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2 http://www.3elmo.com
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& W% W! " #
4 &#$  %)*)+,-   %& J  ( #
5 (1!-,2  J . / 0 
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13 ! :*"  
14 # 
16 (;=#!  n <-
18    (#
20  #3> 
22   +
24  #3?  ,
26  #3@ 
28 #( #/
31  (5  A
32 @#C  B
34 #( 
36  5 ,$5
38  F DEE
3 http://www.3elmo.com
'* )(
4( 05 K2 +(, -.- /01  *'

(a 0) ax + b W(,'*
b
x +
a
  ax + b   a   %&G   a   %&
 

(a 0) ax + bx + c W+(, -.- /01  *'


(x ) = ax + bx + c WHB
W( +$

  (x ) +,-   (x )   %& x (x ) = 0  ,
 

 =JK? x +
<0
 L#$0@ (x )   a   %&  S =  

 

b
x     +
  (x ) = a x


b
+
2a (x )
a
  %&   %&
 S = { } b
2a
=0
 

a  
    a
= b - 4ac
  S = {x1; x2 }
 

 WM$
x1   x 2   +
 x b
(x ) = a (x x1)(x x 2 )     x1 =
G
2a >0
  (x )
  %&
  %&
  %&

 

 

 a  a
   a  
b +
 E x1 < x2 WOPQF x2 =
2a
 

  (a 0) x ax + bx + c = 0 W( D$ x 2   x1 O 8S&


c b
  x1 x2 =     x1 + x2 = WOTU
a a
4 http://www.3elmo.com
6 789
4( 05 K2 +( + :1  0;

W6 789

 b a L//$=(#+
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
(a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2
a 2 b 2 = (a b )(a + b )

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b 3
(a b )3 = a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b 3
a 3 b 3 = (a b )(a 2 + ab + b 2 )
a 3 + b 3 = (a + b )(a 2 ab + b 2 )

W+( 4< (8 :1  0;

L( #$Q P =

 WD. f #1!-,2  WD WU! x D//$KV(# (f

Df =  f (x ) = (x )

(x )
D f = {x  /Q (x ) 0} f (x ) =
Q (x )

D f = {x  / (x ) 0} f (x ) = (x )

(x )
D f = {x  /Q (x ) > 0} f (x ) =
Q (x )
(x )
  Df = {x  / (x ) 0  Q (x ) > 0} f (x ) =
Q (x )
(x ) (x )
  Df = x  / 0 Q (x ) 0} f (x ) =

Q (x ) Q (x )

5 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 (>
?1) =

W=18 7  x  x  (n  *)x  x n 4= (

lim x = 0
x 0
lim x n = 0
x 0
>
lim x = + 1
x + lim n = 0
x x
1 1
lim =0 lim n = 0
x + x x + x

 WOTU (!U(# n O 8S&  WOTU  X(# n O 8S&


lim x n = + lim x n = +
x + x +
n
lim x = lim x n = +
x x
1 1
lim n = + lim n = +
x 0 x x 0 x
> >
1 1
lim n = lim n = +
x 0 x x 0 x
< <

W ( A + ( ?@ 4  (+(, 4= (

 # P + #Z" (    # P + #( #$ "


 (Y8" #$[ \ " D.  (Y8 .#$ " D.

W# 4= (

1 cos x 1 tan x sin x


lim = lim =1 lim =1
x 0 x 2 x 0 x x 0 x

x  u (x ) W!   4= (

lim u (x ) lim u (x )
x x0 x x0

l l0
+ +

  # P + # P  ^x 0 # PL, ^x 0 # >^/<-  "]Z.

6 http://www.3elmo.com
WB1C= 


u (x ) f (x ) V (x )
f (x ) l V (x )

lim u (x ) = l lim f (x ) = l lim f (x ) = l
x x 0 x x 0 lim V x = 0 x x 0
( )
x x 0
lim V (x ) = l
x x 0

u (x ) V (x ) u (x ) f (x )
lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = +
lim V (x ) = x x 0 lim u (x ) = + x x 0
x x 0 x x 0

  # P + # P  ^x 0 # PL, ^x 0 # >^/<-  "]Z.

W= D 0

WE+ ! 0; =

lim f (x ) l l l + +
x x 0
lim g (x ) l' + +
x x 0
lim [g (x ) + f (x )] l + l' + +   ` _
x x 0

WE+ F= (

lim f (x ) l l<0 l>0 + 0


x x 0
lim g (x ) l' + + + +
x x 0
lim [g (x ) f (x )] l l' + + + + `_
x x 0

WE+ GH =

lim f (x ) l l l<0 l>0 + 0


x x 0
lim g (x ) l' 0
x x 0 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0
g (x ) l ` _ `_
lim 0 + + + +
x x 0 f (x ) l'    
W I).
# P + # P  ^x 0 # PL, ^x 0 # >^/<-  "]Z.
7 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 41J
W97 K 41J
  x 0 a4 f lim f (x ) = f (x 0 ) W:1
x x 0

W D 41J E0 D 41J


x 0 aL,^4 f lim f (x ) = f (x 0 )
x x0
>
  x 0 a ^4 f lim f (x ) = f (x 0 )
x x0
<

  x 0 a4 f x 0 a  ^L,^4 f


W4; D 41J
  ]a,b[ 3 d!=4+8a4 f c 8S& ]a,b[ b3 2^4 (f O-
  ]a,b[ b3 d^4 f c 8S&[a,b ] eV3 2^4 (f O-
 b a ^4  a aL,^4
W# 4 (D 0
 D//$(# k  I 3 2^L4L (g f =
I 3 d^4 kf  f g f + g 3 #
f 1
  I 3 d^L4  L#OTU I ^#-5 g c 8S&
g g
 ^4( #$(+8 WLM
"!-,2^4Z(+8

+ ^4 x  x #
^O 4 x  cos x  x  sin x O #

  {2 + k / k } "!-,2^4 x  tan x #

WE+ B
 41
  f (I ) J WMf J 3 2^4 g  I 3 2^4 (f c 8S&
  I 3 d^4 g f WOTU
W (8 4; * N
0gD.4# 0g >

 3 2D.4# 3 2 >

I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =WNH J)


f (I ) 3 d<hiAD 3 #;
8 http://www.3elmo.com
  f (I ) 3 d
  I 3 d
  I ^ 0g4g - f   I ^ 0g#- f
[ f (b ); f (a )] [ f (a ); f (b )] [a, b ]

lim f (x ) ; f (a ) f (a ) ; lim f (x ) [a, b[
x b x b

f (b ); lim+ f (x ) lim+ f (x ) ; f (b ) ]a, b ]
x a x a

lim f (x ) ; lim+ f (x ) lim+ f (x ) ; lim f (x ) ]a, b[
x b x a x a x b

lim f (x ) ; f (a ) f (a ) ; lim f (x ) [a, +[
x + x +

lim f (x ) ; lim+ f (x ) lim+ f (x ) ; lim f (x ) ]a, +[
x + x a x a x +
( )
f a ; lim f (x ) lim f (x ) ; f (a ) ],a ]
x x

lim f (x ) ; lim f (x ) lim f (x ) ; lim f (x ) ],a[
x a x x x a

lim f (x ) ; lim f (x ) lim f (x ) ; lim f (x ) 
x + x x x +
W9  O7 6P
 f (b )   f (a ) =(#L 47 D//$(#+jTU[a,b ] 3 2^4 f c 8S&
  f () = WMf [a,b ] 3 d = D//$(#+g^#

  f (a ) f (b ) < 0  [a,b ] 3 2^4 f c 8S& W


  [a,b ] 3 dk&D, *$+g^+</- f (x ) = 0 ( OTU
  f (a ) f (b ) < 0  [a,b ] 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f c 8S&
  [a,b ] 3 dk&D, #$ *$+</- f (x ) = 0 ( OTU
 WQM &! 7R
  f (a ) f (b ) < 0 WMf[a,b ] 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =
[a, b ] 3 da f (x ) = 0 ( ,#$+  = 

  f (b ) f
a + b
< 0 WO 8S&     f (a ) f
a + b
< 0 WO 8S&
2 2
b a a +b b a a +b
  j@KhlZ.  < < b WOTU    j@KhlZ. a < < WOTU
2 2 2 2
a + b a +b
34n ;b 3 d^/!0]Z. ( &=m 34n a; 3 d^/!0]Z. ( &=m
2 2
  (#6(PKhl-^   (#6(PKhl-^
"UF?!j@ (#Khl-^34 oOPk&/!0]Z. ( &=m( Z. WI).
9 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 S7J
W+( K S7J 8T
f (x ) f (x 0 )
 " lim W "c 8S& x 0 (#a6 /%* g f (O&3/
x x 0 x x0
  f ' (x 0 ) W! j!  x 0 a f #ep(#^,- "]Z.
W+ D%# 0#& W ( J+ D%# U0# 4+
  x 0 a6 /%* g (f =
  y = f ' (x 0 )(x x 0 ) + f (x 0 ) WD. x 0  C4UPr0/a f #^nq , (
  u (x ) = f ' (x 0 )(x x 0 ) + f (x 0 ) WD ,8  ^U! u #
 x 0 u f #t!/-D.  x 0  C4UPr0/a f #^n@ ,s#^,-
W E0 D S7J 8T JE0 D S7J 8T
f (x ) f (x 0 )
 " lim  "c 8S& x 0 aL,^6 /%* g f (O&3/
x x0 x x0
>
  f 'd (x 0 ) W! j! x 0 aL, ^f #ep(#^,- "]Z.
f (x ) f (x 0 )
 " lim W "c 8S& x 0 a  ^6 /%* g f (O&3/
x x0 x x0
<
  f 'g (x 0 ) W! j! x 0 a  ^f #ep(#^,- "]Z.

  f 'g (x 0 ) = f 'd (x 0 )   x 0 a  ^L,^6 /%* g f c 8S& x 0 a6 /%* g f (O-

W41J  S7J
  x 0 a4O- f OTU x 0 (#a6 /%* g f (c 8S&
W+J 4< (8 7X 4(
f (x ) f (x )
(k  ) k 0
x 1
1 1
x x
(r  * {1}) xr rx r 1
x 1
2 x
sin x cos x
cos x sin x
1
tan x 1 + tan2 x =
cos2 x

10 http://www.3elmo.com
W?@ + 7X JE+ B
 7X -7X# 4 (D 0
(k  ) (ku ) = k (u ) ( u v ) = u v (u + v ) = u + v

(un ) = nu .u n 1 (uv ) = u v + uv

()u u v uv
v
=
v
()1 v
v
=
v
u
( u ) = (u v ) = u v v
2 u
W+ >Y1  S7J
  I 3 2^6 /%* g (f =
I 3 d^#- f x I f (x ) 0
I 3 d^4g - f x I f ' (x ) 0
  I 3 d ) ^f x I f ' (x ) = 0

WQ(Z /[  S7J


 W+</ (C f ) ^n,D@#C+ l  [ @   "
f (x ) f (x 0 )
a .jj  A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a @ J a6 /%* g f
  lim = a
x x 0 x x0 (a 0)
 x0 f (x ) f (x 0 )
  A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a /UP @ J   lim =0
x x 0 x x0
  A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/aL,^q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )
  lim + = a
  a .jj  6 /%* g f x x 0 x x0 (a 0)
  x 0 Lm^ f (x ) f (x 0 )
  A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/aL,^D/UPq J14   lim + =0
x x 0 x x0
 L,^v(,q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )
 gK? f   lim + =
 +@wj A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a x x 0 x x0
 6 /%*
 L,^v(,q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )
  x 0 Lm^   lim + = +
 ^wj A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a x x 0 x x0

 A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a ^q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )


  lim = a
  a .jj   6 /%* g f x x 0 x x0 (a 0)
  x 0  ^ f (x ) f (x 0 )
  A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a ^D/UPq J14   lim =0
x x 0 x x0
 a ^v(,q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )
 gK? f   lim =
 ^wj A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/ x x 0 x x0
 6 /%*
  ^v(,q J14 f (x ) f (x 0 )
  x 0  ^   lim = +
+@wj A (x 0 ; f (x 0 )) 0/a x x 0 x x0

11 http://www.3elmo.com
/-0 
\ /-0  5
4( 05 K2 ]9J 97

W/-0  5
  (C f ) ^n,+) x7 x = a j( vZo/O
 WO  O h!pe/yS&
x D f (2a x ) Df
  x D f f (2a x ) = f (x )

W/-0
\
  (C f ) ^n,+) x8! I (a,b )0/O-
 WO  O h!pe/yS&
x D f (2a x ) D f
  x D f f (2a x ) + f (x ) = 2b

W]9J 97 - ^(% 7


 #O 8S&3 2^!/^(nO
 3 dZ.^j- @ JHzcy
  x I f (x ) 0 WO 8S&
    I 3 d!^/O (C f ) ^nWOTU

 #O 8S&3 2^ #7^(nO


 3 dZ.^j- @ JHz6U
 x I f (x ) 0 WO 8S&
  I 3 d ^#7O (C f ) ^nWOTU

  .#r^n=0/D.^(n9 00/
 ^nZ.!/-KV
   %{KV-H x 0 a#- f c 8S&
  x 0  C4UP9 00/+</ (C f ) ^nOTU
   %{KV-O ( x 0 a#- f c 8S&
  x 0  C4UP9 00/+</ (C f ) ^nOTU
12 http://www.3elmo.com
lim f (x ) = a lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) =
x x x a

lim [ f (x ) (ax + b )] = 0 lim


f (x )
= a lim
f (x )
= lim
f (x )
=0
x x x (a 0) x x x x
M=.&!

lim [ f (x ) ax ] = b lim [ f (x ) ax ] =
x x

 W+</ (C f )
 
     

 
 W+</ (C f )  W+</ (C f )  W+</ (C f )  W+</ (C f )
 W+</ (C f )
*   /  ,|% !U  ,|% !U  ,|% !U
 /UP  /  (,  /
4( 05 K2

o/j. }  j. }  j. }


 Wj(   Wj( 
 j( vZ  Wj( 
y =a y = ax + b  t-7 +> U7
y = ax =a
   

 x
  u   u
 

  u   u   u

13 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 (

  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f c 8S& WNH


  I 3 dw f (I ) 3 d=U!(+</- f OTU
f 1 W!  C!


f (x ) = y f 1 (y ) = x
WLM




x I
y f (I )

x I ( f 1 f )(x ) = x

y f (I ) ( f f 1 )(y ) = y

W ( YN ((_


  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =
  I 3 d!=4 y   f (I ) 3 d!=4 x =
  f 1 (x ) = y f (y ) = x WD ~U   @5
  f (I ) = x !4+ f 1 (x ) V> x 5#  y ##n 
W ( 41
  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f c 8S&
  f (I ) 3 d^4 f 1 #OTU
W ( S7
  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =
  y0 = f (x 0 )   f (I ) 3 d!=4 x 0 =
  f ' (x 0 ) 0   x 0 a6 /%* g f c 8S&
  y 0 a6 /%* g f 1 #OTU
' 1
  ( f 1 ) (y 0 ) =   W #
f ' (x 0 )

  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =


  I 3 d^#-5 f /p  (" I 3 d+6 /%* g f c 8S&
  f (I ) 3 d^6 /%* g f 1 #OTU
'
  x f (I ) ( f 1 ) (x ) = f ' f 11 (x ) W #

14 http://www.3elmo.com
W ( 81

  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =


  f #KV-^nG C f 1 #

W ( Q # /0

  I 3 2^ 0g<- 4 (f =


oJ# oa f 1   f L#O  <O*E,
 o,3 14,< O*) ,

W6 I).

( )
  C f 1 ^n ( )
  C f ^n
 
  A ' (b, a ) C f 1 ( )     A (a,b ) (C f )
  /UP  /+</   (,  /+</
 
  y = a Wj(    x = a Wj( 
  (,  /+</   /UP  /+</
 
  x = b Wj(    y = b Wj( 
1 b
  y = x + Wj( *   /+</
a a  *   /+</
Wg* =g*0 (##yo  
  y = ax + b Wj( 
  x = ay + b
 Eq J14 PF @ J+</  Eq J14 PF @ J+</
 
  /UP   (,
 Eq J14 PF @ J+</  Eq J14 PF @ J+</
 
  (,   /UP

15 http://www.3elmo.com
(n  *)n  1 @?  +
4( 05 K2 ?@ ` 7
W:1 NH
  n <-!=Z;^(,-(+</-  + ^U! x  x n W#
n :  + +
   n W!  C!
x  x n

  (x ; y ) 2+ n x = y x = yn

WNH J)
x = 2x
x 3tZ;^, 3 x W(#

WNH

( )
2
(x ; y )  2+ (m; n ) * (x ; y )  2+ n  *
n x n y = n x y n
xn = x
(n x )m = n x m (n x )n = x
nx x
=n (y 0) n x =ny x =y
ny y
n x >ny x >y
nmx = nm x

W6 I).
x y x y
3 x 3y = x y =
3
x + 3 x 3 y + 3 y x+ y
W:  0;
 WD. f #1!-,2  WD ,8U! f #
D f = [0; +[ f (x ) = n x
D f = {x  / x Du  u (x ) 0} f (x ) = n u (x )
W=

lim n u (x ) lim u (x ) 
x x0 x x0

ln l0
+ +
  # P + # P  ^x 0 # PL, ^x 0 # >^/<-  "]Z.
16 http://www.3elmo.com
W41J
   + ^4 x  n x #

  I 3 2^U! (u =


  I 3 d^4 x  n u (x ) #OTU I 3 2^4 < (u c 8S&
WS7J
  I 3 2^U! (u =
  ]0;+[ 3 d^6 /%* g x  n x #
  I 3 2^6 /%* g  0g< (u c 8S&
 W #
  I 3 d^6 /%* g x  n u (x ) #OTU

1
u (x ) x ]0; +[ (n x ) = 
x I ( n u (x ) ) =  W # n x n n 1
n n [u (x )]n 1
(a  ) x  x n = a W+# /)
 D X(# n  v(!U(# n
S = {n a ; n a } S = {n a } a >0
S = {0} S = {0} a=0
S = S = {n a } a <0
W9T B  Q77) +( ?@ ` 7
p
  q *  p * WM$#K? Z(# r = =
q
p

  x ]0, +[ x = xq = xp
r q

WI).
1
  x ]0; +[ nx = xn
 (r  *) f (x ) = [u (x )]r WD ,8U! x D//$KV f (#(1!-,2

  Df = {x  / x Du  u (x ) > 0} WD.
1 1 1
(n u (x ) ) = (u (x ))n = u ' (x ) [u (x )]n 1
n
   * = r  r =!4+ *+ = y x =!4+
r'
  x r x r ' = x r +r '   (x r ) = x rr '
r r
  (x y ) = x y
r r r
  x = x r
y y
r 1
  x = x r r   = x r '
x r x r'

17 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 +( #

W(Z # 8, #

 @#.    $   

  un +1 = q un   un +1 = un + r
 1!-
 q @. q  q @. r
  un = u p q n p   un = u p + (n p )r
  #
  (p n )   (p n )
q n p +1 1
u p + ... + un = u p n p +1 1 ( #$:,2
q 1   u + ... + u = u q
q 1   
p n p

  (q 1)

 c  b  a
 b = a c   2b = a + c ( #$)*)
  

:* Y# # * # #

 (#  (un )n I =


M (#  < (un )n I n I un M

m (#  V4 (un )n I n I un m

  ( #7 (un )n I  V4  < (un )n I

W+(  81

 (#  (un )n I =


4g - (un )n I n I un +1 un

#- (un )n I n I un +1 un

  ) (un )n I n I un +1 = un

18 http://www.3elmo.com
W =
W  * Wa) (n ) #=

<0 >0

lim n = 0 lim n = +
n + n +

Wq  Wa) (q n ) (Z #=

q 1 1 < q < 1 q =1 q >1

  (q n )  
  lim q n = 0   lim q n = 1   lim q n = +
  " CG n + n + n +

W^7 b+

  / D. < #- +8

  / D. V4 4g - +8


vn un wn
un l vn
lim u = l lim vn = l lim un = l
lim vn = 0 n n n + n

lim vn = l
n +
n +

un vn un vn

lim u = + lim u =
lim vn = + n + n lim vn = n + n
n + n +

W un +1 = f (un ) !  

 WD ,8U!( un )  Y


u0 = a
 
un +1 = f (un )
  I =!4 a  f (I ) I Mf I 3 2^4 (f M$
  f (x ) = x W( ,+$ l  " " OTU  / (un ) c 8S&
 

19 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 Nc 4(

W4; D   (Nc 4(


W:1

  I 3 2^U!(# (f =


  I 3 d ^f #>P(D. F OP3/
 WO  O h!pe/yS&
I 3 d^6 /%* g F
x I F ' (x ) = f (x )
WNH

 3 dZ.^>P(+</-3 2^4(+8

  I 3 2^U!(# (f =


 WOTU I 3 d ^f #>P (F c 8S&
 WD W I ^U! f #>3 #Hz
x  F (x ) + k (k  )

  I 3 2^>P(+</-(# (f =


  =!4 y0  I =!4 x 0 =
I 3 d ^f # F  #$ >P(#-

  F (x 0 ) = y0 WD#<!pe/y
WQ77) +(  + F @(-E+ ! 0d WNc 4(
WNH

  //$(# k  I 3 2^LU!L(#L (g   f =


 WOTUD ^I 3 d ^g   f L#L>PL(G   F c 8S&
I 3 d ^f + g #>P (F + G

I 3 d ^kf #>P (kF

20 http://www.3elmo.com
W+J 4  < (Nc 4 (4(
f (x ) F (x )
a ax + k
1
x x + k
2
1 1
+k
x x
1
2 x +k
x
x r +1
(r * {-1}) x r +k
r +1
sin x cos x + k
cos x sin x + k
1
1 + tan x = tan x + k
cos x
1
ln x + k
x
ex ex + k (k  )
WNc 4< (8 ((% S7J eN 40
f (x ) F (x )
u ' (x )
2 u (x ) + k
u (x )
v ' (x ) 1
+k
[v (x )] v (x )
[u (x )] r +1
(r * {-1}) u ' (x ) [u (x )] r
+k
r +1
u ' (x )
ln u (x ) + k
u (x )
( )
u ' (x ) eu x ( )
eu x + k
1
(a 0) cos (ax + b ) sin (ax + b ) + k
a
1
(a 0) sin (ax + b ) cos (ax + b ) + k (k  )
a

21 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 Q^ ,

W9T D  + /1


I 3 d ^f #>P (F  I 3 2^4 (f = W:1
  I 3 d!==4b a

WD// (#.b k& a = f #+ -
b
f (x ) dx = [F (x )]ba = F (b ) F (a )
a
WNH
 W9f
a b a
  f (x ) dx = f (x ) dx   f (x ) dx = 0
b a a
b b b b b
  [ f (x ) + g (x )]dx = f (x )dx + g (x )dx  (k  ) kf (x ) dx = k f (x ) dx
a a a a a
W4 T.
b c b
a f (x ) dx =
a f (x ) dx +
c f (x ) dx
WB1C  /
  x [a,b ] f (x ) g (x ) WO 8S&   x [a,b ] f (x ) 0 WO 8S&
b b b
  f (x ) dx g (x ) dx WOTU   f (x ) dx 0 WOTU
a a a
W9 # 07
  [a,b ]3 2^4 (f =
1 b
b a a
  f (x ) dx WD// (#D.3 d^#0@,/

WF \c8 #
I 3 d^L4 v u L#Mf I 3 2^6 /%*L gL (v u =
I 3 d!==4b a
b b
  u (x )v (x )dx = [u (x ) v (x )]ba u (x )v (x )dx
a a
\) )

  (o, i, j ) # ok& =
 
  j  i L"|  o 0/ (#+0$ D. u.A $  #$
 
  1.u . A = i j
 
22 http://www.3elmo.com
  [a,b ]3 2^L4L (g  f =    [a,b ]3 2^4 (f =
7 C g  C f LnL 4 $  +> U7 C f ^nL 4 $ 
W ,. ( =ZL,/ +> U  W ,. ( =ZL,/
 WD. x = b x = a  x = b x = a
b b
  (x ) g (x ) dx   f (x ) dx .u.A
a
f .u.A WD. WD.
a
 WNH J)
 WD.o@!aD|< $    $*  DnA- o@

b  < f
  f (x ) dx .u.A
a   [a,b ]3 d^
 
b  < @ f
  f (x ) dx .u.A

a   [a,b ]3 d^
 
< f 
c b [a, c ] 3 d^
  f (x ) dx + f (x ) dx .u.A

a c < @ f 
  [c,b ] 3 d^
 
b   (C g ) 6U# (C f )
  ( f (x ) g (x )) dx .u.A
a   [a,b ]3 d^
 
(C g ) 6U (C f )
c b

( f (x ) g (x )) dx + (g (x ) f (x ))dx .u.A   [a, c ] 3 d^
a c
  (C f ) 6U (C g )
  [c,b ] 3 d^
 
:O) ^)
73$ (C f ) ^nO # #odo|$
  [a;b ]3 2a 8  (+> U
b
V = ( f (x ))dx u.v  W.
a
 | #$ W uv 
23 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 0g  4(

>  0g (


W:1
1
]0; +[ 3 d ^x  #>#D.vK<o ?(
x
  ln W!  C! 1a#-r
WNH  
x ]0; +[ y ]0; +[ ln 1 = 0 ln e = 1
ln (xy ) = ln x + ln y x ]0; +[ y ]0; +[
(r ) ln (x r ) = r ln x ln x = ln y x = y
ln x > ln y x > y
1
ln = ln x
x x ]0; +[ y 
x
ln = ln x ln y ln x = y x = e y
y
  x  * ln (x n ) = n ln x WOTU   X(# n O 8S&
W:  0;
 WD. f #1!-,2  WD ,8U! f #
D f = {x  / x Du u (x ) > 0} f (x ) = ln [u (x )]
f (x ) = ln (u (x ))2
D f = {x  / x Du u (x ) 0}
  f (x ) = ln u (x )
WA =
ln x lim (ln x ) = +
lim n =0 x +
x + x

( n *) lim (x n ln x ) = 0 lim (ln x ) =


x 0 x 0
> >

ln (x + 1) ln x
lim =1 lim =1
x 0 x x 1 x 1

W41J
  ]0; +[ 3 d^4 x  ln x #

  I 3 2^U! (u =


  I 3 d^4 x  ln [u (x )] #OTU I 3 2^4  0g< u c 8S&

24 http://www.3elmo.com
WS7J
  I 3 2^U! (u =
  ]0; +[ ^6 /%* g x  ln x #
  I 3 2^6 /%* g  0g< (u c 8S&
: #
  I 3 d^6 /%* g x  ln [u (x )] #WOTU

1
u ' (x ) x ]0; +[ (ln x ) =
x I (ln [u (x ) =
)]
'
 W # x
u (x )

W ln *' WQ # /0


x 0 1 +
ln x - +

a *+ {1} Wa) a Uh Og (


  loga W!  C!r#D.a q @o ?# W:1
ln x
x ]0; +[ loga (x ) = WM$
ln a
WNH  
x ]0; +[ y ]0; +[ loga 1 = 0
loga (xy ) = loga x + logay logaa = 1
(r  ) loga (x r ) = r loga x x ]0; +[ y ]0; +[ r 

1 l oga x = l oga y x = y
loga = loga x
x l oga x = r x = a r
x
loga = loga x logay
y
:1&  =
0 <a <1 a >1
loga x < logay x < y loga x > logay x > y
lim loga x = lim loga x = +
x + x +
lim loga x = + lim loga x =
x 0+ x 0+
W7X#
1
x ]0, +[ ( loga x ) ' =
x ln a  

25 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 c 4(

>  0g (


W:1
K<, ?##D.K<@#
  exp W!  C! 
exp (x ) = e x   = x +HB
WNH   
x  e x > 0
x  y 
x  ln ( e x ) = x
e x ey = e x +y
(r ) (e x ) = erx
r x ]0, +[ e ln x = x

1 x  y ]0; +[
x =e
x
e e x = y x = ln y
ex x y (x ; y )  e x = ey x = y
y =e
e e x > ey x > y
W:  0;
 WD. f #1!-,2  WD ,8U! f #
  Df =    f (x ) = e
x

  D f = {x  / x Du }   f (x ) = e
u (x )

WA =
lim e x = +
x +

lim e x = 0
x
xe
( n *) lim n = +
x + x

lim (x ne x ) = 0
x
ex 1
lim =1
x 0 x
W41J
   ^4 x e
x
#

  I 3 2^U! (u =


  I 3 d^4 x e
u (x )
#OTU I 3 d^4 u c 8S&

26 http://www.3elmo.com
WS7J

  x  (ex ) = ex W #   ^6 /%*  g x e


x
#

  I 3 2^U! (u =


  I 3 d^6 /%* g x e
u (x )
#WOTU I 3 d^ 6 /%* g u c 8S&
'
x I (eu x )
( )
= u (x ) e
u (x )
 W # 
W ln  (Q # /0


a  + {1} Wa) a Uh c(
  expa W!  C!  a q @@#^,- loga ## W:1

expa (x ) = a x   = x +HB

WNH  
(x ; y )  2 x  a x = e x ln a
a x a y = a x +y loga (a x ) = x
(a x ) = a r x
r
(r ) x ]0; +[ a loga (x )
=a
1 x (x ; y )  2 a x = ay x = y
x =a
a
ax x y x  y ]0; +[
y =a a = y x = loga (y )
x
a
W1&  =
0 <a <1 a >1
a < ay x < y
x
a > ay x > y
x

lim a x = 0 lim a x = +
x + x +
x
lim a = + lim a x = 0
x x
x
a 1
lim = ln a
x 0 x

W 7X#
(a x ) = (ln a ) a x

27 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 (7 +(c
   = {z = a + ib / (a;b )    i = 1} WD.#/(#,2
Wi(7 +( P@ 8
  (a;b )  WM$ #/(# z = a + ib =
z v#/(#Y;^ ,- a + ib
Re (z ) W! j!  z (#D// ^;, a (#
  Im (z ) W! j!  z (#D^;, b (#
D//$(#. z OTU Im (z ) = 0 WO 8S& WjNH j)
  U!> (#^, z OTU Im (z ) 0  Re (z ) = 0 WO 8S&
WE(7 +( i1
 L#/=(# z z =
  z = z Re (z ) = Re (z )  Im (z ) = Im (z )
Wi(7 +( Q # /0
 
(o,e1,e2 ) oJ# ok& v#/=
 

  (a;b )  WM$ #/(# z = a + ib =


  M (a, b ) 0/  z v#/(#! 
M (z ) Wt  z (#^> ,- M 0/ M 0/e ^, z (#
  
  z = Aff (OM ) POM (z ) Wt OM "|e Z8^, z (#

Wi(7 +( bk


  (a;b )  WM$ #/(# z = a + ib =
z = a ib Wv#/(#. z (#eU!
 D// n,< O*) , M (z )  M (z )
 

 D//$(# z z = z  z + z ' = z + z '


 z z ' = z z '
 9!>D(# z z = z
  (n  *)  z n = z n
  z + z = 2 Re (z )
  z z = 2i Im (z ) 1 1
  = 
z ' z '
  zz = [Re (z )] + [ Im (z )]
z z
  (z ' 0)  =
z ' z'
Wi(7 +( 
  (a;b )  WM$ #/(# z = a + ib =
  z = zz = a + b WtD// (#. z v#/(# 

28 http://www.3elmo.com
z z = z z zn = z n (n * )
z = z z = z
1 1 z z
= = (z ' 0)
z z z z

W( >g i(7 +( c 8  Q# /X


  M j->#K? #/(# z =
 (e
1, OM ) W" @  g#$P . z v#/(# #,
 

  arg z W! j!


    arg z = [2 ] Wt

WNH J)  #K? #/(# z =


 #K? a D//$(#EE    arg z = [2 ]  r = z HB
a <0   a >0  
W. z v#/(#DEE+p
a = [a, ] a = [a, 0 ]
z = r (cos + i sin ) = [r , ]

ai = a, ai = a, +   z = rei WD. z v#/(#@  
2 2
   

 

rei r ' ei ' = rr ' ei ( + ') [r , ] [r ', '] = [rr '; + '] arg (zz ') (arg z + arg z ') [2 ]
rei = rei [r , ] = [r, ] arg z arg z [2 ]
rei = re i( + ) [r, ] = [r, + ] arg z ( + arg z )[2 ]
arg z n n arg z [2 ]
( )
n
rei = r nein [r , ]n = r n ; n
1
1 1 i ' 1 1 arg arg z [2 ]
= e = ; ' z
r ' ei ' r' [r '; '] r ' z
arg (arg z arg z ') [2 ]
re i
r i ( ') [r ; ] r z'
= e = ; '
i ' r' [r '; '] r '
r 'e

z arg z = k
k  [r, + 2k ] = [r, ]
( k )
  z arg z = + k
2

W>A YN Wk  YN



1 i
(
e + e i   n 
cos =
2
)
sin =
1 i
2i
(
e ei )
(cos + i sin n )n = cos (n ) + i sin (n )

W (a  ) a) z  z = a +# /)
 W( 3$,2  W( 
S = { a ; a } a>0
S = {0} a=0 z  z = a
S = {i a ; i a } a <0
29 http://www.3elmo.com
(a 0) 77) +(Ac  b  a Wa) z  az + bz + c = 0 W+# /)
 W( 3$,2  W( 
b b +
S = ; >0
2a 2a
z  az 2 + bz + c = 0
S=
b
2a{ } =0
( = b2 4ac )
b i b + i
S = ; <0
2a 2a

W(7 +(c %9  (6 O6&


 #/g*  D@#C"
AB = z B z A   AB U 
z + zB
zI = A   [A; B ] 0/14 I
2
z z A
( ) ( )
  
 
AB; AC arg c [2 ]   AB ; AC  q g
z B z A
zC z A
  ,//C B A
zB zA
z z z z z z z z
  D A D C   P D A B C     #/ D  C B A
z B z A z B zC z B z A z D zC

 D@#C"  #/g*
AM = r z zA = r
  r " % A  .8!r! #k&D,- M (r > 0)
AM = BM
z zA = z zB
  [AB ] @ k&D,- M
zC z A
  A a o gME ABC = r ;

zB zA 2
zC z A
  A aLg v ME ABC = [1; ]
zB zA
zC z A
  A a o g Lg v ME ABC = 1;

zB zA 2
zC z A
 :*Av ME ABC = 1;

zB zA 3

W+J . %(  < 7 .l


 W.v#/jEx  +n
 
  u "|e  b M$ z = z + b   u "|S t $X{
  0/e M$ z = k (z )   k j< ]8!vZ h D8 n
  0/e M$ z = ei (z )   j X ]8!vZ r O #

30 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 "& J+#
 WA  (, +  WA  (
b
y (x ) = eax y ' = ay + b
a (a 0)
(  )

 WA  (, +  W+</- , (  W , ("   WA  (
  y (x ) = er1x + er2x  L//$L$
>0
(, )  WM$   r2   r1 L
  y (x ) = (x + )erx
  r #$  //$*$ =0
  (, )  WM$ r + ar + b = 0
y ''+ ay '+ by = 0
 WL/UQL#/L$ ( = a 4b )
  y (x ) = ( cos qx + sin qx )e px   r1 = p iq
<0
  (, )  WM$  
  r2 = p + iq

31 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 Mm&( Z
  
  (o, i , j , k ) !% <oJ# ok&  B=Z.6 @a
 Q=# F @(J= OI JQ0 F @(W4 % Y
 
  3 =L"| v (a ',b ', c ')   u (a,b, c ) =

u .v = aa '+ bb '+ cc '   

u = a + b + c  

i a a'
 b b'  a a'  a a' 
  u v = j b b ' = i j + k
 c c ' c c ' b b '
k c c'

Wk#
WD. B   A L0/L U 
AB = (x B x A ) + (yB yA ) + (z B z A )
WD. ax + by + cz + d = 0 j(  (P ) = M 0/U 
ax M + byM + cz M + d
  d (M , ()) =
a + b + c
 
AM u 
  d (A, ()) =  WD. (A, u ) o/= M 0/U 
u
W`  +

  (P ) ^,"| n (a,b, c ) () : ax + by + cz + d = 0
 
  (ABC ) ^,"| AB AC OTU,/K?/ C B A c 8S&
WD ~U   @5 (ABC )  (##y=m
  
  M (ABC ) AM .(AB AC ) = 0
Wk +

WD. R  " %  (a,b, c )  .8!U( 
  (x a ) + (y b ) + (z c ) = R

32 http://www.3elmo.com
 @5  .##y=m [AB ]  . 0gP#$P (S ) U( 
 
  M (S ) AM . BM = 0  WD ~U 

AB
   " % [AB ] 14  .8! (S ) W$*
2
 
() : ax + by + cz + d = 0 `   S (, R) k nR71
  ()  ^ 8!,v(,/ H =
d = H = d (; ()) WHB

  (S ) H0/ (P )        

  (C ) !(eU   (S ) q J (P )    (S ) ( P ) 


  H W .8!   H 0/a  O h /5
  r = R2 d 2 W " %    

W () O7  S (, R) k nR71


  () o/ ^ 8!,v(,/ H =
d = H = d (; ()) WHB

 
  (S ) H0/ () o/    (S ) q J () o/     (S )  )( o/
 LL0/a   H 0/a  O h /5
33 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 +(

W 0; QM
W:1
 CardE W! j!  E ,d( >!#. E ",2D
Card = 0 WNH )

WNH
 O "O ,2 B A
Card (A B ) = CardA + CardB Card (A B )

W 0; O0
W:1
  E ",2= A =
  A W!  C!r,dD. E ,|,< A o,
  A = {x E / x A} M$
WI).
AA =
AA = E
cardA = cardE cardA

W+ (Qc A( #
  (p  *) \ p "| t0- !}Y
 8 n1 Fo3 \ 5O 8S&
 8 n2 FoD E\ 5O 8
.........................................
 8 n p Fo p  \5O 8
  n1 n2 n3 ... n p W#;.,( #OTU
W8 j(8  1C - 8  1C
W8  1C
  (p n ) * ==!4 p n =
  n p W.!4 n L =!4 p 3<  !-Q(#

34 http://www.3elmo.com
W8 j(8  1C

  (p n ) * ==!4 p n =
 W.!4 n L =!4 p 3!-O #  <-Q(#
  Anp = n (n 1) (n 2) ... (n p + 1)
 

 + =p 


WNH )

 !4 n 3#<-Z8^,-!4 n L =!4 n 3!-O # <-!-+8


  n ! = n (n 1) (n 2) ... 2 1 W .(#
W&[
  n  .!> (#",2 E =
  (p n )  p ]!> (# E = A +8
 !4 n L =!4 p 3l-^,
Anp
 C np =  W. l]Z.(#
p!

C np  Anp  n ! W+(c
n  n ! = n (n 1) (n 2) ... 2 1
0! = 1
n! n!
Anp = C np =
(n p ) ! p ! (n p ) !
n 1
Cn = n 0
Cn = 1 1
Cn = n C nn = 1
C np1 + C np = C np+1 C np = C nn p

WB% ! A <8
  (p n ) !4 n L =!4 p tn 
 WD 3 #;a  
 t-Q  W.,< n(#  Wtn:
 o"K?  C np  D
 o"  np  3*$T  H 
 o"   Anp  3*$&O #  H 

35 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 J0)J

%9
 W]   WD ,$5i04
 |=!E8P+</- !}+8  p !}
 p !|,{  ,2D.    {O8
    {O8= A A #$
 #$ !4=,B#$+8  D# #$
 #$ Oa B   A O )# e/yS&   A B # e/y
   ,. P B  P A e/yS&   A B # e/y
  (A A = A A = )  A # .   A #n( B#
AB =  L,|K?O )#$ B A
Wo() 40) J o() 7
 p !}  &O8 = W:1
  pi W. {i } # 3 ,$OP3/ pi j,ga {i } D# #$3 ,$!/ #
  P ({i }) = pi Wt
# Z.O-r# 55 ,$5:,2.#$3 ,$
 W. A # 3 ,$OTU = )#$ A = {1; 2 ; 3 ;...; n } O 8S&vP
p (A) = p (1 ) + p (2 ) + p (3 ) + ... + p (n )

 p !}  &O8 = WNH


p () = 1   p () = 0
= A #$+ 0 p (A) 1
WL)#$( y3 ,$
  = B  A L)#$+
  p (A B ) = p (A) + p (B ) p (A B )
 L,|K? B   A O 8S& p (A B ) = p (A) + p (B )
W( B# 3 ,$
p (A) = 1 p (A) W = A #$+
WJ0)J i1 "k
   " &O8p !}a3 ,$5 # 5#$Hzc 8S& W:1

p (A) =
cardA
 W. = A #$+83 ,$OTU
card

36 http://www.3elmo.com
WE-() .7 JQRX 40)J
  p (A) 0 WMfp|! G L0<-!L)#$ B   A = W:1
p (A B )
p (B ) = p (B A) = W(#.e/7 A # OP , B #$3 ,$
A p (A)
  p (A) p (B ) 0 WMfp|! G L0<-! B   A L)#$+ W
p (A B ) = p (A) p (B A) = p (B ) p (A B ) W #

 p|! G L0<-! B   A L)#$+ W:1


O*/O )#$ B  A p (A B ) = p (A) p (B )

  3 } 2   1  p !}  &O8 = WNH


  (1 2 =  1 2 = )

( ) ( )
  p (A) = p (1 ) p A + p (2 ) p A W = A #$+
1 2

W*# HJ
  p j ,$p !}a )#$ A =
 W.<B  ! k , A # e/y3 ,$O U ! n  !|]Z.#PS&
  (k n ) C nk (p )k (1 p )n k
WQM X >Y 40) j T
 p !}  &O8 ^ pKV=
 WL L$!H< X DpKV3 ,$O g##n
X KV .Z\lro/,2W X () = {x1; x 2; x 3 ;...; x n } ##y
  {1;2;...;n } ,d =i + p (X = x i ) 3 ,$5tw
WQM X >Y# ip9] qJ J*Y# JQ" /c
  xi   x1   x 2   x 3   ...   x n  j g pKV X =
  p (X = x i )  p1   p2   p3   ...   pn  WD 3 #; 9!

  E (X ) = x1 p1 + x 2 p2 + x 3 p3 + ... + x n pn  W X KV,DA !+ W:1


 V (X ) = E (X ) [E (X )]  W X KV, ! V
  (X ) = V (X )  W X KV,vX!09!w5
WQ(, j 7
  ! n  !|]Z.#{p !}a A #$3 ,$ p =
  p  n ] 0@  #$ X-^, A # " Ue/nr(!# |+8 !vZ X DpKV
  k {0;1;2;...; n } p (X = k ) = C nk p k (1 p )n k #
 V (X ) = np (1 p )   E (X ) = n p  
 

37 http://www.3elmo.com
4( 05 K2 (>
?1) Q#^ ,

W#* M  (+J O7 4(


x 0 6 4 3 2
1 2 3
sin x 0 1
2 2 2
3 2 1
cosx 1 0
2 2 2
3
tan x 0 1 3
3

W# B E8 T.


x x +x 2
x
2
+x

sin - sin x sin x - sin x cos x cos x


cos cos x - cos x - cos x sin x sin x

cos (x + 2k ) = cos x sin x -1 cos x 1


tan x =
sin (x + 2k ) = sin x cos x -1 sin x 1
1
tan (x + k ) = tan x 1 + tan x = cos x + sin x = 1
cos x
WA  J+
cos x = cos a x = a + 2k  P x = -a + 2k
sin x = sin a x = a + 2k P x = ( - a ) + 2k
tan x = tan a x = a + k ( k )
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W! 0; / _ eN
cos (a - b ) = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos (a + b ) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b
sin (a - b ) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b sin (a + b ) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b
tan a - tan b tan a + tan b
tan (a - b ) = tan (a + b ) =
1 + tan a tan b 1 - tan a tan b

WLM
t = tan
a
WHA cos 2a = cos a - sin a
2
= 2 cos a - 1
2t = 1 - 2 sin a
sin a =
1 + t
sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a
1 - t
cos a = 2 tan a
1 + t tan 2a =
2t 1 - tan a
tan a = 1 + cos 2a
1 - t cos a =
2
1 - cos 2a
sin a =
2

W F (r' ! 0; / _ W ! 0; r' F (/ _


p + q p q 1
cos p + cos q = 2 cos
2 cos
2
cos a cos b = [ cos (a + b ) + cos (a - b )]
2
p + q p q 1
sin a sin b = [ cos (a + b ) cos (a b )]
cos p cos q = 2 sin sin
2 2 2
p + q p q 1
sin p + sin q = 2 sin cos sin a cos b = [ sin (a + b ) sin (a b )]
2 2 2
p + q p q 1
sin p sin q = 2 cos sin cos a sin b = [ sin (a + b ) - sin (a b )]
2 2 2

(a,b ) (0,0) a cos x + b sin x W/ _


a b
a cos x + b sin x = a + b cos x + sin x
a + b a + b
= a + b cos (x )
 We/D//$(# M$
a b
cos =   sin =
a + b a + b

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