Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 144

BUSINESS ENGLISH

2ND YEAR STUDENTS


Contents
Unit 1a .......................................................................................................................................3
Reporting results .......................................................................................................................3
Measuring performance ...........................................................................................................3
Annual reports ..........................................................................................................................4
Unit 1b .......................................................................................................................................6
Green initiatives............................................................................................................................6
Assessing environmental impact .............................................................................................6
Recyclebank ..............................................................................................................................7
SELF-STUDY ..........................................................................................................................9
Unit 2a .................................................................................................................................... 18
Health and safety....................................................................................................................... 18
Injuries at work ...................................................................................................................... 18
How safe is your workplace?................................................................................................ 20
Unit 2b .................................................................................................................................... 24
Rights at work ........................................................................................................................... 24
Know your rights ................................................................................................................... 24
Problems at work ................................................................................................................... 26
SELF-STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 27
Unit 3a .................................................................................................................................... 36
Business expenses ................................................................................................................. 36
Claiming expenses ................................................................................................................. 36
A new expenses claims system............................................................................................. 38
Unit 3b .................................................................................................................................... 42
Business Travel...................................................................................................................... 42
Airline services ...................................................................................................................... 42
SPEAKING ........................................................................................................................ 43
SELF-STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 47
Unit 4a .................................................................................................................................... 54
Flexible benefits........................................................................................................................ 54
Benefits .................................................................................................................................. 54
How flexible benefits work................................................................................................... 55
The advantages of flexible benefits ...................................................................................... 57
LISTENING........................................................................................................................... 58
Unit 4b .................................................................................................................................... 60
Staff appraisal ........................................................................................................................ 60
The role of appraisals ............................................................................................................ 60
SPEAKING............................................................................................................................. 60
Monitoring performance ....................................................................................................... 62
SELF-STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 65
Unit 5a .................................................................................................................................... 71
Marketing disasters................................................................................................................ 71
The marketing mix ................................................................................................................ 71
Promotions that failed ........................................................................................................... 73
Unit 5b .................................................................................................................................... 75
Going global.............................................................................................................................. 75

1
Choosing the right product.................................................................................................... 75
Entering the market ............................................................................................................... 77
SELF-STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 79
Supplementary Exercises ...................................................................................................... 87
Business and the environment .............................................................................................. 87
The green office ..................................................................................................................... 87
Reducing waste ...................................................................................................................... 91
An environmental consultant ................................................................................................ 93
Arranging business travel ..................................................................................................... 95
A company meeting............................................................................................................... 96
Arranging to travel ................................................................................................................ 97
How business travel is changing .......................................................................................... 98
Conference problems........................................................................................................... 100
Planning a business trip....................................................................................................... 101
Business conferences........................................................................................................... 102
Arranging conference facilities .......................................................................................... 102
Making the most of business conferences ......................................................................... 104
Networking at a conference ................................................................................................ 106
A destination management company (DMC) .................................................................... 107
Breaking into the market ..................................................................................................... 110
Promoting AXE ................................................................................................................... 111
Supermarkets' own brands .................................................................................................. 114
Going viral in India and China ........................................................................................... 115
Developing and launching Drink Me Chai ........................................................................ 118
Launching and promoting a new product .......................................................................... 121
WRITING: Report Writing ................................................................................................. 123
BIBLIOGRAPHY: .............................................................................................................. 143

2
Unit 1a

Reporting results

Measuring performance

SPEAKING

1 Which of these can give you information about the performance of a company? The
share price, the annual report, newspapers or magazines? Which information is the
easiest to find? Which information do you think is the most accurate?

LISTENING

2 Listen to a television report about Fairways, a supermarket chain. Which of the


following are mentioned? Did they rise or fall?
profit turnover share price sales volume dividend

3 Listen again and answer the questions below.


1 What is Fairways' current strategy? Give examples.
2 How successful is the e-shop service?
3 Why did Fairways' share price rise so quickly?
4 What helped the share price at the start of 2011 ?

4 These words are also used to describe trends. Use them in different contexts.
to plummet to decrease to go up to soar to plunge to increase to go down
Whats the meaning of 'to bottom out' and 'level off or 'remain stable'? Do you
know which word is the opposite of this?

3
5 Adverbs and adjectives can be added to indicate how large or small a change is
or how quickly or slowly it takes place. Work in pairs. Sort these adjectives /
adverbs into the correct place and write them into the chart.
Adjectives / adverbs
sudden / suddenly; substantial / substantially; significant / significantly; gradual /
gradually; steady / steadily; sharp / sharply; consistent / consistently; dramatic /
dramatically; marginal / marginally modest / modestly considerable / considerably

Size of change Speed of change

Annual reports

READING

Look at the following extracts from the CEO's statement in four annual reports.
Which extract does each sentence below refer to?

A
Strike action and unfavourable exchange rates led to losses that were almost balanced by
gains from our ongoing resource efficiency programme, which delivered an impressive
100m of cost performance improvements. Another source of revenue was the recent
disposal of Dennox, our wholly-owned subsidiary.

B
The company made steady progress, with profits before tax and exceptional items
increasing to 596m. Careful cash management continues to be a major feature of the
company's strong performance. Despite pressures from increased investment activity, the
balance sheet shows net cash at 3.2bn after expenditure of 346m.

4
C
Trading volume increased by 4.5%, which was well up on recent years, and
turnover rose by 3%. Operating margins also increased, as a result of the
restructuring programme that was completed at the end of last year. Although
successful, the programme meant a reduction in net cash to 472m.

D
Our major achievement last year was the 4.8bn acquisition of a speciality
chemicals business. This investment, along with the planned sale of assets,
will help streamline the company's range of businesses. Trading profit fell by
7% due to disappointments in non-core activities, confirming the logic of the
actions we are taking.

1 The company enjoyed a substantial increase in its sales.


2 The company offset some of its poor trading results by selling assets.
3 The CEO explains why substantial investment was necessary.
4 The CEO refers to the success of previous organisational changes.
5 The company's cost-cutting measures are proving very successful.
6 The CEO refers to the company's success in controlling new spending.
7 The company is currently implementing a major transformation programme.

SPEAKING

2 Which company has the best results? Which has the worst?

5
Unit 1b
Green initiatives

Assessing environmental impact

SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. Find out the following information about your partner's
workplace, school or company. Add up the total score. Then read the assessment
of the environmental impact.

Western College of Higher Education


Environmental Questionnaire
As part of our research into environmental practices in companies and schools, we kindly
ask you to complete this questionnaire.
Please tick (/) if the following statements are true of general practice at your workplace or
school.
Waste management
We buy recycled paper for office use. +3
We separate all waste for collection and recycling +3
We re-use paper in the office. +2
We have guidelines in place for waste management and enforce them
throughout the institution/company. +1
Energy consumption
We make use of sustainable energy sources such as solar or wind power. +3
We have a formal energy consumption policy. +3
We use energy efficent-computer hardware. +2
We use energy efficient-light bulbs. +2

6
The company or school uses no energy outside working hours. +2
Transport
We subsidise employees' or students' use of public transport. +3
We provide transport for our employees or students. +2
We encourage car sharing. +1
Total
Thank you for your co-operation.

Environmental questionnaire assessment

0-9 The company or school is not very aware of its impact on the
environment. Management needs to do an environmental audit and then
pass on the information to employees or students.
10-18 Although the company or school has begun to think about
environmental matters, it has no formal policy or clear understanding of how
to reduce its environmental impact. But at least the company recognises the
fact that it has an impact.
19-27 The company or school is taking the simple but necessary action required
to protect and preserve our natural world. In future, these actions will be
standard practice for all public and private institutions.

2 Think of three things your company or school could do to reduce its impact
on the environment.

Recyclebank

LISTENING

1 Jonathan K. Hsu, CEO of Recyclebank gives a presentation on the strategic


direction of his company as it enters the UK market. Listen and choose one letter
(A, B or C) for the correct answer.
1 Mr Hsu is giving his presentation
A to promote Recyclebank in the UK.
B to give information about recycling problems in Britain.
C because his company won a prize for their UK campaign.

7
2 Mr Hsu began by
A talking about the situation in the UK.
B giving information on the company in general.
C praising the success of the PR campaign in the UK.
3 The UK is trying to reduce waste produced by
cities by
A making it more difficult for people to use landfills.
B charging more for putting rubbish into landfills.
C cutting municipal waste in half.
4 The programme encourages residents to recycle by
A charging them penalties if they don't recycle.
B giving them discounts at local and national shops.
C awarding points they can use for purchases at partner shops.
5 The major change in the philosophy of recycling is that
A residents receive something in return when they help the environment.
B the carbon footprint should be reduced.
C residents are not penalised for ignoring environmental policies.
6 The main goals of the scheme are to
A make it easy to recycle and re-use.
B help the public cut back on purchases and learn to use items they have again.
C change the way people behave and create economic and environmental benefits.
7 The PR campaign
A focused on comments by celebrities.
B was in line with Recyclebank's corporate goals.
C concentrated on statements made by residents.
8 Mr Hsu was pleased with the campaign because
A residents and reward partners were involved in it.
B they were able to get their message across.
C the campaign concentrated on how the programme itself showed the advantages
of being green.

8
'Recyclebank provides me the privileged opportunity to make
a positive impact on our environment and in our communities.
We will demonstrate that doing good and doing
well go hand-in-hand.' Jonathan Hsu

SPEAKING

2 What do you think this quote means? Discuss this with your partner. Then summarise
the main points of the Recyclebank scheme. Which do you think will convince people to
change the way they think about the environment? Can you think of examples of re-using
household items rather than buying new ones?

3 The company you work for has had problems implementing their environmental
policies. The management needs to find ways to encourage employees to follow these
regulations.
You and your partner have been asked to make some recommendations. Discuss the
situation together and decide:
how to convince employees to separate rubbish and re-use paper
how to encourage employees to turn off machines and lights when they are not in use.
You have three minutes to discuss this topic and come to a conclusion. Then work with
your partner to write out five questions an examiner might ask after your discussion.
Discuss the questions and the answers you would give.

SELF-STUDY

1 Complete the description of the graph with the correct form of the following verbs.
recover peak fall shoot up collapse rise

9
Share price

January-December

2 Complete each sentence with a suitable preposition.


1 The shares peaked ________________260p in September.
2 Sales fell _________________ 5.6m _________________ 4.8m.
3 There was a decrease ______________ net profit.
4 Sales rose _____________ 2m. This was a rise ______________ approximately 4%.

3 Use these words in the correct form to connect the ideas below. There is more than
one possible answer.

lead to; due to; mean; as a result of

1 sharp fall in profits <= long strike


There was a sharp fall in profits due to a long strike.
2 favourable exchange rate => increase in profits
______________________________________________________________________
3 sales fell <= bad weather in the summer
______________________________________________________________________
4 strong competition => reduction in margins
______________________________________________________________________
5 share price collapse <= bad publicity
_____________________________________________________________________

4 Complete the crossword.

10
Across
1 An annual payment made to shareholders
4 Before tax is deducted
5 A company's... activities are its most important
7 The purchase of another company
8 Money spent now in order to bring future benefit
Down
1 The sale of a subsidiary
2 ... profit = profit after costs have been deducted
3 The sales of a company
6 The things a company owns which have value

Adjectives and adverbs


5 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in capital letters.
1 SUDDEN
The share price (1) ________________ collapsed in the summer.
2 SUBSTANTIAL
The annual report showed __________ losses last year.
3 STEADY
at the moment.
Growth is looking _____________at the moment.
4 NOTICEABLE

11
Prices have risen ___________________ since last year.
5 MARGINAL
Sales are _____________ up on this time last year.
6 SLIGHT
We have seen a _____________ recovery in the economy this quarter.

6 How many words can you find in the unit and the audioscript which go after the
word environmental?
environmental performance
____________________
green initiatives
____________________
____________________
____________________
Now use the words to complete the sentences.
1 The Recyclebank wanted to make it clear that they were supplying consumers and
communities with a green ____________________________________.
2 When everyone realises that what they do has an environmental _________________
on our planet, we hope that people will begin to reduce energy consumption.
3 The Recyclebank did not use celebrities in their green ___________________.
4 Socially responsible companies try to improve their environmental
________________.
5 Many communities today are implementing green __________________ to help with
waste management.
6 Companies and communities working together can find environmental
___________________ to many of the problems caused by consumption and waste.

7 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in capital letters.
1 CONSUME
We're reducing our energy ______________ .
2 REDUCE

12
We hope residents will start to work on the _____________ of waste in our communities.
3 PENALTY
The municipal government prefers not to ______________residents who do not follow
the environmental guidelines.
4 COMPLY
We're hoping to achieve 100% _____________ with all major government regulations.
5 PUBLICISE
Our campaign has received a great deal of __________________
6 HAZARD
We are reducing the __________________ by-products arising from our production
processes.
7 STRENGTH
When we began our company, we felt _________________ that helping the environment
could also help the economy.

8 Match the verbs with a similar meaning. Then think of a noun to follow each pair
of verbs.
reduce approach
provide use
found cut down on waste
deal with start
increase supply
consume raise

Determiners
9 Choose the correct word to fill each gap.
To: All Heads of Department
Re: Waste Management

It has come to the board's notice that the


company wastes far too (1) ........paper in its offices

13
and that not (2) ......... is being done to address
(3) ........... situation. Therefore, the company has
recently drawn up a formal waste management
policy for (4) ........ offices in the group. In the
future, (5) ..........Head of Department will be asked
to write a brief waste management report (6) .....
month. The report will include (7) .... detailed
information about the previous month's progress
and proposed targets for (8) ........ following month.
The report will also give (9) ...... information about
current practices for the collection and separation
of waste. (10) ......... expenditure that arises from
(11)........... reports will be charged to each
department's Health & Safety budget. We would like
to thank you for your cooperation in (12) ... matter.

1 A many B much C plenty


2 A all B any C enough
3 A that B this C these
4 A all B each C any
5 Aa B each C all
6 A any B all C every
7 A much B enough C both
8 A this B that C the
9 A some B much C several
10 A An B Any C This
11 A these B those C them
12 A that B this C any

Reading Test
Read the advertisement below about a mobile phone company.

14
Choose the correct word A, B, C or D to fill each gap.
For each gap 1-15, mark one letter A, B, C or D.

XCelfon - The future of global communications

XCelfon is fully committed to the research, development and manufacture of state-of-


the-art equipment for global telecommunications. (0) in over 50 international
markets, the company now exports 87 per cent of its production. Our high definition
displays (1) the use of various alphabets, and have won awards (2) ... the world.

This success is a result of our extensive marketing strategy, which (3) us in touch with the
constantly changing (4) of our customers. XCelfon designs its phones with its customers
in (5) Our mobile phones are extremely user-friendly, have a long battery (6) and
excellent voice quality. Produced to the highest quality (7) , each phone is thoroughly
tested before being (8)

XCelfon has grown rapidly due to its (9) to quality. Our investment record speaks for
itself. Ten percent of net sales are (10) ..... in research and development, ensuring that
the company (11) its position as market leader in mobile phone technology.

XCelfon products are the perfect (12) of superb design and technological know-how.
Each of our technical (13) helps make our products easier to use. One such unique
(14) is the customiser menu, which allows users to (15) only the most frequently
needed functions in their own user menu.

Example
0 A Active B Fit C Physical D Energetic

A B C D

1 A make B allow C prepare D mean

15
2 A throughout B over C about D within
3 A holds B remains C stays D keeps
4 A claims B calls C demands D enquires
5 A mind B thought C vision D sight
6 A duration B course C time D life
7 A standards B grades C marks D results
8 A transferred B conveyed C given D dispatched
9 A awareness B attention C consideration D intention
10 A spent B paid C re-invested D supplied
11 A maintains B provides C continues D supports
12 A connection B unity C join D combination
13 A introductions B modernisations C innovations D differences
14 A character B feature C property D factor
15 A prefer B select C limit D reduce

Reading Test
Read the newspaper bulletin about a joint venture.
In most lines 1-12 there is one extra word which does not fit in. Some lines, however,
are correct.
If a line is correct, write CORRECT.
If there is an extra word in the line, write the extra word in CAPITAL LETTERS.
0 IT
00 - correct

Roysten plans US joint venture


0 Roysten, the engineering group, it plans to launch a US joint venture with
00 HarvestTate to set up a factory to make up to 1,000 buses a year. The
1 agreement is one the first product of the strategic alliance with HarvestTate
2 that Roysten announced the last May. Roysten's joint venture partner will be
3 Freerider, a HarvestTate subsidiary and leading manufacturer of school buses.
4 The two parties are aiming to lease out or buy a factory capable of producing

16
5 1,000 buses a year, which selling at $150,000 each. Until now the US school
6 bus market has been being dominated by the reassuring shape of John Lloyd's
7 yellow buses which have been made familiar to many all over the world
8 through an appearances in countless Hollywood films and American TV
9 series. This situation looks set to be change, however, with Roysten and
10 HarvestTate promising that a revolutionary new design with a number of
11 inbuilt safety features which are sure to find appeal to the nation's parents
12 regardless of cost. The market seemed to approve the move, with Roysten's
shares closing up 22p at 246p.

Writing Test
You are the office manager at an insurance company. You have arranged for contractors
to upgrade your computer system. This means the system will be shut down for a full day.
Write a memo of 40-50 words:
informing staff why the upgrade is necessary
telling them when it will happen
asking them to prepare alternative work for the day.

17
Unit 2a

Health and safety

Injuries at work

SPEAKING

1 Think of three accidents that can happen in an office.

READING

2 Read the questions below and try to decide on the correct answer.
1 The largest number of office accidents are caused by
A bumping into objects.
B falling or tripping over things.
C lifting heavy objects.
2 In the UK between April 2009 and March 2010 about
A 2.5 million
B 1.5 million
C 1.3 million
people said they were suffering from work-related illnesses.
3 The percentage of office workers in the UK who suffer from repetitive strain injury
is
A 68%.
B 59%.
C 75%.
4 A recent survey found that the most stressful salaried job was
A Public Relations Officer
B Corporate Executive
C Commercial airline pilot

18
1 B Most reports agree that the most common type of accident in an office
occurs when someone slips or trips, loses their balance and then falls. This can
happen due to exposed wiring, bumping into a drawer that was left open, standing
on a chair to reach an object or slipping because floors are slippery or wet.
2 C According to statistics published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
in the UK in 2010, about 1.3 million people said they were suffering from illnesses
caused by their jobs or which were made worse by their work. This was up from 1.2
million in 2008/09.
3 A An article published in a leading newspaper claimed that approximately
two-thirds of office staff (68%) were suffering from repetitive strain injury. This
injury can cost the economy up to 300,000 in lost working hours. Also known as
repetitive stress injury, this causes aching backs, shoulders, wrists and hands and is
often blamed on companies not providing ergonomic workstations for their
employees.
4 C A survey done in 2011 found that the most stressful salaried job was that of
a commercial airline pilot. Although salaries are high, pilots are responsible for the
safety of their passengers and crews, are expected to keep to their schedules even in
bad weather and often work irregular hours without enough time to really rest or
relax. The second most stressful job was that of PR officials who are responsible for
the images of their company and often deal with hostile members of the press. This
was followed by corporate executives who have to make major decisions affecting
large numbers of people.

SPEAKING

3 How do accidents happen? What can companies or schools do to prevent them?

SPEAKING

4 An employee is taken to the company doctor after he has had an accident at


work. Listen and complete Part D of the accident report form below with one or
two words or a number.
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
Report of an injury or dangerous occurrence
Filling in this form
This form must be filled in by an employer or other responsible person.
Part A
About the injured person
19
Full name: Peter Gouch
Home address: 7-5 Canterbury
Job title: Export Document Supervisor
Part B
About the incident
Date and time of the incident: 1 8 /6/201 1
Place of the incident: Office 039
PartC
About the injury
Description of the injury
Small cut on left leg, and bruise on right arm.
PartD
Description of the incident
The patient was on his mobile in the (1) . He was crossing the shop floor and was
hit by a forklift. He then lost (2) . and fell. He sustained a small cut to his leg
and bruised his arm. I cleaned and dressed the wound. No (3) ............. were needed. The
patient did not feel sick or dizzy but complained that he was experiencing pain. I gave him
some (4) . and told him to come back the next day.

SPEAKING

5 What health and safety regulations are there at your company or school?

How safe is your workplace?

READING

1 Read the leaflet about risk assessment. Choose the best title for each of the five steps.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3

20
Step 4
Step 5
A Decide who might be harmed
B Look for the hazards
C Revise your assessment
D Record your findings
E Evaluate the risks arising from the hazards

2 Now choose the correct sentence from the opposite page to fill each gap. The first one is
already done for you.

5 STEPS TO RISK ASSESSMENT

Risk assessment is nothing more than a careful examination of what, in your work,
could cause harm to people, so that you can decide whether you have taken enough
precautions or should do more to prevent harm. Its aim is to make sure that no one
gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives and affect your
business too if output is lost, machinery is damaged, insurance costs increase, or you
have to go to court.

The important things you need to decide in risk assessment are whether a hazard is
significant and whether you have it covered by satisfactory precautions so that the risk
is small.

If you are a small firm and you are confident you understand the work, you can do the
assessment yourself. (0) ..I.. If you are not confident, ask your local Health and Safety
Inspector to advise you. But remember: you are responsible for seeing that adequate
precautions are taken.

Step 1 Walk around your workplace and look afresh at what could reasonably be
expected to cause harm. Ignore the trivial and concentrate only on significant hazards

21
which could result in serious harm or affect several people. (1) Because they
experience the workplace and work practices on a daily basis, they may have noticed
things which are not immediately obvious.

Step 2 Think about people who may not be in the workplace all the time, e.g.
cleaners, contractors, maintenance personnel. (2) There is a chance that they could
be hurt by your activities.

Step 3 Even after all precautions have been taken, usually some risk remains. What
you have to decide for each significant hazard is whether this remaining risk is high,
medium or low. First, ask yourself whether you have done all the things that the law
says you have got to do. Then ask yourself whether generally-accepted industry
standards are in place. (3) Remember: your aim is to make all risks small by adding
to your precautions if necessary.

Step 4 If you have fewer than five employees, you do not need to write anything
down, but if you have five or more employees, you must record the significant
findings of your assessment. This means writing down the more significant hazards
and recording your most important conclusions. You should keep the written
document for future reference. It will be particularly useful if an inspector questions
your precautions or if you become involved in an action for civil liability. (4) And
it can remind you to keep an eye on particular matters or causes for concern.

Step 5 At some time, you will undoubtedly bring in new machines, substances and
procedures which could lead to new hazards. (5) In any case, it is good practice to
review your assessment from time to time. Don't amend your assessment for every
trivial change or each new job; but if a new job introduces significant new hazards of
its own, you will want to consider them in their own right and do whatever you need
to keep the risks down.

22
A It also helps to show that you have done what the law requires.
B Improving health and safety need not cost a lot.
C Where such hazards are unavoidable, use appropriate safety equipment.
D But don't stop there - think for yourself, because the law also says that you must
do what is reasonable to keep your workplace safe.
E If there is any significant change, you should take this into account.
F Members of the public who visit your workplace should also be included.
G Ask your employees or their representatives what they think.
H For instance, electricity can kill, but in an office environment the risk is remote.
I Alternatively, you could ask a responsible employee, safety representative or
safety officer to help you.
What helped you to choose your answers? Underline the key words or phrases.

23
Unit 2b

Rights at work

Know your rights

SPEAKING

1 Discuss the following questions about rights and the use of the internet.
Should employees who have a grievance be allowed to complain about their jobs in
emails to family and friends?
Should employees have the right to post comments about their jobs on social media
sites?
Do companies have the right to dismiss someone for making a comment about their
job on a social media site?
Should companies be allowed to monitor social media sites and dismiss employees
they think may be critical of their policies?

READING

2 Read the article on the opposite page about court cases involving employees and
social media sites. Who lost the case? Do you think the judgement of the court was
fair? Why/Why not?

3 Read the article again. Are the following statements true or false?
1 Sarah felt she had been criticised unfairly.
2 Sarah's boss read the comment on Facebook.
3 Sarah was not surprised that she lost her job.
4 The company began the court case against Sarah.
5 Staff who have been dismissed were not informed about the use of Facebook by their
employers.

24
6 Management consultants feel that companies should start thinking about formal
policies regarding social media usage by employees.
7 Companies will have to spend a lot of time in the future on retraining because many
good workers are leaving for better jobs.

Is posting comments always a good idea?


Two years ago Sarah James had a bad day at the office and when she came home she
logged into Facebook. A project Sarah had put a great deal of time and effort into was
criticised by her boss. As Sarah felt these comments were not justified she was very angry
and made a comment on her Facebook page. While Sarah thought she was just letting off
steam, the post was seen by a friend who told her boss about it. Sarah's boss then went to the
management of the company and got Sarah fired. Sarah, who had been working in the
same job for the past eight years, was shocked. She found an attorney and took her
company to court. She claimed that as her comment mentioned no names, it would be
impossible for anyone to know who the comment was about. The company's team of
lawyers convinced the judge that the image of the company had been damaged by the
plaintiff. Although Sarah feels that this was an unfair dismissal, one year later she is still
looking for a job.

These cases are becoming more and more common. Employees who have lost jobs because
they posted comments or jokes on Facebook feel that companies are being unfair. They
claim that staff must be informed about the consequences of using Facebook to
communicate with people they have on their list of friends. Management consultants are
saying that formal policies should be drafted to avoid future problems. A ban on social
networks seems to be an extreme answer to the problem. Many employees who have lost
their jobs are beginning to look into lawsuits. This means that in the future companies
may be faced with more and more time battling these cases in court. And in the end this
means that good workers may be dismissed and companies will be forced to spend time
retraining others to take over these jobs as well as lose their reputations as employee-
friendly companies.

25
SPEAKING

4 Do you think the judgement was fair? Why/Why not?

5 Formulate an internet and social media policy for your company which is fair to
both management and employees. Write a 40-50 word memo informing all staff of the
policy.

Problems at work

SPEAKING

1 Five people talk about why they lost their jobs. Listen and decide the reason each

1 A failure to meet targets


2 B personal use of company property
3 C poor time keeping
4 D refusal to observe safety regulations
5 E refusal to commute
F refusal to work overtime
G repeated absence from work
H sexual harassment

SPEAKING

2 Do you think any of the speakers were treated unfairly?

3 Work in pairs. As a manager, how would you deal with the incidents below? Would
you:
take no action against the person?
have a friendly word with the person?

26
give an official verbal warning?
give an official written warning?
dismiss the person?

1 An employee who repeatedly refuses to observe safety requirements has caused a


small fire. Little damage has been caused and no-one has been hurt.
2 You hear that an employee has physically threatened a colleague. This is the first
time he has behaved this way.
3 An employee has told a friend (a journalist) about confidential negotiations your
company is having about the takeover of another company. The story appears on the
front page of a national newspaper.
4 You suspect that an employee is not keeping up with his work. You discover that
he has just put unfinished work in his desk drawer although he told his supervisor
that he had finished it.
5 You discover that information a new employee has included on her curriculum
vitae is not true. She has exaggerated her experience and lied about her
qualifications.
6 A new member of the office support staff arrives a few minutes late and
leaves a few minutes early every day. She also takes fifteen minutes or more
extra at lunchtime. Several of her colleagues have been heard to complain about
this.
7 As you are leaving the office, you notice an employee putting a packet of
photocopier paper in his bag.
8 An employee, frustrated with his computer, has hit it violently. The machine is
irreparable and a replacement will cost 1,200.

SELF-STUDY

1 Choose the correct word to complete each


sentence.
1 When doing risk assessments, it is a good idea to (remember / review) them on a
regular basis.

27
2 Health and safety measures are designed to (prevent / protect) employees.
3 You can seriously injure your back if you try to (handle / lift) a heavy object.
4 The cleaners had just washed the floor in the washroom, and I (slipped / tripped)
on it.
5 We hope to avoid any further (accidents / incidents) of theft.
6 He wasn't seriously (wounded / injured). It was just a small cut.
7 Could I see the doctor? I've fallen and (harmed / hurt) my back.
8 You must take all reasonable (precautions / predictions) against accidents.
9 You are (enquired / required) to keep a record of all significant hazards.
10 Please consider the risks faced by maintenance (personnel / personal).

2 Complete each sentence with the correct form of


the word in capital letters.
1 HARM
None of the substances we use here are _________________, so there's no danger.
2 INJURE
How did the _______________ happen?
3 OBLIGE
Employers have a legal ______________ to protect staff.
4 FIND
Only the significant ______________ of your assessment need to be written down.
5 HAZARD
You need to take extra care when handling ________________ materials.
6 SAFE
Health and ______________ representatives will be meeting next week.
7 LIABLE
Keep a record of all accidents in case you become involved in a civil _____________
action.

3 Complete each sentence with a suitable preposition.


1 I was in the factory and got a call _________________ my mobile.

28
2 The risk _______ an accident happening is remote.
3 Their first aid facilities are cause _____ concern.
4 The written document will be useful _____ future reference.
5 Concentrate _________________ the most significant hazards.
6 You should take ______________ account members of the public who might visit your
workplace.
7 These accidents resulted in two company cleaners
being absent _________ work for two days.
8 How can such incidents be prevented _____ happening again?

Modal verbs
4 Choose the correct verb to complete each sentence.
1 You (needn't / mustn't) amend your assessment for every trivial change - only the most
significant ones.
2 Even after all precautions have been taken, some risks (could / should) still remain.
3 (Shall / Will) I fill in the accident report form?
4 Not all hazards (must I can) be avoided.
5 NB: Employees (must not I cannot] lift heavy objects without proper training.
6 If you're not too busy, (will I shall) you help me put up these safety notices?
7 If the employer is found responsible for an accident, he (could I is able to) be in
trouble.
8 (May / Will) I use your phone to make a quick call?
9 I don't think they'll find anything wrong with the ventilation system, but, of
course, they (might / can).
10 I (don't need to / mustn't) see the doctor. It isn't a very serious injury.
11 This first aid box is very old. Do you think we (should / would) get a new one?
12 When you are assessing risks, you (could / would) ask a responsible employee to help
you.

5 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the following verbs.
prioritise; take; keep up with; post; deal with; lose.

29
1 Sometimes employees _____________ their employers to court.
2 We try to _____________ all complaints reasonably.
3 Employees should be careful about _____________ comments about their jobs on
social media sites.
4 Companies don't want to ______________ their reputations as being employee-
friendly.
5 He tried to ___________________ the ever-increasing workload, but it was too much
for him.
6 If you are very busy, it is important to __________________ all the things to be done.

6 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.


1 If an employee has a (grievance / failure), the company should deal with it promptly
and fairly.
2 I refused to (rest / stay) late at work every day.
3 We lost the case but it was no-one's (guilt / fault).
4 Employees must (observe / watch) safety regulations.
5 He caused a lot of (damage / hurt) to his computer.
6 If you ban internet usage at work, some people will (complain / threaten).
7 Some employees take (frequent / often) breaks.
8 He failed to (hit / meet) his monthly sales targets.
9 She complained that she didn't (mention / write) any names.
10 If your boss (dismisses I criticises) your work, what can you do?

7 Complete the table.


Verb Noun
exaggerate ...................
justify ...................
abusing ..................
ban ...................
behave ...................

30
negotiate ...................
refuse ...................
complain ...................

8 Put these in order from the least to the most serious.


A His boss gave him an official verbal warning.
B His boss dismissed him.
C His boss took no action against him.
D His boss gave him an official written warning.
E His boss had a friendly word with him.

Passives
9 Change sentences A-D from Exercise 8 into the passive.
A He was given an official verbal warning.
B __________________________________
C __________________________________
D __________________________________

10 Complete this conversation with the correct


passive form of the verbs in brackets.
What's happened to Dave Wright from Accounts?
T Haven't you heard? He (1 sack) 's been sacked .
He's lost his job? But why? How?
T Well, when the company (2 take over)
_________________ last June, he was told he'd
have to relocate. He refused and he (3 just/tell)
_________________ to go.
That's terrible! Poor Dave! What do you think
he'll do?
T Well, actually, he's not so upset. He's been applying for some other jobs and he's sure
that he (4 offer) __________________ a job by Elite Finance.

31
Do you think he'll take it?
V I'm sure he will - if he (5 offer) _____________
enough money.
And has anybody else (6 tell) ___________
to leave?
T I'm not sure. Let's wait and see.

Reading Test
Look at the text below about a department store group and answer questions 1-6.
Each question has four suggested answers or ways of finishing the sentence A, B, C
and D.
Mark one letter A, B, C or D for the answer you choose.
Walters Department Stores
Walters is a familiar name on the UK's high streets, operating from 32
department stores situated either in prime city-centre locations or out-of-town retail
parks. Although some competitors have successfully branched out into gourmet ready-
to-eat foods or experimented with financial services, Walters has chosen to specialise
in the clothing, accessories and home product markets. By offering a range of
competitively-priced merchandise of a high standard to its customers, Walters has
become one of the country's favourite department stores.
Over recent years there has been a steady decline in the number of UK
department stores which do not belong to a chain. On the other hand, the top three
national department store groups account for an increasing proportion of the
department store market. This clearly reflects their ability to make a success of this
retailing format in the UK. Walters is a market leader within this group, differentiating
itself from its main competitors as a large space clothing-led retailer offering its own, as
well as international brands.
The creation of an attractive selling environment is one of the most
important aspects of successful retailing. Walters has devoted a significant amount
of management time to providing an appealing, highly visual and efficient
environment which makes shopping there a pleasure. Exciting and creative

32
merchandise stands provide each section with a clearly distinguishable look, and
these are frequently updated in all stores.
Department stores can appeal to people of all age groups, from teenagers to
money-conscious pensioners, but they are particularly popular with the 30-50 age
category. Consumers here are generally in the higher income groups and are more
demanding in terms of the quality of service they expect. This age group is expected to
account for an increasing proportion of the overall population over the next decade. By
the year 2025, this age group is projected to grow by five times as much as the total
population.
We aim to give our customers the widest possible product choice, and we have
been highly successful in developing our own brands, which now account for almost 50
per cent of sales. We have also recently commissioned a number of leading designers,
who are designing additional clothing, accessories and home furnishing lines to suit
our customer profile. Despite the lack of TV commercials or newspaper
advertisements, these exclusive ranges are already attracting new customers into the
stores through innovative online advertising and use of social media sites. We are also
considering running magazine adverts. To maximise the profit generated by each store,
we at Walters constantly monitor and adjust the allocation of retail space dedicated to
each of these product categories.
1 What is Walters best known for?
A Providing quality and value for money.
B Locating all their stores in retail parks.
C Introducing new banking services.
D Offering a variety of pre-cooked meals.
2 Independent department stores have found it difficult to
A become part of a chain.
B compete in this retail sector.
C occupy large space premises.
D supply international goods.
3 Walters realises the need to
A regularly modernise in-store displays.

33
B appeal to customers of all ages.
C always provide a relaxed atmosphere.
D encourage creativity amongst staff.
4 Who are the typical department store customers?
A Retired people with little money.
B Well-off people of all ages.
C High income young people.
D Mature people with good salaries.
5 Walters' contract with leading designers aims to
A emphasise value for money.
B change the customer profile.
C increase the product range.
D develop own-label goods.
6 Walters have succeeded in attracting new customers by promoting their products
A on television.
B in newspapers.
C in magazines.
D on the Internet.

Writing Test (i)


You are a manager at an auditors called Golding & Co. Your company has just merged
with a competitor to become MasonGolding. You have been asked to inform staff of the
change of name.
Write a memo of 40-50 words:

informing staff of the reason for the change of name


telling them when to start using the new name
asking staff to use only the new name on all correspondence after that time.

34
Writing Test (ii)
You are the manager of a small office. In order to reduce costs and improve the
company's environmental practices, you have decided to collect and recycle all paper
used in the office.
Write a memo of 40-50 words:

informing staff of the new policy


explaining how the paper will be collected
requesting staff to co-operate with the scheme.

35
Unit 3a

Business expenses

Claiming expenses

SPEAKING

1 What expenses do people typically incur on a business trip?

2 What would you do in the following situations? Discuss them with your partner.

Situation One
On a three-day business trip to Paris, you travel around the city using the underground
system to visit clients. You find this the cheapest and most convenient way of travelling.
On your last night there, you begin filling in your expenses claim sheet. When you read
the small print, you notice you are authorised to claim a lump sum of 25 per day for
taxis.

Situation Two
Your first business trip for your new company has been successful and you have secured an
important new contract. You invite your client out to dinner at an expensive restaurant.
However, at the end of the meal, he insists on paying the bill. It comes to 125. He passes
you the receipt after he has paid and says you could claim this back on expenses. 'Everyone
does it,' he says.

Situation Three
You discover that a colleague has made a false claim for expenses for a five-day trip to
Hamburg. He was booked into a hotel which cost 80 per night, but he only stayed there
for one night. He then checked out of the hotel and spent the rest of the week with an old
friend. However, he made an expenses claim for all five nights.

36
LISTENING

3 Roger Hargreaves works in an accounts department. He telephones three people


about their expense claims. Listen and complete the forms below with one or two
words or a number.

Sofrac Limited
Expenses Claim Form - Management
Name: David Holdos
Full details (inc Accommodation Business Travel Client Entertaining Other Expenses Total
date)
July 3. 2011 Carilands Train M ea l/Drin ks

Business Trip Hotel


(1) One night 1st class return (3) (4)

(2)
84 56.70 9

Telephone Message
To: Alan Haywarth Taken by: Alison
Date: 30.7.2011 Time: 3.30 pm
Roger Hargreaves from Accounts called about expenses for your trip to (5) _________
last. He hasnt got the (6) ________________ . He needs this asap. If you cant find it,
you should (7) ________________ . Hes sorry but Accounts cant make (8) _________
like last time.
Expenses Claim Form - Management
Name: Chris Evans Date: 24.7.2011
Full details Accommodation Business Travel Client Entertaining Other Expenses Total
(inc date)
Two-day One night (11) N/A (12)
recruitment
trip to Paris 6

(9) (10)
June

37
SPEAKING

4 Explain the system for claiming expenses in your company or another institution.
Do you have any suggestions for improvement? Discuss this with your partner.

A new expenses claims system

READING

1 Read the memo below about a new expenses claims system. Answer the questions.
1 What are the three main components of the new system?
2 How will the new system save the company money?
3 What updates will be made to the personal expense account?
4 What do employees need to do once the updates are done?
5 What additional information will the claimant be required to give?
6 How will employees know when the information is needed?
7 How will the system control spending?
8 What are employees told to do about personal expenses?

To: senior managers


From: Julie Singh
Subject: IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW EXPENSES SYSTEM
Date: 3 March 2011

Dear all,

As you know, this department has undertaken an extensive survey into alternative
systems of handling corporate travel expenses and expenses claims. In recent months, a
corporate charge card [Amex] and an automated expenses reimbursement system have
been trialled successfully in several departments. This system will now be implemented
throughout the organisation. The main benefits of the new system are that cash advances
will no longer be necessary and administrative time can be reduced. It will also cut the

38
cost of processing each claim and should produce a substantial saving on the time
employees spend on claiming expenses. The system should be fully operational within the
next ten weeks. A brief outline of how the system works is given below.

Claiming Expenses
All charges on the company credit card for business travel will be automatically updated
in an online personal expense account. Employees are then asked to log in to their
accounts and fill in the relevant details of their expenses. This will include codes for hotels
or airlines and any other necessary information indicating the business purpose of each
expense. Employees who have entertained guests will be asked to supply their names and
companies for our records. The system will automatically send reminders when the
information is due and payment will follow in the subsequent month. There are built-in
limits for client entertainment and meal allowances so you need to have these cleared if
you go over them. Please scan receipts and attach them to the online expense claim.
Remember to keep originals of receipts.

Auditing procedures
Line managers will receive automatic emails when claims are submitted and are
asked to monitor them. All employees are advised to use a private credit card for
personal expenses.

Full details of the new system will be sent to all senior managers within the next few
days. Please distribute this information within your team.

Many thanks,

Julie
Account Manager

39
SPEAKING

2 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this system.

LISTENING

3 Five people call the Accounts Department and leave messages about their
expenses. Listen and decide what each speaker is trying to do.
1 ....
2 ....
3 ....
4 ....
5 ....
A arrange a meeting
B ask for help
C ask for information
D ask permission
E cancel an appointment
F explain a delay
G make a complaint
H thank someone

WRITING

4 You work in the Accounts Department and are responsible for checking
employees' expenses. Write a 40-50 word memo to staff:
reminding them of the importance of receipts
telling them how expenses will be paid
saying how long expenses payments take to process.

40
SPEAKING

5 The Accounts Department of the company you work for is considering a new
policy for client entertainment. At the moment, sales people are given a fixed amount
each month and many of them feel it is too low. They find it difficult to take clients to
good restaurants and often find they cannot take taxis.

You have been asked to make suggestions on how to change this policy. Discuss the
situation together and decide:
if salespeople should have unlimited amounts provided they turn in all receipts and
write a report for their line manager explaining the expenses
if sales people should be given a company credit card for client entertainment and
asked to put all client-related expenses on the card.

41
Unit 3b

Business Travel

Airline services

SPEAKING

1 Work in groups. Look at this list of airline services. Agree on the three
most important services for the business traveller.
higher airmiles awards for frequent flyers
valet service airport parking
additional baggage allowance
priority status at check-in
exclusive business lounges
advanced seat selection
wider, fully-reclining seats
in-seat phone facilities
premium food and beverage service
laptop power points
individual entertainment systems

2 Which of these services do you think help business people to work?


Which of these services are not necessary, but just luxuries?

LISTENING

3 Five business travellers talk about different air travel services. Decide which one
each speaker is talking about.

42
1
2
3
4
5
A business class section
B flat beds
C free newspapers and magazines
D airmiles
E in-seat power facilities
F in-flight entertainment
G on-board duty-free sales
H business lounges

SPEAKING

4 Work in pairs. Ask your partner about airline trips he or she has taken. What
kind of service was offered? Which was the best and why?

Taking on the grown-ups

SPEAKING

1 What differences are there between mainstream airlines and low-cost airlines?

READING

2 Read the article on the following page. What advantages and disadvantages are
mentioned for business travellers on low-cost airlines?

43
Taking on the grown-ups

Low-cost airlines looking to compete in the lucrative world of business travel

1 Low-cost carriers have been competing with mainstream airlines for a number of
years, but have mostly targeted economy class passengers with their policy of
undercutting prices. Several, however, are beginning to look into the profitable
business travel market segment by expanding their routes and offering a more
flexible flight schedule.
2 However, a no-frills airline will still have problems competing in areas that
business travellers have long taken for granted. One of these currently in
discussion is in-flight entertainment. Low-cost carriers argue that most passengers
have their own entertainment with them and prefer to listen to their mp3 players
or watch DVDs on their laptops. They are not interested in the standard
programme offered by the airlines. Providing refreshments, however, is another
matter. Whether or not business travellers will be ready to exchange premium
food service and a choice of beverages for packaged sandwiches and water they have
to purchase is certainly questionable.
3 Another area to look at carefully is the cost-benefit ratio. Many low-cost carriers
advertise extremely low fares but when the customer adds in the charges for fees,
taxes, luggage, check-in, priority check-in, seat selection and paying by credit card,
the costs may be the same, and in some cases even higher than on mainstream airlines.
This is an area that will certainly need to be addressed or low-cost carriers will fail to
survive in the competitive world of air travel. They have to keep in mind that value-for-
money is a high priority in the business world.
4 A number of low-cost carriers have also been using more remote airports where
the fees are lower. Several are considering returning to primary airports and hubs.
Their corporate sales departments are looking into the benefits they can offer business
travellers and convenience will certainly be at the top of the list. After all, a
businessperson who can take a taxi to a primary airport will not
be interested in a long bus trip into the city from an airport located too far away from

44
where he or she needs to be. As time equates to money on business trips, this factor
alone may be the deciding one in choosing a carrier.
5 Another problem the no-frills market will have to face is in-flight comfort.
Business travellers are used to fully reclinable seats and a great deal of legroom as well
as a feeling of privacy, something most low-cost carriers cannot offer. However, it will
be interesting to see how this market develops, as airlines such as AirAsia are already
offering flat bed style comfort at a fraction of the price. In addition, business travellers
like having a dedicated check-in desk, fully-refundable flexible tickets and the feeling
of being pampered. If they are expected to insert a coin into a slot on the toilet door,
stand in a queue and hope they get the seat they prefer or carry their lunch onto the
plane, most will stay with the mainstream airlines.
6 There are, of course, a number of factors the no-frills airlines can consider. In
some cases they offer the only direct flight between certain locations which is an
advantage for them. However, if passengers need to transfer to a connecting flight,
most will choose the mainstream airline which guarantees rebooking on the
connecting flight if the first flight is delayed. It will be interesting to see how the low-
cost carriers respond to the market over the next few years and we may see a major
change both in business travel and the expectations of business travellers.

3 Read the article again. Think of a title for each paragraph.

4 Read the article again. Are the following statements true or false?

1 The differences between mainstream and low-cost airlines are becoming less clear.
2 Low-cost airlines are always cheaper than mainstream airlines.
3 Low cost carriers are looking into ways to attract businesspeople.
4 Business people are used to having special treatment when they travel.
5 Most no-frills airlines can offer the same services as mainstream airlines.
6 The future of low-cost airlines versus mainstream airlines regarding business travel
shows very positive signs.

45
SPEAKING

5 How do you see the future for mainstream and low-cost airlines?

READING

6 Look at the comments below from passengers who flew with low-cost airlines.
Which airline does each of the following sentences refer to?
1 This airline provided the best service.
2 This airline provided the worst service.
3 This airline offered no in-flight food for its passengers.
4 This airline offered the best value in terms of in-flight catering.
5 The check-in procedures for this airline were confused.
6 The check-in procedures for this airline were highly efficient.
7 The interior of this airline's plane was dirty.

Sophie Little, a passenger with Fastjet


The check-in person told me to collect
my ticket at the ticket desk. But there, they
told me I didn't need one and sent me back to
check-in. On the plane itself I was surprised to get
lunch and a free drink. I didn't think that usually
happened with low-cost airlines. It was very
nice, but it didn't make up for the fact
that we left an hour late.

Marion Palmer, a passenger with Presto


Incredibly, from check-in desk to my seat
took less than twenty minutes. My seat was a little
uncomfortable, but the fact that there were no delays
made this bearable, as did a nice cup of real

46
coffee and a tasty cheese sandwich, both
reasonably priced.

Johnathan Ives, a passenger with Prestige


They announced there would be a delay
on the flight - but didn't give a reason for it. On
board, duty-free goods were available, but the same
couldn't be said about any form of refreshment.
Luckily, I'd had a big breakfast at
the airport.

Simon Stevens, a passenger with World Air


Checking-in took forever, as did take-off. Inside, the
level of comfort and standard of cleanliness were
extremely disappointing, and there weren't enough
sandwiches for all the passengers, so most went hungry.
I was one of the unlucky ones who got one!

SPEAKING

7 Work in pairs. Tell your partner about your best and worst experiences of air
travel.

SELF-STUDY

1 Complete the telephone conversation with questions.


T Hello. This is David Bridge from Accounts. I'm just ringing about your expenses
claim for your Paris trip. You only wrote down the total figure you spent - but I need
more information.
Oh, sorry. What do you need to know?
T Well, first of all, (1)__________ ?

47
Let me see. Yes. It was the 1 st and 2nd of June.
T Right. And (2) ___________ ?
It was a sales conference I was attending.
T I see. And (3) __________ Paris?
By plane. I flew from Gatwick.
T OK. Now (4) ___________ ?
At the Hotel Deluxe.
T Right. And (5) ____________ ?
Just one night. I flew back on the 2nd.
OK. And (6)_______________ ?
Dupont. Pascale Dupont.
(7) ________________ ?
Dupont? Yes, it's D-U-P-0-N-T.
Thanks. And now could you just send me the receipts?

2 Match the words.


1 false manager
2 meal claim
3 small allowance
4 line print
5 short notice

Now use the combinations to complete the sentences.


1 All expenses claims must be authorised by your __________________
2 He had to leave at ____________ and had no time to update me.
3 The system has a built-in limit for employees claiming their ________________ .
4 The new automated system should help us catch anyone trying to make a
____________.
5 If you read the ________________, you'll see that we do not accept liability for any
loss or damage.

48
3 Complete the table.
Verb Noun
supply ..................
reimburse ..................
claim ..................
authorise ..................
require ..................
automate ..................

Relative pronouns
4 Correct any mistakes with the relative pronouns
in the note below. Can any of the pronouns be omitted?

Dear Mr Rivers
I enclose the expenses claim form who you sent to me last week as it is incomplete. I need
to know the names of the clients that you took for lunch and the name of the restaurant
where you took them to. I also need to know the reason for the 25 what you put in the
last column. Please also note that it is only line managers whom can authorise expenses,
not colleagues whose work in your office.
Kind regards

5 Join each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun.


1 I took Mr Fuller to lunch. He is a client.
2 Employees travel on company business. They will be sent a form by email each month.
3 The expenses claims system will be implemented next month. It will cut costs
considerably.
4 I received the expenses claim reminder. You sent it to me last week.
5 Those are the employees. We paid their expenses last week.

49
6 Match the words.
duty flight
baggage free
check-in allowance
scheduled desk
in-flight catering
reclining status
priority seat

7 Change the following words into adjectives. Put them into the correct group below.
reason; exclude; bear; annoy; disappoint; compete; refund; entertain; transfer; recline; select.
- ive:
- ing:
-able:

8 Put these actions into a logical order.


A Our flight was called.
B We checked in.
C We took off.
D We landed in Paris an hour later.
E We waited in the departure lounge.
F We went through passport control and customs.
G On board we bought some duty-free perfume.
H We went to the ticket desk to collect our tickets.
I We boarded the plane.

9 Complete each sentence with a suitable preposition.


1 The free meal didn't make up ______ the delay.
2 Their attraction is based _______ price.
3 No reason________ the long delay was given.
4 The in-flight meal was good value______ money.

50
5 No-frills carriers target economy class customers _______ their policy of cost-cutting.
6 These times don't fit in ____________ your plans.
7 Fastjet provides the best value ________ terms __________in-flight catering.
8 Some low-cost carriers are trying to take the grown-ups.

10 Complete the sentences with the following verbs


undercut; transfer; survive; fail; raise; compete.
1 Heavy competition means some no-frills airlines may not __________________.
2 Several mainstream airlines _____________ on price with low-cost carriers.
3 Normally, low-cost airlines do not guarantee a __________ to a connecting flight.
4 We don't intend to _________ ticket prices. We intend to lower them.
5 Their prices______________ most other airlines by as much as 50% on some routes.
6 Certain airlines may______________ to attract customers if they maintain such high
prices.

Indirect questions
11 Re-arrange the words to make indirect questions.
1 you where could check me in tell we
Could you tell me where we check-in?
2 when know 'd to off like I take we
______________________________
3 refundable just can this if I ticket ask is
______________________________
4 is tell could why delay a there me you
________________________________
5 tell if meal could board you me get on we a
______________________________

12 Make these questions more polite.


1 Is there any in-flight entertainment?
_______________________________

51
2 Do you offer a frequent flyer programme?
______________________________
3 Where's the business lounge?
______________________________
4 What time do we leave?
______________________________
5 Are the seats reclining?
______________________________
6 Where can I exchange money?
______________________________

Reading Test
Read the text below about flexible working.
Choose the correct word from A, B, C or D to fill each gap.
For each gap 1-15, mark one letter A, B, C or D.

Flexible working
The term 'flexible working' has become familiar to any company, regardless of size, that
needs to look at how (0) jobs are structured. The thinking behind this is not only the
realisation that this (1) has potential cost benefits, but also the recognition that it can
lead to a more (2) and contented workforce.
One company with a long (3) of flexible working is Remploy, the UK's largest employer
of severely (4) people and people with complex barriers to work. Remploy has a UK
workforce of almost 20,000 (5) working in various (6) of the economy including
textiles, furniture and manufacturing services.
Training and development (7) are a key aspect of Remploy s employment policy, and
each hourly- paid employee has an individual training and action (8) Throughout the
company, there is also an awareness that progression, and the opportunity to progress, is a
(9) factor. In the Manufacturing
Services Group, for example, the policy is to (10) as many employees as possible in two
of the core businesses. Once they have achieved this, the employees are (11)

52
In addition, Remploy has (12) to changing markets in recent years by changing
products and expanding into new areas. This has enabled the company to (13) ...
competitive and keep the workforce in full-time (14) On these occasions, Remploy's
flexible approach has enabled employees to be fully retrained while (15) to work.

Example 0 A individual B sole C single D unique

1 A course B manner C approach D technique


2 A fruitful B inventive C beneficial D productive
3 A history B story C report D account
4 A disabled B weak C sick D injured
5 A employees B colleagues C subordinates D workmates
6 A pieces B divisions C quarters D sectors
7 A agendas B lists C programmes D tables
8 A project B plan C system D procedure
9 A prompting B motivating C persuading D moving
10 A train B improve C guide D learn
11 A raised B supported C promoted D developed
12 A replied B answered C returned D responded
13 A remain B continue C rest D stand
14 A use B engagement C exercise D employment
15 A maintaining B staying C continuing D lasting

53
Unit 4a

Flexible benefits

Benefits

SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. How would you define benefits? What is the difference to pay? What
benefits do most companies in your country offer? Can people choose the benefits
they want?

READING

2 PricewaterhouseCoopers, the global professional services firm, operates a flexible


benefits system called Choices. Which of the following might the employees below be
interested in?
additional holiday; childcare vouchers; company car; additional cash; accident insurance;
pension scheme; retail vouchers; travel insurance; critical illness insurance.

Julie is in her thirties and has a baby daughter. She has plans to return to work as soon as her
daughter is old enough to go into day care.

Mark joined PricewaterhouseCoopers after graduating from university. He enjoys


travelling. He would like to take a trip around the world with his girlfriend, who is still a
student.

Susie and her partner both work full-time in well-paid jobs. Since they have no children,
security is not a high priority. They are more concerned with enjoying life.

54
SPEAKING

3 Imagine that a company you work for introduced a flexible benefits package.
What benefits would you choose?

How flexible benefits work

1 Look at the information from a PricewaterhouseCoopers booklet about the


firm's flexible benefits system. What are the three categories of benefits?
How Choices works
The way your pay and benefits are put together under Choices is easy to understand:
Rewards and benefits
At PwC our goal is to provide you with the best combination of financial rewards and
benefits possible. We work hard at finding the most competitive offers in the
marketplace for your benefits package and understand how important financial reward is
to employees. Your reward package is made up of your base pay, 25 days of annual leave
and bonus opportunities which increase with grade and length of service.
Choices allowance
Your Choices allowance is the additional amount over and above your base pay and your
annual leave which is provided to help you fund your benefits. With your Choices
allowance you can put together a package of benefits to suit your needs. This includes
4/o base pay pension funding for managers and above, as well as for all employees who
have been with the company for at least five years.
Core benefits
As part of Choices, you are provided with certain minimum benefits which are funded
by the firm and are not optional. These benefits include a minimum number of days'
holiday, life assurance, personal accident insurance, income protection and private
medical insurance. All employees will also be able to join the pension plan from the day
they begin work and benefit from the matched funding provided by the company.
Matched funding ranges from 2-15% of base pay, depending on your grade and length of
service.

55
Flexible benefits
Staff can choose to make use of holiday trading. This means that employees can opt to
have a minimum of 20 days or a maximum of 30 days annual leave by agreeing to
adjustments in salary. In addition, employees can choose from a package which offers
additional pension contributions, dental insurance, health screening, bicycles (part of the
'Cycle to Work' scheme) and childcare vouchers. And as lifestyles and needs change, you
have the chance to review your package every year and make any necessary changes to
better suit your needs.
Voluntary benefits
There is a wide variety of voluntary benefits which employees can opt into. These
include retail vouchers for discounts at shops, discounted gym memberships and a
concierge service which can be used to book holidays or theatre tickets. Due to PwC's
bargaining power, negotiations with third-party suppliers enable us to offer excellent
deals for our employees.

2 Are the following statements true or false?


1 The amount of pension contribution made by the company depends on how long you
have worked there and your position.
2 The employee has to pay for all of the benefits offered by the firm.
3 Employees can have cash rather than life assurance.
4 All employees receive medical insurance.
5 Holiday trading allows employees to vary the amount of days off in exchange for
pay.
6 Voluntary benefits are paid for by the company.

SPEAKING

3 How important are benefits to you when considering a job offer?

56
The advantages of flexible benefits

READING

1 Look at the information about the advantages of Choices. Complete the document with
the correct benefit from the list below.

A Childcare vouchers
B Car leasing agreement
C Critical illness insurance
D Extra holidays
E Pension
F Personal accident insurance
G Retail vouchers

Your options

1
This benefit may appeal to you if you like the idea of inclusive maintenance, servicing
and insurance. The purchasing power of the firm means that employees enjoy the most
competitive rates.
2
This may appeal to employees for all sorts of reasons. If you like the idea of more
frequent breaks or extra time off, this could be a worthwhile option for you.
3
This scheme is available to anyone who has parental responsibilities. As the scheme is
subsidised by the firm, your costs will be reduced.
4
The key benefit is that the lump sum is paid directly to you. This allows you to spend the
money as you see fit. If you had a heart attack, for example, the money might be used for
home improvements to make your life more comfortable.

57
5
With Choices you can decide how much cover to have and whether to include members
of your family. This may be useful when you start to think of the additional childcare
costs if you or your partner were to suddenly die or become disabled.

LISTENING

2 Carolyn Wilkinson, Senior Employee Benefits Manager at PricewaterhouseCoopers,


talks about the Choices scheme. Listen and choose one letter for the correct answer.
1 PricewaterhouseCoopers launched Choices in order to
A cater for the different needs of its employees.
B reduce the company payroll costs.
C keep employees happy after the merger.
2 PricewaterhouseCoopers can offer benefits more cheaply because
A it deals with cut-price providers.
B all its benefits are tax-free.
C of its bargaining power.
3 The purpose of the roadshows was to
A distribute the printed information across the country.
B give employees a chance to ask about Choices.
C stop employees worrying about the merger.
4 In what way were the roadshows successful?
A They allowed employees to choose their benefits.
B They were attended by the majority of UK
employees.
C They increased awareness of the Choices scheme.
5 PricewaterhouseCoopers encouraged participation by
A providing further details on its intranet site.
B sending detailed information to all employees. C telephoning all employees with
more information.

58
6 Carolyn Wilkinson said that the most popular benefit has been
A the flexible amount of holiday employees can take.
B the opportunity to buy or lease a company car.
C the pension scheme offered by PricewaterhouseCoopers.
7 What impact does Carolyn Wilkinson feel Choices has had on
recruitment?
A It has improved the response to advertised vacancies.
B It has helped the firm recruit the people it
wants.
C It has raised brand awareness among
graduates.
8 The main benefit to PricewaterhouseCoopers is
A the reduced cost of recruiting new staff.
B the positive effect on the brand name.
C the knowledge gained from running the scheme.

SPEAKING

3 Complete the table below with information about Choices.


Advantages for the employee Advantages for the company
flexible choice reduces staff turnover

4 Work in pairs. Do you think flexible benefits are a good idea? Which benefits
would you choose and why?

59
Unit 4b

Staff appraisal

The role of appraisals

SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. What do you know about staff appraisals? What is their purpose?

2 Look at the list of reasons for appraising staff. Which do you think are the three
most important? Why?

to assess training and development needs


to help improve current performance
to review and evaluate past performance
to assess promotion prospects
to set performance objectives
to review pay

LISTENING

3 Five people talk about their appraisals. Listen and decide the main topic of each
extract.

1 ....
2 ....
3 ....
4 ....
5 ....

60
A current performance
B future targets
C job description
D past performance
E pay
F promotion prospects
G training
H working environment

SPEAKING

4 How can you best prepare for an appraisal? Work in pairs and discuss the
questions on this form. Choose either your current job or a job you are training to
do.

Job: ________________________
1 What are your main duties and responsibilities?
2 Are you satisfied with your performance in the last year? Why/why not?
Give examples.
3 What would you consider to be your most important achievements of the last year?
4 What parts of your job do you find to be the most difficult?
5 What parts of your job are the most/least interesting?
6 What could be done to improve your performance? What can you do? What can your
boss do?
7 What kind of work would you like to be doing in one/two/five years?
8 What kind of professional or personal development would benefit you in the next two
years?

61
5 Look at these points below and rate yourself.

Need for Satisfactory Excellent N/A


improvement

A Time management
B Communication skills
C Budgets and financial planning
D Administration work
E IT skills
F Meeting deadlines
G Creativity
H Problem-solving
I Decision-making
J Team work and co-operation
K Working under pressure
L Leadership skills
M Adaptability

6 Now take turns holding an interview. Ask your partner the questions from the
form and discuss his or her performance and career goals. Find out how your
partner plans to work on the areas where he or she needs improvement. Ask for
specific examples.

Monitoring performance

READING

1 Read the article about staff appraisals. Do you agree with the article? Can you
suggest any ways to change the system to make it more effective?

62
Staff appraisals - more trouble than they're worth?
As k any employee at any level in any company what they dislike about their job
and somewhere on the list you will find a complaint about the system of performance
appraisals. It does seem strange that an idea which was supposed to benefit both individuals
and the company should be so universally disliked, but the staff appraisal is now one of the
biggest causes of dissatisfaction at work. In the United States there have even been cases of
unhappy workers taking their employers to court over appraisal interviews. It is in a
company's interest to combat this situation, but, before reversing the appraisal's negative
associations, an organisation needs to pinpoint the underlying reasons which have
contributed to them.
Problems with appraisals can fall into two main areas -those arising from the scheme
itself and those arising from the implementation and understanding of that scheme.
Naturally it is easier to tackle those in the former category, indeed some companies have
developed schemes following legal guidelines. These guidelines suggest that a successful
scheme should have a clear appeal process, that any negative feedback should be
accompanied by 'evidence' such as dates, times and outcomes and that, most importantly,
ratings should reflect specific measurable elements of the job requirements.
It is not always necessary to resort to legal advice however. Some changes to current
schemes are simply a matter of logic. For instance, if employees are constantly
encouraged to work in teams and to assume joint responsibility for their successes and
failures, it makes little sense for the appraisals to focus on individuals, as this may lead to
resentments and create divisions within the group. It is possible, and in some cases more
suitable, to arrange appraisals where performance is rated for the group.
Staff also need to be educated about the best way to approach appraisals. Managers often
find that they are uncomfortable being asked to take on a more supportive role than they are
used to without having had any training. Those being appraised may see it as a chance to
air their grievances and highlight the company's failings rather than consider their own
role. Both parties view the process as a necessary evil, to be gone through once or twice a
year, and then forgotten about. The importance given to the appraisal stems from the fact
that, despite all the talk of the interview being a chance for management and employees to
come together and exchange ideas, set joint targets and improve the way decisions are

63
reached, the reality is that they are often nothing more than the pretext on which pay
rises are given, or not given. Pay is, of course, a subject that always leads to problems.
Given the problems associated with staff appraisals, why is it that, with no legal
requirement, companies continue to run them? The answer is simple: it is impossible to
manage something you know nothing about. As any HR Manager can tell you, the best way to
learn about someone is to talk to them. Effective people management relies on knowledge
and appraisals are still the best way to build up that bank of knowledge.

2 Read the article again and choose one letter for the correct answer.
1 All employees complain about
A the system of benefits.
B dissatisfaction with their job.
C the way they are assessed.
D company performance.
2 Why are there so many problems with appraisals?
A People think that there are too many categories.
B People are not sure how the system works.
C People think that the feedback is too negative.
D People are not happy with the legal aspects.
3 Individual appraisals are not always very effective because
A teams much prefer to be awarded a group rating.
B everybody works in teams these days.
C team members share liability for results.
D team leaders sense resentment between members.
4 What do senior staff find difficult about doing appraisals?
A Relating to their staff in a different manner than usual.
B Having to listen to staff complaining about the company.
C Managing to find time to attend proper training sessions.
D Knowing the best way to educate staff about their role.
5 In an ideal world an appraisal is an opportunity to
A improve your salary.

64
B moan about the boss.
C discuss and agree goals.
D meet every six months.
6 How are personal appraisals important for companies?
A They help HR managers to talk to staff.
B They provide the best way to build new targets.
C They help the company meet legal requirements.
D They provide valuable information to the employer.
3 You work in the HR department. Look at writing tips on page 85, then write a
40-50 word email about staff appraisals to managers in your firm:
telling them when the appraisals should take place
asking them to send a copy of the appraisal report to you
reminding them to book an interview room if necessary.

SELF-STUDY
1 Read through the unit. Find more benefits.
holidays

2 Match the words.


1 call power
2 pension centre
3 base costs
4 bargaining leave
5 payroll discount
6 annual scheme
7 bulk turnover
8 staff pay

65
3 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in capital letters.
1 DIVERSE
The system recognises the _______________ of all our employees.
2 IMPLEMENT
The _________________ of the system took longer than expected.
3 APPLY
We are interested in attracting the best _________ .
4 CHALLENGE
After the merger took place, we had to answer a lot of ___________________ questions
from employees.
5 OPTION
The other benefits are all ______________ .
6 RECRUIT
We need to focus on ______________ .
7 SECURE
The health insurance gives me and my family some financial __________________,
which is important.
8 AWARE
The booklet helped raise ______________ .

4 Complete each sentence with a suitable preposition.


1 You can choose according ___________________ your needs.
2 I've decided to take some time _________________
3 We hope staff will participate ___________________ the scheme.
4 One advantage ______ the scheme is its flexibility.
5 The scheme caters ______ all types of employees.
6 There's been a lot of interest _________________ the scheme.
7 The scheme has had an effect ___________________ recruitment.
8 I took extra holidays in exchange ___________________ base pay.

66
Gerunds and infinitives
5 Complete the text with the gerund or infinitive.
The advantages of flexible benefits
Saving you time and money
The concept of flexible benefits is straightforward.
They give you the opportunity (1 put) ______
together the mix of pay and benefits that best suits
you. As well as (2 provide)______ you with an easy
way of (3 meef) _______ your own individual needs,
flexible benefits allow you (4 select)______ benefits
such as a company car, insurance or childcare
vouchers, which can save you money. You are very
likely (5 find)_______ that the options available are
things you have already considered (6 purchase)
________, such as dental insurance. Our exhaustive
research helps you (7 make) _______ the right
_ to do all the work decisions without (8 have) _ yourself.
Giving you peace of mind
(9 Choose) ________ the right insurance provider can
be difficult for anyone not used to (10 deal) _________
with such matters. That is why we are always
extremely careful (11 select) ______ only the best
providers.
Meeting your changing needs
The real beauty of the flexible benefits system is that
your options every it lets you (12 review)___________
twelve months, which means you
can change your benefits (13 surf) ____________
your changing lifestyle.

67
6 You are a manager of an electrical goods wholesaler. Due to a computer error, you
have not paid an important supplier's invoice. Write an email of 40-50 words to the
supplier:
apologising for the mistake
explaining how it happened
saying when the invoice will be paid.

7 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.


1 We feel it is important for management and employees to (exchange / change)
ideas.
2 Many employees see appraisals as a chance to (propose /air) grievances.
3 We managed to (achieve / meet) all our deadlines this year.
4 We (estimated / evaluated) last year's performance at my appraisal.
5 I complained about my workload, so we had a detailed look at my (description /
responsibilities).
6 We discussed my (progress / promotion) prospects.
7 Could you (update / remind) me on our performance so far this year?
8 We don't have a formal training (culture / policy).

8 Complete the appraisal questions with the correct form of the following words.
Then answer the questions about yourself.
frustrate develop success responsible good
1 What are the most important responsibilities in your job?
2 What has gone ___________ in your job over the past year?
3 What helps you do your job __________ ?
4 What causes you concern or ___________ ?
5 How would you like your job to _________ in the future?

Reading Test Part Two


Read the article below about corporate travel.
Choose the correct sentence from A-G to fill each gap.

68
For each gap 1-5, mark one letter A-G.
Do not use any letter more than once.
Airlines look to make loyalty pay
The high-flying lifestyle of corporate travel addicts is under threat. Driven from
their natural environment of the airport business lounge, they can be seen comparing
airmile accounts in ordinary departure lounges across Europe. (0) The more airmiles
an executive had, the more willing he was to put himself out for the good of the
company. However, the travel budget has become the latest target of the corporate cost-
cutter.
Increasingly, cost-conscious companies are now looking for ways of reducing
both the amount and the cost of corporate travel. (1) Facilities such as email and
video-conferencing, for example, mean that information can be distributed and
responded to far more quickly, reducing the need for face-to-face meetings. Cheaper
telecommunications means that Virtual meetings', using video-conferencing, are
undoubtedly becoming more common.
Even when journeys are unavoidable, the club-class ticket is no longer
guaranteed. More and more executives now find their full-fare business class tickets
replaced by discounted promotional tickets or even economy class seats. (2) It also
affects their ability to collect airmiles.
Some airlines have reacted by looking for other ways to woo business travellers
with special loyalty cards and by upgrading them from economy whenever there are
free seats in business class. (3) The only problem with doing so is that it often means
ignoring company travel policy by booking flights with non-approved airlines.
The attraction of airmiles is easy to understand. (4) With these benefits in mind,
it is easy to see why gold or platinum card holders may be tempted to take extra trips
to retain this preferential treatment. When the card is due for renewal, some corporate
travellers will always find an excuse for a full-fare business ticket with their favourite
carrier.
Most major airlines are now part of a reward scheme alliance. (5) For airlines,
loyalty schemes such as airmiles are no longer a way of filling empty seats, but an
important source of revenue.

69
The schemes also provide airlines with useful information about their
customers. Airlines all have relationship marketing departments that use this
information to build detailed profiles of scheme members. This allows them to
approach the right person with the right product at the right time.
Example 0 - G
A There is a fast growing trade in the sale of unused airmiles.
B For frequent flyers this means more than just reduced levels of comfort.
C As well as free flights, they provide access to airport lounges and priority on over-
booked flights.
D This means air mileage addicts can shop around for the best deal and still add miles
to their accounts.
E With communications systems cheaper and easier to use, many journeys are now
unnecessary.
F Oneworld members, for example, are awarded points by partner airlines such as
British Airways, Qantas, Japan Airlines and Iberia air.
G Traditionally, frequent flying was seen as a measure of commitment to the company
cause.

70
Unit 5a

Marketing disasters

The marketing mix

SPEAKING

1 Look at the advertisement below. Discuss these features of the marketing mix:
Product, Place, Promotion and Price. How do each of these apply to the advert?

the freedom to be...


tel: 0800 969798 www.solaris.com

71
2 Look at the four stories on about marketing disasters. Which story does each piece
of marketing advice below refer to?
1 Don't change something which is already a proven success.
2 Don't spend more on the promotion than the product.
3 Don't let competitors dictate your strategy.
4 If things go wrong, change the name.
5 A marketing mistake can put a company out of business.
6 Doing things too quickly can produce disastrous results.
7 Work out the exact cost of a promotional gift.
A good idea a t the tim e ...
Some marketing ideas seem heaven sent. But what happens when they become promotions from hell?
Adrian Stoppard reports.
Every advertising executive knows that golden moment when inspiration
strikes and the 'perfect' idea appears out of the blue. However, as the following
examples show, it is easy to get carried away with the excitement and not think
things through carefully enough.
A Cleaned out
Hoover offered any customer who spent at least 100 on its products two
complimentary flights to Europe and the US. The offer attracted more than double the
anticipated applications, leading to the dismissal of three senior managers and a bill
for19m.
B Another one bytes the dust
A large computer hardware retailer positioned itself at the bottom end of the market
by undercutting all its competitors. To attract customers, it offered a 0% interest Buy Now,
Pay One Year Later deal. People did buy, but unfortunately, serious cash flow problems forced
the company into liquidation before customers repaid them.
C Washday blues
Lever Brothers rushed Persil Power onto the market to coincide with a rival
company's launch of its own new washing powder. Despite millions of pounds spent on
research, Persil Power was fatally flawed, having the unfortunate effect of damaging
clothes. It was quickly withdrawn and reformulated.
D The unreal thing

72
The best has been made even better,' said the CEO of Coca-Cola about its decision
to change the flavour of Coke for the first time in its 99-year history. However, of the 150
million people who tried the new Coke, nearly two-thirds preferred the original. The
company was forced to re-launch the old Coke as Coke Classic three months later.

SPEAKING

3 How could the companies have avoided these mistakes?

Promotions that failed

READING

1 Work in pairs. Read these stories about promotions that failed. How do you think each
story ended?

Promotion A
A well-known manufacturer of confectionery organised a treasure hunt, which was long
considered by the marketing industry as the 'promotion from hell'. The company buried a
number of small boxes around the country - their locations to be found in a book of clues.
The finder of each box would receive a prize of 10,000.

Promotion B
A petrol station chain wanted to boost sales in a particular town in Scotland where
competitors were winning market share. Its Marketing Department came up with what they
thought was an imaginative yet safe promotion. The petrol station in question would offer free
fuel to any two customers that looked like each other.

Promotion C
A well-known building company ran a competition as part of its campaign to attract
customers. The winner of the first prize would receive a top-of-the-range conservatory plus
garden furniture and a barbecue set. Thousands of people entered the competition.

73
LISTENING

2 Three people talk about these failed promotions. Listen and decide which promotion
each person is talking about.
1
2
3

SPEAKING

3 Work in pairs. Your company is considering launching a new healthcare


product. They are interested in selling to both men and women and are looking
into marketing strategies to reach both groups.
You have been asked to come up with marketing ideas.
Discuss the situation together and decide:
where to advertise the product and what type of promotions to do
where to sell the product.

4 Work in pairs. Look at the promotions again. Which disaster would have
been the easiest/most difficult to avoid? Explain why.

5 Have you heard of any marketing disasters or failed products? What were
they? Which of the four Ps of marketing did the companies get wrong? What
should they have done?

74
Unit 5b

Going global

Choosing the right product

SPEAKING

1 Think of three successful products. Why are they successful?

Put each of the three products in the appropriate quarter of the framework below.
Which products are most suitable for globalisation?
Framework for choosing products to globalize
Suitability of product lines for globalisation

Degree of Low 2 1
local adaptation
required High 4 3
Low Expected returns High

3 The Marriott Corporation had been in the hotel business for about thirty years
when the management decided they needed to become an international company. It
was therefore necessary to decide on a strategy of globalisation. Put these Marriott
brands into the framework.

'Marriott' brand (full-service hotels)


'Courtyard' brand (mid-price hotels)
'Residence Inn' brand (long-term-stay hotels)
Marriott Senior Living Services (retirement communities)

4 Now read the case study and check your answers.

75
Marriott
CASE STUDY

As the company began its globalisation, it had to decide which product lines to start
with. Figure 1 represents a framework to identify those product lines suitable for
early globalisation. As indicated, each line of business in the company's portfolio
should be evaluated along two dimensions - potential pay-off (expected returns) and
potential risk (degree of local adaptation required).
The first dimension focuses on the potential profits of globalisation. In Marriott's
case, the two products with the highest margins were its full-service hotels (the 'Marriott'
brand) and long-term-stay hotels (the 'Residence Inn' brand). In a business such as the
Marriott hotels, where the principal customers are globetrotting corporate executives, a
worldwide presence can create significant value because the company can use a centralised
reservations system and develop globally standardised services which assure customers of
high quality.
The second dimension refers to the level of adaptation required to enter foreign
markets. Since any new development involves risk, the greater the degree of local
adaptation required, the greater the risk of failure. For the Marriott Corporation, both its
'Marriott' and 'Courtyard' brands could successfully offer globally standardised services,
whereas the retirement communities and the long-term-stay hotels would require far more local
adaptation.
Thus, full-service hotels offered both a greater pay-off and less risk and seemed to be the
best candidate for globalisation. However, since Marriott began to expand internationally, the
'Courtyard' brand has become more popular in the international market. It proved to be an
extremely adaptable brand and the management team quickly realised that offering ergonomic
work space, Internet access, business libraries and 24-hour food service would attract
business travellers around the globe. The marketing strategy of billing it as 'The business
hotel designed by business travellers, for business travellers' has certainly paid off. The cost
of staying at a Courtyard is lower than the up-scale Marriott hotels, but being a high volume
product has greatly improved the returns on the brand.

76
SPEAKING

5 Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.


1 How can a worldwide presence add value to a company?
2 What are the risks involved in adapting a product for a foreign market?
3 What needs to be taken into account when adapting a brand to an international
market?

Entering the market

LISTENING

1 Donald Fraser, a consultant at Kennedy, McLeish & Partners (KMP), talks about
advising companies on exporting. Listen and choose one letter for the correct answer.
1 Companies approach KMP for advice on choosing
A the right products to export.
B the most suitable foreign market.
C the best way of entering a market.
2 The safest method for a company to enter a foreign market is
A having an agreement with a local company.
B setting up its own local production.
C finding a joint venture partner.
3 What is the main advantage of joint ventures?
A They are the cheapest way of entering a market.
B They are a risk-free way of doing business.
C They provide important market knowledge.
4 The danger with a joint venture is that one company might
A refuse to share know-how with the other partner.
B use the arrangement as the basis for a takeover.
C exploit and then leave the other partner.
5 A subsidiary is the best way of entering a market when
A high sales volumes are expected.

77
B the products are cheap to produce.
C a foreign market is near home.
6 Companies can improve their chances of success by
A developing new products exclusively for the market.
B changing the product to suit the target market.
C using designers recruited from the target market.
7 A company is forced to expand quickly when
A cheaper competition appears on the market.
B it has a successful formula that sells well.
C its production costs are very high.
8 Donald advises companies to prepare for expansion by
A training their key managers.
B having a comprehensive business plan.
C assessing their financial resources.

2 Listen again. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following
ways of entering a market?
Franchise: lower financial risk
Joint venture: can share costs and risks
Wholly-owned subsidiary: complete control

SPEAKING

3 Work in pairs. Discuss the major exports of your country and the companies
involved in this business. Talk about how businesses decide what to export and if they
sell the same products in their home markets.

78
SELF-STUDY

1 Read through the unit and find more words and phrases connected with promotion.
to offer a prize

to attract customers/interest

2 Complete the sentences with market or marketing.


1 The company positioned itself at the bottom end of the _______________
2 A __________________ failure can put a company out of business.
3 He's the manager of the ________________ Department.
4 A rival company stole their ____________ share.
5. They rushed their new product onto the ________________ before they had fully
tested it.

3 Match the words


1 boost a product
2 undercut sales
3 attract competitors
4 withdraw market share
5 run customers
6 avoid a competition
7 win mistakes

Now complete the sentences with the combinations.


1 They plan to _______________ where the top prize is a flight to the US.
2 They're hoping the promotion will _______________ away from competitors.
3 A good promotion can _________________ by as much as three or four per cent.
4 We have ten per cent of the market and plan to ______________ by focusing on price.

79
5 They planned to lower prices and ____________ in order to win customers.
6 Sometimes you can't ______________ because you cant anticipate everything that
could go wrong.
7 They had to ________________ two days before the launch because it was fatally
flawed.

4 Match the words to make compound nouns.

1 pay- over
2 know- off
3 joint building
4 take venture
5 decision- how
6 team- making

5 Match the words to make compound adjectives. Then think of a noun to go after
each adjective.

1 mid- wide
2 long- price
3 world free
4 wholly- volume
5 risk- term
6 high owned

6 Rewrite each of the sentences without changing its meaning. Use a form of the
word in italics.
1 They decided on a global approach to operations. They decided to globalise
operations.
2 We acquired a company last year.
We _______________ last year.
3 We expanded into international markets successfully.
The global _________________ was a success.

80
4 They own the company completely.
They have _____________________ the company.
5 We agreed to license our products.
We signed a ____________________.

7 Correct the mistake in each sentence below.


1 I need some information)s(about the meeting.
2 Their news were very encouraging.
3 It's the service what really matters.
4 I look forward to hear from you in due course.
5 This type of problem is very normally.
6 We are very interesting in your product range.
7 I didn't manage finishing all the work on time.
8 Who's offer did you finally decide to accept?
9 The report bases on the most recent figures.
10 The company is a lot bigger as it used to be.
11 Last year's sales figures have to be checking.
12 So the company's doing well, does it?
13 It's a lot more harder to find clients than keep them.
14 She didn't give me many advice on what to do.
15 When I told him the problem, he said me that it wasn't important.

Listening Test
Questions 1-12
You will hear three telephone conversations.
Write one or two words or a number in the numbered spaces on the forms below.
You will hear each conversation twice.
Conversation One (Questions 1-4)
Look at the form below.
You will hear a woman placing an order for office supplies.

81
Customer Order Form Order Reference XR 4930
Date Received 15/10/2O11

Customer Name Lacey Graphics


Delivery Address (1)
Hailsham Industrial Estate
Hailsham
For the attention of: (2)
Order Details Ten boxes of (3)
Delivery Date (4)
Payment Method Invoice

Conversation Two (Questions 5-8)


Look at the form below.
You will hear a woman checking details about a job advertisement.
Computer hardware wholesaler requires a (5) for immediate employment.
(6) + full benefits.
Applicants should include full CV, references and details of (7) Interviews to be
held in the week starting (8)
Closing date for applications 17 March.

Conversation Three (Questions 9-12)


Look at the form below.
You will hear a woman checking details of her appointments.
FRENCH BUSINESS TRIP: Wed 2 /10 - Fri 4 /10
Appointments
11.30 Meeting at Maplo with (9) ................
She's their new (10) ...........................................
15.30 Meet Monsieur Belois at (11) . to discuss new products.

Don't forget

82
Call office tomorrow.
(12)......................... to Rome on Friday.

Listening Test Part Two Questions 13-22


(Questions 13-17)
You will hear five telephone calls.
For each piece, decide which place A-H each speaker is at.
Write one letter A-H next to the number of the piece.
Do not use any letter more than once.
You will hear the five pieces twice.

13 .....
14 .....
15 .....
16 .....
17 .....
A bank
B car rental company
C credit card company
D insurance company
E real estate office
F office supply shop
G courier service
H travel agency

Section Two (Questions 18-22)


You will hear another five short pieces.
For each piece, decide what the speaker is trying to do.
Write one letter A-H next to the number of the piece.
Do not use any letter more than once.
You will hear the five pieces twice.

83
18
19
20
21
22

A make an enquiry
B offer help
C cancel an appointment
D accept an invitation
E refuse an offer
F confirm information
G make a complaint
H change an order

Listening Test Part Three


Questions 23-30
You will hear a radio interview about supermarkets choosing to go green.
For each question, 23-30, choose one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.
You will hear the interview twice.
23 Jilliana Fatal says that supermarkets
A have long been in favour of green initiatives.
B are not overly concerned with supplying value for money.
C have not previously been advocates of being green.
24 A major UK supermarket chain
A is not planning to change the way they look at their carbon footprint.
B plans to equalise the carbon they use in production with the amount of carbon they
consume.
C has already begun to plant trees and grow produce.
25 Supermarkets hope that carbon labels on products
A will encourage consumers to buy more fair-trade items.

84
B will add nutritional information to products.
C will help consumers reduce their carbon footprints and become more eco-friendly.
26 High-end retailers feel
A they need to protect their brand by becoming eco-friendly.
B their customers expect them to be concerned about climate change.
C their customers can afford to buy more expensive green products.
27 Wealthy customers
A make the laws regarding the products which can be sold in shops.
B will spread the word about shops which sell eco-
friendly products.
C are loyal customers.
28 The other shops are also 'going green' because
A their customers are putting pressure on them.
B they are having problems with expansion.
C they are concerned about the influence of newspapers and TV.
29 It is necessary for shops to become greener because
A they are in a very competitive market.
B they have to create a sustainable future.
C they are interested in creating PR campaigns.
30 Ben says
A the pressure to change is coming from the government.
B more regulations are needed to protect the planet.
C shops might be forced to keep up with others in their field regarding green initiatives.

Writing Test Part One (i)


You have planned a meeting with your staff to discuss ways to cut costs in the
department.
Write a memo of 40-50 words to all staff:

telling them when the meeting will be


explaining what the reason for the cost-cutting is

85
asking them to bring along ideas to discuss.
Writing Test Part One (ii)
You are a key account manager for a telecommunications company. You are going to
be out of the office for a week on business.
Write a note of 40-50 words to your assistant:
telling him how long you will be away
explaining where you will be
suggesting who they can contact while you are away.

86
Supplementary Exercises

Business and the environment

Getting started
1 Work in pairs. Make a list of six things offices can do to be more environmentally
friendly, e.g. use less heating / air conditioning.
2 Work with another pair and compare your lists.

Which are the best ideas?


Which of these things does your company or
school do?

The green office

READING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to read an article about making offices more
environmentally friendly. Before you read, decide whether you think these
statements are true (T) or false (F), and give reasons for your opinions.
a Environmentally friendly offices have higher costs.
b It's hard to make an office environmentally friendly.
c Environmentally friendly offices are more efficient places to work.

2 Now read the article quite quickly, ignoring the gaps. Which of the statements in
Exercise 1 does the passage suggest are true, and which are false?

Making the office greener

Due to climate change, few business people can fail to realise the importance of the
environmental issues that now affect all parts of our day-to-day lives. All businesses, no
matter what size, can help to save resources, 1 G In practice, it only takes a few steps to

87
achieve considerable environmental savings, and these need not impact upon the
effectiveness of the business.
If you take a look a round your workplace, you are bound to have any number of
computers and other equipment in use. Of course, computer equipment consumes
electricity. Most people will start up their computer in the morning and only switch it off at
night, leaving it on all day, often wasting power. 2 Yes, it may take a while for the PC to
boot up in the morning, but think of the energy saved.
Modern operating systems have a feature so that if a PC is left idle for a pre
determined time, it will automatically enter standby mode, switching off the monitor and
hard disk, effectively sending the PC to sleep. 3 The benefit of using standby mode is that
the PC will restart a lot quicker than from 'cold', but remember it will still be consuming
some power.
Twenty years ago, computer vendors were foretelling the death of the printer as we
entered the age of the paperless office. 4 Accepting that printers will be with us for the
foreseeable future, there are some steps we can take to reduce the cost of printing.
Recycling printer cartridges is an obvious measure, as is using recycled paper or
maybe a paper of less thickness or weight. Double-sided printing is also a great way of saving
money, as is encouraging printing only when it is absolutely necessary. 5 If it is blank
on one side and not confidential in nature, then use the blank side as note paper, so at least
you are maximising the use of the paper.
Most computers are under-utilised. 6 Unfortunately, the energy a computer
consumes is pretty much the same if it is busy or quiet, due to the fact that it still needs
cooling and the monitor still needs powering. To deal with this issue, many companies are
changing their working methods and asking staff to share computers, so that fewer
computers are used. This saves money, space and energy.

3 Read the article again and note the subject of each paragraph in a few words.
Example: 1 All businesses can save resources.

4 Six sentences have been removed from the article. Read these sentences and
underline the words and phrases which refer to something in the article.

88
A Their hard disks are often half empty, and their central processor is only active for
a small fraction of the working day.
B Once you have finished with the documents, recycle the paper appropriately.
C A few minutes taken to set this up on each PC can start to save money from day
one.
D Get staff involved in these measures, perhaps by holding a short brainstorming
session one morning.
E Clearly this is not the case, as we simple humans are often better at interpreting
data from a piece of paper than we are on a screen.
F An obvious solution would be to power it down when you go out for lunch and
certainly when you leave the office at night.
G In addition, by reducing waste, a business can save money and establish itself as a
socially responsible employer.

5 Now choose the best sentence (A-G) above to fill each of the gaps. Do not use any
letter more than once. There is one sentence you will not need.

Vocabulary
Quickly find these words and phrases (1-8) in the article. Then match them with their
definitions from Cambridge dictionaries (a-h).
1 issues
2 impact upon
3 idle
4 foretelling
5 foreseeable
6 confidential
7 maximising
8 appropriateley

a can be known about or guessed before it happens


b have an influence on something

89
c in a suitable or right way for a particular situation or occasion
d making something as big in amount, size or importance as possible
e not operating or not being used
f private and intended to be kept secret
g stating what is going to happen in the future
h subjects or problems that people think or talk about, or need to deal with

SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to give a short presentation on this subject. What is
important when making a workplace environmentally friendly? (You can
mention: cost savings, efficiency, staff involvement and any other ideas you wish
to.)
Work together and make notes for your presentation.
Look back at the article you have just read and underline any vocabulary that
would be useful when you speak.
When you are ready, change partners and take
turns to give your presentations.

2 Work in small groups. Discuss these two questions using the ideas below.
1 Apart from being environmentally friendly, what else can a business do to
establish itself as being socially responsible?
2 Why is it important for companies to be socially responsible?
You can think about:
working conditions and treatment of employees
products and services
treatment of and relationship with customers
the company's place in the community
how the company spends its profits or invests
money
ethical standards and honesty.

90
Reducing waste

Vocabulary
1 Business English students often confuse method and way. Complete these extracts
with the correct form of method or way.
1 Double-sided printing is also a great of saving money.
2 Many companies are changing their working and asking
staff to share computers.
2 Read these explanations. Then complete the sentences below with way or method.
way or method?
Way is used on its own or followed by to (do something) or of + -ing.
You can pay in a number of ways. What's the best way to pay? What's the best
way of paying?
Use method of before a noun.
Debit cards are many people's preferred method of payment.
Method is used for more complex techniques:
working methods, teaching method
1 His sales are extremely unusual, but very efficient.
2 However ambitious you are, you'll find there's no easy to get
to the top.
3 Many people find that reading on-screen is not the easiest to
read documents.
4 The course teaches the most effective and reliable of
staff appraisal.
5 The quickest to send us the translation would be by email.
6 We have advertised job vacancies many times and as a of
recruitment, it has proved to be effective.
7 We were not impressed by the t he company treats its
employees.

91
WRITING

1 Read this memo and choose the best options in italics.


MEMO

Dear colleagues
1 Because of / Due rising fuel bills, we need to reduce the 2 volume / amount of electricity
we use in this office. I'd be 3 grateful/pleased for any ideas you have on the best 4
methods / ways to do this. I'll 5 give / provide a box of chocolates for the best idea

Isabel Mengual
Office Manager

2 Work in pairs. Do you think reducing electricity consumption is a good way to


reduce costs? Why? / Why not?

3 Work in pairs. Imagine you are administrative assistants in a large international


company. Your manager has complained about the amount of waste in the office. She
has asked you to email your colleagues in the office to:
explain why it is necessary to reduce waste
ask them to suggest how to reduce waste
offer a prize for the best suggestion.
Discuss what you can say for each of the points above.

4 Work alone. Write the email in about 40-50 words. When you have finished,
compare your email with your partner's.

5 Exchange your email with a different partner and write a brief reply to the email
you have received.

Suggest how waste can be reduced.

92
Explain what benefits this will have.
Explain how it will affect staff.

An environmental consultant

LISTENING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to hear Harriet Barber, an environmental consultant
who works for Arup in London, talking about her job. Before you listen, discuss these
questions.
Arup - An independent firm of designers, planners, engineers, consultants and technical specialists offering a broad range
of professional services

1 What do you think is the role of an environmental consultant in a large company?


2 What subjects would it be best to study at university to get a job as an
environmental consultant?

2 Listen to the interview. Note down Harriet's answers to the questions in


Exercise 1.

3 Listen again and choose the correct answer - A, B or C - for each question.
1 What does Harriet's job consist of?
A designing environmentally friendly systems for new buildings
B obtaining permission for the construction of new buildings
C assessing the effect of new buildings on the environment
2 What does Harriet recommend companies to do about their environmental impact?
A gather information before taking action
B allow inspections of their premises
C prevent all pollution from their premises
3 According to Harriet, how can large companies make their environmental policy
more effective?
A by making employees aware of it

93
B by recycling paper
C by making one person responsible for it
4 Why did Harriet decide not to work in scientific research?
A There were few projects to be involved in.
B There is less variety in research work.
C She lacked suitable skills.
5 Which of these reasons does Harriet mention for more people working from home
in the future?
A Employees will be more productive working at home.
B Employees would prefer to spend more time with their families.
C Companies will look for ways to reduce their costs.
6 Harriet says offices will be used in the future for...
A running large projects.
B meetings.
C completing large amounts of work.

4 Work in small groups.


1 Harriet says that, in the future, more people will work remotely from home. Do you
agree?
2 What other changes to the ways people work do you think will happen in the
future? Why?

Useful language
Talking about the future possibilities
It's quite likely that... There's a chance that...
People are bound to / may well / will almost certainly ... People are likely/unlikely to ...
They may possibly ... They will probably ... / They probably won't...

94
Arranging business travel

Getting started
Work in small groups.
Why do business people need to travel? Think of as many reasons as you can.
Do you think communication technologies such as video conferencing can replace
business travel? Why? / Why not?
Would you enjoy a job which involves a lot of travelling? Why? / Why not?

Vocabulary
1 Business English students often confuse travel, journey and trip. Read this extract
from the CALD and write the correct word (travel, journey or trip) in the examples (1-3)
below.
The noun travel [U] is a general word which means 'the activity of travelling'. Use journey [C] to talk about
when you travel from one place to another. A trip [C] is a journey in which you visit a place for a short
time and come back again.
1 He's just back from a business
2 He fell asleep during the train
3 Air .. has become much cheaper.

2 Complete these sentences by writing travel, journey or trip in the correct form in
the gaps. In some cases, two answers are possible.
1 Business account(s) for a large part of the airline's profits.
2 I've just been on a to Turkey to look into sourcing from a new
supplier.
3 Unfortunately, I'm going on a business so I won't be able to be
present.
4 The reason is that our CEO will not be back from his to China
before 5th June.
5 If we want to reduce hotel costs, we could begin our during the
night.

95
6 Members of staff are obliged to make some long distance to
visit customers.

A company meeting

SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. Your company is considering changing its policy on business


travel, and you have been invited to a meeting about it. Discuss this question and
make some notes on your ideas.
What is important when deciding whether to travel on business or stay in the
office? Think about: meeting clients, expanding your business, meeting colleagues
from different offices, etc.

LISTENING

2 Listen to Dimitri, a sales manager, talking about business travel.


1 What does he say about each of the points in Exercise 1?
2 Complete each of these phrases, which Dimitri uses to organise his information,
with one word.
a First, and by far the most ________________ is
b Secondly, and also ________________
c Finally, and also absolutely ________________ in today's global workplace ...
3 What phrase does he use to introduce his conclusion? Can you think of other
phrases you could use instead?

3 Change partners and take turns to answer the question from Exercise 1 with your
own ideas, but using phrases from Exercise 2.

4 Work in pairs. You have been asked to make another short presentation at the
meeting. Choose one of these questions and work together for a minute or two to
make notes for your presentation.

96
What is important when choosing a hotel to stay at? Think about location, facilities,
etc.
What is important when preparing for a trip abroad? Think about local customs,
local working hours, etc.
What is important when choosing an airline to fly with? Think about prices,
schedules, etc.

5 Change partners and take turns to give your presentations. You should each
speak for about one minute. When you have finished, your partner should:
say if there is anything they disagree with, and why
ask you a question about what they have heard.

Arranging to travel

WRITING

1 You work in the sales department of an international company. Complete this


email you received from your team leader, Dimitri, by writing one word in each gap.

Hi Magda,
I'm sorry to give you such short notice, but I'd like you to go to the Mobile World
Congress in Barcelona
1 . the end of this month. We really need to meet manufacturers 2
. would be interested 3 . using our new mobile software.
You could stay 4 . the Flotel Palace 5 . you're there.

Thanks Dimitri

2 Read Dimitri's email again. What words does he use to:


1 apologise? 2 instruct? 3 suggest?

97
3 Imagine you are Magda. Reply to Dimitri's email.
Agree to his request.
Suggest a colleague to go with you and say why.
Explain how long you'll be away.

4 Write an email to your personal assistant.


Explain where you are going.
Instruct him/her to book your trip.
Ask him/her about places for entertaining customers.

Useful language
Instructing
I'd like/ I want you to ... Could/Would you please ...? I'd be grateful if you would ... I'd
appreciate it if you would ...

Useful language
Agreeing to do something
I'd be happy/glad to ... Yes, certainly. I'll do that right away / as soon as I have a moment.
Sure, no problem.

How business travel is changing

READING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to read an article about business travel. Before you
read, discuss this question.
How do you think business travel is changing?
2 Read the article quite quickly, ignoring the gaps. In what ways is business travel
changing?

How social media and mobile technologies are changing business travel

98
Hotels are upgrading their technology strategy for 1 . customers.
Advertising and 2 . discounted rates are no longer enough, as customers turn
increasingly to social media and mobile technology. In last year's travel survey, TripAdvisor,
a travel website, reported that only 39% of travellers are faithful to one hotel brand, down
from 59% a year ago. Customers are becoming more aware of their options, and 3 .
limits mean that travellers are looking for cheaper accommodation.
With 4 . to competing online deals, guests care less about brand loyalty
and more about 5 . for money. Hotels have to make more 6 . to meet
their guests' demands and create loyalty programmes which will retain interest and bring
repeat visits.
For many years, search engines were the main 7 . of finding hotels and
conference venues, but things are changing with the emergence of social networks. Using
hotel-review websites like TripAdvisor, people can now select a hotel 8 . on
previous guests' comments. With Facebook, they can find reviews on their Friend list.
Another new service called Room77 goes even further by 9 . users submit reviews
of individual rooms in hotels. With the 10 . of such services, selecting a hotel and
even a specific room is getting easier for the traveller.
The 11 . of mobile travel research and booking has changed
consumers' behaviour. Travellers are booking hotels on tablets and other mobile devices
while they are in 12 ., shortening the time between the booking and arrival
date. Hotels with mobile-optimised websites are cashing in on this 13 . Mobile
apps allow business travellers to 14 . a flight's status, book a hotel and check in
while still on the road. With fast-changing social
media and mobile technology, travellers' behaviour will
continue to 15 .

Choose the best word - A, B, C or D - for each gap.


1 A attracting B appealing C bringing D catching
2 A providing B asking C offering D suggesting
3 A allowance B budget C finance D resource
99
4 A entry B approach C reach D access
5 A worth B value C benefit D profit
6 A effort B work C force D trouble
7 A possibility B chance C manner D way
8 A depending B based C focused D arising
9 A helping B assisting C aiding D supporting
10 A implementation B extension C progress D growth
11 A facility B readiness C ease D usefulness
12 A transfer B transport C translation D transit
13 A possibility B occasion C opportunity D chance
14 A check B control C supervise D oversee
15 A develop B adjust C evolve D advance

SPEAKING

Work in small groups. Discuss these questions.


1 Do social media and internet reviews affect the decisions you make and I he way you
spend money? How?
2 What things do you use mobile communication technology to do? Does it affect the
way you travel?

Conference problems

LISTENING

1 Work in pairs. Read this list of things (A-l) which could go wrong at a conference and
discuss what the problem could be in each case.
A the access F the conference rooms
B the accommodation G the programme
C the dates H the staff
D the keynote speaker I the technology
E the location
2 You are going to hear five colleagues in a meeting complaining about things
which went wrong in different conferences they attended. Listen and choose the
problem from Exercise 1 (A-l) that each speaker is complaining about.
1 Candice 2 Igor 3 Paula 4 Harry 5 Susan

100
3 Listen again and complete these sentences from the conversation.
1 They .. us to South America or the Far East or something
2 She had a PowerPoint presentation prepared, but she couldn't make it work She
really .. a bit beforehand.
3 They .. one of those purpose-built conference centres.

4 Work in small groups. Discuss what the organisers could/should have done to avoid
the problems mentioned.

Planning a business trip

SPEAKING

Work in small groups. You work for an international company. Your manager has
decided that several people from your company should travel to the United States to
meet people who work in your offices there. You have been asked to plan the trip.
Discuss the situation together and decide:
why it would be useful to make this trip
which members of staff would benefit most from the visit
how long they should go for.

101
Business conferences

Getting started
Work in small groups.
1 Why do business people go to conferences?
2 What aspects of conferences does each of the photos show?

Arranging conference facilities

LISTENING

I You are going to hear two telephone conversations with Sally McBride, who is
organising a conference for the South Pacific Tourism Organisation. Before you listen,
read Sally's notes carefully. What type of information do you need for each gap?

Conversation 1
South Pacific Tourism Organisation Annual Conference.
Number of delegates: 550 plus 1 (numbers to be emailed)
Also: eight 2 ...
3 . : traditional dance
Gala dinner with fireworks - Air New Zealand's 4 .. on programme.
Conversation 2
South Pacific Tourism Organisation Annual Conference
Equipment available:
In main conference room: screen, projector and 5 .............................
Guest speakers should, bring 6 ..
Meeting rooms: screens and projectors; sound equipment available 7

Stands for exhibitors in 8 ..
9 .. available at all tunes.

102
2 Listen to the two conversations and v/rite one or two words in each of the gaps in
Exercise 1.

3 Work in pairs. Read this message which Sally wrote to her assistant. What
instructions does Sally give, and what reasons does she give for them?
Sofia,
I'm afraid I've had to go to an urgent meeting with a client, so can you phone the National Auditorium for
me and tell them we need a cinema projector to show the new promotional film? Tell them it needs to
be in the main auditorium as part of the opening session.
Thanks, S

4 Imagine you work in an English-speaking office and you are organising a


conference. Write an email to your assistant.
Explain why you are out.
Ask him/her to book some equipment for the
conference.
Say when and why the equipment is needed.

Useful language
Explaining why you can't do something
I'm afraid I have (an urgent meeting), which means I can't...; Unfortunately, I have to
so ...
I'm afraid I'm unable to /can't because ...

5 Work in pairs.
Would you enjoy organising a conference or other business event? Why? / Why
not?
What are the problems of organising events with large numbers of people?

103
Making the most of business conferences

READING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to read some advice about going to business
conferences. Before you read, look at these statements. Which do you think are the
best three pieces of advice? Why?
1 You needn't attend each session.
2 Be flexible about how you use conferences.
3 Get one useful idea from each session.
4 Highlight the points you want to act on later.
5 Organise meetings before you arrive.
6 Think how the things you hear relate to your work.
7 Try to meet people who are valued by your colleagues.

2 Read sections A-D quite quickly. What is the main idea of each section?

A I realised that I had never read my notes from the last conference. However, the Action
Steps that I had come up with during the conference had fortunately been noted separately
and dealt with after the conference. I had recorded these Action Steps with a star next to
each, making it easier to distinguish them from other notes. There were people I planned to
follow up with and a few ideas for improving one of our products.
B Every presenter at a conference has his or her own style. Some people tell a story,
sometimes there is a video or set of images, and sometimes there is a full slide presentation.
Given our short memories and the great amount of stimuli, it is important to distil each
presentation down to a central point. After each presentation, ask yourself what struck you,
what did you learn? Perhaps there was a specific tip that you could adapt when you get
back to your office - or some piece of counter-intuitive advice that is worth additional
consideration upon your return to real life.
C How should you spend your time at a conference? Should you cut off a great
conversation with a fellow attendee to make the next session? Don't assume that you

104
should go to every event. The greatest benefits of a conference are often circumstantial,
outside the organised events - a chance conversation in the coffee line could make all the
difference. A great conference is especially fertile ground for collaboration. So don't feel
pressured by the structure.
D Conferences are more than just the programming, they are an assembly of like-minded
people. How often do you get uninterrupted time to discuss matters of interest with
industry peers from around the world? Many frequent conference-goers claim that their
greatest conference experiences happened during the 'downtime'. Don't leave these benefits
up to chance. Reach out to your contacts in advance and suggest grabbing an early
breakfast together, lunch or dinner during the conference. Encourage each person to invite
one or two people that they deeply respect, thus broadening the potential of the meeting.
adapted from 5 Tips for Making the Most of a Conference by Scott Belsky

3 Which section (A, B, C or D) does each statement from Exercise 1 (1-7) refer to?

4 Work in pairs.

1 What other advice would you give to people attending a conference?


2 Which conference activities do you / would you enjoy most: the sessions, the
networking, or the meals and entertainment? Why?

SPEAKING

Work in pairs. This year, your company has decided to send a small number of staff to
an international conference for your industry being held in Guangzhou, China. You
have been asked to make recommendations.
Discuss the situation and decide:
1 how staff should be selected to go to this conference
2 what sort of follow-up there should be when the staff return.

105
Networking at a conference

LISTENING

1 Match each of the phrases (1-8) with one of the functions (a-h).
1 He's a great manager, isn't he? Really gets things moving.
2 How about having lunch together the next time you're in Zurich?
3 I thought it was very persuasive. I wish we'd had the same idea ourselves.
4 It's unfortunate. You see, what happened was this ...
5 Look, if you like, I could drop her an email and ...
6 No, we'd be really happy if you people did it for us. Would it interest you?
7 Great to meet you at last. I've heard about you from various friends, so this really is
a stroke of luck.
8 You know, if I were you I'd try B&H. They're really the best people for this sort of
thing.
a Arranging to meet
b Congratulating someone
c Explaining a problem
d Offering a contract
e Offering to contact someone
f Recommending an organisation
g Talking about a colleague
h Greeting someone

2 You are going to hear five short conversations in which people are networking
during a break at a conference. Listen and, for each conversation, decide what the
main speaker is doing. Choose from the options (a-h) in Exercise 1. (Note: the
speakers will not use exactly the same phrases as those in Exercise 1.)

106
Conversation 1:
Conversation 2:
Conversation 3:
Conversation 4:
Conversation 5:

Role-play
Work in pairs. You are at a conference. You have never met before, but you have a
mutual business friend, Patrick Wu. Before you start speaking, study your role and
think about some of the things you can say.
Student A
Introduce yourself.
Say how you know Patrick Wu (you used to work together).
Ask Student B how he/she knows Patrick.
Tell Student B you are interested in talking to someone who can find places for your
company to advertise on the Internet.
Respond to Student B's suggestions.
Student B
When Student A introduces him/herself, say you've heard about him/her from Patrick
Wu.
Say how you know Patrick Wu (one of your best customers).
Ask if Student A is enjoying the conference.
You have a lot of contacts in the advertising industry, and one of your specialities is
web-based advertising.
Suggest a meeting somewhere else at another time to organise the advertising.

A destination management company (DMC)

LISTENING

107
1 Work in pairs. You are going to hear Charlotte Weston talking about the
company she works for, Pacific World. Before you listen, discuss this question.
What are the advantages for an organisation of employing a specialist company to
organise their travel for them?

2 Listen and choose the correct answer - A, B or C - for each question.


1 What does Pacific World do?
A It sells package holidays.
B It organises journeys to specific destinations.
C It prepares the trip at the destination.
2 Event-management agencies use DMCs because they
A employ more creative staff.
B know the area better.
C can reduce costs.
3 Who are typical clients for Pacific World?
A marketing agencies
B pharmaceutical companies
C IT companies
4 Why are DMCs essential for organising conferences in China?
A They can handle phone calls and correspondence.
B They know how to do business there.
C They speak Chinese.
5 Why is Shanghai a good place to hold a large conference?
A It is more fashionable than Hong Kong.
B It offers competitive rates.
C It has suitable venues.
6 The finance company has chosen Shanghai for their conference in order to
A motivate their staff.
B develop their business in China.
C teach staff about Chinese finance.

108
SPEAKING

1 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions.


1 What factors are important when choosing a conference destination?
You can consider:
the conference centre the atmosphere of the destination
hotels accessibility, etc.
2 Which places in the world would you most like to go to for a conference?

2 Work in small groups. Your company has decided to hold a two-day conference for
people from your company, and you have been asked to help plan it. Discuss the
situation together and decide:
what kinds of activities should be organised for the main part of the conference
what entertainment could also be provided
where the conference should be held.

109
Breaking into the market

Getting started

1 Work in pairs. Match the promotional activities (1-7) with the photos (a-g).
1 direct mail
2 free samples or gifts
3 leaflets and brochures
4 point-of-sale display
5 sponsorship
6 television and radio advertising
7 website

2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method of promotion?


Example 1: Direct mail is expensive, but you can target individual customers.

Useful language
Discussing advantages and disadvantages
One advantage of (direct mail) is that ... Another good thing about it is that ... The main
disadvantage of (sponsorship) is that ... They also have the drawback that ...

110
Promoting AXE

READING

1 Work in pairs. You are going to read an article about Unilever's promotion of
their AXE deodorant spray in the USA. Before you read, discuss these questions.
1 How are deodorants and toiletries promoted in your country?
2 Which promotional activities do you think would be suitable for promoting a
deodorant spray? Why?

2 Read the article quickly to find out which promotional activities were used.

Unilever
A large multinational company based in Britain and Holland which produces foods, cleaning products and toiletries

THE AXE EFFECT

1 When Unilever wanted to launch its AXE deodorant


spray tor men in the United States, it combined young
men's natural interest in pretty girls with the attraction of a
great house party. The idea was simple: boy buys AXE, boy
5 meets girl, boy smells nice, girl likes boy.
The product, which was already popular in other parts of
the world, was launched in the United States with a powerful
promotional plan to make it appeal to American male youth
culture. Using the slogan 'the AXE effect', the company
10 used a number of marketing ploys to bring the product
to the attention of the public. These included playing an
online game, free samples of the deodorant handed out
by attractive female models in retail stores, point-of-sale
displays, media advertising and public relations (PR), all of
15 which hyped the centrepiece of the promotion: a once-in-a-lifetime

111
party at a Florida mansion.
Unilever began by direct-mailing millions of college
students and young males aged between 11 and 24. They
received free samples and information about the event,
20 which was advertised as the AXE House Party: crowds of
attractive people, rock stars and a beach house. A radio
advertising campaign and online publicity called for young
men to log on to the Internet to play a video game on the
AXE website. Participants had to apply their dating skills to
25 score points. If the player reached a certain level, he entered
a lottery to win a trip to the party.
AXE focused on the intrigue and discovery of the party.
Leaflets similar to ones made for a party by a group of
college students were posted in relevant locations such
30 as men's toilets at nightclubs. There were also print ads in
Rolling Stone and Spin magazines.
'It was all about getting into the mind of the 20-something
guy,' says Mary Drapp, Manager of Strategic Alliances and
Sponsorships for Unilever. And they succeeded in doing
35 that. Their website received more than 943,000 hits, or 20%
more than the goal. Some 100 lucky young men were flown
in to attend the party, held near Miami. Hundreds of young
people were invited to dance and enjoy musical acts by well-known
rock bands Guests could use the pool, go to a game
40 room or play air hockey, cards or billiards.
The party was filmed and made into an hour-long show
broadcast on TNN. To our knowledge, nobody has ever
taken a consumer promotion and turned it into a television
show,' says Steve Jarvis, the marketing consultant for AXE.
45 That was something completely original.' After the party,
AXE continued to capitalise on the event. Some 500,000

112
special packs went on sale in retail stores, offering two cans
of the deodorant spray with a free AXE house-party CD that
featured songs from the artists who had appeared at the
50 party.
Following the promotion, results included a 22% increase
in general brand awareness among males aged 11 to 24 and
a 3.0% to 3.7% increase in antiperspirant and deodorant
market share.

3 Now choose the best answer - A, B, C or D - for each of these questions.


1 Who were the target audience in Unilever's promotional campaign?
A young women
B young men
C men of all ages
D men and women
2 How did people get an invitation to the house party?
A by receiving direct mail
B by answering an advertisement
C by applying through an internet site
D by participating in a game
3 What was the aim of the publicity for the party?
A to show an exotic location
B to improve men's dating skills
C to excite people's curiosity
D to show people they needed AXE
4 According to Mary Drapp, what was the aim of the promotional campaign?
A to increase brand awareness
B to encourage people to visit the website
C to change the target customers
D to show the effectiveness of the product

113
5 What was unique about the promotion of AXE?
A the house party
B the television programme
C the free CD
D the use of the Internet
6 What was the effect of the marketing campaign?
A Twenty-two per cent more people knew about AXE.
B Sales of AXE increased by 22%.
C There was an increase in the percentage of young men who knew about AXE.
D Brand awareness rose to 3.7%.

Vocabulary
Match these words and phrases from the text (1-6) with their definitions (a-f).
1 launch (line 1)
2 ploys (line 10)
3 hyped (line 15)
4 hits (line 35)
5 brand awareness (line 52)
6 market share (line 54)

a how much of the market is taken by a particular product


b knowledge that a certain brand exists
c publicised strongly
d tactics/tricks
e visits (to a website)
f start selling for the first time

Supermarkets' own brands

LISTENING

114
1 Work in pairs. You are going to hear Christina Bunt talking about Tesco's own
brands. An 'own brand' is a product which a supermarket sells with its own name
on it, e.g. Tesco washing powder or Tesco coffee. Before you listen, discuss why
supermarkets have own brands.

2 Listen and choose the best answer-A, B or C - for each question.


1 Why did Tesco originally introduce i ts own brand?
A to increase sales
B to reduce reliance on suppliers
C to reduce costs
2 What is the main reason for supermarkets having own brands nowadays:'
A They bring customers back to t h e i r shops.
B They have a higher profit margin.
C They don't depend on outside suppliers.
3 Tesco can sell its value brands more cheaply than other brands because ...
A it pays suppliers less.
B they sell in large quantities.
C they don't need advertising.

Going viral in India and China

READING

1 Work in small groups. You are going to read extracts from an article about
Levi's marketing strategy in India and China. Before you read, look at the company
background box and discuss this question.
How do you think the Indian and Chinese markets are different from Levi's traditional
markets?
Levi's
Levi Strauss (Levi's) is a clothing manufacturer established in 1873 and based in San Francisco, California.
Known particularly for their denim jeans, their traditional markets have been North America and Europe.

115
2 Look at these descriptions (1-8) and the paragraphs (A-D) in the article. Which
paragraph does each description refer to?
1 a market which can't be ignored D
2 a marketing strategy which attracted negative comments
3 a new location for bringing a new product to market
4 a product which can now be worn in the office
5 a strategy to keep customers loyal
6 advertising that suggested that people should change their behaviour
7 employing people to express their emotions about the product
8 following their competitors' example

A When Diesel launched its 'Be Stupid' campaign to encourage consumers to take
risks and move beyond the smart and sensible life, the viral video got everyone's
attention. Word got around, and the video stacked up to 700,000 views on YouTube,
even though it was criticised widely in the media. 'Going viral' is the new watchword
for clothing brands. Most, if not all, have gone digital, and Levi's now seems to be
doing the same.
B At the launch of Denizen, its low-cost brand, in India, Levi's has brought in what
they call the 'Denizen 8', a team consisting of a software developer, a media planner, a
property consultant, an app developer, a writer and a student, all aged between 18 and
28. 'We're getting eight denim lovers from all over the country to become our brand
ambassadors,' says Sanjay Purohit, MD, Levi Strauss India. Eight might not seem to be
a very large number in a country of millions, but this team aren't just ordinary brand
ambassadors. The brand has them activated on the social media space. They blog
about the brand and how the brand makes them feel.
C The launch of Denizen in China last month was the first time that Levi's has moved
outside the United States for the global launch of a brand. Levi's has been known for its
strength in the premium and super-premium denim price segments and is now keen on
expanding the price ladder lower to prevent consumers from crossing over to
competitors. Through Denizen, the company seeks to attract the 18-28 age group with
affordable pricing. 'We are targeting consumers who are just out of college or have

116
taken on their first jobs and want a brand that could fit into their lifestyle and budget
needs. It made more sense to launch Denizen in emerging markets, particularly in Asia
first,' said Tod Gimbel.
D Denizen is the first clothing brand to have been built for the digital medium, as
most of its target group uses social media, Internet and mobile. India, being among the
three largest markets for Levi's in Asia, is also a market where denim is the fastest-
growing clothing category, producing 35 to 40 million pairs a year. With work
environments becoming more casual, for the younger generation, denim is the clothing
of choice. These consumers are typically young, middle-class, probably the first
generation to be university educated and the first to work in a foreign multinational.
adapted from The Economic Times

SPEAKING

Work in pairs. Prepare a short talk about a clothing brand you are both
familiar with. Take notes while you discuss these questions. When you are ready,
change partners and take turns to give your talks.
What image does it have?
How do you feel about the brand?
How is it marketed?

Launching a product
Getting started
Work in pairs. Talk about two or three new products that have appeared on the market in
the last ten years. Discuss:
how you first heard about them
if you think they are useful or desirable (if you would like to have them)
where you can buy them

117
how they are marketed
how they are packaged.

Developing and launching Drink Me Chai

LISTENING

1 Work in small groups. You are going to hear Amanda Hamilton, Managing
Director of Drink Me Chai, talking about how she developed a new tea product.
Before you listen, make a list of the steps you would take before launching a new
drink on the market.

2 Listen and choose the best answer - A, B or C - for each question.


1 What was chai originally?
A an Indian drink
B an American drink
C a drink Amanda invented
2 Why did she start importing chart
A for selling to people travelling to \vork
B for herself
C for selling in shops
3 Why did she decide to develop her ov/n chart
A She couldn't afford to import it.
B She couldn't depend on her suppliers.
C She enjoyed experimenting with different flavours.
4 How did she test her product?
A by using a market-research company
B by giving it to her own customers
C by trying it in the USA
5 What was the supermarket buyer's reaction to her product?
A He fixed another meeting for six weeks later.
B He agreed to try selling it in a few stores.

118
C He agreed to sell it in a large number of stores all over the country.

3 Work in small groups. Were any of the steps Amanda took the same as your list
from Exercise 1?
Useful language
Saying what you would do
The first thing we could do is ...
After that / Next, we could ...
We could also ... / Another thing we could do is
I think we should also ...
Drink Me Chai - An award-winning UK-based company that produces a range of authentic Indian chai
in an instant form

READING

1 Read the article about Amanda Hamilton quite quickly and answer these
questions.
1 When did she realise there was a larger market for her product?
2 In what way(s) was her deal with Tesco remarkable?

2 Work in pairs. Six sentences have been removed from the article.
1 Underline words or phrases in the sentences (A-G) winch refer to something in
the article.
2 Discuss what the words/phrases might refer to.
A He liked it and came back, saying Tesco wanted to put it into 230 of its UK stores.
'He is someone mentioned in the text and 'it' may be chai.
B However, getting a good cup of tea for the journey was a real struggle.
C I started importing it, but it cost me an absolute fortune, so I worked on a range of
different recipes for my own chai and did some testing.
D But the major problem was raising finance and setting up a production facility.
E It really transformed the business.

119
F Since then, Drink Me Chai has been taken up by Waitrose, another supermarket
chain.
G As a result, her chai latte product, and her company Drink Me Chai, had instant
access to retail customers across the UK.

3 Choose the best sentence (A-G) to fill each gap. There is one sentence that you will not
need.

The Drink Me Chai success story

For businesses that are starting out, it can take years to achieve a national
distribution deal, and many never do. Amanda Hamilton however, managed to get her
ready-to-drink tea into 230 Tesco stores before she had even settled on branding and
packaging for the product. 1 G
Like many business ideas, Hamilton's came out of a personal need. She started
by working firstly in advertising and then for the BBC, commuting by train into London.
2 . Eventually, with the help of the Prince's Youth Business Trust and a Business 2000
loan, she raised funds to open tea bars at railway stations offering a range of gourmet
teas to travellers. Tea was regarded as downmarket, but the tea bars were really trendy
mobile bars, offering lots of tastes and flavours.
It was en a visit to the US that Hamilton discovered that chai latte, a tea made
from a powdered mix of tea and spices, milk and sugar, was the fastest-growing drink
in the US. ' 3 Customers kept saying they preferred my version, so I stopped
importing US chai and sold my chai through the tea bars.'
Hamilton's customers also started to say that they would like to drink tha
product at home, which gave her the idea of sending a sample to a Tesco buyer. 'I had no
branding and no packaging, but I managed to get through and spoke to the buyer,' she
says. '4 It was a massive deal for me, but at that stage I could not afford my own
factory, so I had to source a co-packing facility to mix it and pack it for me.'
The drink was launched by a new company under the same name and produced
in spiced chai and vanilla chai flavours. 5 Tesco has recently launched Spiced Chai

120
Light, which comes in individually wrapped 20g sachets, and Drink Me Chai is also on
sale in Gaffe Nero coffee bars, taking the brand into the catering market and bringing
Hamilton's success story full circle.
Hamilton's aim is for Drink Me Chai to be the number-one instant chai latte
brand in the UK and Europe in both the catering and retail markets. She still regards the
Tesco deal as the one that started everything, however. '6 It's highly unusual for a
national supermarket chain to take a product without any packaging or branding, she
says. The taste was so good that we managed to get a deal without those things.
adapted from the Daily Telegraph

Launching and promoting a new product

LISTENING

1 Work in small groups. Discuss and take notes on this question.


What is important when launching a new product?
2 Listen to Amanda Hamilton talking about the same topic. Does she mention
anything which did not arise in your discussion?
3 Now work with a partner from another group and take turns to talk for a minute
about what is important when launching a new product.
4 Work in small groups. Look at these promotional methods.
internet advertising
word of mouth
stand at food fair
viral marketing
point-of-sale displays
social media
Can you add other promotional methods to the list? How could they be used to
promote chai?

121
5 Listen to Amanda Hamilton talking about how she has marketed chai. Make
brief notes on the following:
1 the promotional methods she has used
2 the reasons she uses each promotional method

122
WRITING: Report Writing

123
Useful Language

124
Look at the notes below:

1-4 Standard headings to begin a short report


4 Subject should be concise and helpful
5 Headings make it clear what each section is about, and reflect (in the same order)

125
the 4 bullet points giving details of what you are required to cover.
6 Nowadays the active form (I have asked, I led) is often used, particularly in
reports written for known readers.
6-8 The 3 main elements of the method (questionnaire, focus group and records) are
referred to later
10-12 Several phrases are used to show knowledge of standard vocabulary concerned
with this topic.
14-17 Note the use of a complex sentence to relate two points.
18-22 This paragraph goes into some detail about the poor management mentioned in
16.
24 Shows the writer has weighed up both the pros and cons of what they are going
to propose.
28-31 Bullet points are used to draw attention to each recommendation.

Note the use of headings to structure the report. They reflect the four bullet points listing
what should be included, and so Symptoms and Possible causes are more appropriate than
Findings.
Note that the writers personal opinion is expressed only in the Recommendations
section.

The Managing Director of your organization is concerned about the poor level of
staff motivation and has asked you to write a report on the situation.
Write your report for the Managing Director.
outlining how you carried out your research
describing the symptoms of the poor motivation
suggesting possible causes
proposing how to improve the level of motivation.
Write 200-250 words.

126
1 To Shelley Howells
2 From Jerry Handley
3 Date 3 October
4 Subject Staff motivation

5 Method
6 I have asked all staff to fill a questionnaire, and 45 per cent of them did so. I
7 Led a focus group discussion with six of those who returned the questionnaire.
8 And examined staff absence records.

9 Symptoms
10 The main symptoms of poor motivation that I found are rising rates of
11 Absenteeism and stuff turnover; poor timekeeping and the loss of several long-
12 Term customers

13 Possible causes
14 Although in the questionnaire most people identified the level of pay and
15 Benefits as their main area of dissatisfaction, the in-depth focus group
16 Discussion concluded that this is less important than poor management and the
17 blame culture

18 Many perceive management as being carried out by a combination of threats


19 And criticism, with an almost total absence of encouragement and praise.
20 Several people claimed that their treatment by managers means that they
21 Dread coming in to work, and makes them unwilling to ask for help or to admit
22 Mistakes

23 Recommendations
24 Despite the difficulty of radically changing management style, this is the most
25 Pressing requirement if the loss of customers is to be stemmed. Other changes
26 Are also required, to give staff greater ownership of their work. I therefore
27 Recommend:
28 Managers should attend training by an external body, such as a consultancy
29 Team work should be introduced wherever possible, to give staff at all
levels
30 Greater responsibility for organizing their work and checking its quality.
31 Increased opportunities for training and job rotation should be created.

127
Assessment Reports

128
129
130
131
Informative Reports

132
133
A Survey Report

134
135
136
137
Proposal Reports

Look at the notes below:

1-4 Standard top section


5 An often used heading to explain why the proposal or report has been written.
9-15 Note that the two proposals are introduced (line 10), and set out in separate paragraphs, with one
and secondly to mark each one clearly.
17-20 Note that the writer gives reasons for the suggestions regarding implementation i.e. as the
process is likely to take two or three months and since the positions are unlikely to attract people
living outside this area. These explanations make the proposal far more convincing than simply
writing The recruitment of new staff should be given top priority.
21 Note the way of moving from recruitment to the discount scheme: both a new paragraph and the
introductory phrase as regards.
25-27 This section gives a disadvantage, as required by the task. Note that by dealing with the
objection, the proposal ends positively.

138
Note the use of headings for each section of the proposal.

Note the range of common business expressions, e.g. customer loyalty, repeat orders,
natural wastage, customer retention.

Note the attempt to avoid repeating words, e.g. the use of personnel and staff; customer
retention and customer loyalty; as and since.

Too many customers purchase from your company once only, and the Sales
Manager has asked staff to think of ways to retain more of them.
Write your proposal for the Sales Manager,
suggesting a reason for the lack of repeat orders
putting forward one or two ways to retain customers
outlining how your ideas could be implemented
mentioning one or two possible disadvantages of your ideas.
Write 200-250 words

139
1. To: Customer Service Manager
2. From: Geraldine Salmon
3. Date: March 21
4. Subject Customer loyalty

5. Background
6. The proposition of customers placing repeat orders has halved in the last two
7. years to 12 per cent. One possible cause is the reduction in our sales
8. personnel through natural wastage.

9. Proposals
10. I suggest two ways of improving the customer retention rate.

11. One is to recruit three new sales people, to return to the full complement that
12. we had until two years ago. This would relieve the pressure on all sales staff

13. Allowing them to devote more time to maintaining relationships with customers.

14. Secondly I propose offering corporate customers a discount in return for a


15. commitment to buy goods to a certain value within a set period.

16. Implementation
17. The recruitment of new staff should be given top priority, as the process is
18. likely to take two or three months. Advertising the vacancies in local
19. newspapers is probably the most effective way of reaching potential applicants.
20. since the positions are unlikely to attract people living outside this area.

21. As regards the discount scheme, perhaps a small group comprising staff from
22. Finance, Production and Sales could work out a viable scheme, which would
23. be attractive to customers but still give adequate profit margins.

24. Possible drawback


25. Clearly both schemes, particularly the recruitment of new staff, would entail
26. considerable costs. However, increasing the level of repeat orders would lead
27. to savings on advertising, and in the long run should improve profits.

140
141
142
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ian Wood, Paul Sanderson, Anne Williams, Marjorie Rosenberg: PASS CAMBRIDGE
BEC VANTAGE, Second Edition, Students Book, National Geographic Learning, 2013.

Guy Brook-Hart: Business BENCHMARK, Upper-Intermediate, Students Book, 2nd


Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Virginia Evans: Successful Writing - Proficiency. Berkshire: Express Publishing, 1999

143