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ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND NATURAL RESOURCES

1st Semester (SY 2016-2017)

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES

Philippine Environmental Policy

1. Philippine Environmental Code - P.D. 1152

2. Sustainable Development

a. Brundtland Report/Our Common Future, Chapter 2, par. 1


b. Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development, conceptual
framework, objectives, principles
c. Philippine Agenda 21, princiles of sustainable development

3. Climate Change

a. United Nations Framework on Climate Change, actions


b. Hyogo Framework for Action
c. Climate Change Act of 2009 (R.A. 9729, sec. 2)

4. Philippine Constitution
a. Article 1 - National Territory
b. National Economy (Secs. 1-8, Art. XII)
c. State Ownership and Common Good (Sec. 2, Art. XII) (Regalian
Doctrine)
d. Classification of lands of public domain (Sec. 3, Art. XII)
e. Balanced and healthful ecology (Sec. 16, Art. II)
Intergenerational Responsibility
- Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792
Class Suit
Possession since time immemorial
- Cario v. Insular Government. 7 Phil 132 & 212
US 449
Open, continuous, exclusive, notorious possession
- Director LMB v. CA, 324 SCRA 757
State ownership of lands
- Republic v. Lee, 197 SCRA 13
Presidential Proclamations
- CMU v. Executive Secretary, 631 SCRA 30
- Magallona v. Ermita G.R. No. 187167, July 16,
2011
- Sec. Of DENR v. Mayor Yap G.R. No. 167707,
October 8, 2008

5. Property Rights
a. Easement
b. Nuisance
c. Reclamation
- Timoner v. People and CA, 125 SCRA 830
- Calma v. CA and Pleasantville Devt Corp., 176
SCRA 555
- Chavez v. PEA-AMARI, 415 SCRA 403

II. International Environmental Law

A. Stockholm Conference
1. Principle 21 of Stockholm Declaration (cross reference to
principle no. 2 of Rio Declaration

B. Rio Conference (Rio Declaration)


C. International Norms

1. Obligations Not To Cause Trans-Boundary Environmental


Harm
2. Sustainable Development (cross reference to principle 3
of Rio Declaration
3. Polluter Pays Principle (cross reference to principle 16 of
Rio Declaration)
4. Precautionary Priinciple (Principle 15 of Rio Declaration)
5. Principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibility
(cross reference to principle 7 of Rio Declaration)
6. Trail Smelter Case
- U.S. V. Canada

III. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

A. Air and the BROWN Environment

1. Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (R.A. 9729, sec. 2-18)


2. Ecological Solid Waste and Management Act of 2000 (R.A. 9003, sec. 1-
47)
3. Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of
1990 (R.A. 6969, sec. 2-4)
B. Land and the GREEN Environment

1. Forestry Code (P.D. 705, sec. 2)

a. Sustainable Forest Management (E.O. 318, dated 9 June 2004)


b. Community-Based Forest Management (DENR AO 96-29)
c. Integrated Forest Management Agreement (DENR AO 99-53)
d. Mangroves (DENR AO 15-90)
- IFMA conditions: RP v. Pagadian City Timber, 565
SCRA, 260

2. Philippine Mining Act (R.A. 7942, sec. 2)

a. Large Scale Mining (DENR AO 2010-21)


b. Social Development and Management Program (DENR AO-2010-21.
chapter 14)
c. Mineral Resources Rehabilitation Plan
d. Small Scale Mining Act (R.A. 7076)
e. Ancestral Domains & FPIC (IPRA, R.A. 8371, sec. 7b; NCIP AO 01 s.
2006)

Constitutionality of the Mining Act


- DESAMA v. Gozun, 485 SCRA 586
FTAA/State Control
- La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Asso. Inc. V. Ramos,
421 SCRA 148
IPRA and Expired Lease
- Alcantara v. DENR, 560 SCRA 753
IPRA and Native Title over Ancestral Lands and
Ancestral Domains
- Cruz v. Sec. Of Environmental and Natural
Resources 347 SCRA 128
- North Cotabato v. GRP G.R. No. 183591,
October 14, 2008

f. Constitutional Provisions under IPRA:

1. Art. 2 Sec. 22
2. Art. 12 Sec. 5
3. Art. 13 Secs. 1 and 6
4. Art. 14 sec. 17
5. Art. 16 sec. 12
3. National Integrated Protected Areas System Act (NIPAS, R.A. 7586, sec.
2-9)

a. Protected Area Management Plan


b. Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management
Agreement
c. Special Use Agreement in Protected Areas (SAPA, DENR AO
2007-17)
d. Ancestral Lands Overlap (Joint DENR-NCIP Memo Circular
2007-01)
e. Philippine Eagle
f. Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species
(CITES)

C. Water and the BLUE Environment

1. Water Code (P.D. 1067, sec. 67)

a. Watershed Management (DENR AO 99-01)


b. Revised Forest Master Plan

2. Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (R.A. 9275, sec. 2)

a. Water Quality Management Areas and Non-Attainment Areas (DENR


AO 2004, Rules 5 & 6, dated 24 Dec. 2004)
b. National Sewerage and Septage Program

3. Fisheries Code of 1998 (R.A. 8550, sec. 2)

a. Municipal Fisheries (R.A. 8550, sec. 18)


b. Fisheries Map and Commercial Fishing (DA AO 3, s. 1998, RUles 26
and 40)
c. Fishpond Lease Agreement (R.A. 8550, sec. 45-51)
d. Pearl Farm Lease Agreement (R.A. 8550, sec. 52)
e. Mariculture Zones and Parks (FIsheries Adm. Order No. 140 s.
1982, sec. 4-5
f. Exclusive Economic Zone (R.A. 8550, sec. 35)
Ordinance banning ship
- Tano v. Socrates, 278 SCRA 154
Foreign Fishing Vessels
- Sea Lion Fishing Copr. V. People, (23 March
2011)
IV. MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT

A. Prohibited Acts and Penalties

1. Air pollution
2. Solid waste
3. Forest resources
- Paat v. CA, 266 SCRA 167
4. Mineral resources
- Celestial Nickel Mining Exploration Corp. V. Macroasia
Corp., 541 SCRA 166
- Blue Ridge Mineral Corp. V. Reyes, 541 SCRA 166
5. Protected areas
6. Indigenous peoples ancestral domains
7. Fisheries and aquatic resources
- Universal Robina Corp. V. LLDA, (30 May 2011)
- Shell Phil. Exploration B.V. V. Jalos, 630 SCRA 399
8. Environmental Impact System
9. A.M. No. 09-6-8-SC Rules of Procedure on Environmental Cases

a. Writ of Kalikasan
b. Writ of Continuing Mandamus
c. Consent Decree
d. Precautionary Principle
e. Strategic Lawsuit against Public Participation (SLAPP)

- West Tower Condominium Corp. V. First Phil. Ind. Corp.,


(May 31, 2011)
- Arigo v. Swift G.R. No/ 206510, September 16, 2014
- Maricris Dolot v. Sec. Paje G.R. 199199, August 27, 2013
- MMDA v. Concerned Residents of Manila Bay, 574 SCRA
661

B. Funds and Revenues

1. Clean Air Act, sec. 14


2. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, sec. 46
3. Revised Forestry Code, sec. 63-75
4. Mining Act, sec. 23; Excise Tax (NIRC sec. 151)
5. NIPAS, sec. 6-8
6. Local Government Code, sec. 289-294
V. AUTHORITIES AND JURISDICTIONS

A. National Government

1. Dept. Of Environmental and Natural Resources


2. Dept. Of Agriculture
3. Office of the President
- Interagency Responsibility: MMDA v. Concerned Residents of
Manila Bay, 574 SCRA 661