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Chapter 17- Two-Port and Three Port Networks

Exercises

Ex. 17.4-1
R a Rc 25(100)
R1 = = = 10
R a + Rb + Rc 250
R b Rc (125)(125)
R2 = = = 12.5
R a + Rb + Rc 250
R a Rb 100(125)
R3 = = = 50
R a + Rb + Rc 250

Ex. 17.5-1
1
Y12 = Y21 =
21
Y11 + Y12 =
1
42
Y11 =
1
42
1 =
21 ( )3
42
Y22 +Y21 = 10.5 Y22 =
1
10.5 21 ( )
1 = 1/ 7

1 1
Y =
41 21
1 1
21 7

V1 42 (21+10.5)
Z 11 = = = 18
I1 I2 = 0
42 +31.5
V2 10.5(63)
Z 22 = I1 = 0 = =9
I2 73.5
V1
Z 12 = Z 21 = I1 = 0 =6
I2

10.5 42(10.5) 18 6
Since I = I 2 , then V1 = I2 = 6 I2 Z=
73.5 73.5 6 9

17-1
Ex. 17.6-1

I1 1
Y11 = =
V1 6
I 1
Y21 = 2 = = .167
V1 6

I1
Y12 = = 0.0567
V2
I2
Y22 = = 0.944
V2

Ex. 17.7-1
I 2 = 6 i, V2 = (9 + 1) i = 10 i, V1 = 1i

I2 6i
h 22 = = = 0.6 S
V2 10 i
V1 i
h12 = = = 0.1
V2 10 i

V1 = 1 i
V1 10
I1 = i + = i
9 9
V 44
I2 = 5 i 1 = i
9 9
Therefore
V1 i
h11 = = = 0.9
I1 ( )
10 i
9

h 21 =
I2
=
( )
44 i
9 = 4.4
I1 ( )
10 i
9

17-2
Ex. 17.8-1
2 1 2 1 12 6
15 5 4 1 1 5 5
Y= and Y = = S Z = 30 =
1 2 75 50 30 1 2 3 4
10 5 10 15

Ex. 17.8-2
2/5 1
( 1/10 )
( 1/10 ) 4 10
T= =
1/ 30 2 /15 1/ 3 4 / 3
1/10
( ) ( 1/10 )

Ex. 17.9-1
1 12 1 0 1 3
Ta = , Tb = and Tc =
0 1 1/6 1 0 1

1 12 1 0 3 12 1 3 3 21
Ta Tb Tc = Tc = =
1/ 6 1 0 1 1/ 6 3 / 2
0 1 1/ 6 1

Problems

Section 17-4: T-to-T1 Transformations

P17.4-1

17-3
P17.4-2

P17.4-3

z21 I1 I2 z21
I2 = Ai = = (forward current gain)
z22 + R L I1 z22 + R L
V1 z11 I1 + z12 I 2 z A I z z
R in = = = z11 12 i 1 = z11 12 21 (input resistance)
I1 I1 I1 ( z22 + R L )
V2 Ai R L
V2 = I 2 R L = Ai R L I1 and V1 = R in I1 Av = = (forward voltage gain)
V1 R in
RL
Ap = Ai Av = Ai2
R in

17-4
P17.4-4
First, simplify the circuit using a -Y transformation:

R
R eq = R1 || = 5 || 20 = 4
3
Mesh equations:
30 = 18 I 10 I 2
50 = 10 I 20 I 2
Solving for the required current:
30 10
50 20 100
I= = = 0.385 A
18(20) (10)10 260

P17.4-5

17-5
Section 17-5: Equations of Two-Port Networks

P17-5-1

Z 12 = 6
Z 11 Z 12 = 12 Z 11 = 18
Z 22 Z 21 = 3 Z 22 = 9

I1 1
Y11 = = S
V1 V =0 14
2

I1 6 I 2 1
Y12 = = = S = 21
V2 V1 = 0
(6+12) V2 21
I2 V2 / 7 1
Y 22 = = = S
V2 V1 = 0
V2 7

1 1
14 21
=
1 1
21 7

P17.5-2

2 j 4 j4
Z =
j 4 + j 2

17-6
P17.5-3

I1 I2
Y11 = and Y 21 =
V1 V2 = 0
V1 V2 = 0

I1 + I 2 I+I I
V1 = and 1 2 + 2 = bV1
G1 G1 G2
so
I1 = (G1 (b 1) G2 ) V1 = 1 V1 and I 2 = (b 1) G2 V1 = 3 V1
Finally
Y11 = 1 S and Y21 = 3 S
Next

I1+I 2 I 2
V2 = and V 2 =
G3 G2

I1
Y12 = = G 2 = 1 S
V2
V1 = 0

I2
Y 22 = = G2 + G3 = 4 S
V2
V1 = 0

P17.5-4
Using Fig. 17.5-2 as shown:

Y12 = Y21 = 0.1 S or Y12 = Y21 = 0.1 S


Y11 = 0.2 Y12 = 0.3 S
Y22 = 0.05 Y21 = 0.15 S

P17.5-5
Y12 = 10 S = Y 21
Y11 +Y12 =13.33 S
Y11 = 23.33 S

Y 22 + Y 21 = 20 S Y 22 = 30 S

17-7
P17.5-6

V1
Z 11 = = 3 + j 3 j 2 = (3+ j )
I1 I2 = 0

V2 j 2 I1
Z 21 = = = j2
I1 I2 = 0
I1

V1
Z 12 = = j2
I2 I1 = 0

V2
Z 22 = = j2
I2 I1 = 0

P17.5-7

Z 11 Z 21 = 4 4 s +1

Z 11 = 4 + 1 =
Z 21 Z 12 = 1 s s
s
2 s 2 +1
Z 22 Z 21 = 2 s Z 22 = 2 s + 1 =
s s

P17.5-8
Given:
s +1
1
Y= s

1 s +1

Try a circuit as shown at the right.

Y12 = 1s
s +1 s +1 1
Y11 = Y11 +Y12 = 1 =
s s s
Y 22 + Y 21 = ( s + 1) 1 = s

17-8
P17.5-9
Given: Try :
s + 2s + 2
2
1
s 2 + s +1 s + s +1
2
Z=
1 s 2 +1
s 2 + s +1 s 2 + s +1

From the circuit, we calculate:


1
Cs
( R2 + L s ) R2 + L s L C R1 s 2 + ( R1 R 2 C + L ) s + R1 + R 2
z 11 = R1 + = R1 + =
1 1 + R2 C s + L C s2 L C s2 + R2 C s + 1
+ R2 + L s
Cs

Comparing to the given z 11 yields:


LC =1
R1 = 1
R2 C = 1
R2 = 1
L C R1 = 1
R1 R 2 C + L = 2 L =1 H
C = 1 F
R1 + R 2 = 2

Then check z 12 , z 21 and z 22 . The are all okay. If they were not, we would have to try a different
circuit structure..

P17.5-10
It is sufficient to require that the input resistance of each section of the circuit is equal to Ro, that
is

Then
R (2 R + Ro )
Ro = Ro = R 4 R 2 + 4 (2 R 2 ) = R 3 R = ( 3 1) R
3 R + Ro

17-9
Section 17-6: Z and Y Parameters

P17.6-1

V1 (b + R1 )
i= and I 2 = V1
R1 R1 R 2
b + R1 + R 2
I1 = I 2 i = V1
R1 R 2

I1 b + R1 + R 2 I2 (b + R1 )
Y11 = = and Y21 = =
V1 V2 = 0
R1 R 2 V1 V2 = 0
R1 R 2

I 2 = I1
V2
V2 = R 2 I 2 I2 =
R2

I2 1 I1 1
Y22 = = and Y12 = =
V2 V1 = 0
R2 V2 V1 = 0
R2

P17.6-2

v1 = (1 + 3) i1 = 4 i1
i2 = 0
v 2 = 3 i1
therefore
z 11 = 4 and z 21 = 3

v1 = 3 ( i 2 + i 2 )

i1 = 0
v1 = 3 ( i 2 + i 2 ) + 2 i 2
therefore
z 12 = 3 (1 + ) and z 21 = 5 + 3
Finally,
4 3(1+ )
Z=
3 5+3

17-10
P17.6-3
Treat the circuit as the parallel connection of two 2-port networks:

The admittance matrix of the entire network


can be obtained as the sum of the admittance
matrices of these two 2-port networks

1 0 2 s s 1+ 2 s s
Y= + =
2 1 s 2 s 2 s 1+ 2 s

When i1 ( t ) = u ( t ) :
2 s +1 s
1 1 1
V1 ( s ) V1 ( s ) 1 s 2 2 s +1 s
Y = s V ( s ) = Y s =
V2 ( s ) 0 2
0 3 s 2 + 6 s +1
0
so
( S 2) 1 6 1.25 7.25
V2 ( s ) = = S + +
S (3 S + 6 S +1) S + 1.82 S + 0.184
2
3

Taking the inverse Laplace transform

1
v2 (t) = 61.25 e 1.82 t + 7.25 e 0.184 t t 0
3

17-11
P17.6-4

1
KVL:
2
( i1 v 1 ) + 2 v 2 + v 2 v 1 = 0
KCL: i1 v 1 = 4 v 1 + 2 v 2

i1 5 v 1 v1 2
i 1 = 3v 1 6 z 11 = =
i1 = 3v1 6 v 2 2 i1 9

i1 = 5 v1 + 2 v2 i = 5 i1 + 6 v 2 + 2 v z = v 2 = 1
1 3
2 21
i1 18

1 13
KVL: v 2 = 1 v1 + v1 + 5 v1 = v1
2 2

v2
KCL: i2 = + 5 v1 = 2 v 2 + 5 v1
12

13 1
i 2 = 2 v1 + 5 v1 = 18 v1 z 12 =
2 18
and
2
i 2 = 2 v 2 + 5 v 2 = 2.769 v1 z 22 = 0.361
13

17-12
P17.6-5

v1
KCL: i1 + i 2 =
R1
KVL: R 2 i 2 b v1 + 0 v1 = 0

Then
b +1 1 b +1 R 2 + R1 ( b + 1)
i2 = v1 and i1 = + v1 = v1
R2 R1 R 2 R R
1 2

so
i2 b +1 i1 R 2 + R1 ( b + 1)
y 21 = = and y 11 = =
v1 R2 v1 R1 R 2

1
KVL: R 2 i1 + v 2 = 0 i1 = v2
R2

1
KCL: v 2 = R 3 ( i1 + i 2 ) = R 3 v 2 + R3 i 2
R2

Then
i1 1 R3 i2 1 1
y 12 = = and v 2 1 + = R3 i 2 y 22 = = +
v2 R2 R 2 v2 R3 R 2

17-13
Section 17-7: Hybrid Transmission Parameters

17.7-1

V1 34 V1 5
B= = = 6.8 since I 2 = = V1
I2 V2 = 0
5 2+ 4||10 34

I1 10+ 4 10
D= = = 1.4 since I2 = I1
I2 V2 = 0
10 10 + 4

V1 12 10
A= = = 1.2 since V2 = V1
V2 I2 =0
10 10+ 2

I1 1
C= = = 0.1 S
V2 I2 =0
10

17.7-2
V2 = 0
so
V1 = ( R i + R1 || R 2 ) I 1
therefore

V1
h11 = = R i + R1 || R 2 = 600 k
I1
V2 = 0

KVL:
R1 Ri
I2 + I1 = A I1
R1 + R 2 Ro
therefore
I Ri R1
h 21 = 2 = ( A + ) = 106
I1 Ro R1 + R 2
V2 = 0

17-14
I 1 = 0 vi = 0 A vi = 0
so
V2
I2 =
R o ( R1 + R 2 )
therefore
I2 R o + R1 + R 2
h 22 = = = 103
V2 R o ( R1 + R 2 )
I 1 =0

Next,
R1
V1 = V2
R1 + R 2
therefore
V1 R1 1
h12 = = =
V2 R1 + R 2 2
I 1 =0

P17.7-3
Compare : to
V 2 = n V1 V1 = h11 I 1 + h12V 2
I 1 =n I 2 I 2 = h 21 I 1 + h 22V 2

Then h11 = 0, h 22 = 0, h12 = 1 and h 21 = 1


n n

P17.7-4
R2 R3
V1 = ( R1 + R 2 || R 3 ) I 1 h11 = R1 +
R 2 +R 3
R2 R2
I2 = I 1 h 21 =
R 2 +R 3 R 2 +R 3

V2 1
I2 = h 22 =
R 2 +R 3 R 2 +R 3
R2 R2
V1 = V 2 h12 =
R 2 +R 3 R 2 +R 3

17-15
P17.7-5

I 2 = 0.1 v and v = 950 I 1


so I 2 = 95 I 1

V1
h11 = = 50 + 950 = 1000
I1
V2 = 0

I2
h 21 = = 95
I1
V2 = 0

I1 = 0 v = 0

V1
h12 = =0
V2
I1 = 0

I2
h 22 = = 104 S
V2
I1 = 0

Section 17-8: Relationships between Two-Port Parameters

P17.8-1
Start with
I = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 V1 = h11 I1 + h12 V2
Y parameters: 1 and H parameters:
I 2 = Y21 V1 + Y22 V2 I 2 = h 21 I1 + h 22 V2
Solve the Y parameter equations for V1 and I 2 to put them in the same form as the H parameter
equations.
1
Y11 V1 = I1 + Y12 V2 Y 0 V 1 Y12 I1 V Y 0 1 Y12 I1
11 1 = 1 = 11
Y21 V1 + I 2 = Y22 V2 Y21 1 I 2 0 Y22 V2 I 2 Y21 1
0
Y22 V2

1 1
Y12
0
1 Y12 Y11 1 Y12 Y11
1
Y 0 Y11
H = 11 0 = Y =
Y22 Y21

Y21 1 Y22 21 0 Y12Y21
Y 1 Y Y22
Y11
11 11

17-16
P17.8-2
Z 22 Z 12 6 2
Z Z 14 14
First Z = (3)(6) (2)(2) = 14 . Then Y = = .
Z 21 Z 11 2 3
Z Z 14 14

P17.8-3
1 Y12
Y
Y11 10 1
First Y = (0.1)(0.5) (0.4)(0.1) = .01 S . Then H = 11 = .
Y21 Y 4 0.1
Y Y11
11

P17.8-4
1 Y12
Y - Y 2 0.8
First Y = (0.5)(0.6) (0.4)(0.4) S . Then H = 11 11
=
Y21 Y 0.8 0.28
Y Y11
11

Section17-9: Interconnection of Two-Port Networks

P17.9-1
Y12 = Y21 = 1 S
3
4 1
Y22 = 0 Y21 = 1 S 3 3
3 Ya =
1 1
Y11 + Y12 = 1 S Y11 = 4 S 3 3
3

Y12 = Y21 = 1 S 3 1
2
Y11 + Y12 = 1 S Y11 = 3 S Yb =
2 2 1 4
3
Y21 +Y22 = 1 S Y22 = 4 S
3 3

( 4 + 3 ) 4 17 4
3 2 3 6 3
Y= =
4 5 4 5
3 3 3 3

17-17
P17.9-2
Admittance parameters: Transmission parameters:

10 6 8 44
6 6
Y = 44 44 T=
6 8 1 10
44 44 6 6

20 12

Yp = Y + Y = 44 44
12 16
44 44

108 792
36 36
TC = T T' =
18 144
36 36

P17.9-3
1
s + s s G1 + G 2 G 2
Y = +
s 1
+s G 2 G 2 + G 3
s

17-18
Verification Problems
VP 17-1

75
V1 = 50 I 2 = 15 I 2
175+ 75

V1
Z 12 = = 15
I2 I1 = 0

1 1
I1 = + V1 = 0.028 V1
50 125

V1
Y11 = = 28 mS
I1 V2 = 0

Y11 24 mS, so the report is not correct.

VP 17-2

V1 = (2 + 0.2 s ) I1 Z 11 = 2 + 0.2 s =0.2 ( s +10)



V2 = (0.1 s) I1 Z 21 =0.1 s

Z 22 = 2 + 0.2 s and Z 12 = 0.1 s

Z = (2 + 0.2 s )(2 + 0.2 s ) (0.1 s)(0.1 s) = 0.01(3 s 2 + 80 s + 40)

17-19
Z11 Z 2( s +10) 0.1(3 s 2 +80 s + 40)
Z Z 21
T=
21
= s s
1 Z 22 2 ( s +10)
Z 0.1 s
21 Z 21 s

This is not the transmission matrix given in the report.

Design Problems

DP 17-1

We will need to find R and R1 by trial and error. A Mathcad spreadsheet will help with
the calculations. Given the restrictions R 10 and R1 10 we will start with
R = 10 and R1 = 10 :

R1 := 10 R := 10
14 20 14 R R 20
Ra := Rb := Rc :=
14 + 20 + R 14 + 20 + R 14 + 20 + R

( Rb + 2) ( Rc + 20)
Rin := R1 + Rin = 14.279
Rb + 2 + Rc + 20

The specifications cannot be satisfied. R and R1 are at their maximum values but
R in needs to be larger. Reducing either R or R1 will reduce R in .

17-20
DP 17-2
Need VA + VB for balance
R1 V R2 V
= (1)
R1 + R 3 R2 + R4
R3 V R4 V
= (2)
R1 + R 3 R2 + R4

R1 R 2
Dividing (1) by (2) yields: = .
R3 R 4

DP 17-3
V1 = h11 I1 + h12 V2
and V2 = I 2 R L I 2 = h 21 I1 h 22 R L I 2
I 2 = h 21 I1 + h 22 V2
Next
I2 1 IL I 1
= h 21 Ai = = 2 = h 21
I1 1 + h 22 R L I1 I1 1 + h 22 R L

We require
1 79 RL
79 = 80 1 + =1 R L = 1.013 k 1 k
1 + h 22 R L 80 80 103

Next
V2
I2 = = h 21 I1 + h 22 V2 V2 (h 22 + 1/ RL ) = h 21 I1
RL
Substituting this expression into the second hybrid equation gives:

h12 (h 21 )
V1 = h11 I1 + I1
(h 22 + 1 )
RL
The input resistance is given by

R in h11 h12 R L h 21 (since h 22 << 1 )


RL
Finally
R in = 45 (5 104 )(103 )(80) = 5 < 10

17-21
DP 17-4
4(12) 8(8)
Z 11 = 2 + = 5 and Z 22 = =4
4 + 12 8+8

4 V
V2 = 8 I1 = 2 I1 Z 21 = 2 =2
4 + 12 I1 I2 =0

Similarly Z 12 = 2

Thvenin: Z T = Z 22 = 4 so for maximum


power transfer, use R L =4

2
Vs

2
PRL = = 89.3 W Vs = 37.8 V
4

17-22
DP 17-5
The circuit consists of 4 cascaded stages. Represent each stage by a transmission matrix
using:

1 Z ( s ) 1 0
T= T=
0 1 Y ( s ) 1

1 L1 s
1 1
Ta = C 1 s

Tb = L1 C 2 s + 1

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

T = C3 s
Td = 1
1 1
L 2 C 3 s + 1 R L

L1 C 1 s C3 s L1 C 1 s
1 +
L1 C 2 C 1 s + C 1 s R L L 2 C 3 s + R L
2
L1 C 2 C 1 s + C 1 s
2

T = Ta Tb Tc Td =
C3 s
1
RL L2 C 3 s + RL

17-23