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Reg. No.

M.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, MARCH 2011


SEMESTER I
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
PEIC A38 / Automotive Engine Systems

Execution plan
Sl.No Activities Time in
Minutes
1. To study the question paper and to choose those to attempt 5
2. Part A 2 Minutes x 10 Questions 20
3. Part B 10 Minutes x 5 Questions 50
4. Part C 20 Minutes x 5 Questions 100
5. Quick revision & Winding up 5
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks
PART A (10 x 2 marks = 20 marks)
(Answer ANY TEN Questions. Each question carries 2 marks)
1. Define cubic capacity of an engine?
2. Draw the PV diagram for otto and diesel cycle?
3. Define IHP,BHP and FHP?
4. What are the advantages of two stroke engines.
5. Draw the radial engine diagram.
6. What is rich and lean mixtures?
7. Mention the types of fuel nozzles / injectors ?
8. Write short notes on biodiesels
9. What is dual fuel engine ?
10. What is the firing order for 4 and 6 cyclinder engine ?
11. How supercharging improves power output ?
12. Write short notes on parasitic losses.
13. What is GDI system ?
14. Explain valve overlapping ?
15. Shortly explain Electric vehicles.

Part B (5 x 6 marks = 30 marks)


(Answer all question.Each question carries 6 marks.Answer must not exceed one page)

16. Compare and tabulate petrol and diesel engines.


17. Explain the construction and operation of a petrol pump.
18. What are the advantages of using LPG in engines.
19. Briefly explain about Alcohol injection.
20. Briefly explain SCR systems.

Part C (5 x 10 marks = 50 marks)


(Answer all questions.Each question carries 10 marks.Answer must not exceed Three pages)

21. a) Briefly explain the operation of two stroke SI engine with neat diagram.
(or)
b) Explain briefly the different valve arrangements.
22. a) Draw and explain the working of a S.U. carburetor.
(or)
b) Draw and explain the solex carburetor used in cars.
23. a) Explain briefly the common rail diesel injection system.
(or)
b) What are disadvantages of biodiesel? what are the modification required for using biodiesel
in existing diesel engines?

24. a) Draw the swirl pool combustion and precombustion chamber and explain.
(or)
b) Indicate the different types of Hybrid vehicles.
25. a) Draw and explain the operation of Exhaust turbo charging.
(or)
b) Explain the performance testing of automotive engines .

KEY ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS PICA30 ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR I.C ENGINES
PART A (10 x 2 marks = 20 marks)
(Answer ANY TEN Questions. Each question carries 2 marks)
1. What is the significance of stroke bore ratio?
The distance between the two dead centers is known as stroke or piston travel. The
stroke is usually measured in mm. The piston completes its stroke during one half
revolution of the crankshaft axle (ie. 1800 crank travel). The diameter of the cylinder is
called bore, and is measured in mm. The bore, stroke and stroke bore ratio decide the
size of the engine. When the stroke is equal to bore, the engine is called a square
engine. An over square engine has a bore large than the stroke, then the bore to stroke
ratio will be greater than one. This is the most common engine design. A large bore
and short stroke allows for higher engine speeds as is needed in an automotive engine.
An under square engine has a stroke that is large than the bore. Then the bore to stroke
ratio will be less than one. Large industrial engines and tractor engines are sometime
under square because they operate at low rpm.

2. Draw the line diagram of X type and radial type engine?

X Type Engine: The design is a variation of V type. It has four banks of cylinders
attached to a single crankshaft.

Radial Engine: Radial engine is one where more than two cylinders in each row are
equally spaced around the crankshaft. The radial arrangement of cylinders is most
commonly used in conventional aircooled aircraft engines where 3,5,7 or 9 cylinders
may be used in one bank and two to four banks of cylinders may be used. The odd
number of cylinders is employed from the point of view of balancing. Pistons of all the
cylinders are coupled to the same crankshaft.
3. Define equivalence ratio ,rich mixture and lean mixture?
If the air fuel ratio, supplied to an engine is greater than the theoretical air fuel ratio, then
the mixture is said to be lean mixture. On the other hand, if the air fuel ratio supplied to
an engine is less than the theoretical air fuel ratio, then the mixture is called rich mixture.

Equivalence ratio Sometime the mixture strength is indicated by the term


equivalence ratio as given below:

Equivalence ratio = Stoichiometric air fuel ratio / Actual air fuel ratio
When the mixture is rich, the equivalence ratio is greater than one. When the
mixture is lean, the equivalence ratio is less than one.

4. Mention the types of nozzles?


The different types of nozzles tried and used in diesel engines are
1. Closed nozzles (a) single hole nozzle, (b) multi hole nozzle, (c) pintle nozzle, and (d)
pintaux nozzle. 2. Open nozzle

5. What is TBI?
Throttle Body Injection System

Figure illustrates the simplified sketch of throttle body injection system (Single
point injection). This throttle body is similar to the carburetor throttle body, with the
throttle valve controlling the amount of air entering the intake manifold.

An injector is placed slightly above the throat of the throttle body. The injector
sprays gasoline into the air in the intake manifold where the gasoline mixes with air. This
mixture then passes through the throttle valve and enters into the intake manifold.

As already mentioned, fuel-injection systems can be either timed or continuous.


In the timed injection system, gasoline is sprayed from the injectors in pulses. In the
continuous injection system, gasoline is sprayed continuously from the injectors. The
port injection system and the throttle-body injection system may be either pulsed
systems or continuous systems. In both systems, the amount of gasoline injected
depends upon the engine speed and power demands.

6. Why gasoline injection is employed in recent engine?

In a carburetor engine, uniformity of mixture strength is difficult to realize in each cylinder


of a multicylinder engine. Figure shows a typical pattern of mixture distribution in an intake
manifold of a multicylinder engine. As may be noticed that the intake valve is open in cylinder 2.
As can also be observed the gasoline moves to the end of the manifold and accumulates there.
This enriches the mixture going to the end cylinders. However, the central cylinders, which are
very close to the carburetor, get the leanest mixture. Thus the various cylinders receive the air-
gasoline mixture in varying quantities and richness. This problem is called the maldistribution
and can be solved by the port injection system by having the same amount of gasoline injected
at each intake manifold. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop injection systems for
gasoline engines. By adopting gasoline injection each cylinder can get the same richness of the
air-gasoline mixture and the maldistribution can be avoided to a great extent.

As already mentioned, some of the recent automotive engines are equipped with gasoline
injection system, instead of a carburetion for one or more of the following reasons:

i. To have uniform distribution of fuel in a multicylinder engine.


ii. To improve breathing capacity i.e. volumetric efficiency.
iii. To reduce or eliminate detonation.
iv. To prevent fuel loss during scavenging in case of two-stroke engines.

7. Distinguish between short reach and long reach spark plugs


Long reach and short reach spark plugs
Spark plug reach is the length of the threaded portion of the spark plug. This is the
distance between the end of the plug threads and the seat or scaling surface of the plug.
Plug reach determines how far the plug extends through the cylinder head. Long reach
and short reach spark plugs can be seen in fig.

A short reach plug can be fitted of removed form the plug hole quickly. A long reach plug
gives better heat path between the plug body and the cylinder head. If the plug reach is
too long, the plug electrodes may protrude too much into the combustion space and may
be struck by the piston at TDC. On the other hand, if the plug reach short, the plug
electrodes may not extend far enough into the combustion chamber and combustion
efficiency may get reduced. In fact, the reach of the plug depends upon the construction
of the cylinder head.

8. Shortly mention the functioning of Ignition coil


Induction coil
The air fuel mixture that exist between the electrodes of the spark plug presents high
resistance to the passage of current in the form of a spark. To produce the spark, high
voltage of 8000 to 10000 volts is necessary. This high voltage is generated by the
ignition coil.
Typical ignition coil is shown in fig. It consists of a water proof aluminium casing,
laminated soft iron core, secondary winding, primary winding, primary winding, backlite
cap and porcelain base.
The core is made of soft iron wires or laminations. When made of wire it is of 18 to 28
SWG and if of laminations 24 to 28 SWG thickness. The wires are insulated by paper or
varnish. The laminations are insulated by a coating of varnish or enamel. The iron core
is supported within the aluminum casing by a porcelain base. This arrangement
insulates the iron core from the casing.
The secondary winding consists of about 18000 turns of 38 to 40 gauge enameled
copper wire. The winding is wound upon the iron core. The primary winding consists of
approximately 200 turns of 20 gauge enameled copper wire. This winding is wound upon
the secondary winding. This winding is wound upon the secondary winding. This
arrangement permits the heat produced in the primary winding to be dissipated more
rapidly to the metal case and to the air. Each layer of wire is insulated from the next by a
strip of thin oiled paper. A slotted iron sheath is wrapped around the windings.
The winding assembly is housed in the sealed container. The upper edge of the
container is spun over the flange of the backelite cap to secure the components firmly
against vibration. The primary and secondary winding terminals are set in the backelite
cover. The backelite cover insulates the terminals from the one another and from the
container. A common connection is employed for the grounded terminals of the primary
and secondary windings. As such, there are only three visible electrical terminals instead
of four on the backlite cover.
It should be remembered that the secondary coil is not connected electrically to the
primary winding. The windings are generally arranged to provide negative polarity at the
high tension terminals. This arrangement is desirable from the point of getting high
sparking voltage.
The ignition coil is hermetically sealed against entrance of moisture. The main cause of
shorted ignition coil is the breakdown of the insulation between the turns of the primary
winding. This may happen due to inefficient heat dissipation. Some ignition coils are
filled with oil. The oil filling improves heat dissipation and provides better electrical
insulation.
9. What are antifreeze solutions?
Antifreeze solutions

Antifreeze solutions are added to and mixed with water to prevent freezing of water. A
good antifreeze material must mix readily with water, prevent freezing of the mixture at
the lowest temperatures encountered, and circulate freely. It should not damage the
cooking system by corrosive action or loose its antifreezing properties after extended
use. The most commonly used antifreeze materials are either alcohol (or alcohol base)
or ethylene glycol.

The alcohol base materials make only temporary antifreeze solutions, since they
evaporates at temperatures below the boiling point of water and thus are gradually lost.
Such materials require periodic additions to maintain an antifreeze solution of adequate
strength.
The ethylene glycol materials are the so called permanent type, since they remain as
liquid at the boiling point of water. Permanent type antifreeze materials must be used
with air conditioned cars because, in these, under the hood temperatures are higher.
The antifreeze materials with lower boiling points will soon boil away.

Antifreeze material are mixed with water in various proportions according to the
prevailing or expected ambient temperature. The lower the temperature, the higher is the
percentage of antifreeze material to be added.

10. What is mist/petroi`l lubrication?


Mist Lubrication System

This system is used where crankcase lubrication is not suitable. In two stroke
engine, as the charge is compressed in the crankcase, it is not possible to have be
lubricating oil in the sump. Hence, mist lubrication is adopted in practice. In such
engines, the lubricating oil is mixed with the fuel, the usual ratio being 3% to 6. The oil
and the fuel mixture is inducted through the carburetor. The fuel is vaporized and the oil
in the form of mist goes via the crankcase into the cylinder. The oil which strikes the
crankcase walls lubricates the main and connecting rod bearings, and the rest of the oil
lubricates the piston, piston rings and the cylinder.

The advantage of this system is its simplicity and low cost as it does not require an oil
pump, filter, etc. however, there are certain disadvantages which are enumerated below.

1. It causes heavy exhaust smoke due to burning of lubricating oil partially or fully and
also forms deposits on piston crown and exhaust ports which affect engine
efficiency.
2. Since the oil comes in close contact with acidic vapours produced during the
combustion process get contaminated and may result in the corrosion of bearing
surface.
3. This system calls for a through mixing for effective lubrication. This requires either
separate mixing prior to use or use of some additive to give the oil good mixing
characteristics.
4. During closed throttle operation as in the case of the vehicle moving down the hill,
the engine will suffer from insufficient lubrication as the supply of fuel is less. This is
an important limitation of this system.

In some of the modern engines, the lubricating oil is directly injected into the
carburetor and the quantity of oil is regulated. Thus the problem of oil deficiency is
eliminated to a very great extent. In this system the main bearings also receive oil from a
separate pump. For this purpose, they will be located outside the crankcase. With this
system, formation of deposits and corrosion of bearings are also eliminated.

11. What are the two lubrication systems with respect to the flow of lubricant?
Full flow and partial or by pass flow pressure system
The full flow system and the partial or bypass flow system can be seen in fig. The full
flow lubrication system is one in which the entire quantity of oil delivered by the pump is
forced through the oil filter before the oil reaches the various parts of the engine. It is the
most common and widely used type. The bypass lubrication system does not filter all of
the oil that enters the engine bearings. It filters some of the extra oil not needed by the

bearings.

Full flow Lubrication system and partial (or bypass) lubrication system

12. What are the three types of lubricating oil pumps?

13. Briefly mention cloud point and pour point


Cloud Point and Pour Point
If an oil is cooled, it will start solidifying at some temperature. This temperature is
called cloud point. This clouding or haziness of the oil interferes with its flow. The pour
point is that temperature just above which the oil sample will not flow under certain
prescribed conditions. This temperature is largely determined by the wax in long needle-
shaped crystals, forming honeycomb with oil held in the voids between the crystals.
Generally oil derived from paraffinic crudes tend to have higher pour points than those
derived from naphthenic crudes. The pour point can, however, be lowered by the
addition of a pour point depressant usually a polymerized phenol or ester. These
substances function by depositing insulating films on the wax crystals as they begin to
separate out from the oil and by reducing the size of crystals.

This characteristic of the oil is very important at low temperature operation since
it will affect the flow in the pressure line of the lubricating system. Pour point must be at
least 15F lower than the operating temperature to ensure maximum circulation. Even at
this temperature the oil may be quite viscous so that high power may be necessary for
starting.

14. Draw the opposed piston engine diagram?

15. What is surface ignition? What features cause surface ignition?


Surface ignition
Surface ignition is the ignition of the air fuel mixture by one or more of the following
1. Incandescent (glowing hot) piece of carbon in the combustion chamber.
2. Overheated engine from improper operation of the cooling system.
3. Exhaust valve overheated by lean air fuel mixture supply (due to lean carburetor
setting, clogged injector strainer, vacuum leak, stuck EGR valve etc).
4. Overheated spark plug central electrode ( heat range too high).
5. Exhaust valve overheated by gas leakage (insufficient tappet clearance, weak
valve spring, sticking valve etc).
6. Sharp edges in the combustion chamber (over heated threads on spark plug,
edge of cylinder head gasket, sharp machined parts etc).
7. Excessively dry and hot atmospheric conditions or an air filter clogged.

Surface ignition may occur before the spark plug ignites the charge (preignition)
or after normal ignition ( post ignition). It may produce a single flame or many flames.
Surface ignition may result in knock if it occurs after the spark.
Part B (5 x 6 marks = 30 marks)
(Answer all question.Each question carries 6 marks.Answer must not exceed one page)

16. What is meant by firing order? Why firing order is important? Mention the firing order for
3,4,6 cyclinder engines.

Firing order applies to multi cylinder engines. Firing order refers to the sequence
in which the charge in the various cylinders of a multi cylinder engine is burnt. In this
order, the power impulses are produced and act on the crankshaft.
In the case of an in line engine, the firing order is so chosen to fire the charge in
the various cylinders, as far as possible, at the alternate ends of the crankshaft. This
enable the crankshaft to be stressed more or less uniformly along its length during two
revolutions of the crankshaft in a four stroke multicylinder engine. Arranging the firing
order as above reduces vibration and makes the engine to run smoothly. The firing order
used in four cylinder in line engines are 1-3-4.2 or 1-2-4-3. Two firing orders used in six
cylinder in line engines are 1-5-3-6-2-4 or 1-4-2-6-3-5. The firing order for 3 cylinder in
line engine is 1,2,3.

In the case of V engines, the firing order is so chosen: (1) To alternate the firing
between the ends of the crankshaft and the cylinder block on each bank. (2) To
distribute the forces around over the engine. (3) To avoid concentrating subsequent
explosions near one location of the crankshaft.

17. Draw and explain the four types of value arrangements.


The SI engines (as well as CI engines) may also be classified by valve location. The
classification of SI engines by valve location is shown in figure.
Figure: Classification of S.I. engines by valve location

The T-head design shown is now obsolete. The side valve, or L-head design
was quite popular up to 1960. The most popular design today is the overhead valve
design, which is also called I-head or valve in head engine. A combination of side
valve design and overhead valve design is occasionally made to give a F-head. Here
the intake valve is located in the head (over head) while the exhaust valve is located in
the block (overhead).

18. Explain the working of a Thermostat in cooling system


Thermostat cooling: As already discussed, too low a cylinder barrel temperature,
may result in severe corrosion damage due o condensation of acids on the barrel wall.
To avoid such a situation it is customary to use a thermostat (a temperature controlling
device) to stop flow of coolant below a present cylinder barrel temperature.

Most modern cooling system embody a thermostatic device which prevents the wear in
the engine jackets from circulating through the radiator for cooling until its temperature
has reached to a value suitable for efficient engine operation.

Fig. (a) shows a schematic diagram of a thermostatically controlled cooling system. Also
shown is a typical car thermostat (fig. (b). The thermostat valve is fitted between the
engine and the wax. As the temperature increases, the wax melts and valve is opened to
allow coolant to go to the radiator. Under normal operating temperatures the valve
remain open. When the temperature falls, the valve is closed bypassing the water and,
thus, cooling is automatically ceased. Fig. shows the two positions of a typical
thermostat.
The main advantage of this system is that engine warms up quickly after starting.

How ever, if the engine becomes very hot there is no method to increased cooling
action. The only alternative is to stop the engine and let it cool

To increase the rate of cooling under such situations another arrangement, shown in fig.
(a), is used. In this system shutters are provided on the radiator. These shutters may be
closed or opened automatically by a thermostat. When shutters are opened more air is
allowed to flow and, thus, more cooling can be obtained.

19. Sketch and describe the working of a mechanical fuel pump.


The fuel pump can be seen in figure. It consists of a spring loaded flexible diaphragm
actuated by a rocker arm. The rocker arm is actuated by the eccentric. Non return valves
are there in the inlet and outlet of the pump. These valves ensure flow of fuel in the
proper direction. The internal parts of the pump are made of suitable materials to
withstand exposure to fuel, oil, low and high temperatures and also wear and tear,
vibration etc.

As the rocker arm is moved by the eccentric, the diaphragm is pulled down
against the spring tension. This movement causes a partial vacuum in the pump
chamber. Because of the construction, the deliver valve remains closed while the suction
valve opens. This admits fuel into the pump chamber. At the maximum position of the
eccentric, the diaphragm reaches the end of its stroke. After this, further rotation of the
eccentric will release the rocker arm. Now the rocker arm will simply follow the eccentric
by the action of the return spring. The diaphragm spring will now push the diaphragm
upwards and force the fuel to flow out, opening the delivery valve into the delivery tube.
Now the suction valve remains closed. This action is repeated as the eccentric revolves.

In these pumps, the downward movement of the diaphragm is caused by the


rocker arm, while the delivery stroke is achieved by the tension of the diaphragm spring.
The diaphragm spring is so designed that the fuel pressure is suitably balanced by the
buoyancy of the float system of the carburetor. As such, when the needle valve closes
with carburetor bowl becoming full, the fuel pump cannot deliver fuel to the carburetor. In
this case, the rocker arm simply continues to rock while the diaphragm remains at or
near its end of travel. However, as the carburetor uses the fuel the needle valve opens
to admit fuel. Now the diaphragm moves down by the rocker arm action and sucks the
fuel to deliver back the same when required. This self regulating feature helps the pump
to deliver the correct quantity of fuel at all operating condition.

20. Briefly explain EGR.

The diesel engine is characterized by its low fuel consumption, and very low
emission of CO. When the fuel injection system is correctly adjusted, HC emission is
also low. However, NOX emission of diesel engines is high.

The simplest way of reducing the NOx emission of a diesel engine is by late
injection of the fuel into the combustion chamber. This method is effective but it
increases fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and on engines with direct
injection, also soot emission are increased.

More effective measures for the reduction NOx are water injection and exhaust
gas recirculation. Water injection is expensive. As additional tank must be provided for
water. At temperatures below 00 C, the water must be protected against freezing. In
addition to the fuel injection system, a rust proof water injection system is required.
Diesel engines, especially under part load conditions, operate with considerable
excess air. If part of the intake air is replaced by exhaust gas then the oxygen content in
the cylinder is reduced. This delays the oxidation of nitrogen in the intake air during
combustion. In addition, the specific heat of the exhaust gases is greater than that of air.
The combustion temperature is thus reduced by the application of exhaust gas
recirculation. This also delays the oxidation of the atmospheric nitrogen. Both
processes reduce the concentration of nitric oxide. Finally, an engine with exhaust gas
recirculation emits less exhaust gas than one without exhaust gas circulation. Thus
even if the concentration of toxic substances in the exhaust gas remains unchanged, the
emission of the toxic substances is reduced.

Part C (5 x 10 marks = 50 marks)


(Answer all questions.Each question carries 10 marks.Answer must not exceed Three pages)

21. a) Derive an expression for the air standard efficiency of an otto cycle?
In the air standard Otto cycle, air is compressed adiabatically and reversibly from
1 to 2. Heat is added to the compressed air during the constant volume heating process
from 2 to 3. Adiabatic reversible expansion occurs from 3 to 4. The air is finally cooled
from 4 to 1. This process returns the air to the initial condition.

P1V1 P2 V2 P3 V3
Weight of fluid (w) =
RT1 RT2 RT3
P4 V4

RT4
Heat supplied, QA = w Cv (T3 T2)
Heat rejected, QR = w Cv (T4 T1)

P4 V4 P3 V3
Work done by the fluid =
(k 1)
P2 V2 P1V1
Work done on the fluid =
(k 1)
Work output per cycle = QA - QR

= w Cv [(T3 T2) (T4 T1)]

QA QR T T
Cycle efficiency = 1 4 1
QA T3 T2

We know that P1V1 = mRT1 and P2V2 = mRT2.


Where m is the mass of air.

P1V1 P2 V2
Therefore,
T1 T2
Also P1V1k = P2V2k

1k k
V1 P2 P V
Therefore, or 2 1
V2 P1 P1 V2

k k 1
T2 P2 V2 V1 V2 V1

T1 P1 V1 V2 V1 V2

k 1
T3 V4
Similarly
T4 V3

V1
Compression ratio, r
V2
V4
Expansion ratio r(in t his case)
V3
Therefore, T2 = T1 r k-1 and T3 = T4 r k-1
k 1
1
Efficiency 1 .
r

(or)
b) An engine working on the otto cycle has a compression ratio 8.5:1 . The temperature and
the pressure out the beginning of compression is 93c and 0.93 bar respectively.The
maximum pressure in the cycle is 38 bar. Determine the pressure and temperature at all
the points of the cycle and air standard efficiency.
SOLUTION:
rk = 8.5 = V1/V2
T1= 93c
= 93 + 273 = 366 kP

P1 = 0.93 bar
= (0.93 X 100) = 93kPa
P3 = 38 bar =( 38 X 100 )= 3800 kP
To find: p & T at all points of the cycle, air standard efficiency.
Adiabatic compression:
Pressure 1-2:
P2/P1 = (V1/V2)r ; P2 = P1(V1/V2)r = 8.5 1.4 X 39
P2 = 1860.67 kPa
T2/T1 = (P2/P1)((r-1)/r )= (1860.67/93)((1.4-1)/1.4)
T2 = 366(1860.67/93)(0.4/1.4) = 366(1767.67) (0.4/1.4)
= 366(1767.67)(0.285)
T2 = 861.44k
Pressure 2-3: Constant volume heat addition.
P3/P2 = T3/T2 = (3800 P3/1860.67) = (T3/861.44)
T3 = 3800 X 861.44/1860.67 = 1759.393 K
Pressure 3-4: Adiabatic expansion.
P3V3r = P4V4r ; P4 = P3V3r/V4r = P3(1/rk)r
V3=V2 , V4=V1 = .3800 X (1/8.5)r = 189.932 KPa
P4 = 189.932 KPa.
Pressure 4-1: Constant volume heat rejection.
P4/T4 = P1/T1 ; T4 = P4T1/P1
T4 = 189.93 X 366/93 = 747.474 K

P1 = 0.93 bar , T1 = 366 k , P2 = 18.61 bar , T2 = 861.53


P3 = 38 bar , T3= 1759.17 , P4 = 1.9 bar , T4 = 74747

air = Q1-Q2/Q1
Q1 = Mcv(T3-T2)
Q2 = Mcv(T4=T1)
Q1 = 0.718(1759.17-861.53)
= 644.50 kj/kg.
Q2 = 0.718(747.4-366)
= 273.8452.
air = (644.50 273.8452)/(644.50) X 100
air = 57.52.

22. a) Compare the SI and CI engine in all aspects in a tabular form.


Table Comparison of SI and CI Engines

Description SI Engine CI Engine

Basic cycle Works on Otto cycle or constant volume heat Works on Diesel cycle or constant pressure heat
addition cycle. addition cycle.
Fuel Gasoline, a highly volatile fuel. Self ignition Diesel oil, a non volatile fuel. Self ignition
temperature is high. temperature is comparatively low.
Introduction of A gaseous mixture of fuel air is introduced Fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber
during the suction stroke. A carburetor and an at high pressure at the end of the compression
fuel
ignition system are necessary. Modern stroke. A fuel pump and injector are necessary.
engines have gasoline injection.
Load control Throttle controls the quantity of fuel-air mixture The quantity of fuel is regulated. Air quantity is not
introduced. controlled.
Ignition Requires an ignition system with spark plug in Self-ignition occurs due to high temperature of air
the combustion chamber. Primary voltage is because of the high compression. Ignition system
provided by either a battery or a magneto. and spark plug are not necessary.
Compression 6 to 10. Upper limit is fixed by antiknock 16 to 20. Upper limit is limited by weight increase of
quality of the fuel. the engine.
ratio

Speed Due to light weight and also due to Due to heavy weight and also due to heterogeneous
homogeneous combustion, they are high combustion, they are low speed engines.
speed engines.
Thermal Because of the lower C Because of higher CR, the maximum value of
R, the maximum value of thermal efficiency thermal efficiency that can be obtained is higher.
efficiency
that can be obtained is lower.
Weight Lighter due to lower peak pressures. Heavier due to higher peak pressures.

(or)
b) Compare and tabulate the four stroke and two stroke engines in detail.

Four-Stroke Engine Two-Stroke Engine


The thermodynamic cycle is completed in four strokes of the The thermodynamic cycle is completed in two strokes of
piston or in two revolutions of the crankshaft. Thus, one the piston or in one revolution of the crankshaft. Thus
power stroke is obtained in every two revolutions of the one power stroke is obtained in each revolution of the
crankshaft. crankshaft.
Because of the above, turning moment is not so uniform and Because of the above, turning moment is more uniform
hence a heavier flywheel is needed. and hence a lighter flywheel can be used.
Again, because of one power stroke for two revolutions, Because of one power stroke for every revolution,
power produced for same size of engine is less, or for the power produced for same size of engine is twice, or for
same power the engine is heavier and bulkier. the same power the engine is lighter and more compact.
Because of one power stroke in two revolutions lesser Because of one power stroke in one revolution greater
cooling and lubrication requirements. Lower rate of wear and cooling and lubrication requirements. Higher rate of
tear. wear and tear.
Four-stroke engines have valves and valve actuating Two-stroke engines have no valves but only ports
mechanisms for opening and closing of the intake and (some two-stroke engines are fitted with conventional
exhaust valves. exhaust valve or reed valve).
Because of comparatively higher weight and complicated Because of light weight and simplicity due to the
valve mechanism, the initial cost of the engine is more. absence of valve actuating mechanism. Initial cost of
the engine is less.
Volumetric efficiency is more due to more time for induction. Volumetric efficiency is low due to lesser time for
induction.
Thermal efficiency is higher; part load efficiency is better. Thermal efficiency is lower; part load efficiency is poor.
Used where efficiency is important, viz., in cars, buses, Used where low cost, compactness and light weight are
trucks, tractors, industrial engines, aeroplanes, power important, viz., in mopeds, scooters, motorcycles, hand
generation etc. sprayers etc.

23. a) Draw and explain the working of a constant Vacuum Carburetor.


SU Constant Vacuum Carburetor

The widely used SU carburetor with a variable jet device is shown in figure. A
plunger or cylinder integral with the air disc is rigidly attached to the piston rod. The
piston rod slides in the guide cylinder at the center of the housing. When the piston rod
moves down to its lowest position, it closes the air passage or air orifice to the throttle
barrel. The air orifice or choke is the rectangular opening of constant width and variable
height formed below the plunger. The depression in the throttle chamber is
communicated through a hole and acts on the top portion of the air disc. The
atmospheric pressure is communicated through the vent hole and acts on the bottom
portion of the air disc. Because of the difference in pressures, the air disc rises from its
lowest position and thereby changes the height of the air orifice formed below the
plunger.

It can be seen that the depression necessary to maintain the disc and the
cylinder or plunger valve from falling to their lowest position is determined only by the
weight of the plunger, air disc and piston rod assembly and the top and bottom surface
areas of the air disc. As such, this depression is a constant one.

The position which the moving members take up, and therefore the choke area,
is such that this area, when subject to the foregoing constant depression is capable of
passing the charge demanded by the engine. Remember the charge demanded by the
engine is determined by the combination of throttle (valve) opening and the rate of
engine piston displacement.

A taper needle is rigidly attached to the bottom of the moving plunger. This
needle goes inside the fuel jet tube as shown in the figure. As the plunger moves up and
down, varying fuel jet is formed by the annular space between the jet tube and the taper
needle. By this arrangement, as the plunger moves up and down, the air flow area and
the fuel flow are altered.
Fig. SU Constant Vacuum Carburetor
When the needle is ground to the proper profile, the jet area will be correctly
related to the choke (air orifice) area for all positions of the moving plunger and thereby
ensures correct mixture (both in quality and quantity) flow to the engine. It should be
remembered that in general, the profile of the needle will not be a straight taper, and any
desired air fuel mixture relationship (ratio) can be obtained by a suitable choice of the
needle profile.

The clamping screw fixes the jet needle to the bottom of the plunger. The jet
needle can be rised or lowered to some extent in the hole within the plunger and
clamped. This also helps to vary the mixture strength.

Provision is also there for raising or lowering the jet tube relatively to the needle
by means of a lever (not shown in the figure). This lever can be operated from the
dashboard. By this means, the mixture can be weakened or enriched throughout the
operating range. The jet tube is usually lowered to ensure rich mixture supply which is
required for cold starting.
Light springs are used above the disc in some horizontal models, to compensate
for the lighter weight of the aluminium alloy used for the air disc assembly.
In some designs the piston rod is made hollow, and the dash pot damper device
is incorporated within it. The damper device checks the rise of the air disc on sudden
opening of the throttle. This delay results in enrichment of the mixture strength as in a
fixed choke carburetor.
(or)
b) Draw and explain a constant choke carburetor used in modern automobiles?
Solex Carburetors

The solex carburetor is famous for its case of starting, good performance and reliability.
It is made in various models and is used in many automobile engines. The solex carburetor as
shown in figure is a downdraught carburetor. This has the provision for the supply of richer
mixture required for starting and weaker mixture during cruising the vehicle. It consists of
various fuel circuits such as starting, idling or low speed operation, normal running, acceleration,
etc.

Figure gives the line sketch of a solex carburetor. It incorporates a device called bistarter
which is unique for this carburetor. This device is very useful for cold starting of the engine. The
various components and the circuits for air and fuel are explained below for various ranges of
operation.

Normal Running: A float (1) with a tapered needle valve at the top face of the float is
fixed in the float chamber. This tapered valve takes care of the level of fuel in the float chamber.
The main metering jet (2) supplies fuel and the air comes through the venturi (3). The fuel from
the main jet goes into the well of the air-bleed emulsion system. The emulsion tube has lateral
holes (4) as shown in the figure. Air correction jet (5), calibrates the air entering through it and
ensures automatically the correct-balance of air and fuel. The metered emulsion of fuel and air
is supplied through the spraying orifice or nozzles (6). These nozzles are drilled horizontally in
the vertical stand pipe in the middle of the choke tube or the venturi. The conventional butterfly
valve throttle valve is shown by (7).
Cold Starting and Warming: The uniqueness of solex carburetor is the incorporation of a
Bi-Starter or a progressive starter. The starter valve is in the form of a flat disc (8) with holes of
different sizes. These holes connect the starter gasoline jet (9) and, starter air jet sides, to the
passage which opens into a hole just below the throttle valve at (10). Smaller or bigger size
holes come opposite the passage depending upon the position of the starter lever (11). The
starter lever is operated by flexible cable from the dash board control. Initially, for starting richer
mixture is required and after the engine starts, the mixture has to be progressively leaned. In the
start position bigger holes are in operation. The throttle valve being in the closed position, whole
of the engine suction is applied to the starting passage (11), inducting gasoline from jet 9) and
air from jet (10). The jets and passages are so shaped that the mixture provided to the
carburetor I rich enough for starting.
Idling and Slow Running: From the well of the emulsion system a hole leads to the pilot
jet (13). During idling, the throttle is practically closed and therefore the suction created by the
engine on suction stroke gets communicated to the pilot jet(13). Fuel is inducted from there and
mixed with little quantity of air coming from the small pilot air-bleed orifice (14). This form an
emulsion which is sent down the vertical tube to below the throttle valve, but through the idling
volume control screw (15). The idle running adjustment is done by the idle adjustment screw
(15). The idling speed can be thus varied and set to a desired value.

In order to change over smoothly from the idle and low speed operation to the main jet
operation without a flat spot, there is a by-pass orifice (17) on the venturi side of the throttle
valve. As the throttle is opened, the suction at idle port (16) is reduced. But the suction pressure
is exerted at a slow speed opening (17). This off sets the reduction of suction at the idle port
(16). Thus flat spot is averted.

Acceleration: In order to avert flat spot during acceleration a diaphragm type


acceleration pump is incorporated. This pump supplies extra fuel needed for acceleration
through pump injector (18). Pump lever (18) is connected to the accelerator. When the pedal is
pressed by foot the lever moves towards left and presses the pump diaphragm towards left.
This forces the gasoline through pump jet (20) and injector (18). On releasing the pressure on
the pedal, the lever moves the diaphragm back towards right and in so doing, creates vacuum
towards left. The vacuum so created opens the pump inlet valve (21), and gasoline from float
chamber enters the pump.

24. a) Briefly explain the MPFI system with neat sketch.


FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS OF MPF1 SYSTEM
The MPF1 system can be functionally divided into the following three main components:
i. Electronic control system
ii. Fuel system
iii. Air induction system
These functional divisions are described in the following sections.
MPF1-Electronic Control System
The MPF1 electronic control system is shown in the form of block diagram in figure. The
sensors that monitor intake air temperature, the oxygen, the water temperature, the starter
signal and the throttle position send signals to the ECU. The air-flow sensor sends signals to the
ECU regarding the intake air volume. The ignition sensor sends information about the engine
speed.
The ECU processes all these signals and sends appropriate commands to the injectors,
to control the volume of the fuel for injection. When necessary the cold-start injector timing
switch off the ECU operates the cold start injector which is a part of the fuel system.
MPF1-Fuel system
The MPF1-fuel system is shown in the form of block diagrams in figure. In this system,
fuel is supplied by the fuel pump. At the time of starting, the cold start injector is operated by the
cold start injector time switch. The cold start injector injects fuel into the air intake chamber, thus
enriching the air-fuel mixture. The pressure regulator regulates the pressure of the fuel. The
injectors receive signals from the ECU and inject the fuel into the intake manifold.
MPF1 Air Induction System
The MPF1-air induction system is shown in the block diagram in figure. The air cleaner,
the air-flow meter, the throttle body and the air valve supply a proper amount of air to the air
intake chamber and intake manifold. The quantity of air supplied is just what is necessary for
complete combustion.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
The electronic control system consists of mainly the Electronic Control unit (ECU), which
determines the duration of operation of the injectors. In addition to this, there is a starter timing
switch, which controls the operation of the cold start injector during engine starting. There is a
circuit opening relay to control fuel pump operation. There is also a resistor, which stabilizes the
injector operation.
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
The ECU in the electronic control system, receives signals from the sensors and
determines the opening time for the injectors land which also controls the injection volume.
(or)
b) Explain the common rail fuel injection system with diagram.
Constant pressure or common rail system:
Fig (b) High pressure pump, common rail injector system

The constant pressure common rail system was developed by M/S. Vickers company.
The basic elements of BICERA common rail system and the CUMMINS PT common rail fuel
injection system can be seen in fig. This system consists of a high pressure pump which
distributes fuel to a common rail or header to which each injector is connected. A spring loaded
bypass valve on the header maintains a constant pressure or 330 to 530 kscm in the system
and returns all excess fuel to the supply tank.
The fuel injectors are operated mechanically. The metering and timing of fuel injection
are accomplished by the spray valve. The amount of fuel injected into the cylinders is controlled
by the lift of the needle valve in the injector. The duration of injection depends on the length of
time the valve is off its seat. The quantity of fuel injected depends on the duration, size and
number of holes in the nozzle tip and fuel pressure and air pressure in the cylinder.
The nozzles must therefore be closely matched to ensure equal distribution among the
cylinders. The common rail system tends to be self governing. That is if the speed falls, an
increased quantity of fuel is injected (since more time is now available). Remember, the supply
pressure is independent of engine speed.
25. a) Explain turbocharger with a neat sketch.
During engine operation, hot exhaust gases blow out through the exhaust valve
opening into the exhaust manifold. The exhaust manifold and the connecting tubing
route these gases into the turbine housing. As the gases pass through the turbine
housing, they strike on the fins or blades on the turbine wheel. When the engine load is
high enough, there is enough gas flow and this makes the turbine wheel to spin rapidly.
The turbine wheel is connected to the compressor wheel by the turboshaft. As such, the
compressor wheel rotates with the turbine. Compressor wheel rotation sucks air into the
compressor housing. Centrifugal force throws the air outward. This causes the air to
flow out of the turbocharger and into the engine cylinder under pressure.
In the case of turbocharging, there is a phenomena called turbolag. It refers to
the short delay period before the boost or manifold pressure increases. This is due to
the time the turbocharger assembly takes the exhaust gases to accelerate the turbine
and compressor wheel to speed up.

Figure: PRINCIPLE OF EXHAUST TURBOCHARGING OF A SINGLE CYLINDER


ENGINE

(or)
b) Draw and explain the working of a hybrid vehicle .
In a parallel hybrid system, figure the electronic power management system can be
employed to switch the drive from the batteries
Figure: In the series hybrid system, the motor drives the generator which powers the motor
that drives the wheels
The parallel hybrid drive is so called because, under appropriate conditions, both the engine
and the electric motor simultaneously drive the wheels alone, over to combined battery and
electric drive for acceleration or climbing hills. The diesel or gasoline engine can be stopped for
operation at light load, and automatically started again when either the batteries must be
recharged or the torque output has to be supplemented by either direct power form the
generator, or by power from both the batteries and generator or internal combustion engine, or
even from all three simultaneously.