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CLASSIFICATION NOTES

No. 7

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

DECEMBER 2004

DET NORSKE ''ERIIL\S AS

BlliUOJEKET

DETNORSKE VERITAS

Veritasveien I, N0 - 1322H0vik, Norw ay Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 l l

FOREWORD

DETNORSKE VERlTAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, prop- erty and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes c lassification, certificatio n, and other verification and consultan cy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide , and carries out re search in relati on to th ese functions.

Classification Notes

Classification Notes are publications that give practical infom1ation on classification of ships and other objects. Examples of de- sign solution s, calculation methods, specifications oftest procedure s, as well as acceptable repair met hods for some components are given as interpretations of th e more general rul e requirements.

A list of Classification Notes is found in the latest edition of Pt.O Ch. l of the "Rules for Clat>sification of Ships" and the ''Rules for Classification of High Speed, Light Crnft and Naval Surface Craft".

The list of Classification Notes is also included in the current "Classificati on Services - Publications" issued by the Society,

which is available on request. All publi cations

may be

ordered from the Soci ety' s Web site http://exchange.dnv.com.

Main changes

Class ification Note No. 7 has been completely rev ised and covers the six most frequently used NDT met hods; i.e. Ed dy current testing (ET) , Magnetic pa1ticle lesting (MT), Penetrant t esting (PT), Radiographic testing (RT), Ultras onic testing (UT), and finally the very important Visual testing (VT).

Conune nts may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com For subscription orders or information about subscrip tion term s, please use distribution($dnv.com Comprehensive information about DNV and th e Society's services is found at the Web site htf!!://www.dnv.com

  • C Del Norsk c Veritas

Computer Typesettin g (FM+SGML) by Dct No rske Veritas Printed in Norway.

If any person suffers loss or damage which rs proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Oet Norske Veritas, then Det Norske Ventas shall pay compensa tion to such person for his p1oved direct loss or damage. Howa1111r. the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the ree charged for the se rvice In question , provided that tha maximum compen - sation shall never exceed USO 2 mlllion. In thi s provision "Det Norske Veritas" shall mean the Found ation Oet Norske Verllas as well as all 118 subsidiaries, olrectors. officers, employees, agent11 a.r>CI any other acting on behalf of Del Norske Veritas.

Classification Notes - No. 7 December 2004

3

CONTENTS

].

INTRODUCTION

4

  • 1.1 Preamble

.4

18

  • 1.2 Nonnative reference

.4

4

. 5

Preparation, pre-cleaning and testing

18

  • 1.3 Definitions and symbol s

5

4

.6

Inspection

19

  • 1.4 Safety

5

4.7

Recording ..............................................

....................

20

  • 1.5 Personnel qualifications

5

4.8

Acceptance criteri a

......................

20

  • 1.6 Information require d pri or to testing

  • 1.7 E xtent oftesti ng Materials

l.8

  • 1.9 Selection

of testing meth od

  • 1.10 ................ ..... . .. .....................................

Time

oftesting

  • 1.11 .......... ............ .. ... .................. ............ ..........

Final

report

  • 2. ED DY CURRENT

6

6

6

6

6

6

7

4.9

4.10

4.11

5.

5.1

5.2

5.3

Post cleaning and protecti on

Retesting

Reporting

..........................

......................

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

Sco pe

Pers01mel qualificati ons

.................

....

Classification of radio grap hic techniques .................

20

20

20

22

22

22

22

 

5.4

General

22

  • 2.1 ....................... .......................... .......................... .

Scope

7

5.5

Techniques for making radiographs

Acceptance criteria

..............

22

  • 2.2 ... ................................................................

Definitions

7

5.6

2 7

2.3

Personnel qualification s

7

5

.7

Reporting

27

  • 2.4 Information required (prior to testing)

7

6.

ULTRASONIC TESTING

27

  • 2.5 Surface conditions ......................................................

7

6.1

Seope

............................

27

  • 2.6 Equipment

7

6.2

D

efinitions and sym bo l s

...........

27

  • 2.7 Testing

8

6.3

Personnel qua li fi cations ........ ................... .. ....

...........

28

2.8

Acceptance Criteria

9

6.4

Requirements to equipment

............ ... .. ........ ............ .

28

2.9

Evaluation of non acc eptable indication

9

6.5

Preparation of scanning s u1faces

....

31

2.10

Reporting

.9

6.6

Testing volume ............................................ .. ..... ......

31

3.

MAGNETJC PARTICLE TES TING

13

6.

7

Welds in austeniti c s tainless and ferritic-austenitie

................... ..........................

Evaluation of imperfectio ns in weld connections .....

  • 3.1 .... ..... ..... ........ ... . ............. .. .. .. ... . .. ......... . ... ..........

Scope

3.2

Definitions and symbol s

13

13

6.8

(duplex) s tainl ess s tee l

4 2

44

  • 3.3 Information required (prior to testing)

  • 3.4 Pers onnel qual i fication s Magnetizing

  • 3.5 .. ......................... .. ... .. .... .... ................. ... .

  • 3.6 Overall perfonnance t est

J3

13

13

13

6.9

6.10

6.

1 l

6

. 12

Acceptance Criteria, Weld Connections

Reporting , weld con nections

Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic

testing

testing

o f rolled s teel plates

of

castings

......

.45

45

4 6

48

 

...

..........

Ultrasonic

testing

of

forgi n gs

.....................

50

 

6.13

  • 3.7 Preparation of surfaces

3.8

T esting

 

............

............

13

13

7.

VISUAL INSP ECTION

51

7.1

Scope

.........................................................................

51

3.9

Evaluation of imperfec tions

..

..........

18

18

J8

7.2

Information requi re d prior to testing .........................

51

3.10

Acceptance criteria

7.3

Requirements for personn el and equipment

..

51

3.11

Demagnetization

7.4

Testing conditions

 

51

3.12

Reporting

........

18

7

. 5

Testing

volrune

....

52

4.

PENETRANT TESTING

...................................

18

  • 7.6 Preparation of surfaces

......................

52

  • 4.1 .......................................... . .............................. .

Scope

18

  • 7.7 Evaluation of indications

...

........................................

52

4.2

Personnel qualificatioos

18

7.8

Visual testing of repaired welds

...............

52

4 .3

Equipment

1 8

  • 7.9 Acceptance cr i t eria

....

52

DET N ORSKE VERITAS

4

01assmcanon N otes - r'lu. 1 December 2004

1. Introdu ct ion

  • 1.1 Preamble

This Classification Note applies fo r non-destructive testing fo t the following methods:

Eddy current testing Magnetic particl e testing Penetrant testing Rad i ographic testing Ultrasonic testing Visual testing

In ge neral, this C lassification Note bas to be adhered to , as far as applicable, when non-destructive testing is required by the Society. The use of other standards or specificatio ns may, however, be granted if an equivalent testing procedure is en-

su red or is more fit for the

purpose.

Whenever acceptance ctite ri a a re defined in the Rules, ap- proved drawings, !ACS Recommendations or other agreed product standards, these criteria are mandatory . If no accept- ance criteria arc defined, acceptance criteria specified in thi s Classification Note may be applied.

The definitions and requirements staled bel ow may satisfy the

need of a written procedure . Where this

is

110t the

ca se, or

where the techn iques described in this C lassification Note are not applicable to the object to be examined, additional written p rocedures shall be used and accepted by the Soc iety before d1e testing is curried out.

  • 1.2 Normative reference

This Classification Note in corporates references from other publications. These nonnative references are cite d at the ap-

propriate places in the text and co nstitute provi sio ns of th i s

Class ification Note. Latest edition of

the publications shall be

used Wlless otherwise ag re ed. Other recogni sed publicati ons may be used provided i t can be shown that they meet or exceed

the requirements of the pub li cations referenced below.

.EN 14 35

Non-destructive examination of welds

 
  • - Radiographic examination of welded joints

rso 17636

Non-destructive examination of welds

 
  • - Radiographi c testing of fu s ion-welded joints

EN444

Non-destructi ve

testing- General p rincipl es

fo r radiographic examination of materia ls by

X-aml ganuna-rays

EN 462

Non-destructive testing - £mage quality of radiographs

EN 584

Non-destructive testing- I ndustri al radiographic film

 

ISO 11699

Non -de structive testing rad iographi c film

- fndustrial

IS 05580/

Non-destrnc t ive testing - Indus trial

EN25580

radio grap hic illuminators

F.N 17 11

Non-destructive examination of welds - Eddy Current Exa m ina tion of welds by complex plane analy sis.

EN 12062

Non-destruc tive examination of welds General rules for metallic ma terials

-

ISO 17635

Non -destructive examination of welds - General rules for fusion welds in metallic

materials

ISO 17636

Non-destruct ive examination of welds - Radiographic testing of fu sio.n welded joints

EN 1289

Non-destructive examination of welds - Penetrant testing of welds - Acceptance leve ls.

EN 1291

EN473

IS05817

EN 258 17

EN26520

EN 3004 2

EN 13 30 Pr EN 13860

!ACS

!ACS

!ACS

EN 473

ASNT

EN 1290

ISO 9934 - 1

EN 10160

TSO 971 2

EN 17l2

EN 1713

EN 1714

ASMEV

ASTMA 609

ASTM 388

EN 2581 7

EN 12668

PrEN 1956

Non-de structive examination of welds - Magneti c paiiicle testing - Acceptance levels

Qualification and certificution ofNDE per- sonnel - General prin ciples

Arc-welded joints in steels- Guidance on quality levels for imp erfections .

Arc-welded joints in steels - Guidanc e on quality levels for imperfections.

Classification of imperfections in metaUic fusion we l ds with explanations.

Arc-welded joints in aluminium and its weldable allo ys - Guidance on quality levels

for inlper fec tions. Non-destructive testing -

Tenninoloi,ry

Non-destructive testing - Eddy currents - Verification of equipment.

Internati onal Associati on of Classification e societi es-Recommendation No. 47, Shipbuilding and repair Quality Standard

International Association of C l assification societies - Rec. No. 68 Guidelines for no n- destruct! ve examination of hull and machinery s teel forgin gs

International Association of Classification societies - Rec. No. 69 Guidelines for non- destructive examination of marine s t eel cast ings

e

Qualification and certi fication of ND T personnel - General pri ncip les

SNT-TC-JA American Society for Non- destructive testin g Recommended Practi ce

Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of welds

Non-de struc tive testing - Magnetic testing - General Principles

particle

Ultrasonic testing of steel and flat produ ct of th ickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflecti on method)

Non-destructive testin g - Qualification and certification of personne l

Non-de structive examin ation of welded joints - Acc eptance level s

e

Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrason- ic exami nation - Ch aracterizatio n of indicati ons in welds

Non-destructiv e examin ation of welds - Ultra sonic examination ofweldcdjoints

e

ASME Bo iler and Pressure Vessel Code; N on-des trnctive Examination

Standard Prac tice for Castings , Carbon , Low-All oy, and Ivlartensitic Stainless Stee l, Ultrasoni c Examination

Stanci<ml Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of He avy S teel Forgings

Arc-wel ded joints in steel - Guidance on quality leve ls for imperfections

Characterisation and verification of ultrasoni c of ultrasonic equipment; Part l - Instruments, P art 2 - Probe s, Part 3

  • - Combi ned equipment

Non-destructiv e testing - Pcnetrant tes ting-

Magnet ic Particle testing - Viewing

condition s

DET NORSKE VERlTA S

Classification Notes - No. 7 December 2004

5

ASNT E-13 16

Standar d Terminology for Non-destructive Examinati o ns

EN 571

Non-destruc t ive

testing - penetrant testing

EN

95 6

Non-destruc t ive Equipment

tes ting - penetrant

testing -

EN ISO 12076

Non-destructi ve

testing- Tenninology -

Terms used in penetrant testing.

1.3 Definitions and symbols

The

followjng def"injtions appl y:

Testing: Testing or examination of a mate ria l or compo- nent in accordance with this Classific ation Note, or a s tandard, or a specificati on or a pro cedure in order to de- tect, locate, measure and evaluate flaws. Defect: One or more flaws wbose aggregate size, shape, or ientation, location or prop erties do not meet specifi e d and arc rcjectable Discontinuity: A lack of continuity or cohesion; an inten- tional or unintentional interruption in the physical struc - ture or configur ation of a materia l or component. Flaw: An imperfection or di scontinuity that may be d e- tectable by non-destructive te sting and is not necessarily rejcctab le.

Indication: Evidence of a

pretatio n to determine its

discont inui ty that requires inter- significance.

Fals e indication: An indication that is interpreted to be

caused by a discontinuity at a loc ation where nuity exists.

no disconti-

Non relevant indication: An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity that is not rejectable.

False in dications are non-relevant.

Impe rfections: A dep arture of a quality characteristic from its intended condition. Internal imperfections: I mperfecti ons that are not open to a s urface or not directly accessi bl e. Quality level: Fixed limits of imperfectio ns correspo nding to the expected quality in a specific object. The limits are detennined with regard to type of imperfection, their amount and their actual d imensions.

Acceptance level: Prescribed limits below which nents is accepted. Planar discontinuity: D iscontinuity having two ble dimensions

a compo -

measura-

Non-planar

discontinuity:

meas urable dimensions.

D iscontinuity

having

three

The following defini t ions relevant t o MT or PT indi cations a p- ply:

Linear indication: An ind ication in which the length is at least three times the width .

Nonlinear indication: An ind icati on of circular or ellipti -

ca l s hape with a l e ngth le ss than three times the width. A lig ned indication: Three or more indications i11 a line, se pa ra te d by 2 mm o r less edge - to -edge. Open indication: An indication visible after removal oft he

magnetic particles or that can be detected by the use of contrast dye penetrant.

Non-open indication:

tectable after rem oval

An indication that is not v isually de- of the magnetic particles or that can-

not be detected by the use of contrast dye penetran t. Relevan t indication: An in dication that is caused by a con -

ditio n or type of discontinuity that requires evaluation . Only indications which hav e any dimension greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered relevant.

1.3.1 Abbreviations

E T

Eddy current testing

MT

Magn eti c particle t estin g

PT

P enetran t testing

RT

Radiographic tes ting

UT

Ultrasonic testing

VT

Visual testing

HAZ

Heat affected zone

WPS

Welding Procedure Specification

T MCP Thermo mechanical ly controlled processed

NDT Non-destructive testing.

  • 1.4 Safety

International, nation a l and l ocal safet y tecti on regulation shal1 be observed at

and environmental pro- all times .

  • 1.5 Personnel qualifications

Personne l performing testing shall be qualified and certified

to

an appropriate level in accordance with EN 473, ISO 9712 or

othe r equivalent recognis e d e.g. PCN and NORDTEST.

stan dard or

certification schemes

Othe r recogni7-ed national certifi-

cation schemes may be considered.

Per~onnel perfom1ing non-destructive testing in accordance w ith this Classification Note shall be qualified and certified to an appropriate level as specified for each method.

As a m inimum the fo ll owing applies:

Level 1

An indivi dual certificated to Level 1 has demonstrated compe - tence to carry out NDT according to written instru ctions and unde r the supervision of level 2 or 3 personnel. With in the scope of the competence d efined on the certificate, level l per- SOJU1el may be authorised to:

set up NDT equipment perform the test record and classify th e results of the te sts in terms of writ- ten c rit eria r ep or t the r esults

Level 1 certificated p ersonne l shall not b e responsibl e

for

the choice of test met hod or technique to be used, nor for

the assessment of the tes t results.

Level2

A n individual certificated to Leve l 2 has demonstrated compe-

tenc e to perform non-desrructive

testing according to estab -

lished or recognised proc edures. Within the scope of 1he

competence defined on the certificate, level 2 persoIU1el may be authorised to:

select the NDT technique for the test method to be IL'lcd. define the limitation s of a pplication of the testing method trans late N DT standa r ds and spec ifications int o NDT in- structi ons

se t up

and verify equipment sett ings

perform and supervise tests interpret and evaluate res ults according to appl icable standards, codes or sp ecifications prepare written NDT instructions carry out and to supervi se all level 1 duties.

Level 3

An individual certificated to L eve l 3 has demonstrated compe- tence to perform and direct non-destructi ve testing operations

for whic h he is certificated.

An indi vi dua l certific at ed to level

3may:

assume full responsibility for a test facility or examin ation centre and staff establish and validate NDT instructions and procedures interpret standards, c o des, specifications and procedures designate the particular test methods, procedures and NOT instructions to be used carry out and to supervise all level l and 2 duties .

Procedures and technique s shall be el)1ablishcd and approved

DETN ORSKE V ER JTAS

6

Clas sification Notes - No. 7 Decembe r 2004

by personnel cert ified to NDT Le vel Ill in the applicable in- spection meth od.

The operato r shall provide evidence of satisfactory vision. Th e near vision acuity shal l pennit r eading a minimum of Ja eger number I or Times R oman N 4,5 or equivalent letters at not

less than 300 mm with one or both eyes, either corrected or un-

co rrected. In

addition the co lou r vis ion s ha ll

be s ufficien t that

the operator can distinguish and differentiate contrast between

the c olours used in the NDT method concerned as specified by

the

employer .

The docume nted test of visual acuity shall be carri ed ou t at least annuall y.

1.6 Information required prior to testing

Before carrying out non-d estruc tive testing, the follow ing items, i f appli cable, shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the Society.

specific testing procedu re, if required extent of testing testing plan

testing equipme nt

cal i brat i on

of the equipment

calibrati on blocks acceptance le vel actions necessary for unacceptable indi cations.

Prior to te sti ng, the followin g in forma tion is usually req uired:

grade of parent material welding parameters and cond itions used to ma ke the weld location and extent of welds to be tested weld surface geo metry

  • - coating ty pe and th ickness.

Operators may ask for further info1mati on that will be h e lpful

in determi ning

the nature of discontinuities.

1. 7 Extent of testing

The extent of testing sh a ll be given in the re levant parts of the

Rules or dra wings or as the Society.

agre ed between the manufacturer and

The extent ofN DT shall be in c r eased i f repe ated occurre n ce of

cracks

or other s ignifi ca n t weld defects are re vealed. Correc -

tive ac t ions sha ll be taken to ensure that all s imilar defe cts will

be detected.

All welds shall be 100% vis ually tested prior to can-ying out otherNDT.

l .8 Materials

This Classific ation Note is a pplicable for testing of castings, forgings , ro ll e d materi a ls and fusion w e lds in the foll ow ing material s, their alloys and combinations:

stee l

aluminium

copp er

nicke l

titanimn.

The use

of this C lassification Note for other metallic materia l s

s hall be approved case by case.

  • 1.9 Selection of testin g method

Selection of NDT-method is shown in T a ble 1-1.

Table 1-1 Selection of t esting m ethod

 

Clad

Weld

NDT method

Ma terials

weld

plate

f'late

T -joint,

T-joint

Butt

Fillet

Castings

Forgings

 

Partial

 

VT

Al l

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

MT

ferromagnetic C and C-Mn/ Alloy/ Du plex I)

-

.

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

PT

Aluminium/Cu - x

-

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Alloys/SS/

Duplex 2l

UT5)

Aluminium/C and

x

x

x

3)

x

x

-

x

x

 

C

- Mn/Alloy/ SS/

 

Dup lex

RT

Al uminium/Cand

-

-

-

-

-

X4)

-

3)

3)

 

C

-Mn/ Alloy/S S/

 

Duplex

l:ff3)

All

x

-

x

x

x

x

x

3)

3)

I)

Methods is applic ab le with limitations for Duplex, shall be approved case by case

 

2)

May be used for other mat eria ls also a±tcr specia l approval in. eac h case

3)

May be used after special appro val in each case

4)

Recomm ended for t::; 40 mm

5)

Only applicable for welds with t ~ 10 mm

  • 1.10 Time of testing

When heat treatment is pe1fo nned, the final NOT shall be car - ried out when all heat treatments have been completed.

For NV 420 grades and higher, fin al inspect ion and N DT shall not be carried out before 48 h ours after completi on.

  • 1.11 Final report

All NDT s ha ll be properly do c umented in su c h a way that the

performed

testing can b e easi ly retraced at a later stage. The re-

ports shall

identify the unacceptable defects

present in the test -

ed area, and a co nclusive statement as to whether the weld

satisfies the acce ptanc e criteri a or not.

The report s hall include a reference to the ap plicable standard, NDT pro cedure and acceptance criteri a.

In additi on, as a minim um , the following information must be gi ven:

object an d drawing refere nces place and date of examination material type and dim ens ions post weld heat treatment, if required l ocation of examined areas, type ofjo int

DET N ORSKE VERITAS

Classification Notes • No. 7 December 2004

7

welding process used name of the company and operator carrying out the testing including certification level of the operator surface conditions temperature of the object number of repairs if specific area repaired twice or more contract requirements e.g. order no., specifications, spe· cial agreements etc. sketch showing location and information regarding detect- ed defects, extent of testing test equipment used description of the parameters used for each method description and location of all recordable indications examination results with rcfcr<:nce to acceptance level.

Other information related to the specific method may be listed under each method.

  • 2. Eddy current

    • 2.1 Scope

This part defines Eddy Cu1Tcnt testing techniques for detection of surface breaking and near surface planar defects in:

welds

  • - heat affected zone

  • - parent material.

ET can be applied on coated and uncoated objects The testing can be carried out on all accessible surfaces on welds of almost any configuration.

Usually, it can be applied in the as-welded condition. Howev- er, a very rough surface may prevent an efficient testing.

The Eddy Current testing method includes also Altemating Current Field Measurement (ACFM). lfthls method is applied, written procedures shall be established according to recog- nised standards and are subjected for approval by the Society before the testing starts.

  • 2.2 Definitions

ln addition to definitions given in 1.3 the following applies:

2.2. l Balance

Compensation of the signal, corresponding to the operating point, to achieve a predetermined value, for example zero point.

  • 2.2.2 Impedance plane diagram

Graphical representation of the focus points, indicating the variation in the impedance of a test coil as a function of the test parameters.

  • 2.2.3 Noise

Any unwanted signal which can corrupt the measurement.

  • 2.2.4 Phase reference

Direction in the complex plane display chosen as the origin for the phase measurement.

  • 2.2.5 Probe

Eddy current transducer. Physical device containing excitation clements and receiving elements.

  • 2.2.6 Lift off

Geometrical effect produced by changes in the distance be- tween the probe and the product to be tested.

  • 2.3 Personnel qualifications

Personnel performing testing shall be qualified and certified to

ET level IT or Ill in accordance with EN 473, ISO 9712 or other equivalent recognised standard or certification schemes e.g. PCN and NOR DTEST. Other recognized national certification schemes may be considered.

  • 2.4 Information required (prior to testing)

See general information in 1.6 through 1.11.

  • 2.5 Surface conditions

Depending on the sensitivity requirements, the eddy cunent method is able to detect surface cracks through non-metallic coating up to 2 mm thickness. Coating thickness in excess may be considered if the relevant sensitivity is maintained.

Excessive weld spatters, scale, rust and damaged paint can in- fluence sensitivity by separating the probe (lift off) from the test object and shall be removed before the inspection.

It shall also be noted some types of coating, such as zinc prim· ers, could seriously influence the results as they can deposit electrical conductive metallic material in all cracks open to the surface.

Nonnally, zinc rich shop primer used for corrosion protection (typical thickness max. 30 µm) will not influence the testing.

  • 2.6 Equipment

    • 2.6.1 Instrument

The instrument used for the testing described in this Classifi· cation Note shall at least have the following features:

  • 2.6.1.1 Frequency

The instrument shall be able to operate at the frequency range

from 1 kHz to 1 MHz.

  • 2.6.1.2 Gain/noise

After compensation (lift oft), a l mm deep artificial defect shall be indicated as a full screen deflection through a coating thickness corresponding to the maximum expected on the ob· ject to be tested.

Further, a 0.5 nun deep artificial defect shall be indicated through the same coating thickness by a minimum noise/signal ratio of 1 to 3.

Both requirements shall apply to the chosen probe and shall be verified on a relevant calibration block.

  • 2.6.1.3 Evaluation mode

The evaluation mode uses both phase analysis and amplitude analysis of vector traced to the complex plane display. Evalu· ation may be by comparison of this display with reference data previously stored.

2.6. 1.4 Signal display

As a minimum, the signal display shall be a complex plane dis- play with the facility to freeze data on the screen until reset by the operator. The trace shall be clearly visible under all ligl1ting conditions during the testing.

  • 2.6.1.5 Phase control

The phase control shall be able to give complete rotation in steps of no more than l 0° each.

  • 2.6.2 Probes

2. 6. 2.1 Probes.for measuring thickness of coating

The probe shall be capable of providing a full screen deflection lift-offsit,'llal on the instrument when moved from an uncoated spot on a calibration block to a spot covered with the maximum coating thickness expected on the object to be tested. The probe shall operate in the frequency range from l kHz to l MHz. The probes shall be clearly marked with their operating frequency range.

DF.T NORSKE VERITAS

8

Classification Notes - No. 7

December 2004

  • 2.6.2.2 Probes for weld testing

For testing of welds, probes specially design~d for t~is purpose shall be used. The probe assembly shall be d1ffcr.en ttal, orth?g- onal , tangential or equivalent "."h!ch i~ cbaracteri.s~d by having a minimal dependency on variatJons m conductivity, permea- bility and lift off in welded and heat-affected zones

The diameter of the probe shall be selected relative to the ge- ometry of the component under ~est. Such probes shall. be able to opeJatc when covered by a.thin layer on non-m~talhc we~r­ resistant materi.al over the active face. Jf the probe 1s used with

a cover, than the cover shall always be in place during th~ cal- ibration. The probe shall operate at a selected frequency in the

range from l 00 kHz to I

MHz.

  • 2.6.3 Accessories

    • 2.6.3.1 Calihration block

A calibration block, of the same type of the material as the compone nt to be tested shall be used. lt shall have EDM (Elec- tric Discharge Machined) notches of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm depth, unless otherwise agreed between contracting parties.

Tolerance of notch depth shall width of notch shall be 5 0.2 mm.

be ±0. l mm . Recommended

2.6. 3.2 Non-metallic sheets

Non-metallic flexible s trips of a known thickness to simulate the coati ng or actual coatings on the calibration block shall be

used.

1t is recommended that non-metallic flexible strips be multi- ples ofO.S mm thickness.

  • 2.6.3.3 Probe extension cables

Extension cables may on ly be used between the probe and the instrument if the fun ction, sensitivity and the resolution of the whole system can be maintained.

  • 2.6.4 Systematic equipment maintenance

The equipment sha ll be checked and adjusted on a periodic ba- sis for correct functioning in accordance with reco gnised standards, e.g. EN 1711 or ASME V. This shall only include such measurements or adjustments, which can be made from the outside of the equipment. Electronic adjustments shall be carried out in case of device fatLlts or partial deterioration or as a minimum on an annual basis. rt shall follow a written proce- dure. The results of maintenance checks shall be recor ded. Records sha ll be filed by owner.

2.7 Testing

  • 2.7.1 General information for coating thickness

The coating thickness on the un-machined surface is never constan t. However, it will influence the sensitivity of crack de- tection. The lift off sig nal obtain from the object to be tested shall be simi lar to the signa l obtain from the ca libration block, i.e . it shall be within 5° either side of the reference signal. In the event that the signa l is out of this range, a calibration block more representative of the material to be test ed shall be pro- duced/ manufactured.

2. 7.1.1 Calibration

Select frequency to desired va lue between I kHz and 1 MHz, depending on probe design, for instance a broa d band pencil probe 80-300 kHz set at l 00 kHz. Place the probe on the uncovered calibration block aw a y from s l ots and bal a nce the equipment. Use th e X- and Y-controls to adjust the position of the spot until it is on the ri g ht hand s ide of the screen. Move the probe on and off the calibration block. Adjust the phase angle control until the movement of the spot is horizontal. Pla ce the probe on the uncovered calibration block ensur- ing it is not close to any of the slots. Repeat this on the

same spot of the block now covered with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm non-metallic sheets.

Note the different signal ampli tudes,

see Figure 2-8.

  • 2. 7.1. 2 Measuring of coating thickn ess

Balance the equ ipment on an uncoated spot on the test ob- ject.

Place the probe on sele cted spots adjacent to the

weld or

area to be tested. Note the signal amplitudes. The thickne ss of the coati ng can be estimated by interpo- lation between the signal amplitudes from the known

thicknesses, see Figure 2-9. The estimated co ating thickness shall be recorded.

  • 2.7.2 Testing of weld in ferritic material s

    • 2. 7.2. l Frequen< y ..

The frequency shall be chosen acco rding to the material (con -

duc tivity, permeability) , the defect (type, location, s ize)

and

the probe design . It is suggested to use a frequency around kHz.

100

2.7. 2.2 Probes For testing offerritic we ld s,

p r obes specially designed for this

purpose shalJ be used. They arc usually of the differential coil type, which is characterised by having a minimal influence on variations in conductivity, permeability and lift-o ff in the welded and heat-affec ted zones. Such probes may further be designed for use on rather un eve1J surfaces as often found in welds on steel stnictures . (Regarding use of protective covers on probes, see 2.6.2.2)

  • 2. 7.2 .3 Calibration

Calibration is performed

by passi ng the probe

over the notche s

in the calibration block. See Figure 2-7 The notched surface shall firs t be covered by non meta ll ic flexible strips having a

thickness equal to or greater than the measured coating thick - ness.

The equipment sensitivity is adjusted to give increasing signals from increasing notch depths. The I mm deep notch shall give a signal am p! itude of approximately 80% of full screen height. The sensitivity lev e ls shall then be adjusted to compensate for obje ct geometry.

Calibration check shall be perfom1ed periodically and at least at the beginning and the end of the shift and after every change in working conditions.

When the calibration is comp lete it is recommended the bal- ance is adjusted to the centre of the displ ay.

Calibration procedure:

Select frequency to l 00 kHz. Balance the equipment with the prob e in air. Use theX- and Y- controls to adjust the spot position to the centre of the screen (X-axis) and minimum one and a half screen divisions above the bottom line (Y-axis), ensuring that no noise sig nal is fully displayed on the screen.

Place

the prob e on the Ltncovcred calibration b lock ensur-

ing it is not close to any of the slots. Balance the equip- ment. To obtain a correct defect display, nm the probe over the 2.0 mm deep s lot. Care shou ld be taken that the longitudi- nal axis of the probe is kept parallel to the slot and the scanning direction is at right angles to the slot. lndications from the slot will appear on the screen. The phase angle control is in the vertical upwards direction.

The sensitivity level shall be adjusted to compensate for

the coating th ickne ss

lowing procedure:

measured under 2.7 .1.2 using the fol-

Place the non-metallic sheets of the acrual thickness corre - sponding to the measured coatin g thickness on the calibra -

'

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Classification Notes - No. 7 December 2004

9

tion block, or the nearest higher thickness of the non

metallic sheets.

Place the probe on the covered calibration block ensuring it i.s

not close to any of the slots and balance the equipment.

Run the probe over the 2.0 mm deep slot. Adjust the gain (dB)

control until the signal amplitude from the slot is in 80% of full

screen height.

  • 2. 7.2. 4 Scanning

The weld surface and 25 nun of each side of the weld (includ-

ing the heat-affected zones) shall be scanned with the chosen

probe(s). As far as the geo m etry of the test objects permits, the

probe shall be moved in directions perpendicu lar to the main

direction of the expec ted indications. If this is unknown, or if

indications in different directions arc expected, at least two

probe runs shall be carried out, one perpendicular to the other.

The testing can be split into two parts: the heat affected zones

(25 mm each side of the weld) see Figures 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 and the

wel.d surface, Figure 2-4.

It shall be noted that the reliability of the testing is highly de-

pendent on the probe relative to the smface (weld) under test.

Care shall also be taken to ensure that the probe is at the opti-

mum angle to meet the varying surface conditions in the heat

affected zone.

For probes of differential coil type, the sensitivity is affected

by the orientation of the imperfection relative to the coil.

Therefore, care shall be taken that this also is controlled during

the testing.

Note:

Especially defects with an orientation of 45° to the main direc- tion of the probe movement can be difficult to detect.

---e-n-d-- -of- --N-o-t-e---

  • 2. 7.2.5 Detectability of imperfections

The ability to detect imperfections depends on many factors.

Some recommendations are made below to take account of the

limiting factors which affect indications detectability.

  • a) Material of calibration block: Testing of metalized welds/components require equivalent calibration blocks and established calibration procedures.

  • b) Conductive coatings: Conductive coatings reduce the sensitivity of the test. The maximum coating thickness shall also be reduced and de- pending on the conductivity.

  • c) Non-conductive coatings: Non-conductive coatings reduce the sensitivity of the test depending on the distance between the probe and the test object.

  • d) Geometry of the object: The shape of the object and the access of the probe to the area under test reduce the sensitivity of the test. Complex weld geometries such as cruciform and gusset plates shall be tested relative to the complex geometry and possible orientation of the indications.

  • e) Orientation of coils to the indication: Directional induced current; the induced current is direc- tional, therefore care shall be taken to ensure that the ori- entation of current is perpendicular and/or parallel to the expected indication position. Inclination; care shall be taken to ensure the optimum an- gle of the coils relative to the area under test is maintained.

  • f) Minimwn size of indication: The minimum size of indication that the eddy current

method is capable to detect in ferritic steel weld in the "as

welded" conditions is 1 mm deep x 5 mm long.

  • 2.7.3 P1·ocedure for examination ofn·clds in other materi-

als

As previous .stated, the Eddy Cun-ent method is also applicable

to welds in other materials such as aluminium, duplex, stain-

less steels and titanium.

The procedure for testing of such welds shall generally include

the same items as in 2. 7 .2 but the choice of frequency, probes,

calibration and scanning patterns shall be optimised to the ac-

tual materials, and may deviate considerably from what is rec-

ommended for fcrritic materials.

Therefore, the testing shall be based on practical experience

with suitable equipment and probes, and shall be shown in a

specific procedure.

2. 7.3.J Detectability o.f imperfections

This part of the Classification Note is based on a sensitivity

level of detecting a imperfection producing a response equal to

the signal amplitude from a 2 nun deep slot with scanning pat-

tern ensuring that I 0 mm or longer detects can be found.

However, the ability to detect a imperfection depends on many

factors and the present knowledge of Eddy Current method ap-

plied to welded components does not allow proposing precise

criteria, they shall be fixed and agreed between contracting

patties as standard rule. If an amplitude response equal to 50%

of amplitude response fowtd in scanning, the 2.0 mm notch of

the calibration block used, the con-esponding indication is con-

sidered as a potential defect and the relevant acceptance levels

for MT or PT may apply.

  • 2.8 Acceptance Criteria

Whenever acceptance criteria are defined in the Rules, ap-

proved drawings, lACS Recommendations or other agreed

product standards, these criteria are mandatory.

  • 2.9 Evaluation of non acceptable indication

A non acceptable indication i!> defined as an area displaying an

abnormal signal compared to that expected from that area of

the object under test.

In the event of a non acceptable indication being noted (see

Figure 2-5), a further investigation of the area is requested, e.g.

by using magnetic particle testing

A longitudinal scan shall be perfonned and the lengt11 of the in-</