Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Peng 1

Lysiem Peng

ESL 33B

Professor Carlisi

30 May 2017

Thesis Statement:

Although children of gay or lesbian parents experience a high risk of stigmatization, the research

shows that their psychosocial development has no difference in development outcomes compared

to children of heterosexual parents.

Detailed Outline:

I. Introduction:

A. The law and policies of adoptions and foster care for same sex couples was legalized

in some states of America in 2009.

1. There were two kinds of legal adoptions.

a. Stranger adoption happens when biological parents are not willing or

unable to raise the child, so the Court has to end up the legal relationship

between the children and their biological families first before legalizing a

new status for the children and their adopted families (Patterson 730).

b. Second parent adoption allows only one member of same sex couple to

be recognized as legal parent, which is established by the Court that requires

to legalize the status for second parent without dissolving the relationship

of the children with their biological families (Patterson 730).


Peng 2

2. Both adoption statuses have been opened legally for same sex couples in the United

States (Patterson 730).

B. Adoption rate increases significantly across the country.

1. Among 650,000 same-sex couples in the U.S., there was an estimate that about 19%

of them adopted children (Gates 2).

2. Same sex couples raising children are four times more likely than different-sex

counterparts to be raising an adopted child (Gates 3).

3. The estimated data shows that 16,000 same-sex couples are raising more than

22,000 adopted children under 18 in the U.S. (Gate 3).

C. Thesis: Although children of gay or lesbian parents experience a high risk of

stigmatization, the research shows that their psychosocial development has no

difference in development outcomes compared to children of heterosexual parents.

II. Experiences of stigmatization caused by parents sexual orientation can be described as

'risk' factors with a higher probability of negative outcome for children (Bos, Balen 222;

Loes et al. 2).

A. According to National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) in the US, there

were 43% of children who had experienced stigmatization due to their mothers sexual

orientation (Bos, Balen 222).

1. They were being teased or bullied regarding their parents sexual orientation, which

is different from the cultural norm.

2. They were asked annoying questions based on their parents sexual identity.

3. They received abused language or gossiping against their parents.

B. Stigmatization has bad consequences on childrens psychological adjustment.


Peng 3

1. Adolescents who perceived more stigma related to having a lesbian mother

had lower self-esteem (Wainright, Russell, Patterson 1887).

2. The experiences of rejection that have negative consequence for psychological

health, but that internalizing societal negative attitudes also represents a form

of (internalized) stress (Bos, Balen 222).

3. They might end up being depressed as a result of being bullied by others.

III. The research reveals that children of homosexual parents psychosocial development does

not receive much negative effect from their parents orientation, but they receive benefit

from their relationship with their parents.

A. A better quality of family relationship results in childrens positive adjustment.

1. Parents who reported having close relationship with their offspring had

adolescents who reported more favorable adjustment (Patterson 242).

2. Adolescents who received care from adult and peers or parental warmth reveal with

less trouble in school and higher level of education (Wainright, Russell, Patterson

1895).

3. Warm and supportive parenting and positive parentadolescent relationships are

associated with positive peer relations for adolescents (Wainright, Patterson 118).

B. Children of homosexual parents are active in social network.

1. 81% of children related well with their peers by the time they are 17 (Goldberg,

Gartrell & Gates 18).

2. They have a better coping skill since they were stigmatized a lot (Bos & Balen 222).

C. Parental sexual orientation is not inuential in young childrens gender development

(Farr, Forssell & Patterson 175).


Peng 4

1. Most boys exhibited behavior typical of other same-aged boys, and most girls

exhibited behavior typical of other same-aged girls (Farr, Forssell & Patterson

175).

2. No differences have been found in the toy, game, activity, dress, or friendship

preferences of boys or girls who had lesbian mothers, compared with those who

had heterosexual mothers. (American Foundation for Equal Right).

IV. Conclusion

Based on data and result of children outcome from many researcher, it has shown

that there are no differences among children raised by either homosexual or heterosexual

parents in either their relationship with parents and peers or their behavior development

although the stigmatization risk reported high rate that would happen on children of same

sex couples.
Peng 5

Introduction:

Right before same sex marriage was legalized in all states in the U.S. in 2015, it had been

legalized in some states of America already. Since same sex couple were willing to raise the

children, there were some debate on a topic whether they were able to raise children without

harming those children either directly or indirectly. Therefore, after many researchers had

discovered the outcome of those children and resulted in positive consequences, the Court decided

to allow same sex couples adopted children (Patterson 730). According to Patterson, the adoptions

and foster care law had been legalized openly to same sex couples who intended to adopt a child

(730). This law had been divided into two kind. The first one is Stranger adoption which happen

when biological parents are not willing or unable to raise the child, so the Court has to end the

legal relationship between the children and their biological families first before legalize a new

status for the children and their adopted families (730). The second one is Second parent adoption

which allow only one member of same sex couple to be recognized as legal parent. This law is

established that the Court just legalized the status for second parent without dissolve the

relationship of the children with their biological families (730). After this law was legalized, the

adoption rate had been increasing significantly. Among 650,000 same-sex couples in the U.S.,

there was an estimate that about 19% of them adopted children (Gates 2). It had been increased

from 11% in 2000 (according to Census 2000) to 19% in 2009. Moreover, the data had shown that

same sex couples raising children are four times more likely than different-sex counterparts to be

raising an adopted child (Gates 3) and there are approximately 16,000 same-sex couples are

raising more than 22,000 adopted children under 18 in the U.S. (Gate 3). However, the

homosexuality topic still consisted in controversy debate regarding to children whether children

who were raised by same sex couples would receive negative effect from their parents. Although
Peng 6

children of gay or lesbian parents experience high risk of stigmatization, the research shows that

their psychosocial development has no difference development outcomes comparing to children

of heterosexual parents.

(II. B) As a result of stigmatization, children have experienced negative effects on psychological

adjustment. According to Gershon, Tschann and Jemerins study in Wainrights article, they stated

that adolescents who perceived more stigma related to having a lesbian mother had lower self-

esteem (1887). This kind of phenomenon has formed an internal societal negative attitude which

represents as a form of stress that has significant impact on childrens psychological health (Bos,

Balen 222). Therefore, the percentage of children, with gay or lesbian parents, who experienced

emotional health problems is higher than the percentage of children with heterosexual parents (see

fig.1).

Fig. 1. Child emotional problem rate; National Health Interview Survey; 1997-2013,

https://www.mercatornet.com/conjugality/view/fact-checking-the-fact-checkers/16730
Peng 7

Works Cited

Children of LGBT Parents American Foundation for Equal Rights, afer.org/our-

work/resouces/children/. Acessed 18 May 2017.

Bos, Henny M. W., and Frank Van Balen. Children in Planned Lesbian Families:

Stigmatisation, Psychological Adjustment and Protective Factors. Culture, Health &

Sexuality, vol. 10, no. 3, 2008, pp. 221236., www.jstor.org/stable/20461000.

Farr, Rachel H., et al. "Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental

Sexual Orientation Matter?." Applied Developmental Science, vol. 14, no. 3, Jul-

Sep2010, pp. 164-178. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10888691.2010.500958.

Gates, Gary J. LGBT Parenting in the United States The Williams Institute, February 2013,

http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/LGBT-Parenting.pdf

Goldberg, A.E., et al. Stigmatization associated with growing up in a Lesbian-parented family:

What do adolescents experience and how do they deal with it?. Children and youth

Services Review, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.048

Patterson, Charlotte J. "Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents." Current Directions in

Psychological Science, vol. 15, no. 5, Oct. 2006, pp. 241-244. EBSCOhost,

doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00444.x.

Patterson, Charlotte J. "Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents: Psychology, Law, and

Policy." American Psychologist, vol. 64, no. 8, Nov. 2009, pp. 727-736. EBSCOhost,

https://login.ezp.pasadena.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=tr

ue&db=aph&AN=45634959&site=ehost-live.
Peng 8

Wainright, Jennifer L., et al. "Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic

Relationships of Adolescents with Same-Sex Parents." Child Development, vol. 75, no. 6,

Nov/Dec2004, pp. 1886-1898. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00823.x.