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# shi20396_ch04.

## qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 50

Chapter 4

4-1
W W

2 2
A B A B

RA RB RA RB

1 1 1

(a) (b)

1
1

RD
RC

3 2 D
C

RA RB B
A

(c)

W
1
RC

RB
RA
RB
2
RA

(d)
(e)

A RA
1

RBx B

RB
RBx RBy

RBy
1

Scale of
corner magnified

(f)
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 51

Chapter 4 51

4-2
(a) 2 kN
60
RB R A = 2 sin 60 = 1.732 kN Ans.
90
2 R B = 2 sin 30 = 1 kN Ans.
2 kN
30 60
RA
RB 30
RA

(b) RA
0.4 m S = 0.6 m
B
0.6
A 45
= tan1 = 30.96
800 N
0.4 + 0.6
0.6 m

RO O 
s

RO RA 800
RA = R A = 1100 N Ans.
135 sin 135 sin 30.96
30.96 800 N
RO 800
45  30.96  14.04 = R O = 377 N Ans.
sin 14.04 sin 30.96
30.96

## (c) 1.2 kN 1.2

RO = = 2.078 kN Ans.
tan 30
30 1.2
RA = = 2.4 kN Ans.
RO RA sin 30

60 90 60

RA 1.2 kN
RO

## (d) Step 1: Find R A and R E

4.5
C 4.5 m h= = 7.794 m
tan 30

30
400 N

y
+ MA = 0
2 4

h
9R E 7.794(400 cos 30) 4.5(400 sin 30) = 0
B D R E = 400 N Ans.
3

RAx 60
A E x

RA 9m
RAy RE

Fx = 0 R Ax + 400 cos 30 = 0 R Ax = 346.4 N

Fy = 0 R Ay + 400 400 sin 30 = 0 R Ay = 200 N

R A = 346.42 + 2002 = 400 N Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 52

## Step 2: Find components of RC on link 4 and R D


(RCy)4
+ MC = 0
C (RCx)4
400(4.5) (7.794 1.9) R D = 0 R D = 305.4 N Ans.

Fx = 0 ( RC x ) 4 = 305.4 N
4 
Fy = 0 ( RC y ) 4 = 400 N
RD D

400 N

## Step 3: Find components of RC on link 2


(RCy)2
Fx = 0
C (RCx)2
( RC x ) 2 + 305.4 346.4 = 0 ( RC x ) 2 = 41 N

2 Fy = 0
( RC y ) 2 = 200 N
B 305.4 N

346.4 N
A

200 N

## 200 N 400 N 200 N 400 N

41 N 305.4 N C 41 N C 305.4 N
30
Pin C
400 N

305.4 N B D 305.4 N
B D

346.4 N
E
A

200 N 400 N
400 N
Ans.

4-3
(a) y 40 lbf 60 lbf 
+ M0 = 0
4" 4" 6" 4"
O x
A B C D
18(60) + 14R2 + 8(30) 4(40) = 0
R1 30 lbf R2
R2 = 71.43 lbf
V (lbf)

60
Fy = 0: R1 40 + 30 + 71.43 60 = 0
O
1.43 11.43
x
R1 = 1.43 lbf
41.43

## M M1 = 1.43(4) = 5.72 lbf in

(lbf in)
M4
x
M2 = 5.72 41.43(4) = 171.44 lbf in
O
M1
M2
M3 = 171.44 11.43(6) = 240 lbf in
M3
M4 = 240 + 60(4) = 0 checks!
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 53

Chapter 4 53

(b) y 2 kN 4 kN/m Fy = 0
A B C R0 = 2 + 4(0.150) = 2.6 kN
O x

MO RO 200 mm 150 mm 150 mm M0 = 0
V (kN) M0 = 2000(0.2) + 4000(0.150)(0.425)
2.6
= 655 N m
0.6
O
O x
M1 = 655 + 2600(0.2) = 135 N m
M
(N m)
M2 = 135 + 600(0.150) = 45 N m
M3
O x
1
M1
M2
M3 = 45 + 600(0.150) = 0 checks!
2
655


(c) y 1000 lbf
M0 = 0: 10R2 6(1000) = 0 R2 = 600 lbf
6 ft 4 ft B 
O
A
x
Fy = 0: R1 1000 + 600 = 0 R1 = 400 lbf
R1 R2

V (lbf)

400

O x

600

M M1
(lbf ft) M1 = 400(6) = 2400 lbf ft
M2
x
M2 = 2400 600(4) = 0 checks!
O

y

(d) 1000 lbf 2000 lbf
+ MC = 0
O
2 ft
A
6 ft
B
2 ft
C
x 10R1 + 2(2000) + 8(1000) = 0
R1 R2 R1 = 1200 lbf

1200
Fy = 0: 1200 1000 2000 + R2 = 0
200
x
R2 = 1800 lbf
1800

M
M2 M1 = 1200(2) = 2400 lbf ft
M1
M3
M2 = 2400 + 200(6) = 3600 lbf ft
O x
M3 = 3600 1800(2) = 0 checks!
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 54

## 54 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design


(e) y 400 lbf 800 lbf + MB = 0
O
4 ft 3 ft B 3 ft
x 7R1 + 3(400) 3(800) = 0
A C
R1 R2 R1 = 171.4 lbf

V (lbf)
800 Fy = 0: 171.4 400 + R2 800 = 0
O x
R2 = 1371.4 lbf
171.4
571.4

O
M3
x
M1 = 171.4(4) = 685.7 lbf ft
M1 M2 = 685.7 571.4(3) = 2400 lbf ft
M2
M3 = 2400 + 800(3) = 0 checks!

(f) Break at A
40 lbf/in

1
O
8"
A R1 = V A = 40(8) = 160 lbf
2
R1 VA

y 
160 lbf 320 lbf + MD = 0
A B 5" 5" D
2" C 12(160) 10R2 + 320(5) = 0
R2 R3 R2 = 352 lbf

40 lbf/in 320 lbf
Fy = 0
x 160 + 352 320 + R3 = 0
R3 = 128 lbf
160 lbf 352 lbf 128 lbf

V (lbf)
192
160

O x

128
160
1
M M4 M1 = 160(4) = 320 lbf in
2
M1
1
O
M5
x
M2 = 320 160(4) = 0 checks! (hinge)
M2 2
M3 M3 = 0 160(2) = 320 lbf in
M4 = 320 + 192(5) = 640 lbf in
M5 = 640 128(5) = 0 checks!
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 55

Chapter 4 55

4-4
(a) q = R1 x1 40x 41 + 30x 81 + R2 x 141 60x 181
V = R1 40x 40 + 30x 80 + R2 x 140 60x 180 (1)
M = R1 x 40x 41 + 30x 81 + R2 x 141 60x 181 (2)
for x = 18+ V =0 and M = 0 Eqs. (1) and (2) give
0 = R1 40 + 30 + R2 60 R1 + R2 = 70 (3)
0 = R1 (18) 40(14) + 30(10) + 4R2 9R1 + 2R2 = 130 (4)
Solve (3) and (4) simultaneously to get R1 = 1.43 lbf, R2 = 71.43 lbf. Ans.
From Eqs. (1) and (2), at x = 0+ , V = R1 = 1.43 lbf, M = 0
x = 4+ : V = 1.43 40 = 41.43, M = 1.43x
x = 8+ : V = 1.43 40 + 30 = 11.43
M = 1.43(8) 40(8 4) 1 = 171.44
x = 14+ : V = 1.43 40 + 30 + 71.43 = 60
M = 1.43(14) 40(14 4) + 30(14 8) = 240 .
+
x = 18 : V = 0, M = 0 See curves of V and M in Prob. 4-3 solution.

## (b) q = R0 x1 M0 x2 2000x 0.21 4000x 0.350 + 4000x 0.50

V = R0 M0 x1 2000x 0.20 4000x 0.351 + 4000x 0.51 (1)
M = R0 x M0 2000x 0.21 2000x 0.352 + 2000x 0.52 (2)
at x = 0.5+ m, V = M = 0, Eqs. (1) and (2) give
R0 2000 4000(0.5 0.35) = 0 R1 = 2600 N = 2.6 kN Ans.
R0 (0.5) M0 2000(0.5 0.2) 2000(0.5 0.35) 2 = 0
with R0 = 2600 N, M0 = 655 N m Ans.
With R0 and M0, Eqs. (1) and (2) give the same V and M curves as Prob. 4-3 (note for
V, M0 x1 has no physical meaning).
(c) q = R1 x1 1000x 61 + R2 x 101
V = R1 1000x 60 + R2 x 100 (1)
M = R1 x 1000x 61 + R2 x 101 (2)
at x = 10+ ft, V = M = 0, Eqs. (1) and (2) give
R1 1000 + R2 = 0 R1 + R2 = 1000
10R1 1000(10 6) = 0 R1 = 400 lbf , R2 = 1000 400 = 600 lbf
0 x 6: V = 400 lbf, M = 400x
6 x 10: V = 400 1000(x 6) 0 = 600 lbf
M = 400x 1000(x 6) = 6000 600x
See curves of Prob. 4-3 solution.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 56

## (d) q = R1 x1 1000x 21 2000x 81 + R2 x 101

V = R1 1000x 20 2000x 80 + R2 x 100 (1)
M = R1 x 1000x 21 2000x 81 + R2 x 101 (2)
At x = 10+ , V = M = 0 from Eqs. (1) and (2)
R1 1000 2000 + R2 = 0 R1 + R2 = 3000
10R1 1000(10 2) 2000(10 8) = 0 R1 = 1200 lbf ,
R2 = 3000 1200 = 1800 lbf
0 x 2: V = 1200 lbf, M = 1200x lbf ft
2 x 8: V = 1200 1000 = 200 lbf
M = 1200x 1000(x 2) = 200x + 2000 lbf ft
8 x 10: V = 1200 1000 2000 = 1800 lbf
M = 1200x 1000(x 2) 2000(x 8) = 1800x + 18 000 lbf ft
Plots are the same as in Prob. 4-3.

## (e) q = R1 x1 400x 41 + R2 x 71 800x 101

V = R1 400x 40 + R2 x 70 800x 100 (1)
M = R1 x 400x 41 + R2 x 71 800x 101 (2)
at x = 10+ , V = M = 0
R1 400 + R2 800 = 0 R1 + R2 = 1200 (3)
10R1 400(6) + R2 (3) = 0 10R1 + 3R2 = 2400 (4)
Solve Eqs. (3) and (4) simultaneously: R1 = 171.4 lbf, R2 = 1371.4 lbf
0 x 4: V = 171.4 lbf, M = 171.4x lbf ft
4 x 7: V = 171.4 400 = 571.4 lbf
M = 171.4x 400(x 4) lbf ft = 571.4x + 1600
7 x 10: V = 171.4 400 + 1371.4 = 800 lbf
M = 171.4x 400(x 4) + 1371.4(x 7) = 800x 8000 lbf ft
Plots are the same as in Prob. 4-3.
(f) q = R1 x1 40x0 + 40x 80 + R2 x 101 320x 151 + R3 x 20
V = R1 40x + 40x 81 + R2 x 100 320x 150 + R3 x 200 (1)
M = R1 x 20x + 20x 8 + R2 x 10 320x 15 + R3 x 20
2 2 1 1 1
(2)
M = 0 at x = 8 in 8R1 20(8) = 0 R1 = 160 lbf
2

at x = 20+ , V and M = 0
160 40(20) + 40(12) + R2 320 + R3 = 0
R2 + R3 = 480
160(20) 20(20) 2 + 20(12) 2 + 10R2 320(5) = 0
R2 = 352 lbf
R3 = 480 352 = 128 lbf
0 x 8: V = 160 40x lbf, M = 160x 20x lbf in
2

## 8 x 10: V = 160 40x + 40(x 8) = 160 lbf ,

M = 160x 20x 2 + 20(x 8) 2 = 1280 160x lbf in
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 57

Chapter 4 57

## 10 x 15: V = 160 40x + 40(x 8) + 352 = 192 lbf

M = 160x 20x 2 + 20(x 8) + 352(x 10) = 192x 2240
15 x 20: V = 160 40x + 40(x 8) + 352 320 = 128 lbf
M = 160x 20x 2 20(x 8) + 352(x 10) 320(x 15)
= 128x + 2560
Plots of V and M are the same as in Prob. 4-3.

## 4-5 Solution depends upon the beam selected.

4-6
(a) Moment at center, xc = (l 2a)/2
  2   
w l l wl l
Mc = (l 2a) = a
2 2 2 2 4

At reaction, |Mr | = wa 2 /2
a = 2.25, l = 10 in, w = 100 lbf/in
 
100(10) 10
Mc = 2.25 = 125 lbf in
2 4
100(2.252 )
Mr = = 253.1 lbf in Ans.
2
(b) Minimum occurs when Mc = |Mr |
 
wl l wa 2
a = a 2 + al 0.25l 2 = 0
2 4 2
Taking the positive root
1   l

## a= l + l 2 + 4(0.25l 2 ) = 2 1 = 0.2071l Ans.

2 2
for l = 10 in and w = 100 lbf, Mmin = (100/2)[(0.2071)(10)]2 = 214.5 lbf in

4-7 For the ith wire from bottom, from summing forces vertically
(a) Ti
xi
a Ti = (i + 1)W
W iW

## From summing moments about point a,


Ma = W (l xi ) i W xi = 0
Giving,
l
xi =
i +1
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 58

## 58 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

So
l l
W = =
1+1 2
l l
x= =
2+1 3
l l
y= =
3+1 4
l l
z= =
4+1 5

(b) With straight rigid wires, the mobile is not stable. Any perturbation can lead to all wires
becoming collinear. Consider a wire of length l bent at its string support:
Ti


il l
 Ma = 0
i1
i1
iW
 iWl ilW
W
Ma = cos cos = 0
i +1 i +1
iWl
(cos cos ) = 0
i +1
Moment vanishes when = for any wire. Consider a ccw rotation angle , which
makes + and
iWl
Ma = [cos( + ) cos( )]
i +1
2i W l . 2i W l
= sin sin = sin
i +1 i +1
There exists a correcting moment of opposite sense to arbitrary rotation . An equation
for an upward bend can be found by changing the sign of W . The moment will no longer
be correcting. A curved, convex-upward bend of wire will produce stable equilibrium
too, but the equation would change somewhat.

4-8
(a) 1 x
12 + 6
 cw
(12, 4cw) C= =9
2s
2
12 6
2p
CD = =3
2
2 C D 1  
R = 32 + 42 = 5
R
1 = 5 + 9 = 14
ccw

 ccw
(6, 4 )
2 = 9 5 = 4
y 2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 59

Chapter 4 59

 
4 1 1 4
p = tan = 26.6 cw
2 3
x
26.6
14

## 1 = R = 5, s = 45 26.6 = 18.4 ccw

3

3
18.4
x
5
3

(b) y 1 9 + 16
 cw C= = 12.5
(9, 5cw) 2
R 16 9
CD = = 3.5
2
D


2 C
2p
1
R = 52 + 3.52 = 6.10
2s 1 = 6.1 + 12.5 = 18.6
(16, 5ccw) 1 5
 ccw p = tan1 = 27.5 ccw
2 x 2 3.5
2 = 12.5 6.1 = 6.4
6.4
18.6
27.5
x

## 1 = R = 6.10 , s = 45 27.5 = 17.5 cw

12.5

6.10
x
17.5
12.5

(c) 1
 cw 24 + 10
y
C= = 17
(24, 6cw) 2
R 24 10
CD = =7
D C
 2
2 1 

2p
R = 72 + 62 = 9.22
(10, 6 ccw
)
2s
1 = 17 + 9.22 = 26.22
 ccw x 2 = 17 9.22 = 7.78
2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 60

## 60 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

1 1 7
26.22 p = 90 + tan = 69.7 ccw
69.7 2 6
7.78

## 1 = R = 9.22, s = 69.7 45 = 24.7 ccw

17 9.22
17
24.7
x

(d) x
1 9 + 19
 cw
(9, 8cw)
C= = 14
2
2s
19 9
2p CD = =5
 2
2 1 
D C R = 52 + 82 = 9.434
R 1 = 14 + 9.43 = 23.43
(19, 8ccw) 2 = 14 9.43 = 4.57
 ccw
2
y

1 1 5
4.57 p = 90 + tan = 61.0 cw
2 8
x

61
23.43

1 = R = 9.434, s = 61 45 = 16 cw

14

x
16
14
9.434
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 61

Chapter 4 61

4-9
(a) 1
 cw
12 4
y
C= =4
(12, 7cw) 2
R 12 + 4
CD = =8
D C
  2
2 1
R = 82 + 72 = 10.63
2p

## (4, 7ccw) 2s 1 = 4 + 10.63 = 14.63

x 2 = 4 10.63 = 6.63
2
 ccw

1 1 8
14.63 p = 90 + tan = 69.4 ccw
69.4
2 7
6.63

## 1 = R = 10.63, s = 69.4 45 = 24.4 ccw

4
10.63
4
24.4
x

(b) y  cw 1
65
(5, 8cw) C= = 0.5
2
R 6+5
CD = = 5.5
2
C D
1
 2
2p R = 5.52 + 82 = 9.71
2s 1 = 0.5 + 9.71 = 10.21
(6, 8ccw) 2 = 0.5 9.71 = 9.21
2
 ccw x

9.21 1 1 8
10.21 p = tan = 27.75 ccw
27.75 2 5.5
x
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 62

## 1 = R = 9.71, s = 45 27.75 = 17.25 cw

0.5

9.71
x
17.25
0.5

(c)  cw
8 + 7
1
C= = 0.5
x 2
(8, 6cw)
2s 8+7
2p
CD = = 7.5
2


2 D C 1 R = 7.52 + 62 = 9.60
R 1 = 9.60 0.5 = 9.10
(7, 6ccw)

y
2 = 0.5 9.6 = 10.1
2
 ccw

1 1 7.5
p = 90 + tan = 70.67 cw
10.1 2 6
x

70.67
9.1

## 1 = R = 9.60, s = 70.67 45 = 25.67 cw

0.5

x
25.67
0.5
9.60

(d)  cw 1
96
C= = 1.5
2
x
2s 9+6
(9, 3cw)
CD = = 7.5
2p 2
2 C D 1
 
R = 7.52 + 32 = 8.078
R
(6, 3ccw)
y
1 = 1.5 + 8.078 = 9.58
2 = 1.5 8.078 = 6.58
2
 ccw
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 63

Chapter 4 63

6.58 1 1 3
p = tan = 10.9 cw
2 7.5
x
10.9
9.58

## 1 = R = 8.078, s = 45 10.9 = 34.1 ccw

1.5 1.5
34.1
x
8.08

4-10
(a)  cw 1 20 10
C= =5
x
2
2s (20, 8cw) 20 + 10
CD = = 15
2p 2
2 C D 1
 
R R = 152 + 82 = 17
(10, 8ccw)
y 1 = 5 + 17 = 22
2 = 5 17 = 12
 ccw 2

1 1 8
= 14.04 cw
12
p = tan
2 15
x
14.04
22

## 1 = R = 17, s = 45 14.04 = 30.96 ccw

5
5
30.96
x
17
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 64

## 64 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

(b)  cw 1
30 10
C= = 10
y 2
(10, 10cw) R 30 + 10
CD = = 20
D
  2
2 C 2p 1
R = 202 + 102 = 22.36
(30, 10ccw)
2s
x 1 = 10 + 22.36 = 32.36
2 = 10 22.36 = 12.36
2
 ccw

12.36 1 1 10
p = tan = 13.28 ccw
32.36
2 20
13.28
x

## 1 = R = 22.36, s = 45 13.28 = 31.72 cw

10

22.36
x

31.72
10

(c)  cw 1
10 + 18
C= =4
x 2
10 + 18
(10, 9cw) 2s
2p
CD = = 14
 2

2 1
D C
R = 142 + 92 = 16.64
R
(18, 9ccw) 1 = 4 + 16.64 = 20.64
y
2 = 4 16.64 = 12.64
2
 ccw

1 1 14
p = 90 + tan = 73.63 cw
12.64 2 9
x

73.63
20.64

## 1 = R = 16.64, s = 73.63 45 = 28.63 cw

4

x
28.63
4
16.64
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:35 AM Page 65

Chapter 4 65

(d)  cw 1 12 + 22
C= =5
x 2
(12, 12cw) 2s
12 + 22
CD = = 17
2p

  2
2 1
D C R = 172 + 122 = 20.81
R
(22, 12ccw) 1 = 5 + 20.81 = 25.81
y 2 = 5 20.81 = 15.81
2
 ccw

1 1 17
p = 90 + tan = 72.39 cw
15.81 2 12
x

72.39
25.81

## 1 = R = 20.81, s = 72.39 45 = 27.39 cw

5

x
27.39
5
20.81

4-11
(a)  1/3 
14
7
2

1/2  5

2/3  2

4 y x 10

3   y 2  0 x   1

1/3
(b)  0 + 10
y
1/2
C= =5
(0, 4cw)
2
10 0
2/3
R
CD = =5
2
3 2
C D
1
 
R = 52 + 42 = 6.40
(10, 4ccw) 1 = 5 + 6.40 = 11.40
x 2 = 0, 3 = 5 6.40 = 1.40

11.40 1.40
1/3 = R = 6.40, 1/2 = = 5.70, 2/3 = = 0.70
2 2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 66

## 66 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design


(c) 2 circles (2, 4cw) x 2 8
C= = 5
2
Point is a circle
82
3
C
D 1 2
 CD = =3
2

(8, 4ccw) R = 32 + 42 = 5
y
1 = 5 + 5 = 0, 2 = 0
3 = 5 5 = 10
10
1/3 = = 5, 1/2 = 0, 2/3 = 5
2
1/3 
(d) 10 30
2/3 C= = 10
2
y
(30, 10cw) 1/2 10 + 30
R CD = = 20
C D

2
3 2 1 
(10, 10ccw)
R = 202 + 102 = 22.36
x
1 = 10 + 22.36 = 12.36
2 = 0
3 = 10 22.36 = 32.36

12.36 32.36
1/3 = 22.36, 1/2 = = 6.18, 2/3 = = 16.18
2 2

4-12
(a) 1/3 
80 30
2/3 C= = 55
x 2
(80, 20cw)
1/2
80 30
C
CD = = 25
3 2 1
 2
D
R 
(30, 20ccw)
R = 252 + 202 = 32.02
y
1 = 0
2 = 55 + 32.02 = 22.98 = 23.0
3 = 55 32.0 = 87.0

23 87
1/2 = = 11.5, 2/3 = 32.0, 1/3 = = 43.5
2 2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 67

Chapter 4 67

(b) 1/3  30 60
C= = 15
2/3 x 2
(30, 30cw)
R
60 + 30
1/2 CD = = 45
2
3 C 2 D 1


R = 452 + 302 = 54.1
(60, 30ccw)
y 1 = 15 + 54.1 = 39.1
2 = 0
3 = 15 54.1 = 69.1

## 39.1 + 69.1 39.1 69.1

1/3 = = 54.1, 1/2 = = 19.6, 2/3 = = 34.6
2 2 2

(c)  1/3
40 + 0
y
1/2
C= = 20
2
(0, 20cw)
2/3 40 0
R CD = = 20
D

2
3 2 C 1 
R = 202 + 202 = 28.3
(40, 20ccw)
x 1 = 20 + 28.3 = 48.3
2 = 20 28.3 = 8.3
3 = z = 30

48.3 + 30 30 8.3
1/3 = = 39.1, 1/2 = 28.3, 2/3 = = 10.9
2 2
(d)  1/3
x 50
1/2
(50, 30cw)
C= = 25
2
2/3 50
CD = = 25
3 2 1
 2
C D 
R = 252 + 302 = 39.1
(0, 30ccw)
1 = 25 + 39.1 = 64.1
y
2 = 25 39.1 = 14.1
3 = z = 20

64.1 + 20 20 14.1
1/3 = = 42.1, 1/2 = 39.1, 2/3 = = 2.95
2 2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 68

## 68 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-13
F 2000
= = = 10 190 psi = 10.19 kpsi Ans.
A (/4)(0.52 )
FL L 72
= = = 10 190 = 0.024 46 in Ans.
AE E 30(106 )
0.024 46
1 = = = 340(106 ) = 340 Ans.
L 72
From Table A-5, = 0.292
2 = 1 = 0.292(340) = 99.3 Ans.

d = 2 d = 99.3(106 )(0.5) = 49.6(106 ) in Ans.

## 4-14 From Table A-5, E = 71.7 GPa

L 3
= = 135(106 ) = 5.65(103 ) m = 5.65 mm Ans.
E 71.7(109 )

4-15 From Table 4-2, biaxial case. From Table A-5, E = 207 GPa and = 0.292
E(x +  y ) 207(109 )[0.0021 + 0.292(0.000 67)] 6
x = = (10 ) = 431 MPa Ans.
1 2 1 0.2922
207(109 )[0.000 67 + 0.292(0.0021)] 6
y = (10 ) = 12.9 MPa Ans.
1 0.2922

4-16 The engineer has assumed the stress to be uniform. That is,
t

F



 F
Ft = F cos + A = 0 = cos
A
When failure occurs in shear
F
cos
Ssu =
A
The uniform stress assumption is common practice but is not exact. If interested in the
details, see p. 570 of 6th edition.

## 4-17 From Eq. (4-15)

3 (2 + 6 4) 2 + [2(6) + (2)(4) + 6(4) 32 22 (5) 2 ]
[2(6)(4) + 2(3)(2)(5) (2)(2) 2 6(5) 2 (4)(3) 2 ] = 0
3 66 + 118 = 0
Roots are: 7.012, 1.89, 8.903 kpsi Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 69

Chapter 4 69

## 7.012 1.89 1/3  (kpsi)

1/2 = = 2.56 kpsi
2 2/3

8.903 + 1.89
2/3 = = 5.40 kpsi 1/2
2
 (kpsi)
8.903 + 7.012 8.903
1.89 7.012
max = 1/3 = = 7.96 kpsi Ans.
2

Note: For Probs. 4-17 to 4-19, one can also find the eigenvalues of the matrix
 
x x y zx
[ ] = x y y yz
zx yz z
for the principal stresses

## 4-18 From Eq. (4-15)


2 
3 (10 + 0 + 10) 2 + 10(0) + 10(10) + 0(10) 202 10 2 02


2 
10(0)(10) + 2(20) 10 2 (0) 10 10 2 0(0) 2 10(20) 2 = 0
3 20 2 500 + 6000 = 0
Roots are: 30, 10, 20 MPa Ans.  (MPa) 1/3
30 10
1/2 = = 10 MPa 2/3
2 1/2
10 + 20
2/3 = = 15 MPa
2 20 10 30  (MPa)
30 + 20
max = 1/3 = = 25 MPa Ans.
2

## 4-19 From Eq. (4-15)

3 (1 + 4 + 4) 2 + [1(4) + 1(4) + 4(4) 22 (4) 2 (2) 2 ]
[1(4)(4) + 2(2)(4)(2) 1(4) 2 4(2) 2 4(2) 2 ] = 0
3 9 2 = 0
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 70

## Roots are: 9, 0, 0 kpsi

(kpsi) 1/2  1/3

2/3
(kpsi)
O 0 9

9
2/3 = 0, 1/2 = 1/3 = max = = 4.5 kpsi Ans.
2

4-20
c ac
(a) R1 = F Mmax = R1 a = F
l l
6M 6 ac bh 2l
= 2
= 2 F F= Ans.
bh bh l 6ac

## Fm (m / )(bm /b) (h m / h) 2 (lm /l) 1(s)(s) 2 (s)

(b) = = = s2 Ans.
F (am /a) (cm /c) (s)(s)
For equal stress, the model load varies by the square of the scale factor.

4-21  
wl wl l wl 2
R1 = , Mmax |x=l/2 = l =
2 22 2 8

6M 6 wl 2 3W l 4 bh 2
= 2
= 2
= W = Ans.
bh bh 8 4bh 2 3 l

## Wm (m / )(bm /b) (h m / h) 2 1(s)(s) 2

= = = s2 Ans.
W lm /l s
wm lm wm s2
= s2 = =s Ans.
wl w s
For equal stress, the model load w varies linearily with the scale factor.

4-22
(a) Can solve by iteration or derive equations for the general case.
W1 W2 W3 . . . WT . . . Wn Find maximum moment under wheel W3
A B
a23 WT = W at centroid of Ws
d3 RB
RA a13
x3
l

l x3 d3
RA = WT
l
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 71

Chapter 4 71

Under wheel 3
(l x3 d3 )
M3 = R A x3 W1 a13 W2 a23 = WT x3 W1 a13 W2 a23
l
d M3 WT l d3
For maximum, = 0 = (l d3 2x3 ) x3 =
dx3 l 2
(l d3 ) 2
substitute into M, M3 = WT W1 a13 W2 a23
4l
This means the midpoint of d3 intersects the midpoint of the beam
l di (l di ) 2 
i1
For wheel i xi = , Mi = WT W j a ji
2 4l j=1

## Note for wheel 1: W j a ji = 0

104.4
WT = 104.4, W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = = 26.1 kip
4
476 (1200 238) 2
Wheel 1: d1 = = 238 in, M1 = (104.4) = 20 128 kip in
2 4(1200)
Wheel 2: d2 = 238 84 = 154 in
(1200 154) 2
M2 = (104.4) 26.1(84) = 21 605 kip in = Mmax
4(1200)
Check if all of the wheels are on the rail
84" 77" 84"
315"

xmax
600" 600"

## (b) xmax = 600 77 = 523 in

(c) See above sketch.
(d) inner axles

4-23
(a) D
a a
c1  0.833" 0.75"
Ga 0.083"
C 1.5"
1 1
1" b 0.167"
4
Gb
y  c2  0.667"
3" B 0.5"
8

A
1" 1"
4
1 12 " 4

## Aa = Ab = 0.25(1.5) = 0.375 in2

A = 3(0.375) = 1.125 in2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 72

## 72 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

2(0.375)(0.75) + 0.375(0.5)
y = = 0.667 in
1.125
0.25(1.5) 3
Ia = = 0.0703 in4
12
1.5(0.25) 3
Ib = = 0.001 95 in4
12
I1 = 2[0.0703 + 0.375(0.083) 2 ] + [0.001 95 + 0.375(0.167) 2 ] = 0.158 in4 Ans.
10 000(0.667)
A = = 42(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.158
10 000(0.667 0.375)
B = = 18.5(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.158
10 000(0.167 0.125)
C = = 2.7(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.158
10 000(0.833)
D = = 52.7(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.158

(b) D

c1  1.155"
C a b
1.732"
0.982"
1 1
Ga 0.327" Gb
y B
c2  0.577" 0.577" 0.577"
0.25" 1.134"
A A
2"

## Here we treat the hole as a negative area.

Aa = 1.732 in2
 
0.982
Ab = 1.134 = 0.557 in2
2
A = 1.732 0.557 = 1.175 in2
1.732(0.577) 0.557(0.577)
y = = 0.577 in Ans.
1.175
bh 3 2(1.732) 3
Ia = = = 0.289 in4
36 36

1.134(0.982) 3
Ib = = 0.0298 in4
36
I1 = Ia Ib = 0.289 0.0298 = 0.259 in4 Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 73

Chapter 4 73

## because the centroids are coincident.

10 000(0.577)
A = = 22.3(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.259
10 000(0.327)
B = = 12.6(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.259
10 000(0.982 0.327)
C = = 25.3(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.259
10 000(1.155)
D = = 44.6(10) 3 psi Ans.
0.259
(c) Use two negative areas.
D

C
c1  1.708"
b
1 1
Gb Gc
1.5" c
c2  2.292"
2"
B
a G
a 0.25"
A

## Aa = 1 in2 , Ab = 9 in2 , Ac = 16 in2 , A = 16 9 1 = 6 in2 ;

ya = 0.25 in, yb = 2.0 in, yc = 2 in
16(2) 9(2) 1(0.25)
y = = 2.292 in Ans.
6
c1 = 4 2.292 = 1.708 in
2(0.5) 3
Ia = = 0.020 83 in4
12
3(3) 3
Ib = = 6.75 in4
12
4(4) 3
Ic = = 21.333 in4
12
I1 = [21.333 + 16(0.292) 2 ] [6.75 + 9(0.292) 2 ]
[0.020 83 + 1(2.292 0.25) 2 ]
= 10.99 in4 Ans.
10 000(2.292)
A = = 2086 psi Ans.
10.99
10 000(2.292 0.5)
B = = 1631 psi Ans.
10.99
10 000(1.708 0.5)
C = = 1099 psi Ans.
10.99
10 000(1.708)
D = = 1554 psi Ans.
10.99
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 74

C

c1  1.355" b
B
1 1

1.490" a 3.464"
c2  2.645"
Ga
1.155"
A

## Aa = 6.928 in2 , Ab = 16 in2 , A = 9.072 in2 ;

ya = 1.155 in, yb = 2 in
2(16) 1.155(6.928)
y = = 2.645 in Ans.
9.072
c1 = 4 2.645 = 1.355 in
bh 3 4(3.464) 3
Ia = = = 4.618 in4
36 36
3
4(4)
Ib = = 21.33 in4
12
I1 = [21.33 + 16(0.645) 2 ] [4.618 + 6.928(1.490) 2 ]
= 7.99 in4 Ans.
10 000(2.645)
A = = 3310 psi Ans.
7.99
10 000(3.464 2.645)
B = = 1025 psi Ans.
7.99
10 000(1.355)
C = = 1696 psi Ans.
7.99
(e) a
C Aa = 6(1.25) = 7.5 in2
c1  1.422"
B Ab = 3(1.5) = 4.5 in2
A = Ac + Ab = 12 in2
c2  2.828"
b
3.625(7.5) + 1.5(4.5)
A
y = = 2.828 in Ans.
12
1 1
I = (6)(1.25) 3 + 7.5(3.625 2.828) 2 + (1.5)(3) 3 + 4.5(2.828 1.5) 2
12 12
= 17.05 in4 Ans.
10 000(2.828)
A = = 1659 psi Ans.
17.05
10 000(3 2.828)
B = = 101 psi Ans.
17.05
10 000(1.422)
C = = 834 psi Ans.
17.05
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 75

Chapter 4 75

## (f) D Let a = total area

a
c  1.5
C A = 1.5(3) 1(1.25) = 3.25 in2
b b 1 1
c  1.5
B I = Ia 2Ib = (1.5)(3) 3 (1.25)(1) 3
12 12
A
1.5 = 3.271 in4 Ans.
10 000(1.5)
A = = 4586 psi, D = 4586 psi
3.271
Ans.
10 000(0.5)
B = = 1529 psi, C = 1529 psi
3.271

4-24
(a) The moment is maximum and constant between A and B
1
M = 50(20) = 1000 lbf in , I = (0.5)(2) 3 = 0.3333 in4
12
 
 E I  1.6(106 )(0.3333)
=   = = 533.3 in
M 1000
(x, y) = (30, 533.3) in Ans.

## (b) The moment is maximum and constant between A and B

M = 50(5) = 250 lbf in, I = 0.3333 in4
1.6(106 )(0.3333)
= = 2133 in Ans.
250
(x, y) = (20, 2133) in Ans.

4-25
(a) 1000 lbf 1
I = (0.75)(1.5) 3 = 0.2109 in4
O
12" 6"
B
12
A
A = 0.75(1.5) = 1.125 in
333 lbf 667 lbf
Mmax is at A. At the bottom of the section,
V (lbf)
Mc 4000(0.75)
333 max = = = 14 225 psi Ans.
O x I 0.2109
Due to V, max constant is between A and B
667
at y = 0
M
(lbf in)
4000 3V 3 667
max = = = 889 psi Ans.
2A 2 1.125
O x
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 76

## (b) 1000 lbf 1000 lbf 1

I = (1)(2) 3 = 0.6667 in4
12
8" A 8"
x
O B Mmax is at A at the top of the beam
2000 lbf 8000(1)
max = = 12 000 psi Ans.
V (lbf)
1000
0.6667

x
|Vmax | = 1000 lbf from O to B at y = 0
O

3V 3 1000
1000 max = = = 750 psi Ans.
2A 2 (2)(1)
M
(lbf in)

O x

8000

## (c) 120 lbf/in 1

I = (0.75)(2) 3 = 0.5 in4
O x 12
5" A 15" B 5" C
1
1500 lbf 1500 lbf M1 = 600(5) = 1500 lbf in = M3
2
V (lbf)
1
900
600
M2 = 1500 + (900)(7.5) = 1875 lbf in
2
O x
Mmax is at span center. At the bottom of the
600 beam,
900
1875(1)
M M2 max = = 3750 psi Ans.
(lbf in) 0.5
O x At A and B at y = 0
M1 M3 3 900
max = = 900 psi Ans.
2 (0.75)(2)

## (d) 100 lbf/in 1

I = (1)(2) 3 = 0.6667 in4
x 12
O 6" A 12" B
600
1350 lbf 450 lbf M1 = (6) = 1800 lbf in
2
V (lbf) 750 1
M2 = 1800 + 750(7.5) = 1013 lbf in
O x 2
7.5"
600
450 At A, top of beam
M 1800(1)
max = = 2700 psi
M2
(lbf in) Ans.
x
0.6667
O

M1
At A, y = 0
3 750
max = = 563 psi Ans.
2 (2)(1)
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 77

Chapter 4 77

4-26
wl 2 wl 2 c 8 I
Mmax = max = w=
8 8I cl 2
(a) l = 12(12) = 144 in, I = (1/12)(1.5)(9.5) 3 = 107.2 in4
8(1200)(107.2)
w= = 10.4 lbf/in Ans.
4.75(1442 )
(b) l = 48 in, I = (/64)(24 1.254 ) = 0.6656 in4
8(12)(103 )(0.6656)
w= = 27.7 lbf/in Ans.
1(48) 2
.
(c) l = 48 in, I = (1/12)(2)(33 ) (1/12)(1.625)(2.6253 ) = 2.051 in4
8(12)(103 )(2.051)
w= = 57.0 lbf/in Ans.
1.5(48) 2
(d) l = 72 in; Table A-6, I = 2(1.24) = 2.48 in4

0.842"
2.158"
cmax = 2.158"
8(12)(103 )(2.48)
w= = 21.3 lbf/in Ans.
2.158(72) 2
(e) l = 72 in; Table A-7, I = 3.85 in4

2 8(12)(103 )(3.85)
w= = 35.6 lbf/in Ans.
2(722 )

## (f) l = 72 in, I = (1/12)(1)(43 ) = 5.333 in4

8(12)(103 )(5.333)
w= = 49.4 lbf/in Ans.
(2)(72) 2

## 4-27 (a) Model (c)

500 lbf 500 lbf I = (0.54 ) = 3.068(103 ) in4
64
0.4375

1.25 in A = (0.52 ) = 0.1963 in2
4
500 lbf 500 lbf
Mc 218.75(0.25)
= =
3.068(103 )
V (lbf)
500 I
= 17 825 psi = 17.8 kpsi Ans.
O
4V 4 500
max = = = 3400 psi Ans.
500 3A 3 0.1963
M Mmax  500(0.4375)
(lbf in)  218.75 lbf in

O
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 78

## (b) Model (d)

1333 lbf/in
0.25"

1.25"
1
500 lbf 500 lbf Mmax = 500(0.25) + (500)(0.375)
2
V (lbf)
500 = 218.75 lbf in
Vmax = 500 lbf
O
Same M and V
500
= 17.8 kpsi Ans.
M Mmax
max = 3400 psi Ans.

## 4-28 If support R B is between F1 and F2 at position x = l, maximum moments occur at x = 3 and l.


M B = R A l 2000(l 3) + 1100(7.75 l) = 0
R A = 3100 14 525/l
Mx=3 = 3R A = 9300 43 575/l
M B = R A l 2000(l 3) = 1100 l 8525
To minimize the moments, equate Mx=3 to M B giving
9300 43 575/l = 1100l + 8525
Multiply by l and simplify to
l 2 + 0.7046l 39.61 = 0
The positive solution for l is 5.95 in and the magnitude of the moment is
M = 9300 43 575/5.95 = 1976 lbf in
Placing the bearing to the right of F2 , the bending moment would be minimized by placing
it as close as possible to F2 . If the bearing is near point B as in the original figure, then we
need to equate the reaction forces. From statics, R B = 14 525/l, and R A = 3100 R B .
For R A = R B , then R A = R B = 1550 lbf, and l = 14 575/1550 = 9.37 in.

4-29
F
l p2

p1 b
a

p1 + p2
q = Fx1 + p1 x l0 x l1 + terms for x > l + a
a
p1 + p2
V = F + p1 x l
1
x l2 + terms for x > l + a
2a
p1 p1 + p2
M = F x + x l2 x l3 + terms for x > l + a
2 6a
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 79

Chapter 4 79

## At x = (l + a) + , V = M = 0, terms for x > l + a = 0

p1 + p2 2 2F
F + p1 a a =0 p1 p2 = (1)
2a a
p1 a 2 p1 + p2 3 6F(l + a)
F(l + a) + a =0 2 p1 p2 = (2)
2 6a a2

2F 2F
From (1) and (2) p1 = (3l + 2a), p2 = (3l + a) (3)
a2 a2
b a ap2
From similar triangles = b= (4)
p2 p1 + p2 p1 + p2
Mmax occurs where V = 0
F
l a  2b
p2

p2
xmax = l + a 2b
p2

p1 b b

p1 p1 + p2
Mmax = F(l + a 2b) + (a 2b) 2 (a 2b) 3
2 6a
p1 p1 + p2
= Fl F(a 2b) + (a 2b) 2 (a 2b) 3
2 6a
Normally Mmax = Fl
The fractional increase in the magnitude is

## F(a 2b) ( p1 /2)(a 2b) 2 [( p1 + p2 )/6a](a 2b) 3

= (5)
Fl
For example, consider F = 1500 lbf, a = 1.2 in, l = 1.5 in
2(1500)
(3) p1 = [3(1.5) + 2(1.2)] = 14 375 lbf/in
1.22
2(1500)
p2 = [3(1.5) + 1.2] = 11 875 lbf/in
1.22
(4) b = 1.2(11 875)/(14 375 + 11 875) = 0.5429 in

## Substituting into (5) yields

= 0.036 89 or 3.7% higher than Fl

## 4-30 Computer program; no solution given here.

shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 80

## 80 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-31
y c
F
R1 = F
a c
x l
l
c
R1 R2 M = Fx 0x a
l

6M 6(c/l) Fx 6cFx
= 2
= h= 0x a Ans.
bh bh 2 blmax

4-32
F b
a b R1 = F
l
l
R1 R2 b
M = Fx
l
32M 32 b
max = = Fx
d 3 d 3 l

32 bFx 1/3
d= 0x a Ans.
lmax

4-33 t

b b

Square: Am = (b t) 2
Tsq = 2Am tall = 2(b t) 2 tall
Round: Am = (b t) 2 /4
Trd = 2(b t) 2 tall /4
Ratio of torques
Tsq 2(b t) 2 tall 4
= = = 1.27
Trd (b t) tall /2
2
Twist per unit length
square:
   
2G1 t L L 4(b t)
sq = = C   = C
tall A m A m (b t) 2
Round:
 
L (b t) 4(b t)
rd = C =C =C
A m (b t) /4
2 (b t) 2
Ratio equals 1, twists are the same.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 81

Chapter 4 81

## Note the weight ratio is

Wsq l(b t) 2 bt
= = thin-walled assumes b 20t
Wrd l(b t)(t) t
19
= = 6.04 with b = 20

= 2.86 with b = 10t

## 4-34 l = 40 in, all = 11 500 psi, G = 11.5(106 ) psi, t = 0.050 in

rm = ri + t/2 = ri + 0.025 for ri > 0
=0 for ri = 0
 
Am = (1 0.05) 2 4 rm2 rm2 = 0.952 (4 )rm2
4
L m = 4(1 0.05 2rm + 2rm /4) = 4[0.95 (2 /2)rm ]
Eq. (4-45): T = 2Am t = 2(0.05)(11 500) Am = 1150Am
Eq. (4-46):
180 T L m l 180 T L m (40) 180
(deg) = 1 l = =
4G A2m t 4(11.5)(106 ) A2m (0.05)
T Lm
= 9.9645(104 )
A2m
Equations can then be put into a spreadsheet resulting in:

## ri rm Am Lm ri T(lbf in) ri (deg)

0 0 0.902 5 3.8 0 1037.9 0 4.825
0.10 0.125 0.889 087 3.585 398 0.10 1022.5 0.10 4.621
0.20 0.225 0.859 043 3.413 717 0.20 987.9 0.20 4.553
0.30 0.325 0.811 831 3.242 035 0.30 933.6 0.30 4.576
0.40 0.425 0.747 450 3.070 354 0.40 859.6 0.40 4.707
0.45 0.475 0.708 822 2.984 513 0.45 815.1 0.45 4.825

1200

1000

800
T (lbf in)

600

400

200

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
ri (in)
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 82

## 82 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4.85

4.80

4.75

 (deg)
4.70

4.65

4.60

4.55

4.50
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
ri (in)

Torque carrying capacity reduces with ri . However, this is based on an assumption of uni-
form stresses which is not the case for small ri . Also note that weight also goes down with
an increase in ri .

4-35 From Eq. (4-47) where 1 is the same for each leg.
1 1
T1 = G1 L 1 c13 , T2 = G1 L 2 c23
3 3
1
1 
T = T1 + T2 = G1 L 1 c13 + L 2 c23 = G1 L i ci3 Ans.
3 3
1 = G1 c1 , 2 = G1 c2
max = G1 cmax Ans.

4-36
(a) max = G1 cmax
max 11 500
G1 = = = 1.227(105 ) psi rad
cmax 3/32
1 1
T1/16 = G1 (Lc3 ) 1/16 = (1.227)(105 )(0.5)(1/16) 3 = 4.99 lbf in Ans.
3 3
1
T3/32 = (1.227)(105 )(0.5)(3/32) 3 = 16.85 lbf in Ans.
3
1/16 = 1.227(105 )1/16 = 7669 psi, 3/32 = 1.227(105 )3/32 = 11 500 psi Ans.
1.227(105 )
(b) 1 = = 1.0667(102 ) rad/in = 0.611 /in Ans.
11.5(106 )

## Lc2 (1)(1/16) 2 (11 500)

T = = = 14.97 lbf in
3 3
Tmax = 2(14.97) = 29.95 lbf in Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 83

Chapter 4 83

## For each strip,

3T l 3(14.97)(12)
= = = 0.192 rad Ans.
Lc3 G (1)(1/16) 3 (11.5)(106 )
kt = T / = 29.95/0.192 = 156.0 lbf in Ans.
Solid strip: From Example 4-12,
Tmax = 59.90 lbf in Ans.
kt = 624 lbf in Ans.

## 4-38 all = 8000 psi, 50 hp

(a) n = 2000 rpm
63 025H 63 025(50)
Eq. (4-40) T = = = 1575.6 lbf in
n 2000
 
16T 16T 1/3 16(1575.6) 1/3
max = d= = = 1.00 in Ans.
d 3 max (8000)

## (b) n = 200 rpm T = 15 756 lbf in

16(15 756) 1/3
d= = 2.157 in Ans.
(8000)

## 4-39 all = 110 MPa, = 30 , d = 15 mm, l = ?

16T 3
= T = d
d 3 16
 
Tl 180
=
JG

J G d 4 G dG
l= = =
180 T 180 32 (/16) d 3 360
(0.015)(79.3)(109 )(30)
= = 2.83 m Ans.
360 110(106 )

## 4-40 d = 70 mm, replaced by 70 mm hollow with t = 6 mm

(704 584 )
(a) Tsolid = (703 ) Thollow =
16 32 35

## (/16)(703 ) (/32) [(704 584 )/35]

%
T = (100) = 47.1% Ans.
(/16)(703 )
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 84

## (b) Wsolid = kd 2 = k(702 ) , Whollow = k(702 582 )

k(702 ) k(702 582 )
%
W = (100) = 68.7% Ans.
k(702 )

## 4-41 T = 5400 N m, all = 150 MPa

Tc 5400(d/2) 4.023(104 )
(a) = 150(106 ) = =
J (/32)[d 4 (0.75d) 4 ] d3
 1/3
4.023(104 )
d= = 6.45(102 ) m = 64.5 mm
150(106 )
From Table A-17, the next preferred size is d = 80 mm; ID = 60 mm Ans.

(b) J= (0.084 0.064 ) = 2.749(106 ) mm4
32
5400(0.030)
i = = 58.9(106 ) Pa = 58.9 MPa Ans.
2.749(106 )

4-42
63 025H 63 025(1)
(a) T = = = 12 605 lbf in
n 5
 
16T 16T 1/3 16(12 605) 1/3
= dC = = = 1.66 in Ans.
dC3 (14 000)
From Table A-17, select 1 3/4 in
16(2)(12 605)
start = = 23.96(103 ) psi = 23.96 kpsi
(1.75 )
3

## 4-43 = 2n/60 = 2(8)/60 = 0.8378 rad/s

H 1000
T = = = 1194 N m
0.8378
 
16T 1/3 16(1194) 1/3
dC = = = 4.328(102 ) m = 43.3 mm
(75)(10 )
6

## From Table A-17, select 45 mm Ans.


4-44 s= A, d = 4A/
Square: Eq. (4-43) with b = c
4.8T
max =
c3
4.8T
(max ) sq =
( A) 3/2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 85

Chapter 4 85

16 T 16T 3.545T
Round: (max ) rd = = /
=
d 3 (4A/) 3 2 ( A) 3/2
(max ) sq 4.8
= = 1.354
(max ) rd 3.545
Square stress is 1.354 times the round stress Ans.

4-45 s= A, d= 4A/
Square: Eq. (4-44) with b = c, = 0.141
Tl Tl
sq = =
4
0.141c G 0.141( A) 4/2 G
Round:
Tl Tl 6.2832T l
rd = = =
JG (/32) (4A/) 4/2 G ( A) 4/2 G
sq 1/0.141
= = 1.129
rd 6.2832
Square has greater by a factor of 1.13 Ans.

## 4-46 Text Eq. (4-43) gives

T T 1
max = = 2
bc 2 bc
From in-text table, p. 139, is a function of b/c. Arrange equation in the form
b2 cmax 1 1
= = y = a0 + a1 = a0 + a1 x
T b/c
To plot 1/ vs 1/(b/c) , first form a table.

x y
b/c 1/(b/c) 1/
1 0.208 1 4.807 692
1.5 0.231 0.666 667 4.329 004
1.75 0.239 0.571 429 4.184 100
2 0.246 0.5 4.065 041
2.5 0.258 0.4 3.875 969
3 0.267 0.333 333 3.745 318
4 0.282 0.25 3.546 099
6 0.299 0.166 667 3.344 482
8 0.307 0.125 3.257 329
10 0.313 0.1 3.194 888
0.333 0 3.003 003
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 86

## 86 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

1
5

4.5

y  1.867x  3.061
4

3.5

3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1(bc)

Plot is a gentle convex-upward curve. Roark uses a polynomial, which in our notation is

3T 1
max = 1 + 0.6095 +
8(b/2)(c/2) 2 b/c

. T 1
max = 2 3 + 1.8285
bc b/c
Linear regression on table data
y = 3.06 + 1.87x
1 1
= 3.06 + 1.87
b/c
 
T 1
max = 2 3.06 + 1.87
bc b/c
 
T 1.8
Eq. (4-43) max = 2 3 +
bc b/c

4-47
Gear F 1000 lbf in
1000
2.5R
Ft = = 400 lbf
2.5
Shaft ABCD
Ft
Fn = 400 tan 20 = 145.6 lbf
y Fn 
Torque at C TC = 400(5) = 2000 lbf in
RAy
666.7 lbf
2000
2000 lbf in P= = 666.7 lbf
A 3
3" B
145.6 lbf
z RAz
2000 lbf in
10"
RDy
C
C

## 400 lbf 5"

D x
RDz
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 87

Chapter 4 87

( M A)z = 0 18R Dy 145.6(13) 666.7(3) = 0 R Dy = 216.3 lbf

( M A) y = 0 18R Dz + 400(13) = 0 R Dz = 288.9 lbf

Fy = 0 R Ay + 216.3 666.7 145.6 = 0 R Ay = 596.0 lbf

Fz = 0 R Az + 288.9 400 = 0 R Az = 111.1 lbf

M B = 3 5962 + 111.12 = 1819 lbf in

MC = 5 216.32 + 288.92 = 1805 lbf in
Maximum stresses occur at B. Ans.
32M B 32(1819)
B = = = 9486 psi
d 3 (1.253 )
16TB 16(2000)
B = = = 5215 psi
d 3 (1.253 )
   
B B 2 9486 9486 2
max = + + B =
2
+ + 52152 = 11 792 psi Ans.
2 2 2 2
 
B 2
max = + B2 = 7049 psi Ans.
2

4-48
(a) At = 90 , r = r = 0, = Ans.
= 0 , r = r = 0, = 3 Ans.
(b)

r / 3

5 3.000 2.5
6 2.071
7 1.646 2
8 1.424
9 1.297 1.5
10 1.219
11 1.167 1

12 1.132
0.5
13 1.107
14 1.088
0
15 1.074 0 5 10 15 20
r (mm)
16 1.063
17 1.054
18 1.048
19 1.042
20 1.037
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 88

## 88 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-49
1.5
D/d = = 1.5
1
1/8
r/d = = 0.125
1
.
Fig. A-15-8: K ts = 1.39
.
Fig. A-15-9: K t = 1.60
Mc 32K t M 32(1.6)(200)(14)
A = Kt = = = 45 630 psi
I d 3 (13 )
Tc 16K ts T 16(1.39)(200)(15)
A = K ts = = = 21 240 psi
J d 3 (13 )
   
A A 2 45.63 45.63 2
max = + + A =
2
+ + 21.242
2 2 2 2
= 54.0 kpsi Ans.
 
45.63 2
max = + 21.242 = 31.2 kpsi Ans.
2

4-50 As shown in Fig. 4-34, the maximum stresses occur at the inside fiber where r = ri . There-
fore, from Eq. (4-51)
 
ri2 pi ro2
t, max = 2 1+ 2
ro ri2 ri
 
ro2 + ri2
= pi Ans.
ro2 ri2
 
ri2 pi ro2
r, max = 2 1 2 = pi Ans.
ro ri2 ri

## 4-51 If pi = 0, Eq. (4-50) becomes

poro2 ri2ro2 po /r 2
t =
ro2 ri2
 
poro2 ri2
= 2 1+ 2
ro ri2 r

## The maximum tangential stress occurs at r = ri . So

2 poro2
t, max = Ans.
ro2 ri2
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 89

Chapter 4 89

For r , we have
poro2 + ri2ro2 po /r 2
r =
ro2 ri2
 
poro2 ri2
= 2 1
ro ri2 r 2

So r = 0 at r = ri . Thus at r = ro
 
por 2 ri2 ro2
r, max = 2 o2 = po Ans.
r o ri ro2

4-52
F = p A = rav
2
p
rav

p F rav
2
p prav
t 1 = 2 = = = Ans.
Awall 2rav t 2t
F

## max = (t r )/2 at r = ri where l is intermediate in value. From Prob. 4-50

1
max = (t, max r, max )
2
 
pi ro2 + ri2
max = +1
2 ro2 ri2

Now solve for pi using ro = 3 in, ri = 2.75 in, and max = 4000 psi. This gives pi =
639 psi Ans.

4-54 Given ro = 120 mm, ri = 110 mm and referring to the solution of Prob. 4-53,

2.4 MPa (120) 2 + (110) 2
max = +1
2 (120) 2 (110) 2

## = 15.0 MPa Ans.

shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 90

## 4-55 From Table A-20, S y = 57 kpsi; also, ro = 0.875 in and ri = 0.625 in

From Prob. 4-51
2 poro2
t, max =
ro2 ri2
Rearranging
2

ro ri2 (0.8S y )
po =
2ro2
Solving, gives po = 11 200 psi Ans.

4-56 From Table A-20, S y = 57 kpsi; also ro = 1.1875 in, ri = 0.875 in.
From Prob. 4-50
   
ro2 + ri2 ro2 ri2
t, max = pi therefore pi = 0.8S y
ro2 ri2 ro2 + ri2

## 4-57 Since t and r are both positive and t > r

max = (t ) max /2
where t is max at ri
Eq. (4-56) for r = ri = 0.375 in
 
0.282 2(7200) 2 3 + 0.292
(t ) max =
386 60 8

(0.3752 )(52 ) 1 + 3(0.292)
0.375 + 5 +
2 2
(0.375 ) = 8556 psi
2
0.3752 3 + 0.292

8556
max = = 4278 psi Ans.
2
 
r 2r 2
Radial stress: r = k ri2 + ro2 i 2o r 2
r
 
dr ri2ro2 
Maxima: = k 2 3 2r = 0 r = ri ro = 0.375(5) = 1.3693 in
dr r
 
0.282 2(7200) 2 3 + 0.292 0.3752 (52 )
(r ) max = 0.375 + 5
2 2
1.36932
386 60 8 1.36932
= 3656 psi Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 91

Chapter 4 91

## 4-58 = 2(2069)/60 = 216.7 rad/s,

= 3320 kg/m3 , = 0.24, ri = 0.0125 m, ro = 0.15 m;

## use Eq. (4-56)

 
3 + 0.24
t = 3320(216.7) 2
(0.0125) 2 + (0.15) 2 + (0.15) 2
8

1 + 3(0.24)
(0.0125) (10) 6
2
3 + 0.24
= 2.85 MPa Ans.

4-59
(6/16)
=
386(1/16)(/4)(62 12 )
= 5.655(104 ) lbf s2 /in
4

t
max is at bore and equals
2
Eq. (4-56)
2 
2(10 000)
4 3 + 0.20 1 + 3(0.20)
(t ) max = 5.655(10 ) 0.5 + 3 + 3
2 2 2
(0.5) 2
60 8 3 + 0.20
= 4496 psi
4496
max = = 2248 psi Ans.
2

## 4-60 = 2(3000)/60 = 314.2 rad/s

0.282(1.25)(12)(0.125)
m=
386
= 1.370(103 ) lbf s2 /in


F F
6"

## F = m2r = 1.370(103 )(314.22 )(6)

= 811.5 lbf
Anom = (1.25 0.5)(1/8) = 0.093 75 in2
811.5
nom = = 8656 psi Ans.
0.093 75
.
Note: Stress concentration Fig. A-15-1 gives K t = 2.25 which increases max and fatigue.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/27/03 4:32 PM Page 92

## 92 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-61 to 4-66
= 0.292, E = 30 Mpsi (207 GPa), ri = 0
R = 0.75 in (20 mm), ro = 1.5 in (40 mm)
Eq. (4-60)
 
30(106 ) (1.52 0.752 )(0.752 0)
ppsi = = 1.5(107 ) (1)
0.75 in 2(0.75 )(1.5 0)
2 2

 
207(109 ) (0.042 0.022 )(0.022 0)
pPa = = 3.881(1012 ) (2)
0.020 2(0.02 )(0.04 0)
2 2

4-61
1
max = [40.042 40.000] = 0.021 mm Ans.
2
1
min = [40.026 40.025] = 0.0005 mm Ans.
2
From (2)
pmax = 81.5 MPa, pmin = 1.94 MPa Ans.

4-62
1
max = (1.5016 1.5000) = 0.0008 in Ans.
2
1
min = (1.5010 1.5010) = 0 Ans.
2
Eq. (1) pmax = 12 000 psi, pmin = 0 Ans.

4-63
1
max = (40.059 40.000) = 0.0295 mm Ans.
2
1
min = (40.043 40.025) = 0.009 mm Ans.
2
Eq. (2) pmax = 114.5 MPa, pmin = 34.9 MPa Ans.

4-64
1
max = (1.5023 1.5000) = 0.001 15 in Ans.
2
1
min = (1.5017 1.5010) = 0.000 35 in Ans.
2
Eq. (1) pmax = 17 250 psi pmin = 5250 psi Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 93

Chapter 4 93

4-65
1
max = (40.076 40.000) = 0.038 mm Ans.
2
1
min = (40.060 40.025) = 0.0175 mm Ans.
2

## Eq. (2) pmax = 147.5 MPa pmin = 67.9 MPa Ans.

4-66
1
max = (1.5030 1.500) = 0.0015 in Ans.
2
1
min = (1.5024 1.5010) = 0.0007 in Ans.
2
Eq. (1) pmax = 22 500 psi pmin = 10 500 psi Ans.

4-67
1
= (1.002 1.000) = 0.001 in ri = 0, R = 0.5 in, ro = 1 in
2
= 0.292, E = 30 Mpsi
Eq. (4-60)

30(106 )(0.001) (12 0.52 )(0.52 0)
p= = 2.25(104 ) psi Ans.
0.5 2(0.5 )(1 0)
2 2

## Eq. (4-51) for outer member at ri = 0.5 in

 
0.52 (2.25)(104 ) 12
(t ) o = 1+ = 37 500 psi Ans.
12 0.52 0.52
Inner member, from Prob. 4-51
   
poro2 ri2 2.25(104 )(0.52 ) 0
(t ) i = 2 1+ 2 = 1+ = 22 500 psi Ans.
ro ri2 ro 0.52 0 0.52

## Eqs. (d) and (e) above Eq. (4-59)

 2 
2.25(104 ) 1 + 0.52
o = 0.5 2 + 0.292 = 0.000 735 in Ans.
30(106 ) 1 0.52
 
2.25(104 )(0.5) 0.52 + 0
i = 0.292 = 0.000 265 in Ans.
30(106 ) 0.52 0
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 94

## 94 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-68
i = 0.292, E i = 30(106 ) psi, o = 0.211, E o = 14.5(106 ) psi
1
= (1.002 1.000) = 0.001 in, ri = 0, R = 0.5, ro = 1
2
Eq. (4-59)
   2 
0.5 12 + 0.52 0.5 0.5 + 0
0.001 = + 0.211 + 0.292 p
14.5(106 ) 12 0.52 30(106 ) 0.52 0
p = 13 064 psi Ans.
Eq. (4-51) for outer member at ri = 0.5 in
 
0.52 (13 064) 12
(t ) o = 1+ = 21 770 psi Ans.
12 0.52 0.52
Inner member, from Prob. 4-51
 
13 064(0.52 ) 0
(t )i = 1+ = 13 064 psi Ans.
0.52 0 0.52
Eqs. (d ) and (e) above Eq. (4-59)
 
13 064(0.5) 12 + 0.52
o = + 0.211 = 0.000 846 in Ans.
14.5(106 ) 12 0.52
 
13 064(0.5) 0.52 + 0
i = 0.292 = 0.000 154 in Ans.
30(106 ) 0.52 0

4-69
1
max = (1.003 1.000) = 0.0015 in ri = 0, R = 0.5 in, ro = 1 in
2
1
min = (1.002 1.001) = 0.0005 in
2
Eq. (4-60)

30(106 )(0.0015) (12 0.52 )(0.52 0)
pmax = = 33 750 psi Ans.
0.5 2(0.52 )(12 0)

## Eq. (4-51) for outer member at r = 0.5 in

 
0.52 (33 750) 12
(t ) o = 1+ = 56 250 psi Ans.
12 0.52 0.52
For inner member, from Prob. 4-51, with r = 0.5 in
(t ) i = 33 750 psi Ans.
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Chapter 4 95

## Eqs. (d) and (e) just above Eq. (4-59)

 
33 750(0.5) 12 + 0.52
o = + 0.292 = 0.001 10 in Ans.
30(106 ) 12 0.52
 
33 750(0.5) 0.52 + 0
i = 0.292 = 0.000 398 in Ans.
30(106 ) 0.52 0
For min all answers are 0.0005/0.0015 = 1/3 of above answers Ans.

4-70
i = 0.292, E i = 30 Mpsi, o = 0.334, E o = 10.4 Mpsi
1
max = (2.005 2.000) = 0.0025 in
2
1
min = (2.003 2.002) = 0.0005 in
2
 2   2 
1.0 2 + 12 1.0 1 +0
0.0025 = + 0.334 + 0.292 pmax
10.4(106 ) 22 12 30(106 ) 12 0
pmax = 11 576 psi Ans.

## Eq. (4-51) for outer member at r = 1 in

 
12 (11 576) 22
(t ) o = 1 + 2 = 19 293 psi Ans.
22 12 1
Inner member from Prob. 4-51 with r = 1 in
(t ) i = 11 576 psi Ans.
Eqs. (d) and (e) just above Eq. (4-59)
 
11 576(1) 22 + 12
o = + 0.334 = 0.002 23 in Ans.
10.4(106 ) 22 12
 
11 576(1) 12 + 0
i = 0.292 = 0.000 273 in Ans.
30(106 ) 12 0
For min all above answers are 0.0005/0.0025 = 1/5 Ans.

4-71
(a) Axial resistance
Normal force at fit interface
N = p A = p(2 Rl) = 2 p Rl
Fully-developed friction force
Fax = f N = 2 f p Rl Ans.
shi20396_ch04.qxd 8/18/03 10:36 AM Page 96

## (b) Torsional resistance at fully developed friction is

T = f R N = 2 f p R 2l Ans.

## 4-72 d = 1 in, ri = 1.5 in, ro = 2.5 in.

From Table 4-5, for R = 0.5 in,
rc = 1.5 + 0.5 = 2 in
0.52
rn =
= 1.968 245 8 in
2 2 22 0.52
e = rc rn = 2.0 1.968 245 8 = 0.031 754 in
ci = rn ri = 1.9682 1.5 = 0.4682 in
co = ro rn = 2.5 1.9682 = 0.5318 in
A = d 2 /4 = (1) 2 /4 = 0.7854 in2
M = Frc = 1000(2) = 2000 lbf in

## Using Eq. (4-66)

F Mci 1000 2000(0.4682)
i = + = + = 26 300 psi Ans.
A Aeri 0.7854 0.7854(0.031 754)(1.5)
F Mco 1000 2000(0.5318)
o = = = 15 800 psi Ans.
A Aero 0.7854 0.7854(0.031 754)(2.5)

## 4-73 Section AA:

D = 0.75 in, ri = 0.75/2 = 0.375 in, ro = 0.75/2 + 0.25 = 0.625 in
From Table 4-5, for R = 0.125 in,
rc = (0.75 + 0.25)/2 = 0.500 in
0.1252
rn =
= 0.492 061 5 in
2 0.5 0.52 0.1252
e = 0.5 rn = 0.007 939 in
co = ro rn = 0.625 0.492 06 = 0.132 94 in
ci = rn ri = 0.492 06 0.375 = 0.117 06 in
A = (0.25) 2 /4 = 0.049 087
M = Frc = 100(0.5) = 50 lbf in
100 50(0.117 06)
i = + = 42 100 ksi Ans.
0.049 09 0.049 09(0.007 939)(0.375)
100 50(0.132 94)
o = = 25 250 psi Ans.
0.049 09 0.049 09(0.007 939)(0.625)
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Chapter 4 97

## Section BB: Abscissa angle of line of radius centers is

 
1 r2 + d/2
= cos
r2 + d + D/2
 
1 0.375 + 0.25/2
= cos = 60
0.375 + 0.25 + 0.75/2
D+d
M=F cos = 100(0.5) cos 60 = 25 lbf in
2
ri = r2 = 0.375 in
ro = r2 + d = 0.375 + 0.25 = 0.625 in
e = 0.007 939 in (as before)
Fcos Mci
i =
A Aeri
100 cos 60 25(0.117 06)
= = 19 000 psi Ans.
0.049 09 0.049 09(0.007 939)0.375
100 cos 60 25(0.132 94)
o = + = 14 700 psi Ans.
0.049 09 0.049 09(0.007 939)0.625
On section BB, the shear stress due to the shear force is zero at the surface.

## 4-74 ri = 0.125 in, ro = 0.125 + 0.1094 = 0.2344 in

From Table 4-5 for h = 0.1094
rc = 0.125 + 0.1094/2 = 0.1797 in
rn = 0.1094/ln(0.2344/0.125) = 0.174 006 in
e = rc rn = 0.1797 0.174 006 = 0.005 694 in
ci = rn ri = 0.174 006 0.125 = 0.049 006 in
co = ro rn = 0.2344 0.174 006 = 0.060 394 in
A = 0.75(0.1094) = 0.082 050 in2
M = F(4 + h/2) = 3(4 + 0.1094/2) = 12.16 lbf in
3 12.16(0.0490)
i = = 10 240 psi Ans.
0.082 05 0.082 05(0.005 694)(0.125)
3 12.16(0.0604)
o = + = 6670 psi Ans.
0.082 05 0.082 05(0.005 694)(0.2344)
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## 4-75 Find the resultant of F1 and F2 .

Fx = F1x + F2x = 250 cos 60 + 333 cos 0
= 458 lbf
Fy = F1 y + F2 y = 250 sin 60 + 333 sin 0
= 216.5 lbf
F = (4582 + 216.52 ) 1/2 = 506.6 lbf
This is the pin force on the lever which acts in a direction
Fy 216.5
= tan1 = tan1 = 25.3
Fx 458
On the 25.3 surface from F1
2000 lbf in Ft = 250 cos(60 25.3 ) = 206 lbf
25.3
142 206 Fn = 250 sin(60 25.3 ) = 142 lbf
507
A = 2[0.8125(0.375) + 1.25(0.375)]
= 1.546 875 in2

The denomenator of Eq. (3-67), given below, has four additive parts.
A
rn = 
(d A/r)

For d A/r , add the results of the following equation for each of the four rectangles.
 ro
bdr ro
= b ln , b = width
ri r ri

dA 1.8125 2.1875 3.6875 4.5
= 0.375 ln + 1.25 ln + 1.25 ln + 0.375 ln
r 1 1.8125 3.3125 3.6875
= 0.666 810 6
1.546 875
rn = = 2.3198 in
0.666 810 6
e = rc rn = 2.75 2.3198 = 0.4302 in
ci = rn ri = 2.320 1 = 1.320 in
co = ro rn = 4.5 2.320 = 2.180 in

Shear stress due to 206 lbf force is zero at inner and outer surfaces.
142 2000(1.32)
i = + = 3875 psi Ans.
1.547 1.547(0.4302)(1)
142 2000(2.18)
o = = 1548 psi Ans.
1.547 1.547(0.4302)(4.5)
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Chapter 4 99

4-76
A = (6 2 1)(0.75) = 2.25 in2
6+2
rc = = 4 in
2
Similar to Prob. 4-75,

dA 3.5 6
= 0.75 ln + 0.75 ln = 0.635 473 4 in
r 2 4.5
A 2.25
rn =  = = 3.5407 in
(d A/r) 0.635 473 4
e = 4 3.5407 = 0.4593 in
5000 20 000(3.5407 2)
i = + = 17 130 psi Ans.
2.25 2.25(0.4593)(2)
5000 20 000(6 3.5407)
o = = 5710 psi Ans.
2.25 2.25(0.4593)(6)

4-77
(a)  ro  6
2 6
A= b dr = dr = 2 ln
ri 2 r 2
= 2.197 225 in2
  6
1 ro 1 2r
rc = br dr = dr
A ri 2.197 225 2 r
2
= (6 2) = 3.640 957 in
2.197 225
A 2.197 225
r n =  ro = 6
ri (b/r) dr 2
2 (2/r ) dr

2.197 225
= = 3.295 837 in
2[1/2 1/6]
e = R rn = 3.640 957 3.295 837 = 0.345 12
ci = rn ri = 3.2958 2 = 1.2958 in
co = ro rn = 6 3.2958 = 2.7042 in
20 000 20 000(3.641)(1.2958)
i = + = 71 330 psi Ans.
2.197 2.197(0.345 12)(2)
20 000 20 000(3.641)(2.7042)
o = = 34 180 psi Ans.
2.197 2.197(0.345 12)(6)
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100 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

## (b) For the centroid, Eq. (4-70) gives,

rb
s r(2/r)
s
s 4
rc = = = =
b
s (2/r)
s
s/r
s/r

Let
s = 4 103 in with the following visual basic program, cen.

Function cen(R)
DS = 4 / 1000
R = R + DS / 2
Sum = 0
For I = 1 To 1000 Step 1
Sum = Sum + DS / R
R = R + DS
Next I
cen = 4 / Sum
End Function

## For eccentricity, Eq. (4-71) gives,

[s/(rc s)](2/r)
s [(s/r)/(rc s)]
s
e= =
(2/r)
s/(rc s) [(1/r)/(rc s)]
s

## Program the following visual basic program, ecc.

Function ecc(RC)
DS = 4 / 1000
S = (6 RC) + DS / 2
R = 6 DS / 2
SUM1 = 0
SUM2 = 0
For I = 1 To 1000 Step 1
SUM1 = SUM1 + DS * (S / R) / (RC S)
SUM2 = SUM2 + DS * (1 / R) / (RC S)
S = S + DS
R = R DS
Next I
ecc = SUM1 / SUM2
End Function
In the spreadsheet enter the following,

A B C D
1 ri rc e rn
2 2 = cen(A2) = ecc(B2) = B2 C2
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Chapter 4 101

## which results in,

A B C D
1 ri rc e rn
2 2 3.640 957 0.345 119 3.295 838

which are basically the same as the analytical results of part (a) and will thus yield the same
final stresses. Ans.

4-78 rc = 12

s

1"
s 2 (b/2) 2 
+ = 1 b = 2 1 s 2 /4 = 4 s2
2" 22 12

[(s 4 s 2 )/(rc s)]
s
e=
[( 4 s 2 )/(rc s)]
s
A = ab = (2)(1) = 6.283 in2
Function ecc(rc)
DS = 4 / 1000
S = 2 + DS/2
SUM1 = 0
SUM2 = 0
For I = 1 To 1000 Step 1
SUM1 = SUM1 + DS * (S * Sqr(4 S ^ 2)) / (rc S)
SUM2 = SUM2 + DS * Sqr(4 S ^ 2) / (rc S)
S = S + DS
Next I
ecc = SUM1/SUM2
End Function
rc e rn = rc e
12 0.083 923 11.91 608

ci = 11.916 08 10 = 1.9161
co = 14 11.916 08 = 2.0839
M = F(2 + 2) = 20(4) = 80 kip in
20 80(1.9161)
i = + = 32.25 kpsi Ans.
6.283 6.283(0.083 923)(10)
20 80(2.0839)
o = = 19.40 kpsi Ans.
6.283 6.283(0.083 923)(14)
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102 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

4-79
0.4" 0.4"
0.4"R 
dA
1" 1" For rectangle, = b ln ro /ri
r

A r2
For circle,  = 
, Ao = r 2
(d A/r) 2 rc rc2 r 2

   
dA
= 2 rc rc2 r 2
r
 dA 2.6   
= 1 ln 2 1.8 1.82 0.42 = 0.672 723 4
r 1

## A = 1(1.6) (0.42 ) = 1.097 345 2 in2

1.097 345 2
rn = = 1.6312 in
0.672 723 4
e = 1.8 rn = 0.1688 in
ci = 1.6312 1 = 0.6312 in
co = 2.6 1.6312 = 0.9688 in
M = 3000(5.8) = 17 400 lbf in
3 17.4(0.6312)
i = + = 62.03 kpsi Ans.
1.0973 1.0973(0.1688)(1)
3 17.4(0.9688)
o = = 32.27 kpsi Ans.
1.0973 1.0973(0.1688)(2.6)

4-80 100 and 1000 elements give virtually the same results as shown below.
Visual basic program for 100 elements:
Function ecc(RC)
DS = 1.6 / 100
S = 0.8 + DS / 2
SUM1 = 0
SUM2 = 0
For I = 1 To 25 Step 1
SUM1 = SUM1 + DS * S / (RC S)
SUM2 = SUM2 + DS / (RC S)
S = S + DS
Next I
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Chapter 4 103

For I = 1 To 50 Step 1
SUM1 = SUM1 + DS * S * (1 2 * Sqr(0.4 ^ 2 S ^ 2)) / (RC S)
SUM2 = SUM2 + DS * (1 2 * Sqr(0.4 ^ 2 S ^ 2)) / (RC S)
S = S + DS
Next I
For I = 1 To 25 Step 1
SUM1 = SUM1 + DS * S / (RC S)
SUM2 = SUM2 + DS / (RC S)
S = S + DS
Next
ecc = SUM1 / SUM2
End Function

## 100 elements 1000 elements

rc e rn = rc e rc e rn = rc e
1.8 0.168 811 1.631 189 1.8 0.168 802 1.631 198

## e = 0.1688 in, rn = 1.6312 in

Yields same results as Prob. 4-79. Ans.

 1/3
3 2[(1 2 )/E]
a = KF 1/3
=F 1/3
8 2(1/d)

## Use = 0.292, F in newtons, E in N/mm2 and d in mm, then

 1/3
3 [(1 0.2922 )/207 000]
K = = 0.0346
8 1/25
3F 3F
pmax = =
2a 2 2(K F 1/3 ) 2
3F 1/3 3F 1/3
= =
2 K 2 2(0.0346) 2
= 399F 1/3 MPa = |max |
max = 0.3 pmax
= 120F 1/3 MPa

## 4-82 From Prob. 4-81,

 1/3
3 2[(1 0.2922 )/207 000]
K = = 0.0436
8 1/25 + 0
3F 1/3 3F 1/3
pmax = = = 251F 1/3
2 K 2 2(0.0436) 2
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104 Solutions Manual Instructors Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

## and so, z = 251F 1/3 MPa Ans.

1/3
max = 0.3(251) F = 75.3F 1/3 MPa Ans.
1/3
z = 0.48a = 0.48(0.0436)18 = 0.055 mm Ans.

4-83 1 = 0.334, E 1 = 10.4 Mpsi, l = 2 in, d1 = 1 in, 2 = 0.211, E 2 = 14.5 Mpsi, d2 = 8 in.
With b = K c F 1/2
 1/2
2 (1 0.3342 )/[10.4(106 )] + (1 0.2112 )/[14.5(106 )]
Kc =
(2) 1 0.125
= 0.000 234 6
Be sure to check x for both 1 and 2 . Shear stress is maximum in the aluminum roller. So,
max = 0.3 pmax
4000
pmax = = 13 300 psi
0.3
Since pmax = 2F/(bl) we have
2F 2F 1/2
pmax = =
l K c F 1/2 l K c
So,
 2
l K c pmax
F=
2
 2
(2)(0.000 234 6)(13 300)
=
2
= 96.1 lbf Ans.

## 4-85 From Table A-5, = 0.211

x 1 1
= (1 + ) = (1 + 0.211) = 0.711
pmax 2 2
y
= 0.711
pmax
z
=1
pmax
These are principal stresses
max 1 1
= (1 3 ) = (1 0.711) = 0.1445
pmax 2 2
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Chapter 4 105

4-86 From Table A-5: 1 = 0.211, 2 = 0.292, E 1 = 14.5(106 ) psi, E 2 = 30(106 ) psi, d1 = 6 in,
d2 = , l = 2 in

2(800) (1 0.2112 )/14.5(106 ) + (1 0.2922 )/[30(106 )]
(a) b=
(2) 1/6 + 1/
= 0.012 135 in
2(800)
pmax = = 20 984 psi
(0.012 135)(2)
For z = 0 in,

## x 1 = 21 pmax = 2(0.211)20 984 = 8855 psi in wheel

x 2 = 2(0.292)20 984 = 12 254 psi
In plate
y = pmax = 20 984 psi
z = 20 984 psi
These are principal stresses.
(b) For z = 0.010 in,
x1 = 4177 psi in wheel
x2 = 5781 psi in plate
y = 3604 psi
z = 16 194 psi