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CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT

Denver II Developmental Screening Test


Developmental MilestonesBirth to Five Years
Selected Screening and Assessment Tools
Suggested Readings on Childrens Developmental Norms
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524 APPENDIX C

DENVER II DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TEST

(Reprinted with permission of DDM)

2007 Thomson Delmar Learning


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APPENDIX C 525

DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTRATION

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DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES

Skills Birth to 12 Months One Year to Two Years


Cognitive Skills Follows moving object with eyes. Looks Imitates adults through actions and
directly at faces and responds to words.
gestures. Names simple objects.
Places toy in and takes toy out of Listens to and follows commands and
containers. requests.
Beginning of memoryobject Explores the environment.
permanence. Acts like little scientist.
Looks for hidden objects. Matches simple objects.
Listens to and follows simple directions.

Language Skills Cries, babbles, and coos. Speaks first words.


Looks at speaker when spoken to and Able to speak 50 meaningful words to
responds using variety of sounds. communicate.
Capable of vowel and consonant sounds, Identifies and names simple objects.
often using repetition. Uses gestures to enhance communication.
Begins to imitate sounds. Indicates possession by using words
Begins to use intonation for meaning. mine, me.
Uses the word no frequently to voice
autonomy.
Fine Motor Skills Reaches for objects; grasps and plays Stacks three objects, such as blocks,
with them. in a tower.
Puts objects in mouth. Turns pages (two or three at a time).
Uses pincer grasp. Turns doorknobs.
Shifts objects between hands. Throws small ball.
Drops objects; picks them up. Scribbles, paints with large movements,
holds brush with whole hand.
Drinks from a cup without help.
Begins using a spoon.
Places round objects into holes.
Gross Motor Skills Lifts head. Takes first steps.
Turns from side to side; rolls over. Walks alone without help.
Sits with back straight and head steady. Stands without support.
Able to crouch. Walks backwards.
Crawls. Walks upstairs using one hand.
Pulls self up into a standing position, then Jumps using both feet.
walks along furniture, using both hands. Pulls and pushes toys.
Stands without support. Throws a ball with overhand motion
without falling.
Social Skills Smiles spontaneously. Shows emotions such as affection, joy,
Discriminates between familiar people fear, anger, and jealousy.
and strangers. Recognizes self in mirror.
Responds to own name. Refers to self by name.
Understands words no-no. Hugs and kisses.
Imitates simple actions of others. Throws temper tantrums.
Loves to help put things away.
Imitates adult activities.
Initiates play.
Self-Mastery Skills Holds bottle. Takes off shoes and other clothing;
Feeds self finger foods. can unzip.
Holds cup with two hands; needs Verbalizes needs such as food, drink, and
assistance to drink from it. toileting.
Cooperates with being dressed. Eats and drinks well without assistance.

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BIRTH TO FIVE YEARS


Two to Three Years Three to Four Years Four to Five Years
Can name and recognize one color. Can name and recognize six colors. Matches pictures of familiar objects.
Matches shapes and objects by function. Begins to understand concept of time, Draws people figures with recognizable
Stacks objects,such as blocks,five high. including past and present. parts.
Responds to simple direction. Understands concept of pretending. Counts to five.
Has limited attention span. Knows own full name and age. Knows street and town where he lives.
Identifies objects in picture books. Attention span is somewhat longer, but Points to and names six colors.
Can describe own activity. easily distracted. Matches commonly related objects.
Begins to understand function of objects Can match by family group or function. Has extended attention span.
in familiar environments. Has increased understanding of time,
function, and whole and part.
Talks constantly. Talks in sentences. Has basic grammatical structure in use.
Refers to self by proper pronouns. Can relate present or past experiences. Uses increasingly complex language.
Uses plurals. Uses past tense for verbs. Has large vocabulary base.
Uses complete sentences consisting of Has extensive vocabulary. Understands more complex directions.
three to four words. Can repeat a song or nursery rhyme. Uses directions in play.
Asks questions: why, where, how? Can understand and use size Able to listen to long stories.
comparisons.
Asks questions for information.

Can turn pages of book one at a time. Drives pegs into holes, nails into wood. Cuts on a straight line.
Paints using wrist action. Can copy circle or cross. Copies simple figures.
Holds crayon with fingers, not whole Manipulates clay and play dough into Prints a few capital letters.
hand. recognizable objects.
Moves fingers independently of others. Able to stack objects nine high.
Strings beads. Cuts using scissors.
Cuts using scissors,but hasnt mastered it.
Shows hand preference.
Manipulates clay by rolling and pounding.

Runs well. Runs around obstacles. Turns somersault.


Kicks ball without losing balance. Throws ball overhand, with direction. Walks up and down stairs unassisted,
Stands on one foot. Hops on one foot. alternating feet.
Jumps short distances with both feet. Climbs up slide and slides down Jumps forward as many as ten times
Rides a tricycle, but has not necessarily unassisted. without falling.
mastered both steering and peddling. Walks a line. Walks backward in a line, heel to toe.
Walks upstairs alternating feet. Can catch ball bounced to her. Can swing at a stationary ball with a bat.
Walks on tiptoe. Masters riding a tricycle.

Better control of temper tantrums. Plays with others (associative play). Plays with other children (cooperative
Begins to share toys. Able to share and take turns. play).
Plays near other children (parallel play). Acts out whole scenes in dramatic play. Dramatic play resembles reality, including
Begins real dramatic play. dressing up.
Participates in group activities like circle Pretending is acknowledged.
time. Acknowledges sex differences.

Understands gender identity. Knows own gender identity. Laces shoes.


Feeds self. Buttons and unbuttons clothing. Follows instructions given in a group.
Drinks from drinking fountain. Washes hands without help. Uses knife to cut food.
Takes off jacket or coat. Pours well from small pitcher. Can help set table.
Toilets with help. Spreads with knife. Can help in simple food preparation.
Opens doors. Toilets without help. Knows name of city she lives in.

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528 APPENDIX C

SELECTED SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS

Bayley Scales of Infant Development Learning Accomplishment Profile


Two to Thirty Months Diagnostic Screening
Developed in 1969, this tool measures men- Birth to Five Years
tal, motor, and behavioral development. It This short test (15 minutes) shows cut-off
helps to identify developmental difficulties in points in norms that may indicate the need
very young children. for early intervention. It assesses fine and
gross motor skills, language, cognition,
Gessell Assessment Tool social, and self-help skills.
Birth to Six Years
This tool was first developed in 1940 and Uniform Performance Assessment System
then revised in 1980. Measures motor, adap- Birth to Six Years
tive, language, and personal and social This assessment tool is based on criteria that
behavior. directly refers to the areas of communication,
social and self-help skills, cognition, and gen-
Denver Developmental Screening Test eral motor skills.
Birth to Six Years
This tool was developed in 1967 and Portage Guide to Early Education
measures fine motor, gross motor, language, Birth to Six Years
adaptive, and personal and social skills. It is A checklist is the main instrument used to
best used as an indicator for further assess- assess developmental skill performance. This
ment needs. It is limited due to its broad tool also includes lesson plans and other aids
spectrum. to develop optimum skill building for young
children.
Early Learning Accomplishment Profile
Birth to Three Years Hawaii Early Learning Profile
This profile offers programming guidance Birth to Three Years
for infants and young children with special This tool, developed in 1979, measures cogni-
needs. tion, language, social, and self-help skills as
well as fine and gross motor skills.
Learning Accomplishment Profile
Diagnostic Test Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale
Thirty Months to Five Years Birth to Five Years
This tool measures fine motor and gross The primary purpose of this tool is to rate the
motor skills, cognition, and language devel- quality of the child care or preschool setting,
opment. It can also provide appropriate the materials and activities provided, chil-
learning objectives and assist in measuring drens development, and scheduling. The
progress. It is intended primarily for children resulting assessment can point out areas that
with special needs. need improvement to enhance the child care
or preschool experience.

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APPENDIX C 529

SUGGESTED READINGS ON
CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENTAL NORMS

Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Shearer, D., Billingsley, J., Froman, A.,
Wall, S. (1979) Patterns of attachment: Hilliard, J., Johnson, F., & Shearer, M. (1976).
Observation in the strange situation and at home. Portage guide to early education (Rev. ed.).
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Portage, WI: Portage Project.

Bayley, N. (1969). The Bayley scales of infant Smith P., & Pederson, D. (1988). Maternal
development. New York: The Psychological sensitivity and patterns of infant and mother
Corporation. attachment. Child Development, (59),
10971101.
ERIC. (1989). Early intervention for infants and
toddlers: A team effort (#461). Urbana, IL: The Terr, L., & Tyler, R. (1992, May). Prenatal
University of Illinois. drug exposure: An overview of associated
problems and intervention strategies. Phi
Frankenburg, W. K., Dodds, J. B., & Fandal, Delta Kappan, 705707.
A. (1975). Denver developmental screening test.
Denver, CO: Ladoca Publishing. Ungerer, J., & Signman, M. (1983).
Developmental lags in preterm infants from
Furuno, S., OReilly, D., Hosaka, C., Inatuska, one to three years. Child Development, (54),
T., Aleman, T., & Zeisloft, B. (1979). Hawaii 12171228.
early learning profile. Palo Alto, CA: Vort
Corporation. Weiss, R. (1981). INREAL intervention for
language handicapped and bilingual
Harel, I., & Anastasian, N. (1985). The at-risk children. Journal of the Division of Early
infant. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Childhood, (4), 2427.

Harms, T., & Clifford, R. (1980). Early White, O., Edgar, E., Haring, N., Afflectk, J.,
education environmental rating scale. New Hayden, A., & Benderesky, M. (1981).
York: Teachers College Press. Uniform performance assessment system (UPAS).
Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.

2007 Thomson Delmar Learning