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SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

A. WATER SUPPLY
A B D C B C A D C D B A D A C B

1. SEDIMENTATION A method of purifying water wherein particles of


matters that are suspended in the water are allowed to stay in a container
so that they will set tle in t he bottom, then drawing the water out, leaving
these matters in the cont ainer.

2. Water is t reated by giving CHEMICAL TREATMENTS to kill the harmful


bacteria present and to cure t he turbid taste or mud taste, remove clay,
salts, iron, et c. commo nly used treating liquids is chlorine.

3. Water is purified by FILTRATION. In various processes, so as to remove


the particles of vegetable matt er, mud and other particles of matter present
in the water, most commonly used materials are sand and gravel.

4. Raw water is made to pass on pipes of tiny sieves (strainers ) and exposed
to air of fine mist t o purify it. This is called AERATION method.

5. A PUMP is wat er equipment used whenever the w ater supply at its


natural pressure cannot be directly piped t o a building, tank or reservoir.

6. LIFT PUMP consist of a piston traveling up and down within a cylinder


which is connect ed with a pipe extending down into the source. The piston
and the bottom of the cylinder are each provided with a valve opening
upward. Upon t he pistons upstroke, valve A closes and valve B opens.
Upon the pistons down stroke valve A opens and B closes.

7. FORCE PUMP is used to deliver water at a point higher than the position
of the pump itself. When the plunger (a pis ton) descends, valve A is closed
and water in the cylinder is forced out through valve B and up to the
storage. When the plunger is raised, valve B is closed and A open to
admit water to the cylinder. [A pump that uses pressure to move liquid]

8. SUBMERSIBLE PUMP . This is a kind of pump attached to the end of


deep well pipe enclosed in a casing where the pump is capable of
functioning while submerged.

CESSPOOL (SUMP) - underground container for waste matter: a covered


underground t ank or well fo r the collection of waste matter and water,
especially sewage.

9. CISTERN TANK. A reservoir, tank or vessel for storing or holding water


or other liquids

10. WATER TANK may be used either for the collection of water without
consideration of pressure, o r for storing water under air pressure or under a
static head for future dist ribut ion by pneumatic or gravity means. Materials
are PVC, G.I., reinforced concrete, stainless steel or plain steel.

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11. A SUCTION TANK is a t ank constructed of riveted or weld ed steel plate;
the larger tanks often being divided into two compartments. They should be
large enough to contain at least one days supply for the entire building in
case the city main is temporarily shut off. The pipe from the pump to the
tank should be across connected to the city main so that the water may be
pumped directly from the main in case of fire. These tanks are used so that
the pneumatic tank or other pumps suck the water from this tank and not
from the public main, so t hat it will not dep rive the neighbors of water due
to pressure.

12. PNEUMATIC TANK A tank using air pressure from a suction tank to
distribute wat er for tall buildings which cannot be reached by normal
pressure.

13. UPFEED SYSTEM. Water is distributed from the normal wa ter pressure
coming from t he public wat er main, for low rise buildings.

14. DOWNFEED SYSTEM. By gravity, water is distributed from overhead


water tanks and is support ed either by structural frames or on the roof
decks. Fixtures are below the gravity tank. These elevated tanks are
installed when normal water supply from main public service pipes is not
frequent and when normal pressure from city main is not enough to force
the water to the highest fixtures.

15. The pipe from t he public water main or so urce of water supply to the
building served is called: SERVICING PIPE .

16. The vertical supply pipe which extends upward from one floor to the
next is called a RISER and the horizontal pipes that serve the faucets are
called BRANCHES .

B. WATER SUPPLY
B D A C B C D A C D B A B C D

1. WATER MAIN refers to the public water system laid underground


along t he streets where the house service is connected.

2. GOOSENECK. One end is 0.30M and the other end is 0.90M long.
This prevents t he pipe from snapping (breaking?)when the soil settles.
[U-shaped?]

3. CORPORATION COCK . A stop valve in a service pipe close to its


connection wit h a water main.

4. BUSHING. A kind of G.I. fitting used as a reducer from a bigger


diameter to a lesser diameter.

5. UNION. A G.I. fitt ing wh ich is used when a pipe has already been
installed but dismant ling is difficult.

6. Excessive pressure produces a rumbling sound called the WATER


HAMMER. This occurs when a valve is suddenly turned off and

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causes the wat er to stop, forcing the pipes to shak e and to reduce
this, an additional 0.30m to 0.90m length of pipe is added to the riser
to give air pressure which absorb it.

7. STREET ELBOW or TEE . A kind of G.I. fitting that has one end
external t hreads, while t he other end has internal threads.

8. To insure no leakage, a G.I. pipe when threaded has to use lead liquid
or TEFLON tape around the thread before tightening the fittings.

9. uPVC means: UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE pipe.

10. GATE VALVES. This consists of a wedge -shaped plug which is


screwed down to seat between two brass rings surrounding the inlet
pipe so that a double seal is obtained. The inlet and outlet are in a
straight line. This valve is used when a normal fully open or closed
position is desired. Either end may be used as inlet.

11. CHECK VALVES. These valves are used when it is desired that
the flow through a pipe be always in one direction and there is a
possibility of a flow taking place in the opposite direction. One type
has a pivoted flap which is readily pushed open by the pressur e of
water from one side but is tightly closed by the force of a reverse
flow.

12. CASING. A material used as a covering, such as a pipe bigger


than the main pipe of a deep well so that the main pipe can be pulled
out for repair.

13. OVERHEAD HEIGHT. This is the vertical distance from the


higher source of wat er or overhead tank to the outlet (faucets, shower
head) and is distributed by gravity.

14. WATER TABLE . Subsurface conditions of ground water and


rock must be known. Sites with subsurface which are about 1. 80m to
2.40m below grade can cause problems with ex cavations, foundations,
utility placement and landscaping. This is described as a level
underground in which the soil is situated with water.

15. PIPE CHASE . An opening or space to accommodate a group of


pipes.

16. When the water supply of a very tall building is designed as a


unit, t he required capacities or tanks, pumps and pipings become
unduly large and ex cessive pressures are developed in lower portions
of the downfeed risers. The buildings therefore are divided into
horizontal sections or GROUPING, and to design the hot and cold
water supply syst ems separately for each.

C. FIRE PROTECTION, STORM WATER


A D C B C B D A

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1. STANDPIPE S & HOSES with separate water reserve or up feed
pumping are extremely valuable in any buildings but become highly
essential in tall buildings. This system, intended for use by building
personnel until the fire engines arrive and thereafter by the trained
staff of t he fire department.

2. Automatic SPRINKL ER systems consist of horizont al pattern of pipes


placed near t he ceilings of industrial buildings, warehouses, stores,
theat res and ot her struct ures where the fire hazard requires their use.
These pipes are provided with outlets and heads so constructed that
temperat ures of 55 -70 degree Celsius will cause them to open
automatically and emit a series of time water sprays.

3. WET PIPE SYSTEM . A system of sprinklers with its pipes constantly


filling bot h mains and distribution pipes.

4. DRY PIPE SYSTEM . Generally confined to unheated build ings, there


is no water in the distribution pipes except during a fire. Remot e
valves may be adequate by sensitive elements to admit water to
sprinkler heads.

5. SIAMESE TWIN . An inlet placed outside a building close to ground


level, having t wo openings so that fire engines can pump water to the
dry stand pipes and sprinkler system of the building.

6. Sprinkler heads are the quartzoid bulb type. The bulb is transparent
and cont ains a colored liquid. At 360 degrees Fahrenheit, the bulb
breaks and releases a water stream. One is called UPRIGHT when
used above piping when piping is exposed but when it is hidden inside
ceilings that show only the bulb it is called PENDENT.

7. The port ion of the plumbing system which conveys rainwater to a


suitable t erminal. This is usually discharged into a street gutter
conveyed by a public STORM DRAIN system and carried to some
drainage terminal such as lakes or rivers.

8. PEFORATED PIPE . When the soil is not permeable, and it touches a


concrete or hollow block wall of a ba sement, rainwater will seep on it
and may flood. The gravel is placed all around this wall 0.30m wide
and about 0.30m below the basement floor rainwater from the gravel
towards the drainage terminal.

D. SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


C D B A C A B D D A C B A B D C

1. BLACK WATER. Water plus human waste, solid and liquid, urine that
is flushed out of toilets and urinals.

2. SOIL STACK PIPE . A vertical soil pipe containing fecal matter and
liquid wast e.

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3. WASTE PIPES. A pipe which conveys only liquid wastes free of fecal
matter.

4. VENT. A pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of air in a


plumbing syst em and for reducing the pressure ex erted on trap seals.

5. CLEANOUT FERRULE . A metallic sleeve calked (to fill the gaps , to


seal or to wat erproof) or otherwis e, joined to an opening in a pipe,
into which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of
cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe.

6. TRAP. A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of


air, gas and mat erially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water
through it.

7. HOUSE DRAIN . The part of the lowest horizontal piping of a


plumbing system which receives the discharge from soil, waste and
other drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house
sewer. It should have a slope of at least to a foot or 6mm for
every 300mmor 2%.

8. UNDERGROUND PIT (why not sump pits). A pit or receptacle at a


low point to which t he liquid wastes are drained.

9. SHAFT. A vert ical opening though a building for elevators,


dumbwaiters, light, ventilation and others.

10. SLEEVE. A sheet metal placed when concrete is poured to


accommodat e plumping pipes (through the hole made).

11. CAULKING . lugging an opening around pipe joints with oakum


(hemp soaked with oil) lead or other materials l ike epoxy adhesive on
vinyl that are pounded place.

12. GRADES OF HORIZONTAL PIPING . All horizontal piping shall


run in practical alignment and at a uniform grade of not less than 2%
and shall be supported or anchored at intervals not ex ceeding 3.00M
lengt h (10 feet). All stacks shall be properly supported at their bases
and all pipes are rigidly hundred (100 inches) length.

13. DREASES TRAP. This kind of trap must be installed wherever


oily, lard cont ained wastes from hotels, restaurants, club houses or
simil ar public eating places are discharged into the sewer or sept ic
vault. Sand traps shall be placed as near as possible to the fixture
from which it receives the discharge and shall have an air -tight cover,
easily removable to permit its cleaning.

14. TRAP SEAL. This is the vertical distance between the dip and
the crown weir (an embankment or levee) built to hold water in it s
course or t o divert it to a new course of a p -trap. Also it is the water
in the trap bet ween the dip and the crown weir to prevent unp leasant
and odorous gases t o ent er the room through the fixtures.

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15. SIPHONAGE . The result of a minus pressure in the drainage
system. (Pressure is a force required to move gas or liquid) when a
large amount of the trap (seal) is absolutely discharged. Whe n the
seal is lost, back flow of gases from the sewer line will pass into the
trap, finds its way to the fixture drain outlet and spread into the
room.

16. Upon the complet ion of the entire water distribution system
including connections to apprentices, devic es, tanks, or fixtures, it
shall be t est ed and inspected by means of WATER & AIR TE ST .

E. SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM, REFUSE HANDLING


A D B C C B D A B D A C

1. SEPTIC TANK. A receptacle or water tight vault used to collect


organic waste discharge from the house sewer and designed and
const ructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest the organic
matter through a period of detention, and allow the effluent to
discharge a storm drain.

2. CATCH BASIN. A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a


suffici ent period of t ime to deposit settleable materials.

3. PUBLIC SEWER MAIN . A public sanitary waste disposal system


consisting of a t reatment unit which conveys the raw waste to the
disposal syst em.

4. A common way of disposing solids is by INCINERATION. This is a


cont rolled burning of combustible waste. This can be an effective
wast e reduction met hod for 70 percent of all municipal wastes. If this
is operated properly, it can reduce bulk by 90 to 95 percent. Ash left
over is generally disposed off in a lan dfill.

5. Another met hod of disposing municipal solid wastes is by dumping of


refuse at a pre-planned site, compacted and covered with a layer of
eart h. This method is called a SANITARY LANDFILL .

6. When garbage from different floors of a high -rise building i s disposed


off from an opening and is directly led to the basement garbage bin.
This is called the RUBBISH CHUTES.

7. GARBAGE DISPOSER . This is a contraption inverted to dispose


leftovers straight from the kitchen sink. Simply turn on the faucet,
flick the power swit ch and place the leftovers such as bones, fruit p its,
rotten vegetables, spoiled bones and washed down the drain pipes.

8. After t he ground preparation, a L INER should be laid out on the area


enclosed for sanitary landfill. The main purpose is to prevent the
seepage of leachat e (dirty water, to cause liquid to percolate) deep
down to t he ground wat er strata. This consists of soil or composite
material such as synthetic plastic or asphalt sheets.

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9. TRENCH ME THOD . A method of landfill wherein a tra ctor digs a
trench with a bulldozer blade and trucks dump the refuse to it. Then
the tract or compact s the refuse thoroughly and covers it with eart h
that was dug up earlier. This method is primarily used on ground
level.

10. AREA METHOD . This method of lan dfill is generally used on


rolling terrain where the existing slope of the land can be used as a
basin. In this method, trucks deposit refuse over the selected area.
Huge, heavy t ractors wit h special compacting wheels press down the
refuse. Then the ref use is covered with earth hauled in from
elsewhere.

11. Collect ion of human wastes is done by elaborate systems to


carry most liquid sewage to WATER TREATMENT PLANTS , where the
sewage undergoes a series of treatment steps to remove polluting
materials, biolog ical and chemical contaminants that can harm human
health or ecological systems. The first stage is the trapping or
screening of coarse suspended matter into a grit chamber. Then the
use of aerobic microorganisms to break down the organic matter left
in the sewage called the biological oxidation . Then the third phase,
chemical treatment s used to remove undesirable constituents that
remain. What result s is drinking quality water.

12. BIDET. A fixture that appears like a water closet, since a


person sit s down on it. But it is designed as a combination lavatory
which can plug t he drain and collect hot & cold water, with an
inverted water sprayer to clear the most delicate and well -guarded
parts of the body.

F. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
B A D C C A D B A C

1. What det ermines t he size of a leaching field? PERCOLATION TEST

2. What is an import ant concern in private water supply? HARD NESS.

3. What part of water supply design is affected by building height?


STATIC HEAD

4. Statements:

a. Correct
*Dry pipe sprinkler systems are m ore efficient than wet pipe systems.
*The hazard classification does not necessarily affect sprinkler layout.
b. Incorrect
*Siamese connections serve both sprinklers and standpipes
*Standpipes must be located within stairways or vestibules of smoke -
proofed enclosures.
*Standpipes are required in buildings four or more stories high or
those exceeding 150 feet.

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5. The pressure in a city water main is (0.39273 MPa). If the pressure
loss through piping, fittings, and the water meter has been calculated
as 231 psi (o.15847 MPa) and the highest fixture requires 12 psi
(0.08268 MPa) to operat e, what is the maximum height the fixture can
be above the water main? 50 FEET (15M)

6. You have been ret ained by a client to design a house in a suburban


locat ion. The nearest wate r main is one block away (about 1000M)
and the city has no plans to extend the line in the near future. City
and county regulations do permit the drilling of wells. What should
you recommend you client regarding water supply?

ESTIMATE THE COST OF EXTEN DING THE MUNICIPAL LINE, SINCE THE
WATER QUALITY IS KNOWN AND IT WOULD ENSURE A LONG -TERM
SUPPLY. CONSULT WITH NEARBY PROPERTY OWNERS WHO PLAN TO
BUILD IN THE AREA TO SEE IF THEY WOULD BE WILLING TO SHARE
THE COST OF EXTE NDING THE LINE.

7. Which st atement s about drainage are correct?


a. Correct
*Vent s help prevent the drainage of water from traps
*The house drain cannot also be called the building sewer
*Cleanouts are always a necessary part of a drainage system
b. Incorrect
*Drains should always slope at a minimu m of 1/8 inch per foot
(.0099 per meter) or 9.9mm/meter. [0.99%]

8. Water hammer most often occurs when:


WATER SUDDENLY STOPS WHEN FLOW IS TURNED OFF.

9. One component of a plumbing system that every building has is a :


STACK VENT

10. Select the incorrect stateme nts:

a. Correct
*Several types of plastic can be used for cold water piping, but
only PVDC is used for hot water supply where allowed by local
codes.
*Steel pipe is more labor intensive and requires more space than
copper pipes in plumbing chases.
*ABS is suitable for water supply.
b. Incorrect
*Type M pipe is normally specified for most interior plumbing

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