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(remembered wellness) and Glaubensfactor (the times the validity of pastoral care had become ques-
faith factor). The main thesis is that when man tionable. In postmodern times pastoral care should
appeals to faith, he activates neurological pathways for become of more interest.
dramatic self-healing. In a way Heilung durch Glauben Heilung durch Glauben can be regarded as a valu-
is a continuation of the study by Benson about The able contribution to the rebirth of the healing function
Relaxation Response (1975). The main message is how of pastoral care. Therefore this book is not only inter-
man can use his remembered wellness to influence esting for physicians with pastoral concerns but also
and cure 60 to 90 per cent of medical complaints. The for theologicans who give pastoral care to patients.
main goal is to make faith an integral part of modern
medicine. Hans Meissner
The notion remembered wellness suggests that Netherlands
man has an intense desire for wellness, and has an
ability to remember the calm and confidence asso-
ciated with health and happiness, but not just in an
emotionally or psychologically soothing way. This
memory is also physical. The author gives an overview Hurd, J.P. (ed.): 1996, Investigating the Biological
of research and studies on conditions to be affected by Foundations of Human Morality. Lewiston, The
belief. Edwin Mellen Press. 249 pages. ISBN: 0-7734-8843-
Herbert Benson wrote an interesting, well-docu- X. Price: $89.95
mented, popular medical book, not a philosophical
one. The sub-heading of the original English edition is: Evolution as a historical process had been a necessary
The Power and Biology of Belief. The German version condition for the existence of human beings in general
of the subtitle is Die Beweise (the proof) and Selbst- and especially for every cultural, philosophical and
heilung in der Neuen Medizin (Self-Healing in New even ethical reasoning. But not until Charles Robert
Medicine). Timeless Healing still has not got a place Darwin had published his On the Origin of Species by
in the libraries of Dutch universities. The translation Means of Natural Selection in 1859, and with that had
into Dutch (1996) can be found in some Dutch public introduced evolution as a scientific concept in biology,
libraries. this phenomenon gained overwhelming attention not
From a theological and critical point of view I only in biology but also in general scientific and social
would like to indicate that Benson takes far less inter- thought. The present volume, edited by James P. Hurd,
est in the fides quae, that is in: what one beliefs, but contains a collection of twelve articles which reflect
rather in the fides qua: that and how one beliefs, and the importance of the concept of biological evolution
that in a rather individualistic way. He is also not in psychology, religion, philosophy and, in particular,
always clear in his definitions of the notions belief, in ethics and moral reasoning.
faith and spirituality. William Irons examines Morality as an Evolved
From a philosophical point of view I would like Adaptation and holds the view that the evolution of
to stress the nexus between medical knowledge and morality by individual selection is able to explain
religious experience in this book. The book articu- all aspects of morality he reduces philosophical
lates a consciousness that healing cannot succeed with ethics and moral reasoning to the principles of evolu-
the application of pharmaceuticals, surgery and proce- tion, because the only criterion of normative rank is
dures alone. The supplement is not an anthropological survival. To give reasons for an action the philo-
or a humanistic one, and has not been found in an sophically interested reader has to conclude has no
organistic, general system theory or holistic theory. function in itself, if reasons only serve to guarantee
The supplement is rather a practical theological or survival. Linda Mealey in her contribution Evolu-
pastoral one. Benson makes faith not only an inte- tionary Psychology and the Search for Evolved Mental
gral but also an integrating part of medicine. Therefore Mechanisms Underlying Complex Human Behavior
Benson reminds us of the healing function of pastoral is in search of brain-mechanisms, that are respon-
care. sible for taking moral decision as the centre of
In the nineteenth century this pastoral care had this specific kind of decision-making Mealey wants to
fallen into the position of a junior partner to many give evidence for mechanisms in human psyche that
other helping professions, like medicine. It borrowed detect status or threat. We value people as food or
techniques from psychology, medicine, education, law bad (and we will remember them as good or bad!)
and social work (Cf: Clebsch, W.A. and C.R. Jeackle because there are special brain functions that form our
(1964) Pastoral Care in Historical Perspective Harper moral judgements. This line of thought is continued
& Row: New York, Evanston, London). In modern by Timothy J. Shaw and his considerations on the

Human Brain, Religion, and the Biology of Sin, in ary theory in explaining the specific ethical aspects
which he wants to demonstrate, that on the basis of a of moral behaviour. These articles are: Jeff Schloss
special capacity of the human brain there is a spiri- Sociobiological Explanations of Altruistic Ethics:
tual side which enforces us to override selfish animal Necessary, Sufficient, or Irrelevant?, Elving Ander-
behaviour conducted by lower parts of the brain. For son/Bruce Reichenbach Implications of the Human
this spiritual side, he argues, it is difficult to provide Genome Project for Views of Morality, Gary Simpson
a sociobiological explanation of its evolution. The Human Nature and Communicative Ethics, Alfred
Selection of Moral Behavior by its Consequences is Kracher Genetic Behaviour and Moral Choice,
the topic of Carole J. Young in this volume. To act James Fetzer Ethics and Evolution. The develop-
morally and in her view that means to help others ment of the human brain is directed by genes, genes
or to perform altruistic behaviour is an evolu- have several effects on human behaviour but genes
tionarily stable strategy under continuously changing cannot function as reasons for action. Therefore a
environmental conditions. Young furthermore wants disposition to altruistic behaviour can certainly influ-
to reconcile the sociobiological approach of human ence our behaviour, and even if it determines some
behaviour with behaviourism. The following chapter aspects of our behaviour, there is no reason to believe
of Garret E. Paul focuses attention on the reconnec- that actions are good because of any biological kind
tion of biology and ethics. In Taste, Natural Law, and of disposition. Fitness has not the same meaning as
Biology: Connections and Separations Between Ethics goodness, because if the former is a biological cate-
and Biology Garret wants to overcome the fact/value- gory the latter is of practical origin and no reasonable
dichotomy by saying that value emerges in response to biologist would claim to explain concrete actions or to
fact and that it produces new facts itself. The origin reduce ethical theory to biological concepts. Biology,
of this dichotomy derives from in the social situa- and especially sociobiology, is only able to deter-
tion of modern selves, who live sharply divided lives, mine specific constraints of acting and reasoning (both
impaled on the split between external facts and internal regarded as general capacities of human beings) with
emotions. The key-concept, which is often thought scientific precision.
to be contributed to morality by the theory of evolu- To investigate the biological foundations of human
tion, is that of altruism. The various senses of this morality provides only very rough means to under-
phenomenon are distinguished by Gregg Johnson in stand and to explain ethical aspects of human action
his text Inadequacies of Sociobiological Explanations and moral reasoning. But the present volume enables
of Altruism. He argues that extended altruism is the reader to gain an insight into a multitude of inter-
the only morally relevant kind of altruism. Lucie R. connections between these two scientific professions.
Johnson illuminates hidden normative implications in
psychoanalytical and evolutionary theories. Andreas Vieth
A series of contributions to the present volume Germany
examines explicitly the various limits of evolution-