Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

BUKU KERJA FIZIK 2017-2018 SIRI

PERTAMA (A) BAB 1-2

NO BAB TARIKH KUASAI ATAU TIDAK


1 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIC
2 FORCE AND MOTION
3 EXERCISE: INTRODUCTION TO
PHYSIC (STRUCTURE)
4 EXERCISE: FORCE AND MOTION
(STRUCTURE)
5 EXERCISE: INTRODUCTION TO
PHYSIC (ESSAY)
6 EXERCISE: FORCE AND MOTION
(ESSAY)

NAME.
KELAS
NAMA CIKGU

1
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
FORM 4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
TO PHYSIC
What is physic?
Is a study of natural phenomena and ____________________________________

1.1 Physical Quantities


1.1.1 Quantities and Units

Physical quantity: A property ascribed to phenomena, objects, or substances that


can be quantified
Base quantity: Physical quantity that cannot be defined or derived from any
other physical quantity
Derived quantity: Physical quantity obtained through a combination of base
quantities via multiplication or division
The five base quantities

No Quantity Symbol SI Units Symbol for SI


Units
Length l meter m
1.

Mass m kilogram kg
2.

Time t second s
3.

Temperature T Kelvin K
4.

Electric current I Ampere A


5.

2
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
1.1.2 Scientific Notation (Standard Form)
A 10n
where A 1 < 10 and n = integer
The value of A should always be rounded to 3 or 4 significant numbers.

1.1.3 Prefixes

3
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
Prefix Value Standard 10n where Symbol
form n is
Tera 1 000 000 1012 12 T
000 000
Giga 1 000 000 109 9 G
000
Mega 1 000 000 106 6 M
Kilo 1 000 103 3 k
Hecto 100 102 2 h
Deca 10 101 1 da
Deci 0.1 10-1 -1 d
Centi 0.01 10-2 -2 c
Milli 0.001 10-3 -3 m
Micro 0.000 001 10-6 -6
Nano 0.000 000 10-9 -9 n
001
Pico 0.000 000 10-12 -12 p
000 001

1.2 Scalar and Vector Quantities


Scalar Quantities Vector Quantities
Physical quantities with magnitude only Physical quantities with magnitude and
direction
EXAMPLES
Distance Displacement
Speed Velocity

4
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
Example: Distance vs Displacement

Fauziah travelled from Kuala Lumpur to Kangar, a distance of 507 km. After that she
continued her journey to Butterworth, a distance of 138 km. From Butterworth, Fauziah then
travelled back to Kuala Lumpur, a distance of 369 km.

Distance is the TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY THE OBJECT.


Therefore, distance = 507 + 138 + 169 = 1 014km

Displacement is the DIRECT DISTANCE BETWEEN THE STARTING AND


ENDING POINT.
Because Fauziahs final location is the same as her starting location, her final displacement =
0 km

Example: Speed vs Velocity

Although both cars are traveling at the same speed, i.e. 60 km/h, they are traveling at
different velocities because the directions are different.

Traveling at 60
Traveling at 60
km/h West
km/h East

1.3 Measurements

1.3.1 Precision, Accuracy and Sensitivity

Precision Accuracy Sensitivity


The degree of uniformity The degree of closeness of The ability of a measuring instrument
of reproducibility ot the the measurements to the to detect small changes of the
measurements true or accepted value physical quantity measured
(consistency)
To increase precision: To increase accuracy: To increase sensitivity of a mercury
- use a magnifying glass - use more sensitive thermometer:
when reading the scale equipment - thinner wall of bulb
- avoid parallax errors - repeat readings taken - narrower capillary tube
- avoid parallax errors - smaller bulb size
- avoid zero errors or end - thicker wall of glass tube

5
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
edge errors

1.3.2 Measuring Apparatus


Vernier calipers (0.01cm)

Micrometer screw gauge (0.01mm)

1.3.3 Errors
Systematic Errors Random Errors
Systematic errors are errors that can Random errors happen when one reading
consistently affect readings. It cannot be deviates from the others. It can be
reduced by taking the average of multiple reduced by taking the average from
readings. multiple readings.
Systematic errors are usually caused by Examples:
errors within the measuring instrument. Parallax errors
For example: Unavoidable small changes in the
Zero errors surrounding
End error Outside disturbances that cannot be
Incorrect scale calibration taken into account
Lack of sensitivity of the measuring
instruments
Human errors, e.g:
o Counted wrong number of oscillations
o Readings with inconsistent time
intervals
o Volume of liquid was measured after
some was unknowingly and
unintentionally spilt

6
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
1.4 Scientific Investigation
STEPS METHOD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

7
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
8
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
9
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
10
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
11
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
12
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
FIRST READING SECOND READING FIRST READING SECOND READING

LENGTH OF PENDULUM=10.0 cm LENGTH OF PENDULUM=30.0 cm

FIRST READING SECOND READING

LENGTH OF PENDULUM=40.0 cm
FIRST READING SECOND READING

LENGTH OF PENDULUM=20.0 cm

FIRST READING SECOND READING

LENGTH OF PENDULUM=50.0 cm

13
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
14
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 FORCE AND
MOTION
2.1 Linear Motion
What is linear motion?
Linear Motion is the motion in a ____________________ with constant acceleration

Classification Scalar Vector


Physical quantity with Magnitude only Magnitude and direction
Example Distance Displacement
Speed Velocity
Acceleration

2.1.1 Equations of Linear Motion

2.2 Linear Motion Graphs

2.2.1 Ticker timer


-Ticker timers work with alternating current (AC) only.
-Ticker timers typically have a frequency of 50 Hz.
-The period of one tick is 1 50= 0.02 s.

Movement Explanation
Consistent distance
= uniform velocity

Short distance
= low velocity

15
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
Long distance
= high velocity

Increasing distance
= increasing velocity /
acceleration

Decreasing distance
= decreasing velocity /
deceleration

To calculate the average velocity from a ticker tape strip or graph:

2.2.2 Linear Motion Graphs

16
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
2.3 Inertia
Inertia is the natural characteristics of an object to oppose any attempted change on its
original state, whether at rest or in motion. It is the tendency of an object to remain at rest, or
to keep moving at constant speed in a straight line

Newtons First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)


Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an
external force is applied to it.

2.4 Momentum
Momentum = mass velocity
p = mv
where p = momentum [kg m s-1]
m = mass [kg]
v = velocity [m s-1]

17
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
Principle of conservation of momentum

In any collision or interaction between two or more objects in an isolated system, the total
momentum before collision is equal to the total momentum after collision.
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

2.5 Force
Force is the product of ______________ and __________________

- Force changes the size, shape, state of rest, velocity and/or direction of an object.
- Force is a vector quantity.

Newtons Second Law of Motion


The acceleration of a body, a, is directly proportional to the net force acting upon it, F, and
inversely proportional to its mass, m.

F = ma
where F = force [N]

18
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
m = mass [kg]
a = acceleration caused by F [ms-2]

2.5.1 Balanced Forces (Forces in Equilibrium)

Balanced forces is a state where net force is zero.


When an object is in a state of balanced forces or forces in equilibrium, the object will
either be:
-stationary, or
-moving with uniform velocity.

2.5.2 Unbalanced Forces

Unbalanced forces may cause an object to start moving, to speed it up, to slow it down, or to
bring it to a stop. The greater the unbalanced force, the greater the acceleration or
deceleration produced

2.6 Impulse and Impulsive Force

19
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
2.7 Safety Features in Vehicles
1. Padded dashboards
2. Shatterproof windscreen glass
3. Inflatable airbags
4. Collapsible steering wheels
5. Headrest
6. Padded seats
7. Seatbelt
8. Antilock brake systems (ABS)
9. Variable-ratio response steering systems
10. Intelligent speed adaptation systems
11. Reverse collision warning systems
12. Bumper bars

2.8 Gravity

All objects are pulled towards the centre of the earth by a force known as the earths
gravitational force. Any object dropped towards earth which falls under the influence of the
earths gravitational force (without any influence of other external forces, such as air friction)
is said to be going through a free fall. In reality, free falls only happen within a vacuum space.

The diagram on the right shows the non-uniform gravitational field of the Earth, g which is
represented by radial lines directed towards the centre of the Earth. The field is strongest
where the lines are closest.

2.6.1 Free fall

An object undergoing free fall will fall at the rate of gravitational acceleration which is at a
constant of 9.81 m s-2 at sea level. The gravitational acceleration is not influenced by the size
or mass of the object.

Objects dropped from the same height will fall at the same rate and will hit the ground at the
same time, regardless of the mass.

20
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
However, for objects with very small mass and very large surface area like feathers, pieces of
paper and cloth, they will fall at a lower rate. This is because the larger the surface area, the
greater the air resistance.
If the same objects are placed in a vacuum tube, they will fall at the same rate.

2.6.2 Weight

Weight is the product of mass and gravitational acceleration.


W = mg
where W = weight [N]
m = mass [m]
g = gravitational acceleration [m s-2]

2.6.3 Lifts
Common formula:
R = mg + ma
Where R = reading of the scale [N]
m = mass of person [kg]
g = gravitational acceleration [m s-2]
a = upward acceleration of the lift [m s-2]
If the lift is stationary or moving with uniform velocity (a =
0):
R = mg
If the lift is moving upwards with acceleration:
R = mg + ma
If the lift is moving upwards with deceleration:
R = mg + m(-a)
R = mg ma
If the lift is moving downwards with acceleration:
R = mg - ma
If the lift is moving downwards with deceleration:
R = mg m(-a)

21
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
R = mg + ma

2.9 Forces in Equilibrium


Equilibrium:
- resultant force = 0
- acceleration = 0 (stationary or uniform velocity)
Newtons Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

2.9.1 Nett / Resultant Forces


Using the parallelogram method
You can solve resultant force by using scaled diagram or calculation.

1. Scaled diagram

Draw the forces to scale using a ruler and a protractor.


Magnitude of resultant force is obtained by measuring and converting back to value using the
scale, and the angle is measured with a protractor.

2.9.2 Pulleys

22
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
23
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
2.9.3 Inclined Planes

2.10 Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency

2.10.1 Work

Work is the product of the applied force and its displacement in the direction of the net force.
Work is a scalar quantity.
When work is done, energy is transferred to the object or changed into a different form.
Work is only done when the object has been displaced. If there is no displacement, there is
no work done.
Displacement must be parallel to the force exerted.
W = Fs
where W = work [J]
F = force creating the work [N]

24
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
s = displacement [m]

2.10 Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency

2.10.1 Work

Work is the product of the applied force and its displacement in the direction of the net
force.
Work is a scalar quantity.
When work is done, energy is transferred to the object or changed into a different form.
Work is only done when the object has been displaced. If there is no displacement, there is
no work done.
Displacement must be parallel to the force exerted.
W = Fs
where W = work [J]
F = force creating the work [N]
s = displacement [m]

2.10.2 Energy

Energy is the potential or ability of a system to do work.


Energy is a scalar quantity.

First law of thermodynamics a.k.a. the principle of conservation of energy states that
energy may neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change form.

2.10.2.1 Kinetic Energy


Kinetic energy is energy acquired by an object during movement.

25
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
2.10.1 Hookes Law

Hookes Law states that the extension or compression of a spring is directly proportional to the
force acting on it provided the elastic limit of the spring has not been exceeded.

26
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
2.10.2 Spring stiffness
Factors which affect the stiffness of a
spring:
1) Length of spring The greater the length the spring, the lower the stiffness

The greater the diameter of wire, the higher the stiffness


2) Diameter of wire

The greater the diameter of coil, the lower the stiffness


3) Diameter of coil

Different materials have different stiffness values


4) Material of wire

Parallel arrangement Series arrangement


The load is equally distributed among the springs. The same load is applied to each spring.
If n springs are used: If n springs are used:
Total extension = nx Total extension = nx

<<END OF THIS CHAPTER>>

27
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

28
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
29
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
30
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
31
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
32
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
33
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
34
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
35
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
36
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
37
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
38
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
39
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
40
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
41
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
42
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
43
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
44
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
45
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
CATATAN
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

46
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

47
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

48
TOGETHER we must succeed, TOGETHER we will succeed