre'fer - 'preference.
N o t e: Words with the consonant r in the root of two-syllable
words after a stressed short vowel are spelled with –rr-: carry,
marry, merry, hurry, porridge, squirrel, quarrel, terrace. Also in the
word err and its derivatives erring, error.

Exercise 4. Form the Past Indefinite and the Participle 1 of the following
verbs and mark the stress.

Offer, confer, war, flatter, infer, blur, stir, appear, administer,


occur, scar, abhor, prefer, differ, deliver, fear, bother, pour, linger,
bar, clatter, murmur, lower, alter, recover, conquer.

Exercise 5. Open the brackets, doubling the final consonant of the root
where necessary. Translate the sentences.

1. A fool bolts the door with a boiled car(r)ot. 2. A man


without money is like a bow without an ar(r)ow. 3. He that goes a
bor(r)owing goes a sor(r)owing. 4. Meat and mass never hinder(r)ed
man. 5. A foreign war is prefer(r)able to one at home. 6. Better twice
measur(r)ed than once wrong. 7. Don’t cry her(r)ings till they are in
the net. 8. He knows which side of his bread is butter(r)ed. 9. It is not
work that kills but wor(r)y. 10. Whose car(r)iage is greediness, his
companion is beggary.

D. Final l is doubled (British English) before a suffix beginning with


a vowel (-able, -ing, -est, -er, etc.) irrespective of the stress if it is
preceded by a short vowel represented by a single letter. It is not
17
doubled if preceded by a long vowel sound represented by two letters
or a diphthong: travel – travelled; expel – expelled; control –
controllable; cruel – cruellest; jewel – jeweller (exception: parallel –
paralleled, parallelism). But: reveal – revealed; peal – pealed.
N o t e 1: l is not doubled before –ish, -ist, -ism: devilish,
liberalism, naturalist.
N o t e 2: Derivatives and compounds of some words in –ll
(all, full, skill, will, etc.) drop one l: all – almighty, always,
altogether, already; till – until; skill – skilful; full – fulfil.

Exercise 6. Form the Past Indefinite and the Participle 1 of the following
verbs:

Quarrel, reveal, curl, appeal, apparel, cancel, travel, peal,


heal, annul, excel, compel, conceal, deal, expel, patrol, marvel,
rebel, level, sail.

Exercise 7 (revision). Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word given in
the list below, making the necessary changes:
(occu/r/ed, weep/p/ing, re/d/en, worshi/p/ed, acquit/t/ed, trave/l/ed,
expe/l/ed, diffe/r/ed, murmu/r/ed, sti/r/ing, quarre/l/ed, wra/p/ed,
regre/t/ed, fan/n/ed, revea/l/ed, cance/l/ed, prefe/r/ed, flog/g/ing,
signa/l/ed, appea/r/ed)

1. She was so embarrassed that she began … . 2. King Midas


… gold and constantly declared his great love for it. 3. Their
opinions on that point … . 4. A hideous face suddenly … in the
window. 5. This event … in 1964. 6. He has … a lot. 7. After his
death it was … that he had been a millionaire. 8. The boy was …
from school. 9. The branches of the tree … . 10. It was 3 a.m. and no
one was … . 11. The concert has been … . 12. He and his wife …
constantly. 13. The first snow-fall … the end of autumn. 14. She
said that she … to stay at home. 15. He … that the incident had taken
place. 16. Mary … the gift attractively. 17. The judge is condemned
when the accused is … . 18. Everyone takes his … in his own way.
19. … fire and forced love never did well yet. 20. The … bride
makes a laughing wife.

18
Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing

The simplest way to emphasize something is by such words


as just, quite, whatever, whoever, only, etc.:
e.g. I saw him once. – I saw him just once. – I saw him only
once.
What are you doing? – Whatever are you doing? – What on
earth are you doing?
Morthological means of emphasis include structures with do,
will/would, and should.
1. The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
a. To add emphasis to an entire sentence: "He does like
spinach. He really does!"
b. To add emphasis to an imperative: "Do come in."
(actually softens the command)
c. To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: "He never did
understand his father." "She always does manage to
hurt her mother's feelings."
d. To contradict a negative statement: "You didn't do your
homework, did you?" "Oh, but I did finish it."
e. To ask a clarifying question about a previous negative
statement: "Ridwell didn't take the tools." "Then who
did take the tools?"
f. To indicate a strong concession: "Although the
Clintons denied any wrong-doing, they did return some
of the gifts."
2. Will and would/used to plus infinitive are used to emphasize a
habitual action in the present or in the past respectively:
e.g. Grannies will spoil their grandchildren. (also denotes a
willful action)
He would/used to go for a walk in any weather.
3. Would not (wouldn’t) emphasizes unwillingness to do something
(in the past):
e.g. They would not agree to our proposals.
She would not let him kiss her.

19
4. To emphasize the sensations of pleasure, surprise, shock, or
disapproval one may use some patterns with the mood auxiliary
should, the so-called “emotional should”, as in the following:
e.g. I was pleased that she should have taken the trouble to read
my first novel.
Why should you accompany her there? She is old enough to
look after herself.
“Emotional should” is very often introduced by the phrases it’s
odd that …, it’s strange that … and the like, as in the following:
e.g. It’s strange that he should be the only one to meet me.
It’s odd that you should be so forgiving.

Exercise 1. Practise using emphatic connectives (whatever, whoever, etc.).

1. … has got to pay for it, it won’t be me. 2. … smashed my


glasses shall pay for it, … he’s hidden himself. 3. Please take … one
you want and bring it back … you want. 4. … it is you’ve found, you
must give it back to … it belongs. 5. … the weather, we go biking at
the weekend with … likes to join us.

Exercise 2. Rewrite the sentences, beginning with it’s and using the pattern
with emotional should.
e.g. How odd! Both our wives have the same name. – It’s odd that both our
wives should have the same name.

1. Quite naturally, you’re upset about what’s happened.2. It’s


incredible! We’ve been living in the same street for two years and
have never got to know each other. 3. You missed the one talk that
was worth hearing. What a pity! 4. That’s curious! He asked you to
come rather than me. 5. It’s typical of him. He expects everyone else
to do all the work. 6. Isn’t it odd! They’re getting married, after all
they’ve said about the marriage. 7. You have to pay as much tax. It’s
crazy! 8. How splendid! You’ll be coming to live near us.

20
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences, using the pattern with emotional
should.

1. It is surprising … . 2. Isn’t it curious … . 3. It seems


remarkable … . 4. It is proper … . 5. It seemed right … . 6. Is it
natural … . 7. Isn’t it fortunate … . 8. It was most unusual … . 9. It
looked funny … . 10. It is quite evident … . 11. Isn’t it wonderful …
. 12. It is doubtful … . 13. It is a pity … . 14. It was a shame … .

Exercise 4. Use the appropriate means of emphasis in the following


sentences. Then make up similar sentences. (The items to be emphasized
are given in italics.)

1. Boys always fight. 2. She begged her father to let her go to


college but he did not want to listen to her. 3. Mary always came
over in the evening and played with us. 4. How odd that you have
brought this particular book. 5. He wanted no more letters but his
brother did not stop writing. 6. – I’m not quite sure whether the Boat
Race takes place tomorrow, though … - It takes place tomorrow. 7.
Last year’s spring tides caused much damage to property. 8. It is
scandalous that you are treated like that. 9. Life goes on. 10. I am
surprised that you have been deceived by such a trick. 11. It is
shocking that people live in such overcrowded slums.

Section 3. Writing Practice. Unfinished Stories

Normally students are required to complete the unfinished


stories, trying to imitate their style (herein unfinished stories are
similar to reproductions). However, the stories may also be used as
exercises combining reproduction practice with creative writing.

Exercise 1. Complete the following passage using the key words and
phrases provided or inventing something of your own. Pay attention to the
use of articles. Find a suitable title for your story.

I had been invited to a New Year party by my old school friend


Peter, who is now at art school. The party was to be held in the flat of

21
his fellow-student and we were to meet there at 11:30. Knowing
neither the host nor any of the people that were to be present, I felt a
little nervous about going but Peter assured me there was nothing to
worry about. He promised to come a little before 11:30, so as to be
there when I arrived.
Peter’s friend lives in a new suburb, and I had quite a job
finding the block of flats, as there were few people about, mostly
strangers themselves. In the end it was nearly 12 o’clock when I rang
the bell of Peter’s friend’s flat, or what I thought was his flat.
(door flung open – ushered into large room – young people round
table – no Peter – about to drink to the Old Year – glass pressed into
my hand – toast to the New Year – hostess showed me to the flat I
wanted – met with loud cheering – told of adventure).

Exercise 2. Using your imagination or drawing on your friends’ experience,


complete the following story. Find a suitable title for it.

The train was quickly gathering speed. I sat looking out of the
window until the last twinkling lights of the town had disappeared,
giving way to moonlit fields stretching away on both sides of the
railway line. It was after midnight and as we were to arrive in
London early the following day, I thought I might as well turn in. I
was just about to go and get my bed-linen, when I saw the attendant
coming along collecting the tickets. So I opened my bag to get mine
ready for him. ...

22
Lesson 3

Section 1. Spelling

A. Mute Final e. R u l e 1. Final mute e is usually dropped before a


suffix beginning with a vowel letter; otherwise it would make two
consecutive vowels: guide – guidance, amuse – amusing, fame –
famous, refuse – refusal. But: age – ageing.
N o t e 1. E is retained to show pronunciation in such words as:
courage – courageous, advantage – advantageous, service –
serviceable.
N o t e 2. E is also kept after o: toe – toeing, shoe – shoeing, canoe
– canoeing, tiptoe – tiptoeing.
N o t e 3. Verbs ending in –ie change the –ie into –y before –ing to
avoid a double i: die – dying, tie – tying, lie – lying.
N o t e 4. Double e (ee) is retained before all suffixes except those
beginning with e (-ed, -er, -est): agree – agreeable, see – seeing.
N o t e 5. Rule 1 is not strictly observed in the case of monosyllabic
words when they are not likely to be misread: likeable, saleable or
likable, salable.
R u l e 2. Mute e is retained before a suffix beginning with a
consonant (to keep the pronunciation): safe – safely, nine – nineteen,
whole – wholesome, care – careful.
Exceptions to the rule: due – duly, true – truly, whole – wholly,
argue – argument, nine – ninth.

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word given in the list
below, adding the suffix –ly: Translate into Armenian.
(mere, rare, true, vague, extreme, late, due, entire, affectionate,
complete, whole)

1. Aunt Leonora came back from the kitchen, instantly seized


Herr Untermeyer … by the arm and led him to the window. 2. I
paused once, looking back, to offer my help, but Mr Wilbram
seemed … to be sunk in thought. 3. I loved the expression she used;
but if it was intended to improve the troubled atmosphere, it failed …
4. Since Dinny said no further word on the subject occupying every

23
mind, no word was said by anyone; and for this she was … thankful.
5. “Anyway,” she said, with one of those charming and …
unexpected turns of mind, “Who’s for cheese?” 6. “We are … sorry
to give this trouble,” said Colonel Schroff. 7. Then Mr. Barker
appeared and showed him into the room, a comfortable room with
lunch ready on the table and another table, … bare, evidently waiting
for him to spread his papers on it. 8. One day he was called to the
manager’s room, … reprimanded, and evidently pardoned in
consideration of his long and faithful service. 9. I have a friend who,
after an absence of many years, has … settled down in London, with
a wife, a cat and a garden. 10. Strange faces smiled … . 11. Her
interests were narrow, and she … journeyed farther than the corner
grocery.

Exercise 2. Add the suffixes given in brackets to the underlined words.


Translate into Armenian.

1. The dog’s master appeared, the beam of a flashlight dance(-


ing) before him. 2. I may as well mention here that she made an
advantage(-ous) match with a wealthy, worn-out man of fashion. 3. It
wasn’t from that dinner he remembered her, it was from notice(-ing)
her in the street. 4. Glance(-ing) at his companion, he wondered if
she also remembered it. 5. The only notice(-able) thing about his
appearance was the way his silver hair and beard contrasted with the
dark tan of his skin. 6. He knows the boy is very courage(-ous), but
he is also young. 7. But most people are afraid of face(-ing) this part
of their nature. 8. The few soldiers in the streets were grey-faced and
tired-looking … One thing was notice(-able): they never seemed to
laugh. 9. The mechanic, who is extremely knowledge(-able) about
any kind of machinery, knew exactly how to get the gate open.

B. Final –y and its Modifications. R u l e 1. Words ending in –y


preceded by a consonant change –y into –i before all endings except
–ing: dry – dries, forty – forties, cry – cried, carry – carriage, clumsy
– clumsier, pity – pitiful, happy – happily, merry – merriment. But:
drying, crying, frying, applying.
N o t e 1. Words ending in –y preceded by a consonant drop the –y
before suffixes beginning with –i, -ic, -ical, -ism, -ist: economy –

24
economic; history – historic, historical; geology – geological,
geologist.
N o t e 2. Final –y is retained:
(a) in personal names: Mary – Marys, Gatsby – the Gatsbys;
(b) in some words before the suffixes –hood, -ish, -ist, -like, -
thing: babyhood, copyist, ladyship, anything, everything;
(c) in some monosyllabic words before –er, -est, -ly, -ness:
shy – shyer, shyest, shyness; sly – slyer, slyest, slyly,
slyness; dry – dryly, dryness (both forms are possible in
dryer – drier, flyer – flier).
N o t e 3. Final –y changes to –e before –ous: piteous, beauteous,
plenteous, duteous.
R u l e 2. Final –y preceded by a vowel letter is retained before all
suffixes: day – days; play – playful; pay – pays, payment; enjoy –
enjoyable.
Exceptions: gay – gaily, gaiety; day – daily.

Exercise 3. a) Form adverbs from the following adjectives: busy, lazy,


gay, sly, heavy, dry, happy, merry, shy, ready, lucky, icy, easy, tidy,
pretty, angry.

b) Give the comparative and superlative forms of the following adjectives:


early, happy, witty, gay, grey, dry, shy, sly, easy, busy.

c) Give the plural of the following nouns: day, country, beauty, joy,
reply, irony, monkey, baby, lady, story, body, boy, hobby.

d) Write down the forms of the third person singular of the Present
Indefinite and the Past Indefinite of the following verbs: dry, play, cry,
stay, try, delay, comply, betray, destroy, fry, repay, copy.

Exercise 4. Write out from a dictionary all the words derived from the
following words and choose a suitable derivative to fill in the blanks:
(rely, pay, deny, history, angry, essay, day, happy, shy, marry,
mercy, apply, clumsy, industry)

1. I wish you all the … in the world. 2. He was well aware that
this particular debt demanded prompt … . 3. The bride’s parents did

25
not approve of the … . 4. He likes to read … novels. 5. We’ve got a
lot of electrical and other … at home, but my husband buys more and
more. 6. Well-known critics and … spoke well of the young author’s
book. 7. A teacher likes his pupils to be … and well-behaved. 8. The
moment I dropped my gloves I hated myself and my … . 9. Mr.
Sedley could not believe that his former friend could be so cruel, so
… . 10. This was in some measure due to her … , which had not yet
left her. 11. They were alone for an hour, because Tony was taking
his … nap. 12. Lucy stopped and turned, and faced him … . 13. The
prisoner’s … of his guilt surprised everyone. 14. He is quite a …
person.

C. Diagraphs -ei- and -ie-. Below are given two lists of words
spelt with the diagraphs -ei- or -ie-. Note that the words in the first
list are mostly of Latin and French origin. Some of them have the
letter c in the root.
Explain what they mean, give some derivatives if possible and
memorize them. Pay attention to their pronunciation.

A. -ei- ceiling deceive receipt


conceit foreign seize
conceive perceive sovereign
deceit receive

B. -ie- achieve grief relief


believe grieve relieve
besiege handkerchief retrieve
brief mischief shield
chief niece shriek
field piece siege
fiend priest thief
yield
Note the pronunciation of the diagraph -ie- before -r: pierce,
fierce /iə/.
There is an English saying about words with ei/ie representing
the sound /i:/:
‘I’ before ‘E’
Except after ‘C’.
26
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above lists. Translate
the sentences.

1. If you suppose this boy to be friendless, you … yourself. 2.


He told me how you came there after dark like a … . 3. She made a
sniffling sound and began to unbuckle a heavy …-case that she
carried. 4. There are two lovely moulded … and the rooms are a
beautiful shape. 5. I had found again the lark’s nest. I … the yellow
beaks, the bulging eyelids of two tiny larks, and the blue lines of
their wing feathers. 6. The tear-stained and sagging face twisted
grotesquely into the grimace of extreme … . 7. In all these weeks he
had never come to so close an intimacy with George as his friend
immediately … . 8. Sophie knew that it was her only chance to win
him back, and she … upon it. 9. I don’t know why but his … and his
superior air made me laugh. 10. Their … charge against him as
always in such cases was: “He does it to get into the lime-light.” 11.
She saw that Kitty was prepared to … and unconsciously she
assumed a more gracious tone. 12. She had forgotten how pleasant
and how agreeable it was to … attention. 13. In those first days of the
… she was so frightened by the bursting shells she could only cower
helplessly. 14. A … of agreement went up, then everybody fell
silent. 15. Lying was so … to him that I could always guess when he
tried to … me. 16. By some magic this man seemed able by his mere
presence to … our suffering. 17. The woman darted at his pipe,
which he had put on a … of newspaper and blew some imaginary ash
from it. 18. She tried to … her son, to save him from punishment, as
every mother would have done.

Exercise 6. Find synonyms for the italicized words from the following list.
Translate the sentences.
(belief, to conceive, to deceive,mischievous, to perceive, to relieve, to
retrieve, to shield, shriek, chief)

1. Are you sure that the shoe has not simply been mislaid? I
cannot understand what use one shoe could be to anyone. 2. What
she saw mentally was a kaleidoscope, no more, no less. 3. Very soon
the boy learned that he had been misled by those to whom he had
looked for guidance and instruction. 4. We were very glad to hear

27
that you had arrived safely. 5. A commonly held opinion is that the
main difficulty in writing is the choice of words. 6. I heard a murmur
of voices, then screams of girlish laughter and everything was quiet
again. 7. The girl was as fresh and pretty as a spring flower and as
playful as a monkey. 8. By the end of the week I could get back only
half of what I hoped to. 9. When I came out of the dark cellar into the
bright sunshine I couldn’t see anything and for some minutes I stood
covering my eyes with my hand.

Section 2. Sentence Structure. Emphasis in Writing

Inversion. Syntactical means of emphasis involve changes in word


order. English is more rigorous than Armenian in its word order.
While in Armenian you may freely experiment with word order to
stress this or that element of the sentence, in English complete
inversion (predicate first and then subject) is restricted to special
cases. This kind of inversion is possible only with a verb of
movement or position, and this verb is almost always in the present
indefinite or past indefinite. The verb to be can be used with this kind
of inversion after a superlative.
e.g. Best of all was(P) the Christmas(S) pudding.
In front of me lay(P) the whole valley(S).
Last but not least walked(P) my grandfather(S), bearing a
large birdcage.
This kind of inversion is rather rare; it is literary, and students
are advised either to avoid it altogether, or use it with great care and
moderation.

Exercise 1. In the following sentences inversion is possible if you put the


italicized part first. Pay attention to the verbs.

1. The pirate ship lay far out to sea. 2. An eerie castle loomed
through the fog. 3. The problem of reconstruction came after the
war. 4. The street vendors are most picturesque of all. 5. Ridge after
ridge of snow-clad peaks stretched away into the distance. 6. A huge
house stands near the top of the hill in the midst of tall cypresses. 7.
The lady came into the room and greeted every body. 8. Love comes
28
first, marriage comes then. 9. The rain came down and washed the
spider out.

Cleft Sentences. A very common (and safer for a foreign learner)


means of emphasis is the so-called “emphatic construction” of the
type it is … who (for emphasizing the subject of the sentence), it is …
that (for emphasizing other parts of the sentence). Almost any part of
the sentence (except the predicate) may be given a special stress with
the help of this construction. Let us take each part of the following
sentence in turn and emphasize it:
e.g. He told me the news yesterday in the theatre.
It was he who told me the news. (subject)
It was this news that he told me yesterday. (object)
It was to me that he told the news. (indirect object)
It was in the theatre that he told me the news. (adv. mod. of
place)
It was yesterday that he told me the news. (adv. mod. of
time)
A variant of this, containing a negation, and used with
adverbial modifiers of time is still more emphatic:
e.g. It was not until yesterday that he told me the news.
In the same way we may emphasize a clause:
e.g. He told me the news when we were in the theatre. - It was
when we were in the theatre that he told me the news.

Exercise 2. Emphasize the italicized words, phrases or clauses using cleft


sentences as appropriate. Sentences may be combined into one.

A. 1. Bertrand Russell died in 1970. His philosophical writings


made him well-known all over the world. 2. Lord Nelson was
famous for his naval exploits. A column was erected in his memory
in Trafalgar Square in London. 3. I wanted to talk to his wife, not to
him. 4. His father has offered him a partnership. 7. His first speech
was better than his second. The second speech was broadcast.
(combine with but) 8. The Saxon King Egbert united all England in
the year 829. 9. They reached home at midnight. 10. We met at the
weekend. 11. The name of the book escapes me (but I remember
everything else).

29
B. 1.Bilbo found that out (after Tolkien).2.I fled Mijanoshita
only to escape from one terror to another (after Kipling).3.I failed to
take two pounds upon a very bad day (after Doyle).4.I could get the
facts only by trying begging as an amateur (after Doyle).5.It
occurred me in the pause that followed that Mark Twain might
possibly have other engagement (after Kipling).6.The middle people
are dangerous (after B Shaw).7.Wordsworth’s poetry was not widely
recognized by his compatriots until 1830 (after Legouis).8.A full
appreciation of Raphael’s powers can be gained only in Rome (after
Cox).9.The thought becomes explicit only in the last line of the
poem; the rest of the poem gives only pictures and sounds that
prepare our feeling (after Neilson).10.Then Poirot received a brief
note from Lady Willard, window of the dead archeologist, asking
him to go and see her at her house in Kensington Square (after
Christie).11.Let us not misunderstand each other, Lady Willard. You
are not asking me a general question. It has a personal application,
has it not? (after Christie).12.He fancied that only by force of will she
kept herself upright (after Strange).

Section 3. Writing Practice. Unfinished Stories

Exercise 1. Write a story of about 100-120 words, using the pairs of


sentences given below. (You have been given the first and last sentences of
your story and should supply those, which come between.) Find a suitable
title for your story.

The voice was familiar but I could not recognize the face. …
… … His disguise was perfect.

Exercise 2. Complete the following passage making a story. Find a suitable


title for your story.

I was driving to my friend’s in the country in the middle of the


winter when a heavy snowstorm started and stopped me from going
either forwards or backwards.

30
Lesson 4

Section 1. Spelling: Silent Consonants

A. 1. The consonant b is silent (a) in –bt (before t): debt, doubt,


subtle; (b) in –mb (after m): limb, lamb, climb, dumb, crumb, thumb,
tomb, comb.
N o t e: However, b is always pronounced in its medial position in
such words as timber, number, amber, etc.
2. The consonant c is silent (a) in (-)sc(-) before e, i, y,
initially: scene, scientist, scissors, scythe; medially: descend,
discipline, fascinate; finally: acquiesce, reminisce; (b) in –scl- in a
few words: muscle, corpuscle; (c) before t in a few words and also in
some names of English counties: Connecticut, Gloucester, Leicester;
(d) in acqu- (from Lat. prefix ad- + qu-): acquaint, acquire, acquit;
(e) in exce-, exci- (from Lat. prefix ex- + qu-): excellent, except,
excite; (f) in four loans from Russian: czar, czarevna, czarina,
czarevitch.
3. The letter-combination ch is silent in a few words: yacht,
fuchsia.
4. The letter g is silent (a) initially in gn-: gnat, gnaw, gnash,
gnarl, gnome; (b) finally in –gm,- ign: paradigm, sovereign, resign,
feign, design; (c) medially in the words: champagne, signor(a),
chignon, cognac.
N o t e: However, in some derivatives g is always audible in its
medial position: malignant, resignation, signal, etc.

Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate word with silent b, c or g from the above
lists.

1. The building was of a modern … but inside it was panelled


with carved oak. 2. The only way to deceive him is to … a heart
attack and ask him to call for an ambulance. 3. At the station they
saw no one … porters and a villager or two unknown to them. 4. His
fingers are all … . 5 Give me a … and … and I’ll make of you the
most stylish woman in St. Beam. 6. He was certain of seeing unique
and astonishing … . 7. I owe him a … of gratitude for the numberless

31
favours he has done me. 8. All the … and uncertainty made her feel
miserable and unhappy. 9. The boy was … from birth but didn’t
suffer because of it, as he never realized what he lacked. 10. John
was … by the hypnotic atmosphere. 11. Bread … were always
scattered under the kitchen window and birds used to feast there. 12.
The dog … the bone, and it was more delicious than anything he had
ever tasted. 13. He got so … over the idea that he thought he should
go at once. 14. Then, above that humid silence, there came a nagging
song like the song of a … . 15. The boys were sure the treasure was
under the … old oak. 16. He … his teeth in pain but no moan
escaped his lips. 17. We had to … ourselves to doing without the
most necessary things. 18. I am a very bad … . I will do anything to
make a human being feel better even if it is unscientific. 19. The
epitaph on the … stone was solemn and beautiful. 20. … are
imaginary dwarfs living under the ground and guarding treasures.

B. 1. The letter-combination gh is silent in (a) –igh(t): high, sigh,


thigh, bright; (b) –eigh(t): sleigh, weigh, neighbour, height, weight;
(c) –aight: straight; (d) –aught: haughty, naughty, slaughter, taught;
(e) –ough(t): dough, ploughman, thorough, though, thought, etc.
2. The consonant h is silent initially in (a): hour, honest, heir;
(b) exh-: exhaust, exhibit, exhort; (c) gh-: ghastly, ghost, ghetto; (d)
kh-: khaki, khan, Sakhalin; (e) th-: thyme, Theresa, Thames, and
medially in: Mathilda, Anthony, Esther; (f) rh-: rhinoceros,
rheumatism, rhythm, rhetoric, Rhine, rheostat, and also finally:
catarrh; (g) wh-: whale, wheat, whence, white, whimsical, whelm,
whim, whiz, whisky, whirl, whisker, whisper; medially (a) between a
stressed and an unstressed vowels: Graham, prohibition, vehicle,
vehemence; (b) between a consonant and an unstressed vowel:
silhouette, gingham, burgher, and also in: spaghetti, Fahrenheit; (c)
in –ham: Birmingham, Tottenham, Buckingham, Durham, and finally
after a vowel: ah, bah, eh, oh, hurrrah, etc.
N o t e: wh stands for /h/ in: who, whole, whooping-cough, whore.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above lists.

1. He was not so large, - he ...only one hundred and forty


pounds. 2. The man next to me was a …man who had never been to

32
London and was most anxious to see St. Paul’s. 3. This American car
was indeed the finest … that had ever appeared in the village. 4.
When the storm was at its … the ship cracked in the raging waves. 5.
Whenever they came he would speak with great … about the misery
caused by idle and lazy habits. 6. Only a … analysis of the results
disclosed the secret of the phenomenon. 7. He was a heavy-…
champion and gave spectacular performances of physical strength. 8.
He looked upon the war as a … calamity, or a more … crime. 9. The
door of his … , who lives downstairs is shut like an angry face. 10.
His legs in … boots supported his bulky body like columns. 11. I
never thought that … could be any good – persuasion was my
weapon. 12. A … of relief escaped her lips when she saw that her
letter hadn’t been posted. 13. His … answer left no room for doubt.
14. The …-boat we met on our way back helped us with water.

C. 1. The consonant k is silent in kn- (in its initial position): knead,


knit, knee, kneel, knife, knight, knock, knob, knot, knuckle.
N o t e: However k becomes ck before n in medial position:
acknowledgement.
2. The consonant p is silent (1) initially in pn-: pneumonia,
pneumatic; ps-: in the words containing pseudo-, psych(o)-, psalm-;
pt-: pseudonym, Ptolemy, psychology; (2) medially in –spb-:
raspberry; (3) also in a few words: receipt, corps, sapphire,
cupboard, coup.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above lists.

1. The two families are … together by common interests. 2. He


… to pick up his hat. 3. She wandered into the fruit-garden, among
the … and currant bushes, without any wish to pick and eat. 4. The
ship had been badly … about by the storm. 5. What difference did it
make whether she had died of … or not. 6. Below the wardrobe was
a gas stove, and beside the bed was a wooden food … with a small
portable radio on it. 7. She took the … from the drawer and quickly
cut the loaf. 8. He thought that by signing this work with a … he
could mislead the reading public. 9. Our cook said that she hated …
dough. 10. The old woman had an unpleasant habit of scratching her

33
head with a … needle. 11. All parents need some knowledge of … .
12. People were standing about in … waiting for news.
Exercise 4. Copy the following sentences supplying the missing silent
letters. Translate the sentences.

1. On that day, August 6 1945, the first atomic bom_ was


dropped on Hiroshima. 2. It was ex_austing work, carried on, hour
after hour, at top speed. 3. I had to help him into the boat, for he had
brought back his gun and a _napsack heavy with provisions. 4.
Dum_ terror made him drop the hammer and rush out. 5. The end
came one morning after a month of illness, during which silence
rei_ned in the house and all the family went about on tiptoe. 6. In
post-war England forei_ners who showed their passports could have
goods sent home at a much lower price. 7. Aunt Laura wasn’t what
you’d call comfortably off, but she was an _eiress. 8. With the
invention of _neumatic tools many problems of technology were
solved. 9. No s_ientist worthy of the name could say such a thing.
10. A stout man in a red sweater came out and si_ned the book for
the driver. 11. The word ‘lady’ originally meant ‘bread-_neader’ and
‘lord’ – ‘bread-guarder’. 12. When people get very dull and are
almost ready to kill themselves for dullness, their doctors advise
them to have a change of s_enery, and a change of company. 13.
Aubrey said that if I posed before the Titian it would be wonderful
publicity for the ex_ibition. 14. Then he went to his camp and filled
his hat with cake-crum_s to feed the little birds. 15. I am very much
inde_ted to him and this inde_tedness is a burden to me. 16. All his
friends knew he was in the habit of going to a _sychiatrist now and
then. 17. He would have been unfei_nedly sorry to see his respected
friend duped and deceived.

D. 1. The consonant l is silent in: (a) –alf / alv-: calf, half,


calves, halfpenny; (b) –alm: alms, almond, balm, calm, palm,
salmon; (c) –a(u)lk-: chalk, stalk walk, Fa(u)lk; (d) –olk: folk, yolk,
Norfolk; (e) –oln / -olon: Lincoln, colonel; (f) –olm-: Holmes,
Stockholm; (g) could, should, would, and in inflected and derived
forms from them.
2. The consonant n is silent in –mn finally and in inflected
forms: autumn, column, solemn, condemn, hymn.
34
N o t e: However, n is always pronounced in their derivatives:
autumnal, solemnity, etc. But: solemnly has a silent n.
3. The consonants s and z are silent in some words of French
origin and in recent French loans: aisle, chamois, chassis, Illinois,
Arkansas, corps, isle, island, pince-nez, rendezvous, and in inflected
and derived forms from them.

Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above lists.

1. Smith meant to be … , but as they went along Queen Street


the perspiration began to break out on the back of his neck and the …
of his hands. 2. When they rode out in the morning they passed
cattle, rusty young bullocks with great horns, and a few cows and …
. 3. The hall was decorated with precious stones, the roof was
supported by … of gold. 4. She was guilty of a misdeed, which he
felt unable to … . 5. … in Moscow is mostly cold and rainy, because
of the constant northerly winds. 6. A group of … dancers came to the
town and performed in the town hall. 7. The piece of … cake fell
from my hands as I sat stupefied. 8. They swore a … oath never to
part, and to share all their joys and troubles. 9. The villa was
surrounded with …-trees and the view from the window was
marvellous.

E. The consonant t is silent (a) medially in –stl- and –st(h)m-: bristle,


castle, nestle, jostle, rustle, thistle, bustle, whistle, wrestle,
Christmas, asthma, and also postpone; (b) finally in –ften, -sten and
in some words of French origin: fasten, christen, hasten, moisten,
ballet, buffet, argot, debut, bouquet, and in inflected and derived
forms from them.
N o t e: However, t is pronounced in haste, pistol, Christ, soft,
hostel, crystal, etc.

Exercise 6. Copy the sentences, opening the brackets, and translate them.

1. The child (ï»Õ³íáñí»É) close to Alice. 2. The (³Ùñáó) had


been built in the year 1405 and there was still much of the original
structure standing. 3. I heard a (ËßËßáó) in the grass behind me and,
turning sharply, saw Dina Bond picking her way toward me. 4. I
stared into the darkness, the hairs on the nape of my neck (怫-怫

35
ϳݷݻÉ). 5. Then she again heard the sounds of (Çñ³ñ³ÝóáõÙ). 6.
You took five iron hoops, and fixed them up over the boat, and then
stretched the canvas over them, and (³Ùñ³óÝ»É) it down: it would
take quite ten minutes, we thought. 7. They (Çñ³ñ Ññ»É) one another
out in turns. 8. The flake floated on the air, carrying the seed of the
(áõÕï³÷áõß). 9. I awoke to the sounds of (³×³å³ñ³Ýù), for the
servants were all up and down to prepare pies, game and poultry. 10.
The project had to be (Ñ»ï³Ó·»É). 11. Miss Deila (ßï³å»É)
immediately to her sister’s room; and I withdrew to my studio to
busy myself with drawings.

F. The consonant w is silent (a) initially in wr- and wh-: wrestle,


wrinkle, wriggle, wrist, playwright, wrap, wrath, wreath, wrench,
wreck, wren, wretched, overwrought, wry, wrong, wring; (b)
medially between a consonant and a vowel: two, sword, answer,
Greenwich, Norwich; (c) initially and medially in (-)aw(-): awe,
awful, awkward, crawl; (d) initially, medially and finally in (-)ow(-):
owe, own, crowd, powder, brow, blow, meadow; (e) initially,
medially and finally in –ew(-): news, shrewd, new, few, grew,
nephew, screw, and in inflected and derived forms from them.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above lists.

1. Soon began the service, which the … outcasts had to endure


as the price of their lodging. 2. There he lay for the remainder of the
weary night, nursing his … and his wounded pride. 3. “You might …
up the goods before you deliver them,” the stranger said gruffly. 4.
Mr. Everad’s forehead … with the effort and he turned a worried
face towards Miss Carter. 5. Tim came to Morley, took him by the …
and, turning him about, began to lead him quickly back the way he
had come. 6. Henry turned to me with a … smile. 7. The girl threw
herself into a chair and … her hands, but made no reply. 8. I
understand her generous anxiety, poor girl, after she had innocently
… him. 9. I was as … and shy with her as if I had been a lad in my
teens. 10. This didn’t seem to promise to the … material for an
interesting play in the last act. 11. The President has asked me to be
his personal representative at the ceremony tomorrow, to cast a … on
the sea. 12. “We are both too … ,” he said. “We will speak of this

36
again tomorrow.” 13. Paola gave a contemptuous … of her
shoulders. 14. The only person he knows here is Peggy with her little
boy … beside her.

Section 2. Sentence Structure

Parallel structures. Parallelism, or expressing similar ideas in


similar grammatical terms, makes for brevity, coherence and balance
of style. Here are a few examples of parallel structures.
e.g. The girl was small, plump and fair. (homogeneous
predicatives expressed by adjectives)
Finding a flat and beginning her job were the next steps in
her life. (homogeneous subjects expressed by gerundial phrases)
This pattern seems fairly obvious and easy to follow, but it is
not always quite so simple in practice. There are two types of faulty
parallelism which usually betray a lapse in logic:
a. The doctor recommended plenty of food, sleep and
exercising. (Here elements similar in idea are not made similar in
form; there are two nouns and a gerund. The correct version is: …
food, sleep and exercise.)
b. She has travelled by land, sea and aeroplane. (The elements
are similar in form (nouns) but on different generalization levels; the
correct version is: by land, sea and air, or by train, boat and
aeroplane.)
Parallel forms may be used with the correlative conjunctions
both … and, either … or, neither … nor, not only … but also.
Sometimes it is possible to avoid repeating an element
common to both parts of the parallel structure (e.g. a preposition,
pronoun, article or phrase), e.g. And because of the memories it
holds and the comfort it provides my room is a constant source of
pleasure. (because of not repeated) The team was praised for its
courage and endurance. (for its not repeated)
A general rule to follow is to repeat the initial word or phrase
in a parallel structure whenever it is necessary to make the meaning
clear. In a succession of that-clauses, for example, the meaning is
usually clearer if the introductory that is repeated in every clause,

37
e.g. The boy denied that he had entered the house and had taken the
money. (ambiguous) - The boy denied that he had entered the house
and that he had taken the money.(clear)
In a comparison phrase it clarifies the meaning if you repeat
the preposition: e.g. The weather was a greater handicap to the
invading army than the enemy. (ambiguous) – The weather was a
greater handicap to the invading army than to the enemy. (clear)

Exercise 1. Rewrite the following sentences, correcting the faulty


parallelism.

1. The ambassador spoke with warmth and in a humorous way.


2. Earlier in his life the famous writer had been a waiter, a tour
guide, a mechanic and taught at school. 3. His lectures are witty,
interesting and he plans them well. 4. Thomas Hardy achieved
success both as a church architect and by writing poetry. 5. To swim
in the lake is more pleasant than swimming in the sea. 6. The tutor
recommended several books for supplementary reading and that we
should go and see a play dealing with our subject. 7. Nuclear physics
has led to research in improving communications, and in how to
make people healthier. 8. Come to the meeting prepared to take notes
and with some questions to ask. 9. The moral of the fable is that
industrious men are always rewarded and light-mindedness is always
punished.

Exercise 2. The following sentences sound ambiguous. Clarify their


meaning, introducing the necessary conjunctions or repeating prepositions.

1. I forgot that my research paper was due on Tuesday and my


teacher had said he would not accept late papers. 2. The insurance
man knew that we had paid our bill and we had our receipt. 3. He
said that this party had never had many adherents and there were
fewer party members today than ever before. 4. It is a time not for
words but action. 5. My summer work proved not only interesting
but I also learned much from it. 6. It was both a long ceremony and
very tedious. 7. I wondered whether I should continue with it or
should I give it up.

38
Appositives. The appositive may be used to express details in a
compact way. Consider the following passage:
I was born in Middleville. It’s a real small town. Most of the
people in it are farmers. They raise cows for milk and a lot of apples.
Still, it’s the county seat of Whiteside County.
The fault here, besides wordiness, wrong parallelism and the
use of contracted forms, is monotony of syntactical construction.
Using appositives you may rewrite it in a more efficient style:
I was born in Middleville, a small dairy and apple-growing
community and the seat of Whiteside County.
The following example shows you how to combine two
sentences into one with the help of appositives, and thus achieve a
more mature style.
The custom of kissing under the mistletoe was once an old
Druid religious ceremony. It is now a pleasant part of Christmas. –
The custom of kissing under the mistletoe, once an old Druid
religious ceremony, is now a pleasant part of Christmas.
Note that appositives of this type are set off by commas.

Exercise 3. Combine the following sentences using the appositive.

1. Lutetium was discovered in 1905. It is one of the rare earth


elements. 2. The room looked drab and familiar. It bore no
resemblance to the mysterious chamber he had seen two years ago. 3.
My father is a congenial person and he has not made an enemy in his
life. 4. The word radio has now replaced wireless in everyday
speech. Until the 1960s it was a technical term. 5. Discotheque
became a part of the English vocabulary towards 1965. This is a
French word meaning “a record library”. 6. From the Slavonic family
of languages comes robot. It is a Czech word in origin. 7. Doris Lane
was due to arrive at noon for some colossal shopping at his boutique.
She was a film actress. 8. Linda was overjoyed. She began to cry.

Absolute participial construction. As the absolute participial


construction does not exist in Armenian, students are unaccustomed
to using them. Yet quite often an absolute phrase is the best way of
expressing an idea – graceful, with a minimum number of words,

39
breaking the monotony of too many subordinate clauses, introducing
a new rhythm.
Compare the following sentences:
a. After his patience had been exhausted, the teacher ordered
the pupil to leave the classroom.
b. His patience exhausted, the teacher ordered the pupil to
leave the classroom.
The adverbial clause of the first sentence is expressed by an
absolute construction in the second. We see that the absolute
construction expresses the same idea with greater economy and
force.
There are two types of absolute constructions: 1) the
nominative and 2) the prepositional absolute constructions. Either of
them may or may not contain a participle:
e.g. 1) The concert (being) over, we went away.
2) He walked slowly, with his hands (thrust) deep in his
pockets.
Absolute participial constructions are generally separated by a
comma, except those introduced by with, which occur fairly often
without a comma.
However useful the absolute construction may be, it should be
used in moderation. Remember, too, that these constructions (except
those introduced by with) are characteristic of formal style.

Exercise 4. Reconstruct the following sentences so that each contains an


absolute construction.

1. Since the case was ended, the jury adjourned. 2. The


banquet began at midnight, when a large orchestra played a fanfare.
3. When all things were considered, the couple decided to postpone
their wedding date. 4. His scholarship was certain, so he made plans
to leave for Belgium. 5. She sat in the chair, her face was turned
towards the light. 6. Their camping equipment was packed and they
were ready to depart. 7. The father’s patience was exhausted, and he
ordered his child into the yard. 8. She opened her bag, her hands
were shaking. 9. There was no note on the table, the back numbers of
foreign magazines were scattered on the floor.

40
Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Technique

Description. There are two kinds of description: technical and


suggestive. Technical description gives an objective account of the
appearance or structure of a thing. Read the following description of
a sitting-room:
As you come into the room you notice a piano with a low
music-stool in front of it. Next to the piano a tall bookcase is
standing against the wall. On the left there is a large window. Under
the window there is a radiator but you can’t see it because it’s
behind the settee. On the settee there are two cushions. the fire-place
is at the other end of the room. On each side of the fire-place there is
an arm-chair. In the center of the mantelpiece there’s a clock and
above it an oval mirror. On the right you can see a standard lamp.
Opposite the fire-place you can see a small table with an ash-
tray and some newspapers on it. By the table there’s a small chair.
The floor is covered with a beautiful thick carpet. An electric
light is hanging from the middle of the ceiling. At night, when it gets
dark, we switch on the light and draw the curtains. During the day
the light comes in through the window.
Suggestive description evokes an impression of a place, scene,
or person. It is primarily emotional. In describing a place or a scene
the student shpuld first determine the central emotional effect which
he wishes to arouse. Then the student should select the details which
will most effectively develop this impression and present them as
vividly as he can.
For an illustration, see the passage by John Galsworthy quoted
from The Apple Tree:
Spring was a revelation to him this year. In a kind of
intoxication he would watch the pink-white buds of some backward
birch tree sprayed up in the sunlight against the deep blue sky, or the
trunks and limbs of the new Scotch firs tawny in violet light or again
on the moor, the galebent larches which had such a look of life when
the wind streamed in their young green, above the rusty black
underboughs. Or, he would lie on the banks, gazing at the clusters of
clog-violets, or up in the dead blacken, fingering the pink,

41
transparent buds of the dewberry, while the cuckoos called and
yaffles laughed, or a lark, from very high dripped its beads of song.

Exercise 1. Write a description of the following. (First decide the


impression you wish to give, then make a list of the main things you intend
to mention to give the impression; arrange them in what you consider the
best for your purpose.)

a. A new hotel in your city;


b. The street you live in;
c. The University you study at;
d. A village you spent your holidays in;

Exercise 2. Disaster Scene.

For this exercise you will write a disaster scene that takes place
in a restaurant. Disaster doesn't necessarily mean explosions of the
Die Hard movie type. Write a disaster that's based on a personal/
psychological conflict. It might be easier to first think of your
characters and what they are doing at the restaurant. What is their
relationship to each other? What are they talking about? What type
of restaurant is it? What do they order? Use sensory details to make
the scene come alive. Remember to show, don't tell. Use dialogue if
possible. Have fun with it. Don't be afraid of sounding ridiculous or
unbelievable. Just have fun with it. Happy writing!

42
Lesson 5

Section 1. Spelling.

A. Words with the Diagraph -gu-. The diagraph -gu- may occur
at the beginning or at the end of a word, and is pronounced as /g/.
Explain what the words given in the list mean and give their
derivatives if possible. Copy the list.

guarantee guile catalogue league


guard guilt colleague plague
guerilla guinea epilogue prologue
guess guise fatigue rogue
guest disguise the Hague vague
guide guitar intrigue vogue

In the middle of a word -gu- is pronounced as /gw/: to


distinguish /dis'tiŋgwiʃ/, language /'læŋg wiʤ/, linguistics
/liŋ'gwistiks/.
N o t e: argue /'a:gju:/ - argument, tongue /tʌŋ/.

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above list. Translate
the sentences.

1. This man, to whom so much had been given, and from


whom, in consequence, so much was expected, this … of yours, has
betrayed the trust imposed on him. 2. I was … in the head from lying
in the hay. 3. A pause ensued, and suddenly I felt overcome by a
profound and hopeless … . 4. All the people who had low-grade jobs
were perpetually … for high-grade jobs, and all the people with high-
grade jobs were counter-… to stay where they were. 5. There was no
sincerity in the man, but there was a good deal of craft and … as well
as shrewdness. 6. They were here not a half-hour after you’d gone,
those …, and they tore my house apart to find you. 7. I saw that now
he wished with all his heart that he had held his … . 8. He saw that
she was going to hit him again, and lifted his arm to … his face. 9.

43
Then to prevent … I must decide for you all. 10. Mr. Smith tried to
talk to me about the picture, but he was incoherent, and I had to … at
what he meant. 11. He felt that they were all in … to call her away.
12. He did not want to be involved in this dangerous … .

Exercise 2. Replace the italicized words with those given in the list below.
Translate the sentences.
(argue, colleagues, vague, guardian, rogue, distinguished, languor
/'læŋgə/, blackguard /'blæga:d/)

1. Mr. Campbell reasoned with his visitors about Edward


Brown. 2. “He is quite a scoundrel and besides an eminent one.” Mr.
Campbell finished and weariness appeared on his yellow face. 3.
One of his companions, Mr. Forester, said, “I suppose we should
know the opinion of Mr. Stone, as defender of Ted Brown’s interests.
4. His words were of the same uncertain quality. 5. Deceit and
hypocrisy are no credit to anybody.

B. Words with the Diagraph -qu-. The diagraph -qu- is


pronounced in different ways, depending on its position in the word,
for example: quick /kw/, cheque /k/. A list of such words is given
below. Copy it and make sure that you know their pronunciation and
meaning. Give some derivatives.

quaint adequate squat


quality consequence squeak
quantity earthquake squeeze
quarrel eloquence squirrel
quartet equal tranquil
queen equip antique
queer equivalent brisque
quest (inquest) exquisite conquer
queue frequent grotesque
quiet inquire oblique
quit inquisitive physique
quite liquid picturesque
quiver require technique

44
quote sequence unique
acquaint square bouquet
acquire squash parquet
N o t e: liquor /'likə/, quay /ki:/

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above list. Translate
the sentences.

1. Their … little Chinese faces were screwed up into strange


grimaces. 2. But though his words were repentant, there was
obviously something … about his behaviour. 3. Crowds of workers
were … up in front of the station. 4. There was the usual
gesticulating crowd on the … . 5. Its delicate branches against the
winter sky, its … leaves in summer had stood before my bedroom
window all my life. 6. She was still … by the many friends she had
made. 7. Her guest did not omit … after her husband’s health. 8. He
was different with; notwithstanding his shyness you felt in him an …
kindness. 9. That lady’s resolution had given way to terror the
moment she had … Manfred. 10. But though he said nothing of any
… , there was something in his personality, which prevented him
from being dull. 11. I was confused as a boy in his first passion, who
cannot speak because he has no … word. 12. It was really a crowd
and Marion was immediately … between two pretty women on a
sofa. 13. Edward’s … brought tears to our eyes. 14. And when he
forgot them and began to chatter, to wave his hands, he became at
once … . 15. The castles built by the Normans exist today as … ruins
in the grounds of large country houses. 16. He was very vain of his
… . 17. Though apparently being good friends, they often … . 18. A
small chamber about seven feet deep and four feet … lay open to us.
19. At the sound of his name John’s mouth … with rage and disgust.
20. She was still very young, but she was described to us as an
extraordinary person, who had … London in a few months.

Exercise 4. Replace the italicized words with those given in the list below.
Translate the sentences.

(to acquire, antiquity, to quieten, frequently, to quarrel,


exquisite, to require, to quit, quite)

45
1. I didn’t like the man either, but I didn’t like him for entirely
another reason. 2. Shakespeare is the author most often quoted. 3. It
should be added that the work of the interpreter demands great
presence of mind. 4. To tell the truth, I didn’t expect to find in him so
delicate a sense of beauty. 5. I’m told that he has fallen out with the
girl he was going to marry. 6. The boy was still crying bitterly and no
one tried to calm him down. 7. It can be demonstrated that this
custom has survived in Greece since ancient times. 8. Learning the
vocabulary of a foreign language is not simply learning a fresh set of
labels to attach to familiar meanings. 9. I had been staying at the
hotel only two days when I was given notice to leave it.

C. Words with the Diagraph -ch-. The words spelt with the
diagraph -ch- , given below, are mostly international words. The
diagraph -ch- is pronounced as /k/. In words of French origin the
diagraph -ch- is pronounced as /ʃ/.
Explain what the words given in the list mean and give their
derivatives if possible.

ch - /k/
ache character Christmas
anarchy chemist chronicle
anchor choir chrysanthemum
architect cholera echo
archaeology choreography epoch
archaic chorus mechanic
chaos Christian melancholy
orchestra psychology scheme
scholar schooner stomach
technique
ch - /ʃ/
chagrin chauffeur machine
champagne chauvinism moustache
charade chef-d’oeuvre niche
parachute
N o t e: yacht /jɔ:t/; schedule /'ʃedju:l/ - Br., /'skedju:l/ - Am.

46
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above list. Translate
the sentences.

1. She had … and intrigued all her life. 2. I often wondered at


the beauty which now and then men create out of the … . 3. He is
doing a post-graduate course in psychiatry and … , she is taking a
diploma in … . 4. After a moment he realized that Felicity was the
severe Miss Lemon’s … name. 5. She devoted herself with …-like
efficiency to her employer’s affairs. 6. I was like the man who is so
frightened of cancer that he will not go to the doctor for … ache. 7.
The girls would come down after their studies were over, then they
sang in … or listened to the piano. 8. It was almost impossible in that
quiet room, listening to the nun, to realize that on the other side of
these four walls … was raging. 9. When the …-making speech of the
president was printed in the newspapers, it aroused warm comment.
10. His throat was … , and he wanted to cry. 11. It was near … by
the time all was settled. 12. The detective laughed and the hall … the
sound in a great ha-ha. 13. Notwithstanding, George smiled at
himself as he combed his hair and twirled his … . 14. They
considered his drinking … at dinner to be a mad thing to do.

Exercise 6. Replace the italicized words with those given in the list below.
Translate the sentences.
(technical, schools, to scheme, melancholy, character, to echo,
chaotic, archaic, characteristic of, scheme)

1. He is a good lawyer; ask him to advise you on your plan. 2.


She described the man and his manner of asking questions; it was so
typical of my friend Poirot that I knew at once who the man was. 3.
The writer achieves a humorous effect by making his hero use old-
fashioned words when he speaks with his wife. 4. What seems only
confused movements at first sight may in fact be governed by some
strict laws, which have not yet been discovered. 5. I fired twice and
the hills sent the sound back. 6. Once it was my aim to study all sides
of his nature. 7. The seat opposite me was occupied by a sad-looking
gentleman with a big guards-man’s moustache. 8. He had planned all
this time to arrive unexpectedly and to spoil the party. 9. Of the
several different branches of Greek philosophy, it was stoicism,

47
which gave the most attention to languages. 10. Special terms are
often necessary as they eliminate a good deal of ambiguity.

D. Words with the Diagraph -ph-. The diagraph -ph- occurs


mainly in international words of Greek origin and is pronounced /f/.
Below is a list of words spelt with the diagraph -ph- . Explain their
meaning and give some derivatives.

alphabet pheasant physics


atmosphere phenomenon physiology
emphasis philanthropy physique
epitaph philharmonic prophet
geography Philip sophisticated
hyphen philology sphere
metaphor philosophy sphinx
orphan phonetics symphony
pamphlet phrase telegraph
paragraph physical telephone
phantom physician triumph
phase physicist trophy

N o t e: (a) The pronunciation of the final e and -ph- in the


following words: apostrophe /ə'pɔstrəfi/, catastrophe /kə'tæstrəfi/,
shepherd /'ʃepəd/, nephew /'nevju(:)/ or /'nefju:/.
(b) ‘Physician’ is an archaic word for a doctor, except in
certain professional medical contexts.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the words from the above list. Translate
the sentences.

1. You cannot reproach one who has no ear for music because
he’s bored at a … concert. 2. They were like human beings suddenly
flung out of the old settled routine by some … . 3. One day you may
realize that … is not my strongest quality. 4. Almost in every book of
hers is a character who is interested in occult … . 5. And I noticed
that I always wrote to her of Edward as a hero, a … . 6. I suggested
laying more … on the positive nature of his activity. 7. I heard the …

48
now for the first time and it struck me as quite shameless. 8. “He was
just a hog; vain of his … ,” he said with contempt. 9. Mrs. Reed
wanted to get rid of the poor little … and therefore she sent Jane to
Lowood School. 10. “What have you got as game?” – “I got a … and
a woodcock.” 11. There was an … of calm and peace about the
place. 12. … is a branch of linguistics dealing with the system of
sounds in the language. 13. I said I must look into Plato. I always
meant to do some … .

Exercise 8. Replace the italicized words with those given in the list below.
Translate the sentences.
(sphere, to phrase, phrases, to triumph over, prophets, emphasis, to
emphasize, phenomena)

1. He often speculated on different things that happened in


nature and society. 2. In learning foreign languages some people
attach special importance to the study of their phonetic system. 3.
The stress was put on the wrong word, and the sense of the whole
paragraph became obscure. 4. The new doctrine was quickly
spreading over the English-speaking world and he was one of its
advocates. 5. He was said to be a man who could always defeat any
opposition. 6. The manuscript was spoiled: many word-groups and
even whole sentences were rubbed out. 7. I didn’t mind what he said
but I didn’t like how he expressed it. 8. In those days politics was
outside the field of my activities.

Section 2. Sentence Structure

Avoid a succession of simple sentences. When you begin learning a


foreign language, short simple sentences are the best you can
manage. You are at the level of a child who speaks in a series of
short sentences: My trike was lost. I found my trike. It was behind the
garage. I lost it last night. It was wet. It rained on it. With time, after
you have mastered enough grammar you should be able to present
the same ideas in a more sophisticated form: Bobby found his
tricycle behind the garage, where he had left it last night when it
began to rain (note the change in tenses, too).

49
Combine ideas logically. Sentences may lack logic and therefore
clarity because they are overloaded with unrelated and often
incompatible details, e.g. The library, old and dusty and well lit with
bright new lamps, was a melancholy place to work in. Melancholy
seems to be related to old and dusty, but not the new lightning, so
this last detail should either have been omitted or expressed in a
subordinate clause: The library, though well lit with new lamps, was
old and dusty and therefore a melancholy place to work in. Here is
another example of muddled logic in writing.
Military training teaches a person to stand upright and walk
with his head up; this helps in future life because it becomes a habit
and so many people have the habit of walking stooped and this leads
to poor health and poor appearance.
If you write sentences like these, your remedy is to go back
to the first principles of thought communication: say one thing at a
time; say it as simply and as clearly as you can; say it so that it
cannot be misunderstood. Let us dissect these sentences in order to
discover what the writer was trying to say.
Military training teaches a person to stand upright and to
walk with his head up. (that is enough for one sentence) Good
posture (that is, evidently, what the writer means by this and it)
becomes habitual, which leads directly to better health and better
appearance.
As you see, the improved version is shorter, clearer and more
sophisticated in syntax.

Exercise 1. (a) Join the following parts of sentences using the conjunctions
as, since, because, now that.

1. We did not expect you. You did not let us know you were
coming. 2. The shops have shut. We could go home. 3. You did not
understand the question. I will repeat it. 4. It is raining heavily. I will
not go out. 5. I did not tell him. I was afraid I would hurt his feelings.
6. You had better not stay too long. I have a lot of work to do. 7. We
should go home. The sun has set. 8. He is sure to pass his
examination. He has worked so hard. 9. She has bought a car. It will
be easy for her to get to work. 10. I did not go to the theatre. I could
not get tickets.

50
(b) Join the following pairs of sentences using so … that, such … that
where necessary.

1. He was glad to see me. He asked me to stay the night. 2. He


was tired. He could not get up in the morning. 3. I have many friends
abroad. I cannot write to all of them. 4. He is a good driver. I am
surprised to hear he has had an accident. 5. He is an interesting
person. It is a pleasure to hear him talk. 6. It is a good film. it would
be a pity to miss it. 7. She was very angry. She refused to see him. 8.
It is a beautiful evening. We should go for a walk. 9. He is a shy
person. He dislikes talking to strangers. 10. We arrived early. We
had to wait for over an hour.

(c) Join the following parts of sentences using the conjunctions given
in brackets, omitting the phrase it doesn’t matter if / how.

1. I wrote to him several times. I received no answer.


(although) 2. He plays well. He is still not good enough for the
football team. (in spite of the fact that) 3. We are determined to get
there. It does not matter how far away it is. (however) 4. The journey
takes too long. It does not matter if you go by plane. (even if) 5. I’m
sure he won’t come. It does not matter how long you wait. (however)
6. We are going on an excursion. The weather is bad. (in spite of the
fact that) 7. He speaks French well. He has never been to France.
(even though) 8. She was very busy. She was able to help me.
(although) 9. I should not work for him if I were you. It does not
matter if he offers you a big salary. (even if) 10. I still think the film
is poor. It does not matter if so many people enjoyed it. (even
though)

Exercise 2. Combine each group of sentences to form one complex


sentence. You may make any necessary changes in the arrangement of
material and in the wording, but must not change the sense of the original.
(Skeleton structures have been suggested to indicate possible approaches to
the syntax, but they are not obligatory.)

1. I returned to the city. I had been born there. I had been


absent for many years. Many of its narrow streets had been

51
demolished. So had their picturesque houses. They had made way for
shopping thoroughfares. These were modern but undistinguished. I
was dismayed to find this. (When … I was dismayed to … .) 2. The
bubonic plague raged in Europe during the Middle Ages. The name
given to it was “The Black Death”. It carried off thousands of the
population. In some cases, it exterminated whole towns and villages.
(“The Black Death” … , carrying … and … exterminating … .)

Exercise 3. Combine each group of sentences so as to form not more than


two complex sentences. You may make any necessary changes in the
arrangement of material and in the wording, but must not change the sense
of the original.

1. Sir Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723) had already attained


distinction as an astronomer. He was only sixteen then. Nevertheless,
later, he seriously took up the study of architecture. This was not till
he was nearly thirty. The most precious fruit of this study was St
Paul’s Cathedral. 2. Queens’ college was the second royal foundation
at Cambridge. King’s College was the first. The former is
distinguished from the college of the same name at Oxford in a
certain respect. It owes its foundation to two Queens. One was
Margaret. She was the wife of Edward the Fourth. This is why the
apostrophe comes after the s. 3. The Pilgrim Fathers were a group of
English Puritans. They first spent some years in exile in Holland.
They did this to escape religious persecution. They later sailed to
America in the Mayflower. They established a colony at Plymouth in
Massachusetts.

Exercise 4. Explain what is wrong with the following sentences. Suggest a


more logical version if possible. If the ideas are not logically connected, say
so.

1. One of them was red-faced, another was young and lean. 2.


The art dealer got two thousand dollars for the portrait, so he paid the
painter his twenty-five dollars and ordered him to do another picture,
a landscape. 3. Her father was overwhelmed with financial worries,
he was a painter. 4. He was a heavy man, and I could hardly help
him. But he still wanted to ride to T. It was impossible for him. He

52
could not mount the horse. 5. The family got poorer and poorer, and
now Bella lived alone in a very big house. 6. Although he was a rich
man, he was lame from birth.

Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Technique

Character Sketch. The character sketch like the description of a


place is designed to evoke an impression (of excitement, enthusiasm,
fury, admiration, etc.), to express an attitude, to produce an
essentially emotional effect. In the character sketch the effect is
likely to be somewhat more complex, because it is concerned with
human personality
The writer of a character sketch analyses the traits of the
character and depicts them as vividly and concretely as he can. He
does not merely inform the reader about them, but appeals to the
reader’s senses and emotions.
The reader should come to feel that he knows the person who
is the subject of the sketch. If he does have this feeling, the character
sketch is successful. For illustration, here is a passage from literature.
Note the linguistic devices the author uses to achieve such a
marvellous effect describing an old man.
An old man in a brown bowler walked slowly along the path.
His narrow trousers, in a pale brown whipcord, were cut in the style
of the nineties. The sleeves of his long waisted coat were so tight that
one wondered how his great yellow hands could pass through them.
He was like an old grasshopper, left over from last year to shuffle
when it could not leap. He reached a bench, stared at it a long
moment, tapped it with his stick as if to require something of it. Then
he turned himself carefully round; bringing into the spring sunlight,
pale as a primrose, his dull face, hollow-cheeked and dry; the great
orbits of his sunk eyes, the long nose fallen at the tip; his white
moustache, of thin separate hairs like glass threads. This face
expressed resolution and some alarm. A string of muscle jerked in
the shadow of the cheekbone. Suddenly he swung forward from the
hips, placed both hands upon the knob of his stick, and broke at the
knees. His look of alarm became intense, his long flat feet jerked
upwards, he collapsed upon the seat as if his body had telescoped
53
into itself, like a picnic breaker. But in a moment it began to rise
again; the clothes to fill. The old man straightened his back, raised
his chin; until, upright at last, he pulled down his waistcoat, settled
his hat, and looked about him. He had now the air of success.
(By Joice Cary)

Exercise 1. Conversations Overheard

Place yourself where you'd likely find groups of people. It


could be in a restaurant, a grocery aisle, bank line, beauty parlor or
anywhere else you can think of. You are the narrator, relaying the
conversation (s) you overhear to the reader. You will be telling the
stories of the people you overhear. The dialogue you overhear will
have basic content, but it is your job to relay the subtexts--underlying
meaning--to the reader. The conversation you overhear can be
gossip, or revealing a secret, or the simple differences between the
characters you overhear. It's up to you where you take it, what your
characters talk about, what they look like and how your narrator
interprets it. It's not as hard as it sounds. Think of the conversations
you've eavesdropped on while waiting in the check out line or at the
next table in the restaurant. Now create a scene. Have fun with this!

Exercise 2. Write a story of about 100-120 words, using the pairs of


sentences given below. (You have been given the first and last sentences of
your paragraph and should supply those, which come between.) Find a
suitable title for your story.

“But I haven’t got any money,” I said to the waiter. … … …


I spent half the night washing dishes.

54
Lesson 6

Section 1. Spelling

A. Suffixes -en and -ness. (a) -en is a Germanic suffix met in


verbs; added to adjectives and sometimes to nouns to form verbs
(transitive and intransitive).
M o d e l: mad + en = madden (to make mad); red + en =
redden (to make red, or to become red).
(b) -ness is a Germanic suffix used to form abstract nouns from
adjectives.
Exercise 1. Form verbs from the words given below by adding the suffix -
en and fill in the blanks. Translate the sentences.
(deep, hard, height, sick, sharp (2), dark, haste, deaf, length, quiet,
tight)

1. Bill got out a long-bladed pocket-knife and … it on a stone.


2. The lines of his face … and into his eyes came a fighting look. 3.
Roy put his hand on her arm quickly to … her. 4. It is terrible. It …
me to think of it. 5. The fair was in full swing. The noise was … . 6.
This plan he was now … to put into execution. 7. The spring came
and with it a hundred new delights; Peggy watched the … days. 8.
He … the belt around his slim waist. 9. Her copy of Science and
Health and her Quarterly were on a table beside her bed in the …
room. 10. Now every impression was … , every part of me singularly
aware: eyesight, hearing, sense of smell, all had been in some way …
. 11. The word was uttered in a hasty whisper that seemed to … the
ensuing silence.

Exercise 2. Form nouns from the adjectives given below by adding the
suffix -ness and fill in the blanks. Translate the sentences.
(rude, happy, ready, bold, kind, dark, mad, sleepless, ugly, weak)

1. He was not polite. But this time I didn’t mind his … . 2. Her
eyes were tawny and bold; and in their … lay a curious innocence. 3.
It was a shapeless red-brick house, but we did not think twice about
its … , since there was room to be together. 4. Suddenly he smiled at

55
me with great … . 5. This afternoon he was filled with a … so
complete, so unashamedly present in his face, that it seemed a
provocation to less contented men. 6. The guards fired only twice for
fear of killing one of their own in the … . 7. I’ll tell you what my …
is: I get into fights and I’m always hungry. 8. It was sheer … to go
out in such weather so late at night. 9. The … with which she
accepted his proposal surprised me but little. 10. It distressed her to
realize that … was robbing her cheeks of colour.

B. Nouns with the Suffix -er. -Er is an active suffix. In Modern


English it is added to verbs to form nouns which have the meaning:
(1) a person who does smth: to bake – baker; (2) machine,
instrument performing some operation: to polish – polisher; to mix –
mixer; to wash dishes – dishwasher.
When -er is added to nouns or adjectives, the corresponding
nouns mean: (1) a person concerned with smth: geography –
geographer; (2) a person born in that place: London – Londoner.
N o t e: law – lawyer.

Exercise 3. Insert a suitable word. Translate the sentences.


(waiter, lawyer, writer, driver, employer, manager (2), reporter,
hitch-hiker, teacher, angler, designer, New Yorker, producer, owner)

1. He was a clerk in a … office and had worked his way up


from an office boy to a respectable position. His … called him Mr.
Sunbury and sometimes asked him to see an important client. 2. The
young … was thinking of Kate Swift, who had once been his school
… . 3. The … was aware of certain drawbacks to his comfort, but
content beamed from his rimless glasses. 4. Mr. Barbulis was … , …
and staff of a drug-store. 5. He was like all … . From the very
beginning he wanted to write. 6. A truck skidded and swerved but by
some miracle it missed him. The … stuck his head out and shouted,
“What’s wrong with you? Trying to commit suicide?” 7. “I work at a
restaurant,” he said. The girl drew back. “Not as a …?” she asked. –
“I am … in that restaurant you see with that brilliant electric sign
Restaurant.” 8. There are drivers who feel a fierce prejudice against,
not to say hatred of, … . 9. The fishing match is, to many … the
crowning event of the year. 10. She was at grammar school and had

56
ideas about becoming a dress … . 11. No … ever came to see her,
cigar in one hand and a film contract in the other.

C. Nouns with the Suffix -or. Nouns with suffix -or have the same
meaning as nouns with the suffix -er: to act – actor, to agitate –
agitator, to accelerate – accelerator. There are some nouns with the
suffix -or which cannot be traced to any verb used in English are are
formed from verbs which are rarely used. A list of such nouns is
given below. Find their meaning and pronunciation in a dictionary:
ancestor, author, bachelor, benefactor, debtor, doctor,
emperor, proprietor, rector, sailor, sculptor, spectator, senator,
tailor, major, mayor, orator, predecessor, traitor, warrior,
perambulator.

N o t e: the following words below are spelt with the suffix -


ar: beggar, burglar, liar, pedlar, pillar, scholar.

Exercise 4. Form nouns from the following verbs by adding the suffix -or.
Translate the nouns and memorize them.

Accelerate, collect, commentate, conduct, conquer, create,


decorate, demonstrate, edit, elevate, excavate, illustrate, indicate,
innovate, inspect, instruct, invent, investigate, liberate, narrate,
navigate, operate, originate, persecute, profess, prosecute, protect,
refrigerate, ventilate.
N o t e: compose – compositor.

Exercise 5. Insert a suitable word and translate the sentences.


(editor, possessor, senator, emperor, proprietor, accelerator,
predecessor)

1. The girl had taken her six stories from the brief-case and
handed them to the newspaper … . 2. Lawrence felt growing within
him a cold hatred toward the utterly vicious man who had once been
his … . 3. The figure of the old man vanished slowly into the
shadows, and his place on the bench was taken immediately by a
man younger and better dressed than his … . 4. He put his foot on …
with such force that the car shot forward, tyres screaming on the

57
asphalt. 5. His light summer business suit did not shout aloud that its
… was likewise the … of numerous millions of dollars and property.
6. He had never had time to love; he had been president of the
chamber of commerce, mayor of the city, state … , but he had missed
love. 7. When the peace comes, we will buy a little house and a
garden, and be as happy as … .

Section 2. Sentence Fragments

Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, fragments are


pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main
clause. One of the easiest ways to correct them is to remove the
period between the fragment and the main clause. Other kinds of
punctuation may be needed for the newly combined sentence.

Fragment (phrase or Possible Revision


dependent clause)
Mr. Brown offers many Mr. Brown offers many majors in
majors in engineering. Such as engineering, such as electrical,
electrical, chemical, and chemical, and industrial
industrial engineering. engineering.
I need to find a new I need to find a new roommate
roommate. Because the one I because the one I have now isn't
have now isn't working out too working out too well.
well.

You may have noticed that newspaper and magazine


journalists often use a dependent clause as a separate sentence when
it follows clearly from the preceding main clause, as in the last
example above. This is a conventional journalistic practice, often
used for emphasis. For academic writing and other more formal
writing situations, however, you should avoid such journalistic
fragment sentences.
Some fragments are not clearly pieces of sentences that have
been left unattached to the main clause; they are written as main
clauses but lack a subject or main verb.

58
Fragment (incomplete
Possible Revisions
main clause/no main verb)
Appositive: Gilman's "The Yellow
Wallpaper," a story with deep
A story with deep thoughts thoughts and emotions, has impressed
and emotions. critics for decades.
Direct object: She told a story with
deep thoughts and emotions.
Complete verb: Toys of all kinds were
Toys of all kinds thrown thrown everywhere.
everywhere. Direct object: They found toys of all
kinds thrown everywhere.
Direct object: I've noticed a record of
accomplishment beginning when you
A record of accomplishment
were first hired.
beginning when you were
Main verb: A record of
first hired.
accomplishment began when you were
first hired.
Fragment (incomplete
Possible Revisions
main clause/no subject)

Remove preposition: The ultimate


With the ultimate effect of
effect of all advertising is to sell the
all advertising is to sell
product.
the product.
By paying too much
Remove preposition: Paying too much
attention to polls can make
attention to polls can make a political
a political leader unwilling
leader unwilling to propose innovative
to propose innovative
policies.
policies.
Remove preposition: Doing freelance
For doing freelance work
work for a competitor got Phil fired.
for a competitor got Phil
Rearrange: Phil got fired for doing
fired.
freelance work for a competitor.

59
These last three examples of fragments with no subjects are
also known as mixed constructions, that is, sentences constructed out
of mixed parts. They start one way (often with a long prepositional
phrase) but end with a regular predicate. Usually the object of the
preposition (often a gerund, as in the last two examples) is intended
as the subject of the sentence, so removing the preposition at the
beginning is usually the easiest way to edit such errors.

Exercise 1. The sentences below appeared in papers written by students.


Act as their editor, marking a C if the sentences in the group are all
complete and an F if any of the sentences in the group is a fragment. Could
you tell these writers why the fragments are incomplete sentences? Revise
them.

____ 1. The scene was filled with beauty. Such as the sun
sending its brilliant rays to the earth and the leaves of various shades
of red, yellow, and brown moving slowly in the wind.
____ 2. He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off
his notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not
encourage students' questions.
____ 3. Within each group, a wide range of features to choose
from. It was difficult to distinguish between them.
____ 4. A few of the less serious fellows would go into a bar
for a steak dinner and a few glasses of beer. After this meal, they
were ready for anything.
____ 5. It can be really embarrassing to be so emotional.
Especially when you are on your first date, you feel that you should
be in control.
____ 6. The magazine has a reputation for a sophisticated,
prestigious, and elite group of readers. Although that is a valuable
judgment and in circumstances not a true premise.
____ 7. In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for
football. To prove to himself and his parents that he is a man.
____ 8. She opened the door and let us into her home. Not
realizing at the time that we would never enter that door in her home
again.

60
____9. As Christmas grows near, I find myself looking back
into my childhood days at fun-filled times of snowball fights. To
think about this makes me happy.
____10. Making up his mind quickly. Jim ordered two dozen
red roses for his wife. Hoping she would accept his apology.
____11. They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's
oldest and best friends had a little too much to drink.
____12. Although it only attained a speed of about twelve
miles an hour. My old rowboat with its three-horsepower motor
seemed like a high-speed job to me.
____13. With my brother standing by my side, I reached for
the pot handle. Tilting the pot way too much caused the boiling water
to spill.
____14. The small, one-story houses are all the same size and
style. With no difference except the color.
____15. Being a friend of mine like he was when we first
joined the soccer team. Together we learned a lot.

Exercise 2. These paragraphs need proofreading for possible fragments.


Revise them.

1. How can a person find patriotism in a local night club?


Well, it did not take me too long. About four weeks ago in a little
night club in Louisville, Kentucky, a couple of my friends, Rick and
Lon, the duo who were providing the entertainment that night for the
club.
2. For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the
University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans'
trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi-political trust and
confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political"
being all levels of government, and "quasi-political" churches, labor
unions, large professional/business associations, educational
institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has
taken place every year since 1964.
3. For 200 years Americans believed in better jobs, better
homes, a better life for one's children. This confidence no longer
exists. Polls now indicate that fewer Americans who feel they are
better off today than they were five years ago. A public-opinion

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analysis group has found that large numbers of Americans, at some
times and in some places, see themselves as lower on the ladder.
Adding worse living conditions and anticipation of further decline
over the next five years.
4. Well, in looking at the picture at the left you see an old
lady. She has a very funny look on her face. As if she's lonely and
just wants to be left alone. She also looks as if she has seen a lot and
experienced lots of things.
5. A president is an appointed leader. Someone who is a
decision maker in the executive branch of our government. This
doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable.
Just hopefully assumes. Assumes through his past record as a
politician, over the years' buildup of experience and handling
situations.

Exercise 3. The following paragraph has no capital letters or periods to


mark the beginnings and ends of sentences. Add capitals, periods, commas,
and/or other punctuation that may be needed to make the word groups into
complete sentences. Your goal is to be sure that there are no fragments.

my brother was always my best friend when I was a child


especially as we two were almost alone in the world we lived with
our old grandmother in a little house, almost a shack, in the country
whenever I think of him now I see a solemn, responsible boy a boy
too old for his years who looked out for me no matter what once
there was a bully John Anson who looked enormous to me though he
was probably an average twelve-year-old John had it in for me
because he liked Littice Grant who liked me he decided to beat me
up right before her eyes I was lucky my brother came by he didn't
interfere any he just stood there somehow though his presence gave
me confidence I licked the stuffing out of John Anson if my brother
hadn't been there I don't think I could have done it.

Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Technique

Character’s Setting . A character’s setting helps the reader (and


author) get to know the setting. The author must know the world in

62
which her character lives in order to know intimate details about her.
Here are some exercises that will help set your character in her
setting.
First, start your character in his/her bedroom, in front of the
closet. Write for ten, fifteen minutes about the clothes hanging in the
closet, the shoes, the belts. Is it neat, color coordinated or arranged
haphazardly? Does your character have to dig for accessories or is
everything put together? Or perhaps your character has no concern
toward accessorizing. Describe your character getting dressed and
moving around in the room. The furniture, the décor, knickknacks,
etc., are all important. Did she hang onto a favorite doll from
childhood? Does your character have expensive items mixed with
dime store items?
Once your character is dressed, move him/her outside.
Next, have your character go on a walk in the neighborhood,
on her way to her favorite place. If her favorite place isn’t close
enough to reach by foot, then describe it from a moving car. Don’t
record her impressions or thoughts. Just write everything straight-
forward as she passes everything. The trees (what types?) flowers,
fences, cars, etc., etc. It might help to sketch a map. Name the
streets, shops, anything that she would pass.
Okay, now she’s in her favorite place. Describe it again,
without her thoughts or impressions. Just straight-forward again.
Hone in on details, even if they seem ordinary. Start with the door or
whatever type of entrance. Then move inside the space. Describe
sights, sounds, smells. Touch all the senses.
N o t e: You may not use all these details in your story. But the
more details you know, the better you know your character, and the
more real you can make your character for your readers.
Hope this will get you started…

Exercise1. Read the excerpt from David's journal he wrote one autumn and
do the assignments.

By the side of J.P. Brown's grain-field I picked up some white


oak acorns in the path by the wood-side, which I found to be
unexpectedly sweet and palatable, the bitterness being scarcely
perceptible. . . . Such as these are no mean food. . . . Their sweetness

63
is like the sweetness of bread, and to have discovered this
palatableness in this neglected nut, the whole world is to me sweeter
for it. . . . I should be at least equally pleased if I were to find that the
grass tasted sweet and nutritious. It increases the number of my
friends; it diminishes the number of my foes.

Assignments. Now take yourself to an autumn day, past or


present. Are there special chores that mark the season? Is it spent with
different people? What sensory details can you remember? Use all senses.
What are you doing? Where are you? What is the mood, atmosphere?
Freewrite this scene for fifteen minutes. As always, don't stop to edit, don't
worry about whether it makes sense. Use all your senses. Use strong verbs
and nouns. Go deep. Let go.

Exercise 2. Think of a situation to illustrate the following proverbs:

1. Too many cooks spoil the broth.


2. Don’t cry out before you are hurt.
3. The course of true love never did run smooth.
4. Confession is good for the soul.

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Lesson 7

Section 1. Spelling

A. Adjectives with the Suffixes -able, -ible. The suffixes –able/-ible


are Latin in origin (L. suffix –bilis). They came through French and
are active in Modern English. They are added mainly to verbs to
form adjectives, and sometimes to nouns or even phrases (eatable,
readable). Among them there are many adjectives borrowed from
Latin or French (audible, edible). here is a list of adjectives for you
to memorize. Explain what they mean.
-able: agreeable, amiable, available, capable, considerable,
disreputable, indispensable, inevitable, liable, memorable,
miserable, probable, remarkable.
-ible: audible, compatible, contemptible, edible, forcible,
horrible, illegible, incredible, intelligible, negligible, plausible,
possible, terrible, responsible, sensible, visible.

Exercise 1. Form adjectives from the given verbs and nouns, and explain
their meaning. Pay attention to their spelling and pronunciation. Use a
dictionary.
M o d e l: to accept – acceptable; to rely – reliable; to
conceive – conceivable; to value – valuable.
N o t e: after c and g the letter e is retained: to notice –
noticeable; to mange – manageable.

to avoid, to bear, to convert, to suit, to admire, to advise, to


compare, to cure, to imagine, to measure, to remove, to change, to
exchange, to force, to replace, to trace, to envy, to justify, to pity, to
vary.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Translate the
sentences.
(adorable, indistinguishable, incurable, reasonable, audible,
disagreeable, imaginable, disreputable, imperceptible,
inconceivable, incapable, admissible, indispensable, available,
responsible, invaluable, reliable, suitable, irrevocable, valuable,
unmistakable)
65
1. He felt that there was something … in the world’s suffering.
2. I didn’t forget that sense of anxiety and tension which had upset
me during the night, but it became … . 3. Augustus, my … brother,
is completely infatuated about her. 4. This separation was a great
grief to me and I blamed myself for being … of that moral courage
necessary to acknowledge the evil nature of man. 5. He would eat
fresh fish for breakfast if … . 6. From the start, Palmer took it that
something catastrophic and … had occurred. 7. He was aware of an
immense load of responsibility; it was … from love. 8. Sometimes
the pulsing of the drums was all but …, at others they seemed to be
beating only just round the corner. 9. But the minute hand of the
electric clock above his bed jumped forward with an almost … click.
10. This was quite possibly true, but not, in the present
circumstances, … . 11. Dr. M. West, a member of this distinguished
group of workers on vocabulary selection, is … for the compilation
of a work which will prove … to all teachers of the English
language. 12. In my opinion she was the most … of all ladies. 13.
They have warned the doctor, guarded their tongues, done everything
… to prevent her from learning the truth. 14. He thought of the …
distance a man travels. 15. I hardly think that Mrs. Allon is a very …
person. 16. Presently the child gave a little sigh, very slight, but … .
17. He was looked upon by his supervisors as a … officer. 18. His
wrist-watch was a … thing made by a famous clock-maker. 19. This
dictionary had achieved international recognition as an … practical
reference book to English as a foreign language. 20. He shook his
head, “It’s almost … . I’ll never understand unless you explain.”

Exercise 3. Choose synonyms for the italicized words from the following
list:
(amiable, disagreeable, amicably, sensible, miserable, habitable,
incredible, considerable, liable)

1. Many children under ten are subject to colds, even those


who are lucky enough not to catch common children’s diseases. 2.
The police are after you, it is not very clever of you to come here in
the day-time. 3. The landlady was a very kindhearted old lady but
with some prejudice against foreigners. 4. Though all the shutters

66
were closed, the house with its white walls and red roof looked fit to
be lived in. 5. A large amount of important information went through
unknown channels to the enemy’s side. 6. The boy would have been
my age if such an unbelievable thing had not happened to him. He
had been killed in a fight. 7. The hostess greeted us in a most friendly
way and asked if we would like to interview her in her garden. 8. She
has a pleasant voice but very unpleasant manners. 9. For some days
after his departure I felt lonely and unhappy and didn’t want to see
anyone.

B. Words with the Suffixes -ant (adj.), -ance (noun). Here we draw
your attention to some high-frequency words, adjectives and nouns,
with the derivational suffixes –ant, -ance. In the word lists given
below you will find groups of related words in which these suffixes
regularly occur in their derivational function, i.e. forming adjectives
and nouns from verbs.
(a) verb adjective noun
attend attendant assistance
assist assistant assistance
(b) guide guidance
utter utterance
(c) arrogant arrogance
relevant relevance
Sometimes there is only a noun ending in –ance:
circumstance, countenance, nuisance.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Translate the
sentences.
(nuisance, ignorant(2), intolerance, acquaintance, assistant,
allowances, reluctance(2), radiant, appearance(3), hindrance,
assurance, resemblance)

1. He had a formidable reputation as a hard, ruthless man,


whose god was perfection and whose greatest … was for any
weakness or sentiment which undermined it. 2. I went to the
telephone with a feeling of undefined … . 3. There was no point in
ever coming back, since I was nothing but a … to Toby. 4. I had the
impression our … had been slight, and was of a year or two earlier.
67
5. Most people I met, even on the technical committees, were still …
of the whole project. 6. With perfect … he ran his scissors across the
stuff, folded it, made it into a parcel, and handed it to the dark-
skinned customer. 7. I went across the passage to the little room
where my personal … was sitting. 8. What was the girl like? Would
you say there was any … between her and me? 9. Albert, you must
get dressed. You’ve simply got to put in an … straight away. 10. You
must make … for an old man like myself, who comes to his
decisions slowly. 11. “I never loved him,” she said, with perceptible
… . 12. The man’s … was singular. 13. Now Bateman asked himself
if Arnold Jackson could think him … of the most terrible scandal that
Chicago had ever known. 14. I discovered in due course that Mona’s
chief … on the posters had been to advertise toothpaste. 15. Then his
face broke into a … and understanding smile. 16. It was a …, not to
be able to put him in his place.

Exercise 5. Find words related to the verbs given below and use them in
sentences of your own.

Annoy, signify, inherit, enter, reassure, repent, abound,


tolerate, resist, forbear.

C. Words with the Suffixes –ent, -ence, -ency. The suffixes are of
Latin origin, -ent occurring in adjectives, -ence, -ency in nouns. The
latter form abstract nouns, mainly from adjectives and verbs: decent
– decency, efficient – efficiency; exist – existence, prefer –
preference.
Here is a list of words for you to memorize.
verb adjective noun
differ different difference
insist insistent insistence,
insistency
urge urgent urgency
eloquent eloquence
intelligent intelligence
insolent insolence
violent violence

68
Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Translate the
sentences.
(convalescent, self-sufficient, reticence, imminent, confidence(2),
impertinent, impatience, consistent, prominent, occurrence,
convenience)

1. A momentary … rose in her. The whole thing was such a


waste. 2. Uncle Harry’s offer of a partnership and on such excellent
terms was an unexpectedly happy … . 3. She had smiled to herself,
men were so transparent. She was a little amused at William’s old-
fashioned … . 4. She doubted Joan’s sincerity. But surely the child
couldn’t be so … . 5. There was a small rest house at the station for
the … of travellers, where they were served with what meals they
might need. 6. Cargill is doing very valuable and important work; his
methods in treating tuberculosis have met with such striking success
that he is a very … figure in the medical world. 7. When Harry was
Barbara’s age he was curiously withdrawn and … . 8. He had
complete … in his own judgement and soon his employers were
sharing that … . 9. People should react to external stimuli in a
manner … with their basic characteristics. 10. He was so evidently
… that Packy felt there would now be nothing inhuman in asking for
details of the affair. 11. Day became afternoon, became dusk and …
evening.

Section 2. Paragraph Structure

A paragraph consists of a number of sentences which are


closely related, and deal with the same topic. A well-constructed
paragraph should possess a) unity, b) logical sequence of thought, c)
variety of length and construction.
By unity we mean that one main theme is dealt with. This
theme may be expressed or understood. The main information is
usually conveyed in the topic sentence. The remainder of the
paragraph is an enlargement of this. A paragraph lacks unity when
two different topics are treated in it. The topic sentence can be
expressed by the first sentence, then comes the development and the
last sentence rounds off the whole. The topic sentence may be
69
expanded in a number of ways or it may come as the climax of a
series of preparatory sentences.
A logical sequence of thought. A paragraph cannot be
regarded as satisfactory unless the sentences are arranged in a clear
and logical order. Each sentence must lead to the following and all
must be linked up. The connection between the sentences will be
shown by their logical order. Certain pronouns, adverbs and
conjunctions are frequently used (thus, hence, further, consequently,
however, moreover, etc.).
Varying length and construction. It is impossible to say how
long a paragraph should be. The length of a paragraph is largely
determined by its purpose and by the length of the work which it is a
part of. Variation of paragraph length is as important as variation of
sentence length within the paragraph. It creates a sense of rhythm
and movement which aids the reading.
The paragraph is itself part of a larger unit of a section or
chapter and must, therefore, fit neatly into that unit. It must show
some reference to preceding or following paragraphs, perhaps by
introducing a series of ideas or summing up a collection of
statements. This means that a paragraph may have not only a topic
sentence but also a linking sentence which takes up the thread of
previous paragraphs or which states the theme to be developed in the
next.
Now, examine the opening paragraph paying attention to its
unity and logical sequence of thought. The topic sentence conveying
the main information is given in bold type.
Once upon a starless midnight there was an owl who sat on the
branch of an oak tree. Two ground moles tried to slip quietly by,
unnoticed. “You!” said the owl. “Who?” they replied, in fear and
astonishment, for they could not believe it was possible for anyone to
see them in thick darkness. “You, two,” said the owl. The moles
hurried away and told the other creatures of the field and forest
that the owl was the greatest and the wisest of all animals because
he could see in the dark and because he could answer any
question. “I’ll see about that,” said the secretary bird and he called
on the owl one night when it was again very dark. “How many claws
am I holding up?” said the secretary bird. “Two,” said the owl and
that was right.
70
Exercise 1. Arrange these sentences in a logical order.

1. George always shaves and dresses before eating. Sometimes


he falls asleep again. Then he brushes his teeth, puts on his coat, and
says goodbye before he leaves for the office. When the alarm clock
rings, George wakes up and turns it off. If this happens, his mother
wakes him up so that he won’t be late for work. After he finishes
breakfast, he usually reads the morning newspaper.
2. Begin by breaking the eggs into a bowl, adding small
amounts of salt, pepper, and milk. When the butter in the frying pan
has melted, pour in the egg batter. To make a small omelet you need
three eggs, a slice of cheese, salt, pepper, butter, milk, a frying pan, a
bowl and a spatula. Then heat the frying pan over a medium gas,
melting a small amount of butter in it. After the eggs are partially
cooked, place a slice of cheese on them and fold one half of the
omelet over the other half. Remove from the frying pan and serve.

Exercise 2. Join the following short sentences together to make a single


paragraph using the following conjunctions: and, but, so, as, while, if, when,
because, etc.

1. I saw some lovely dresses in a shop-window. 2. I was


walking along Regent Street. 3. I couldn’t buy one. 4. I didn’t have
enough money with me. 5. There was a sale in the shop. 6. I knew if
I waited until tomorrow they would all be sold. 7. I got on a bus. 8. I
went straight home. 9. I grabbed my purse. 10. I came out again. 11.
I went back to the shop. 12. It was full of women all talking
excitedly. 13. I looked at several dresses. 14. I chose one that was
marked five pounds. 15. I opened my purse to pay for it. 16. I found,
to my dismay, there was only three pounds in it. 17. Fortunately, the
shop assistant was sympathetic. 18. She promised to keep the dress
for me. 19. I left three guineas as a deposit.

Exercise 3. Study the following passage and work at the assignments given
below:

1. Find the key sentence in the first paragraph.


2. Copy out the sentences that develop the key sentence.

71
3. Prove that the first paragraph is well-constructed, that it possesses unity,
logical sequence of thought and length.
4. Give the paragraph a title.
5. Paraphrase the paragraph.

Thus I learned from life itself. At the beginning I was only a


little mass of possibilities. It was my teacher who unfolded and
developed them. When she came, everything about me breathed of
love and joy and was full of meaning. She has never since let pass an
opportunity to point out the beauty that is in everything, nor has she
ceased trying in thought and action and example to make my life
sweet and useful.
It was my teacher’s genius, her quick sympathy, her loving tact
which made the first years of my education so beautiful. It was
because she seized the right moment to impart knowledge that made
it so pleasant and acceptable to me.
My teacher is so near to me that I scarcely think of myself
apart from her. How much of my delight in all beautiful things is
innate, and how much is due to her influence, I can never tell. I feel
that her being is inseparable from my own, and that the footsteps of
my life are in hers. All the best of me belongs to her – there is not a
talent, or an aspiration or a joy in me that has not been awakened by
her loving touch.
(After Helen Keller)

Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Writing.

A composition is a creative literary work, conveying several


problems or dealing with one problem in detail. It is too often the
area where students lack confidence because they are on their own
and have no guidelines on which to base their work. Creative writing
demands a good knowledge and awareness, a special ability to
present facts and ideas clearly, concisely and attractively. It is true
that you cannot teach students to write any more than you can teach
them to paint, but you can definitely guide them to develop a
technique. Before writing on any subject it is necessary to have a
stock of ideas relative to it.

72
Beginning of Compositions. A good beginning is of great
importance, for we naturally desire to hold the readers’ attention
from the first. The opening paragraph should appear to be natural and
it can always be direct. It is a good plan to get right into the subjest
to be discussed, arrest the attention of the reader with the first
sentence. There are many ways of beginning a composition, among
them: a) general reflection; b) by giving a definition and thus
immediately introducing the subject; c) a quotation or a proverb; d)
an anecdote; if appropriate, this is a neat way of beginning. Whatever
the form opening, it should make the reader hungry for more.
Ending of Compositions. The ending should obviously prove to the
reader that the subject has been nicely rounded off; that the whole is
finished and complete.
The Body of a Composition. After you have considered the making
of a skeleton or framework on which to base a composition turn to
the skeleton whose bones must be clothed. Before beginning to write,
it is best to think of various points in the skeleton, make up your
mind what you want to say under the heading and gradually expand
each into a paragraph. Examine your skeleton to make sure that there
is a development from the opening paragraph to the end.
When writing a composition remember the stages of your
work:
1. Collect your material.
2. Select the information you need.
3. Arrange the material in the order of presentation according
to your plan.
4. Write down the main topics of each paragraph.
5. Under each topic indicate the development.
6. Make a rough draft.
7. Correct the rough draft and make your final copy.

Exercise. The aim of this exercise is to help students to write compositions


by going over corresponding language notes. These notes will give them
constructive guidance on composition writing, providing them with possible
alternatives, useful phrases, language accuracy and structural harmony.

73
A Dream.
Useful phrases and sentences:
1. A Pleasant Dream
A. I had a dream ... [NOT: I saw a dream ...]
I saw someone (something) in my dream
I dreamt of someone (something).
B. I dreamt I was ... – flying // London [Paris, France, etc.]
- houses below // Like dolls’ houses
- arrived // London airport in a couple of hours
- took me // hour or so // get to my hotel
- hotel // Oxford Street
- was // first trip to London
Everything looked so different
I was just about to – speak to the Queen // visit Westminster
Abbey // enter Buckingham Palace – when ...
I was in – Hyde Park // Trafalgar Square // St. Paul's
Cathedral – when ... alarm clock woke me up // mother woke
me up // time to go to college // telephone rang
C. I hope my dream will come true
- pity // wasn't true
- pity // only a dream
- hope // visit London one day
2. A Bad Dream (A Nightmare)
A. Last night I had a bad (horrible, terrible) dream [a
nightmare]
I saw I was ... – I had eaten a heavy meal
I had received some bad news
I had been reading a frightening book
I had been watching a horror film
I had a high temperature
B. I dreamt I was alone in a strange house:
- no lights in it
- heard // strange moan
- someone grabbed // arm
- held to the floor
- lights went on
- knife was held to my throat
- wanted my money
74
- was scared // gave all my money
- tied to a chair
- robbers disappeared into the night
- screamed at the top of my voice
- neighbour came // telephoned the police
- free again
C. - hope // happy
- never have such a nightmare again
... mother woke me up
... telephone rang
- alarm clock woke me up
I woke up suddenly
Points to think about:
• Do you often dream? [Do you like dreaming? Why? – Why
not?]
• What sort of dream did you have last night? [nice – bad –
exciting – a nighmare]
• Have you ever had a dream that was so bad you could not
forget it?
• Can you think why you had that dream? Do you know if it
meant anything?
• How would you feel if that dream came true?
• What can you do to avoid having dreams?
a) not eat too much before sleeping
b) not have worries (problems)
c) not overwork (over-tired)
• Have you had a dream that came true later? What was it
about?
Some helpful words and expressions: the next day – on the
contrary – after all – moreover – during – even if – another thing is –
finally.

75
Lesson 8
Section 1. Spelling

A. Words with the Suffixes -ous, -eous, -ious, -uous. -Ous, -eous, -
ious, -uous are adjectival suffixes which came into English mainly
through loans from French. They are used to derive adjectives from
nouns: poison – poisonous; villain – villainous; glory – glorious. The
adjectives with these suffixes have the meaning “full of …; of the
nature, character or appearance of”. As a rule they are unstressed, so
make sure you spell them correctly.
1. Suffix –ous. E x a m p l e s: danger – dangerous, joy – joyous,
nerve – nervous, murder – murderous, thunder – thunderous,
generous – generosity, enormous – enormity.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences. Write out adjectives ending


in –ous and adverbs ending in –ously and find nouns related to them.

1. Rembrandt had one enormous advantage over the majority


of his neighbours; like most other artists he had a purpose in life. The
souls of the men he painted speak their strange longings through
their eyes, their senses are miraculously acute, not for sounds and
odours and colour, but for the subtle sensations of their souls.
2. “Hallo,” remarked Henry humorously. “You are beginning to take
interest?” 3. We’re a bit jealous of Jenny, but her independence is
part of her charm. 4. He interrupted her to tell her of the anonymous
letter he had received and that it had haunted him until he had to
come and see what it was all about. 5. I must say – even though I
knew what mother is – I must say it sounds rather marvellous. 6. All
the men who dictated letters to them became immense characters,
comic, grotesquely villainous, or heroic and adorable. 7. Then with
something like amorous urgency, he went to the telephone, rang up
the Anglo-Baltic, and sternly demanded Mr. Borstein. 8. I began to
like New York, the racy, adventurous feel of it at night. 9. Since no
one prevented me, I followed them into the apartment, which was
tremendously wrecked. 10. As a young man in the Navy he had once
made ships himself, full rigged ships inserted miraculously into

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whisky bottles. 11. This new job isn’t any more dangerous than any
of the other things.

2. Suffix –eous. E x a m p l e s: courage – courageous, advantage –


advantageous, spontaneous – spontaneity, righteous – righteousness,
miscellaneous – miscellany.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences into Armenian. Paraphrase


those parts of the examples in which you find adjectives in –eous.

1. His friendship with Miss Dolly was almost instantaneous. 2.


I may as well mention here that Georgiana made an advantageous
match with a wealthy, worn-out man of fashion. 3. He loved the
disorder of the old eighteenth century farm house, the collection of
miscellaneous objects of all kinds that littered the rooms. 4. Like
many men who appear spontaneous at a first meeting, we each had a
vein of reserve. 5. She was years older than he was and she was
hideous. 6. If he had not paused on the landing to dispose of his
overcoat, their entrance would have been simultaneous. 7. The voices
were courteous, silky, and just perceptibly tense.

3. Suffix –ious. E x a m p l e s: envy – envious, fury – furious,


industry – industrious, mystery – mysterious, study – studious,
curious – curiosity, notorious – notoriety, serious – seriousness.
N o t e: -y of the noun changes into –i.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Translate the
sentences.
(cautious, obvious, self-consciously, furiously, overconscientious,
ingenious, ambitious, mysterious(2), conscious)

1. She was a great and very … artist. 2. I did not even wonder
how … his surrender was; we were too much in the middle of events
to care. 3. I was watching him to develop into a …, subtle and far-
sighted man. 4. I’m afraid we should all be mildly surprised if your
… friend can really persuade us that we can afford the unaffordable.
5. He was without … arrogance, but he had the blood of kings in his
veins, as have all the older English families. 6. It seemed to him …

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that government policy was wrong. 7. I had told her to go hours
before, but she was … . 8. The waitress returned to give them some
… thick soup, which looked like gum. 9. “And where did you get to,
Dad?” – “Went to a concert,” he replied, a trifle … . 10. This time
Mr. Sweet clapped …, and so did the fierce man, and so did
everybody else, even the violin players in the orchestra.

4. Suffix –uous. E x a m p l e s: ambiguous – ambiguity, continuous


– continuity, incongruous – incongruity, ingenuous – ingenuity,
superfluous – superfluity.

Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences. Find related nouns for the
adjectives in –uous.

1. A faintly contemptuous, faintly triumphant gleam showed in


his eyes. 2. Many other little sisters I knew were reduced to an
inconspicuous, subservient position by a little tact. 3. Brady was not
ignored by the girl who then entered; in fact he saw from her
ingenuous eyes that she was fascinated by him. 4. There was
something incongruous in the words with which the narration ended.
5. I am pleased to find my cousin so virtuous. 6. The rain beat
strongly against the panes, the wind blew tempestuously. 7. None of
them carried a pound of superfluous flesh; they all had an enthusiasm
for the works of Mr. Ernest Hemingway. 8. Turgis disliked this
contemptuous tone. 9. Simon was acutely aware that his professional
status was highly ambiguous.

B. Words with the Prefixes en-, in-, de-, dis-. The prefixes en- and
in- came into English through French and Latin. They are
pronounced in the same way since, like all other prefixes in modern
English, they are unstressed. Thus the spelling of the words with
these suffixes must be memorized.
The prefix en- (allomorph em-) has the following meanings:
(1) ‘make (into) …’: enfeeble, enable, enlarge, enrich, enslave; (2)
‘wrap in, wrap up …’: embrace, enclose, enwrap; (3) ‘put in …’:
enchain, enfold. However, in many cases the meaning of the prefix is
hard to define: its meaning, as that of other affixes, depends on the

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meaning of the word it is tucked on to (adjectives, nouns, verbs), e.g.
enlist, enforce.
The prefix in- (allomorphs im-, il-, ir-) has two meanings: (1)
‘not’: incomprehensible, indiscreet; (2) ‘want, lack, absence of’:
inability, incredulity, injustice.
E x a m p l e s: visible – invisible, logical – illogical, moral –
immoral, rational – irrational, sensible – insensible, convenience –
inconvenience, humanity – inhumanity, ability – inability.
The prefix de- imparts to the affixed word the following
meanings: ‘deprive of, rid of, rid of the character of’; ‘reverse, undo’
(what is denoted by the verb).
E x a m p l e s: code – decode, fame – defame, forest – deforest,
throne – dethrone, centralize – decentralize, civilize – decivilize,
mobilize – demobilize, form – deform.
N o t e. In words, which are not analyzable as derivatives, the prefix
is a purely structural element: describe, destruction (cf. proscribe,
obstruction).
The prefix dis- imparts to the affixed word an oppositive or
negative meaning, the meaning of ‘asunder’, ‘the reverse of …’
E x a m p l e s: agree – disagree, arm – disarm, enchant – disenchant,
advantage – disadvantage, content – discontent, comfort –
discomfort.
N o t e. In words, which are not analyzable as derivatives, dis- is a
purely structural element: disturb, dissuade, distract (cf. perturb,
persuade, attract).

Exercise 5. Form new words from those given below using the prefixes en-
(em-) or dis-. Use them in sentences of your own.

Approve, ability, arrange, bitter, body, box, capsule, charge,


circle, courage, embody, figure, frame, hearten, lodge, mount, obey,
own, regard, shrine, shroud.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences. Pick out the prefixed verbs
and list them together with the adjectives or nouns to which en- is prefixed.

1. In the back row, Miss Elsie Thornton pressed the black-


gloved fingers of one hand to her eyes and encircled Jacy Cross with
her free arm. 2. Even a criminal is entitled to know the nature of the

79
crime before being convicted. 3. By doing so you endanger your
chances of success. 4. I was entrapped into contradicting myself. 5.
Then Wicher entrusted the final details of the performance to a thin-
shouldered boy of 16 from White River, whose ambition it was to be
a mechanic with a travelling carnival. 6. We sat there, the whisky
warming our bodies, watching enraptured the geography of this
archipelago unfold. 7. The cypress trees had been planted so close
together in the first place that now their branches entwined and
formed an almost impenetrable hedge. 8. Dicky was silent for a
moment. Then he glanced down at his feet, thickly encrusted with
rapidly drying mud. 9. Flying enables us to cover immense distances
in a short time.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Translate the
sentences.
(distraction, dissociate, disable, display, disinclination, disappoint,
dishonest, disarm, disapproval, discourage, dissemination,
distribute, disgrace)

1. It is difficult to … weakness from old age. 2. Your son …


great intelligence. 3. The conference prohibited the … of nuclear
weapons to other countries of the world. 4. … soldiers should be
cared for by the state. 5. By frankly admitting that he was not a
scholar he … criticism. 6. Some people have a strong … for work. 7.
What he heard shocked him, but he hesitated to express his … . 8.
Your words have … me. 9. The teacher … the books among the
children. 10. He complained that there were too few … in their
community. 11. The weather has been very … this spring. 12. The
continued use of war as a method of trying to settle disputes is a …
to humanity. 13. The girl was discharged for being … .

Section 2. Paraphrase: Write it in your Own Words

A paraphrase is...
• your own rendition of essential information and ideas
expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.

80
• one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate
documentation) to borrow from a source.
• a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses
concisely on a single main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
• it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished
passage.
• it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
• the mental process required for successful paraphrasing
helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full
meaning.
2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note
card.
3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you
later how you envision using this material. At the top of the
note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject
of your paraphrase.
4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your
version accurately expresses all the essential information in a
new form.
5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or
phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so
that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the
material into your paper.

Some examples to compare. The original passage:


Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes,
and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper.
Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as
directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the
amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

81
A legitamate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to
keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem
usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the
material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47)
An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from
sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research
paper (Lester 46-47).
A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take
notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In
fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of
directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of
source material copied while taking notes.

Exercise. On a separate piece of paper, write a paraphrase of each of the


following passages. Try not to look back at the original passage.

1. "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just


as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control
on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold
ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water
from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface
water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system
is now threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau,"
Audubon (May 1990):17.
2. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the
law, and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local
bar where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized
crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do
anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread
throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis
Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The
flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short
skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else,
America's break with the past. From Kathleen Yancey, English 102
Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.

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3. Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-
fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-
age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can
reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike
helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. From "Bike
Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.
4. Matisse is the best painter ever at putting the viewer at the
scene. He's the most realistic of all modern artists, if you admit the
feel of the breeze as necessary to a landscape and the smell of
oranges as essential to a still life. "The Casbah Gate" depicts the
well-known gateway Bab el Aassa, which pierces the southern wall
of the city near the sultan's palace. With scrubby coats of ivory, aqua,
blue, and rose delicately fenced by the liveliest gray outline in art
history, Matisse gets the essence of a Tangier afternoon, including
the subtle presence of the bowaab, the sentry who sits and surveys
those who pass through the gate. From Peter Plagens, "Bright
Lights." Newsweek (26 March 1990): 50.
5. While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement
in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and
engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building.
The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer
William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile
high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel
claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building.
From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.

Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Writing.

Exercise 1. Sounds of Silence

Writers are told to "use all senses." Here's a different twist


on using the senses. For this exercise, we're going to describe
silence. The challenge is in describing something that is not there. In
this exercise, you are not allowed to use words like "silence" or
"quiet." Show the reader the silence through other details. To get
started on this exercise, you might want to sit in silence. Listen. Take
note of what you hear. You can also start this exercise by freewriting

83
for ten or fifteen minutes about silence in order to get warmed up.
Then write a scene in which you describe silence. Use the setting to
fit the tone and mood. It can be anything you want. Try to do at least
a page. As always, have fun with it!

Exercise 2. Using your imagination or drawing on your friends’ experience,


complete the following story. Find a suitable title for your story.

I woke up with a start and sat up, wondering for a moment


where I was. There was nothing but the sea around me, and only in
the distance could I make out the faint line of the coast. My skin was
burning, but I felt chilly because of the fresh breeze which was
blowing from the land. The breeze must have carried me out to sea
while I lay asleep on my lilo (air mattress), I thought, feeling cold
with fear. ...

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Lesson 9
Section 1. Spelling: Homophones

Note: Homophones are words, which are pronounced in the


same way, but spelled in a different way.

Exercise. Copy the following homophones and look up their meanings in


the dictionary. Insert in the blank spaces the appropriate word from
following group of homophones:
a) (air – heir / bare – bear / beach – beech / beat – beet / birth –
berth / bean – been / berry – bury / brake – break)

1. He got up with an … of relief and yet reluctance. 2. For a


moment I could not feel my heart. It had stopped … . 3. The
classroom should be … during the break. 4. I saw the mother sitting
at the table, her head … in her hand. 5. The garden looked … and
deserted. 6. I suddenly pushed open the garden gate and stepped
inside to pick some … from the nearest bush. 7. John was the only …
to his uncle’s estate. 8. He knows how many … make five. Don’t try
to fool him with that suggestion. 9. The upper … was occupied by a
young man who never took part in our conversation. 10. Wait a bit.
We’ll discuss it in the … . 11. While we were cutting up potatoes,
carrots and …roots for the soup I looked up and suddenly burst out
laughing. 12. The news that Mrs. Davis had given … to a daughter
seemed to make no impression on her relatives. 13. Jerry was the
first to … the silence. 14. The … has a massive body, coarse heavy
fur and relatively short limbs. 15. I can’t … the way you treat that
man. 16. We hired a boat and rowed along the coast until we found a
beautiful secluded … . 17. A wood of mostly poplars and … and
fringed with reeds stretched along one bank. 18. I’ve always …
treated as a gentleman. 19. The driver put on the … and the car
stopped.

b) (bow – bough / course – coarse / cell – sell / cent – sent – scent /


current – currant / dear – deer / dew – due / die – dye)

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1. The main … was steak with vegetables. 2. What a … little
kitten! 3. The front part of the ship is called the … . 4. ‘To expire’ is
a synonym for ‘to …’ 5. A … is the hundredth part of the US dollar..
6. The meeting is … to begin at 4 o’clock. 7. His hands were … and
roughened by years of hard work. 8. The … is a structural unit of
plant and animal life. 9. He climbed onto the huge … of a pine. 10.
He was not a young man any longer; age had … his head. 11. The
grass and leaves of the trees were covered with … . 12. Two dollars!
That was too … for such a trifle. 13. Don’t … this book, you may
need it in future. 14. He could … trouble the moment he stopped
onto the porch. 15. The doctor was … for immediately. 16. We had
reached the bridge over the river and stood there, gazing down at its
strong … . 17. Her hair had been … to exactly the same beautiful
shade as Sophie’s. 18. I opened the gate and saw some … bushes and
a line of white flowers fringing the path. 19. A man can … but once.
20. An adult male … is called a stag.

c) (fare – fair / flower – flour / for – four – fore / fir – fur / feet – feat
/ gate – gait / great – grate / grown – groan / hair – hare)

1. She liked violets more than any other … . 2. The wounded


man … when they tried to lift him. 3. The … of the four soldiers was
highly praised by everyone. 4. I have a … desire to spend a fortnight
in the country. 5. At the … I met a strangely familiar man dressed in
black. 6. … is the finely ground meal of grain. 7. What he saw there
made his … stand on end. 8. The part of the arm between the elbow
and the wrist is called the … arm. 9. We were decorating the …-tree
when our guests came. 10. He was met by a …-skinned young girl
with a beautiful crown of black hair. 11. He walked with an
awkward, stooping … which was due to nervousness. 12. Her
singing … on my ear. 13. First catch your … , then cook it. 14. What
is the … from here to Moscow? 15. There were apples, peanuts, and
milk on the table, but never enough of even this primitive … . 16.
Put your shoes on the … , they are wet. 17. He is …-up and must be
responsible for his actions. 18. Hastily she grabbed her … coat and
ran out. 19. These are good pills … a cough, but you must not take
more than … pills at a time. 20. The dog followed the hunter at his
….

86
d) (heal – heel / hoarse – horse / hole – whole / key – quay / lain –
lane / lead – led / meat – meet / made – maid / mail – male)

1. He ate three … oranges. 2. Though he worked hard he had


difficulty in making both ends … . 3. I often met this man wandering
in the … late in the evening, looking at the boats. 4. It could be Tina!
You must have been … astray by her strong resemblance to Sophie!
5. Don’t look a gift … in the mouth. 6. He had … motionless on the
ground for an hour or so before he heard steps. 7. One man’s … is
another man’s poison. 8. If you want the letter to get there quickly,
send it by air … . 9. The landlady showed him upstairs and gave him
a … to his room. 10. Don’t worry! It’s just a scratch; it’ll soon … .
11. They talked themselves … , but never came to an agreement. 12.
… animals are often larger than the females. 13. The symphony is in
a major … . 14. I like to stand on the … and watch the steamers
make their landing. 15. She likes shoes with high … . 16. The … in
the ground was covered with some fir branches. 17. She … up her
mind not to interfere. 18. The … pencil does not, and never did,
contain any … . 19. The door was opened by the … , who told me
that the master was out.

e) (main – mane / miner – minor / night – knight / pain – pane / prey


– pray / pear – pair – pare / pail – pale / piece – peace)

1. He tore the letter into … and burned them in the fireplace. 2.


The horse’s … was decorated with paper flowers and ribbons for the
occasion. 3. The rain beat at the window … .4. By way of a …
psychological experience she decided to spend the night at a hotel. 5.
That … I never thought of sleeping. 6. These worries … upon his
mind. 7. He turned … when I told him we had found the gun near the
house. 8. May he rest in … , poor soul! 9. His father worked as a …
in that town. 10. In the Middle Ages a mounted soldier serving under
a feudal superior was called a … . 11. He never took … to get a
proper education. 12. She knelt down and began to … . 13. Very
soon he was forced to … down his expenses. 14. Take some water
from the … and wash your face. 15. Drive along the … road and then
take the second turning to the left. 16.The woman carried a basket
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full of huge golden … . 17. A … pipe is a pipe smoked by the North
American Indians as a token of … . 18. Now she found herself
putting on a … of small pearl earrings and a single row of pearls.

f) (plain – plane / rain – reign – rein / root – route / road – rode –


rowed / sale – sail / sheer – shear / sole – soul)

1. He jumped on his horse and … away. 2. She was red as a


beet-… . 3. She kept a tight … on her husband. 4. There are …
brown curtains at the window of my bedroom. 5. In slow and clumsy
fashion I … about half a mile up the river, Sophie doing the steering
with a short scull. 6. He is the … of humour. 7. To … means to
remove wool from sheep with large scissors, or … . 8. … geometry
deals with figures whose parts all lie in one … . 9. He used to come
to our place every Sunday, … or shine. 10. Which … did he take?
11. She turned on to a narrow country … and went on faster. 12. She
… into the room and stopped to be admired. 13. That building was
designed during the … of Queen Victoria. 14. Be sure to buy this
book: it is on … now. 15. Would you like … for your lunch? – Oh, I
don’t like fish. Can I have some meat, please? 16. Does this boat … ,
or has it got an engine? 17. Ladies wore gaiters made of their old
wool shawls and cut up carpets; the … of their shoes were made of
wood. 18. The … reason for my staying here at all is your poor state
of health. 19. She was wearing stockings of … silk. 20. They had
hardly enough food to keep body and … together.

g) ( steel – steal / stare – stair / steak – stake / sight – site / seen –


scene / sew – sow / through – threw / tale – tail)

1. I know that I can … and hem much better than my Aunty


Em. 2. My grandmother doesn’t read much now. Her … is failing. 3.
She managed to … a glance at the man. 4. Jane … the apple away
because it was rotten right … . 5. Don’t … at the poor girl. She is
embarrassed as it is. 6. I’d like a nice … for my dinner. 7. We can’t
agree on this point, but please don’t make a … . 8. … the wind and
reap the whirlwind. 9. She managed to… a glance at the man. 10. A
long flight of … led down to the sea. 11. A … is a thick sharpened
stick used to support a tent for young trees or plants. 12. Soames

88
found a beautiful … for his new house. He had never been … since
that day. 13. Children like fairy- … , but when they grow older, they
prefer … of adventure.14. By the time I got to the churchyard I
began to feel as if someone had tied a … knot across my brain. 15.
To … one’s wild oats means to live immorally, usually when young.
16. As a man … , so shall he reap. 17. If you mix iron with carbon
and make it hard and strong by heating you will get … . 18. There
were distressing … when the earthquake occurred. 19. I could not
make head or … of what he had told me.

h) (vein – vain – vane / whether – weather / which – witch / where –


wear – ware / write – right – rite / wait – weight / weigh – way /
waist – waste)

1. There is too much … in this house. 2. After you pass the …


house, turn to the … . 3. It was in … that the old lady asked her if
she was aware she was speaking to Miss Pinkerton. 4. In England
apples are sold by … and oranges at so much a piece. 5. How often
do you … yourself? – Twice a week. But it does not seem to help.
I’m not getting any thinner. – That is not the … to lose … . You
should diet. 6. She was so thin that … stood out against her pale skin.
7. … we go or … we stay, the result is the same. 8. A … is a person
who professes or is supposed to practise magic, especially black
magic. 9. You are old enough to know the difference between … and
wrong. 10. She was not really bad, just … and thoughtless. 11. I
don’t know … way we must take. 12. The … … on top of the town
hall pointed east. 13. Joseph Seddley was as vain as a girl. He had
dozens of … coats, a special one for every occasion. 14. … can I find
shoes for everyday …? 15. … a minute. Will you stand on the scales,
please? I must put down your … . 16. Don’t … your time reading
this book. 17. He used to keep a hard … shop. 18. He behaved in a
strange … , as if performing some peculiar … . 19. There are all
kinds of silver … for sale here. 20. … to me as often as you can,
please.

89
Section 2. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and


summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work
into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your
writing to the source writing.
• Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow
segment of the source. They must match the source
document word for word and must be attributed to the
original author.
• Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source
material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be
attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is
usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat
broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
• Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your
own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it
is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original
source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original
and take a broad overview of the source material.
Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations,
paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use
them to . . .
• provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
• refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
• give examples of several points of view on a subject
• call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree
with, highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or
passage by quoting the original
• distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to
cue readers that the words are not your own
• expand the breadth or depth of your writing
Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and
quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a
writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with
quotations of striking or suggestive phrases:

90
e.g. In his famous and influential work On the
Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud argues that
dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious"
(page), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's
unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the
"dream work" (page). According to Freud, actual but
unacceptable desires are censored internally and
subjected to coding through layers of condensation
and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus
puzzle in the dream itself (pages).
How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Practice
summarizing the following essay, using paraphrases and quotations
as you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps:
• Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
• Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of
the essay is.
• Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the
essay.
• Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you
believe should be quoted directly.
There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text.
Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence.
Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be
done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a
direct quotation when you decide to do so.

Exercise. A sample essay for summarising, paraphrasing, and


quoting.

So That Nobody Has To Go School If They Don’t Want To


by Roger Sipher

A decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator


that American education is in trouble.
One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws
force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such
children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school

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that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the
quality education that is the birthright of every American.
The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-
attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting
an education to attend.
This will not end public education. Contrary to conventional belief,
legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws to legalize what
already existed. William Landes and Lewis Solomon, economists,
found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the
number of children in school. They found, too, that school systems
have never effectively enforced such laws, usually because of the
expense involved.
There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory
attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending
school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward
improving education. Most parents want a high school education for
their children. Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the
ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational
and disciplinary policies and thereby make the education a good one.
Private schools have no such problem. They can fail or dismiss
students, knowing such students can attend public school. Without
compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust
students whose academic or personal behavior undermines the
educational mission of the institution.
Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone
failed? While we pay homage to the homily, "You can lead a horse
to water but you can't make him drink," we have pretended it is not
true in education.
Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of
value. Ask teachers if these students do any homework. Quite the
contrary, these students know they will be passed from grade to
grade until they are old enough to quit or until, as is more likely, they
receive a high school diploma. At the point when students could
legally quit, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to
be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not.
Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous
dividends.

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First, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one
goes to learn. Schools are neither day-care centers nor indoor street
corners. Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed,
an end to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away.
Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the
educational atmosphere for those who want to learn. Teachers could
stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating.
Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a
student is learning. Parents could again read report cards and know if
their children were making progress.
Fourth, public esteem for schools would increase. People would stop
regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of
them as institutions for educating America's youth.
Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find
out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later.
Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to
junior high and high school.
Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be
eliminated. Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the
school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently
absent from school.
Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal
with young people not in school. If, in the long run, these institutions
prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with
that of schools.
Schools should be for education. At present, they are only
tangentially so. They have attempted to serve an all-encompassing
social function, trying to be all things to all people. In the process
they have failed miserably at what they were originally formed to
accomplish.

Section 3. Writing Practice. Composition Writing

Exercise 1. Happy New Year

Happy New Year! For many of us, a New Year signifies


celebration—beginning with a clean slate and starting over, letting
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go of past regrets, making new resolutions. For others it merely
means changing the calendar. Not this year. All of us are going to
celebrate. We’re going to start the New Year with a party.
Spend ten to fifteen minutes filling out the blanks below.
Don’t worry about complete sentences, grammar, or spelling. If
money, location, time, etc., were no object, what would your ideal
New Year party be like?
Describe the Place/location: (where would you throw the
party?)
Theme: (formal, casual, costume, beach theme, oldies, etc.)
Decorations: (Do not use adjectives. Describe specific
decorations)
Lighting:
Food and drink: (list specific foods and drinks as well as
whether it’s buffet style, sit-down, etc.
Music/Entertainment: (what type of music? Is it live or
recorded? Do you have any other performers/acts?)
Describe what you are wearing:
Who is at your party?
Now list three reasons for your party. Usually parties are
thrown with a purpose in mind. Be more specific than “celebrating a
new year.” Is it to make a specific resolution? Is it to say good-bye to
someone or something? Is it to forgive? To one-up someone? Or
whatever else.
Now that you’ve set the scene for your party, you’re going to
attend it. Spend fifteen minutes freewriting about the party, using
what you’ve listed above. Describe yourself making a grand entrance
and go from there. Somewhere in the scene, you will lift up a glass
(of whatever) and make a toast. The rest of the scene is up to you.
Again, don’t worry about spelling or grammar. Do not edit. No
crossing out. Use all senses. Be specific. Take a deep breath….and
go!

Exercise 2. No Plot

In fiction writing classes, we are taught that something must


happen in our stories, that all action has a cause and effect
relationship. This happens because of this, then this because of that,
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and so on. We are taught to avoid writing stories where the character
sits and thinks about things. But now it’s time to break the rules.
Jerome Stern said, “Great art is formed from the broken rule.”
Here’s the exercise:
Write a scene where someone is sitting somewhere and
thinking about things. Your character can be sitting in the living
room in front of the television, in a bathtub, lying in bed sleepless, or
wherever else you can think of. Link five thoughts and their
associations back at least ten years. Link those with your setting,
like for instance: flickering images on the television, the bubbles
dissolving in the tub, the water growing cold, the changing light in
the room, outside noises, the progression of the digital clock, etc. If
you’ve done this successfully, you and your reader will know your
character’s life story without ever having left his spot.

95
Supplementary Material on Writing Practice

Exercise1. Read the following passage and work at the assignments given
below:

One Sunday morning in winter I went for a walk along the sea-
shore. It was a cold day and the beach was deserted. At the end of the
beach I sat down to rest. A small white dog suddenly appeared and
lay down at my feet. I stroked its head and it licked my hand. When I
started to walk home it followed me and I couldn’t get rid of it. It had
a collar on, but there was no name on it, so when I got home I rang
up the nearest police-station. I told the sergeant in charge that I had
found a small white dog, and that I would keep it until its owner
claimed it. I gave him my name and address. Two days later a lady
came to my home to claim the dog. She said she had lost it because it
hated riding in cars, and on that Sunday it had jumped out of the
open window of her car without her noticing. She offered me ten
shillings, but of course I refused to take the money. She called the
dog “Scotty” and it followed her as obediently as it had followed me.
I was quite sorry to lose such a friendly little animal.

Assignment 1. Relate this incident as it might be told by the dog’s owner.


Assignment 2. Imagine the conversation between the man who found the
dog and the police sergeant. Write about ten lines of dialogue.

Exercise 2. (a) First read the following passage:

Jim arrived home and discovered that he had forgotten to take


his door key. He rang the bell, but nobody came to open the door. He
rang again and waited, but still there was no answer. He walked
round the house to see if he could find an open window, but they
were all locked. It was beginning to rain and he didn’t know what to
do. Dorothy, his wife, had obviously gone out, and he didn’t know
where she had gone to, or when she would return. He waited for half
an hour. Still nobody came. Finally, feeling wet and cold and angry,
he picked up a big stone and threw it through the kitchen window.
Just as he had unlocked the window and was climbing it he heard the
front door open. His wife had come back.
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(b) Retell this incident as it might be told by Dorothy. Begin like this:

Jim, my husband, always arrives home from work at 6 p.m.


One evening I had to go out unexpectedly…

Exercise 3. Complete the following passage using the key words and
phrases provided or inventing something of your own. Pay attention to the
use of articles. Find a suitable title for your story.

Douglas and Robert were camping. One evening they broke


their lantern, and made another putting a candle inside a cigarette tin
and tying the tin to one of the tent-poles.
(suddenly tent fell down; candle had burnt tent-pole; tent
caught fire; night in open air; end of camping holiday)

Exercise 4. Complete the following passage making a story. Find a suitable


title for your story.

I was leaving the cinema late one night when I slipped on the
stone stairs and broke my leg.

Exercise 5. Write a one-paragraph story of about 100-120 words, using the


pair of sentences given below. (You have been given the first and last
sentences of your paragraph and should supply those, which come
between.) Find a suitable title for your story.

1. “It’s your last chance,” said a voice. … … … Someone had


forgotten to turn the radio off.
2. “I don’t like this hat either,” said the lady. … … … The floor was
covered with hats.
3. A bird flew down the tree and rested on the fence. ... ... ... Sensing
danger, the bird flew away just as the cat was ready to spring.

Exercise 6. Using your imagination or drawing on your friends’ experience,


complete the following story. Find a suitable title for your story.

1. It must have been about two in the morning when I returned home.
I tried to wake up my mother by ringing the door-bell, but she was

97
fast asleep, so I got a ladder from the shed in the garden, put it
against the wall, and began climbing towards the bedroom window. I
was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said: “I don’t think
the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.” I looked down
and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw ...
2. “I have never yet lost my way in the forest,” said Alexander
defensively when the path which was supposed to take them to the
station had petered away to nothing. “Well, you seem to have this
time,” Jane observed caustically, putting down her heavy basket full
of mushrooms. “And the last train leaves in less than an hour.
Whatever shall we do?” she added after a short pause. ...

Exercise 7. Write a descriptive sketch of any of the following. Aim at


making your portrait natural and life-like.

a. Your oldest or youngest relative;


b. An interesting character whom you know;
c. Your neighbour;
d. Your fellow-student.

Exercise 8. Write something you remember that sums up the important


feelings you have about your grandfather (grandmother).

You might want to start off with a list, listing everything about
your grandfather that comes to mind. If an image keeps surfacing,
focus on it and freewrite for fifteen minutes. Write for fifteen
minutes even if your thoughts jump around and don't force yourself
back on track. If you can't remember something exactly push
through it. You can make it up if you need to. When the fifteen
minutes is up, read your piece aloud. This is an exercise you can
return to again and again.
Here are some prompts to get you started:
* Thinking about my grandfather...
* I remember when my grandfather...
* The last time I saw my grandfather...
* Here are the facts about my grandfather...
* If there is one trait I seem to have inherited from my grandfather...

98
Exercise 9. Good-bye Scene.

For this exercise, you’re going to create a good-bye scene. You


may approach this in any way you want. You may use it as an
extension of the New Year writing exercise, where good-bye might
mean saying good-bye to the previous year, old hurts, or whatever
else. Or you may write a good-bye scene that has happened to you
personally in your life. You are not restricted to writing it exactly as
happened. You may change the events to fit the scene. Another
option is to write a good-bye scene between two characters of a story
you’re working on. To focus on what you’re going to write, freewrite
for ten or fifteen minutes with the keyword, “good-bye.” When
you’re warmed up, write the scene
Here are the requirements for the scene:
• The scene must be at least 200 words.
• The conflict should be apparent to the reader through the
action, description, and dialogue.
• The scene should have a beginning, middle, and ending.
• You must use dialogue in the scene.
• Use concrete words and images. Focus on using strong verbs
and specific nouns. Avoid modifiers.

Exercise 10. The aim of this exercise is to help students to write


compositions by going over corresponding language notes. These notes will
give them constructive guidance on composition writing, providing them
with possible alternatives, useful phrases, language accuracy and structural
harmony.

What I Would Do If I Were Rich


Useful phrases and sentences:
A. Everyone has dreams [I, too, have dreams]
- work hard to make money
- can become rich if I become a ...
- always enter lotteries in the hope of winning
My ... is very rich
- will give me a lot of money
B. If I had ... pounds I ...
First of all I would buy a fast car

99
I would give it all to needy people
I don’t ever want to be rich but if one day I ...
I’m poor but happy
I would give money to ...
I would buy everything I have ever wanted [computer, video,
etc.]
Only with a lot of money – would I be able to ... // could I ...
// can you ...
I would travel the world [overseas, abroad, exotic countries]
I’d have a big house with a swimming pool
I would give money so that a new theatre (school, art gallery,
museum ...) could be built in my town
- live in luxury
I would give money to promising young artists
- help young people to be successful in their career
- would go on wild spending sprees [buy everything in the
shop]
C. It often brings problems
I don’t think money brings happiness
Money brings too many worries
- not spend it all at once leaving me with nothing for the rest
of my life
- can make your old friends your enemies
People might only like you because you are rich
You will be envied [people will envy you]
You must be careful
D. - hope I’ll be rich one day
- won’t be long before I become rich
- try to win the football pools
Money will make life comfortable
I will start my own business when I leave school
- well off (well-to-do)
I can’t think of any way I can become rich
If I become rich, it will be by accident
I’m pretty sure that I have no chance of becoming wealthy
- hope I will win a lot of money – on the football pools // in a
lottery – some day
- hope my dream will soon come true
100
I wait in hope to see what the future brings
Points to think about:
• How do you think you might become rich?
a) by working hard
b) your own business
c) lottery – football pools
• What would you buy if you were rich?
a) property – house – holiday house
b) clothes – luxury items
c) car, etc.
• Would you save some money? Why?
• What would you enjoy most?
• Would you give any money away? Why? – Why not?
• Who would you give it to? Why?
• What are the disadvantages of being rich?
• How important is money in helping you find happines in
your life?
• Do you really need a lot of money?
Some helpful words and expressions: at least – as long as – in
other words – besides – at once – in spite of – however – in fact

101
Sources

1. Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL)


/Purdue University – Indianapolis, Indiana, 2003.
2. Writing Power/ Nancy White – published by Kaplan
Educational Centers And Simon & Schuster, New
York, 1997.
3. Грамматика современного английского языка
для университетов / Кверк Р., Гринбаум С., Лич
Дж., Свартвик Я. = A University Grammar of
English / Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G.,
Svartvik J – М.: “Высшая школа”, 1982. – 391 с.
4. Письменная практика: Учеб. пособие для сту-
дентов пед. ин-тов по спец. # 2103 “Иностр. яз.”/
И. А. Уолш, А. И. Варшавская, И. А. Василевич и
др. – М.: “Просвещение”, 1983. – 208 с.
5. Пособие по письменной практике (на англ. яз.):
Учеб. пособие для студентов фак. и ин-тов
иностр. яз./ С. Б. Берлизон, Е. А. Чапник и др. –
Л.: “Просвещение”, 1976. – 223 с.
6. Пишите по-английски правильно = Spell it cor-
rectly: Учеб. пособие по орфографии англ. яз./ А.
В. Куценко. – М.: ООО “Издательство Астрель”:
ООО “Издательство АСТ”, 2001. – 160 с.
7. Сборник упражнений по синтаксису сложного
предложения в английском языке: Учеб. пособие
для студентов старших курсов ин-тов и фак.
иностр. яз./ Л. А. Бармина, Б. И. Бирштейн и др.
– М.: “Высшая школа”, 1973. – 152 с.

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