Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Formulae

&
Tips for CAT
Brought to you by
The Competition Master
126, Industrial Area-1, Chandigarh - 160002 India

The Competition Master


12 Issues
for Rs 300
Just

Rs 25
an issue SUBSCRIBE FOR ONE YEAR
(12 ISSUES). JUST SEND RS 300 BY
M.O./DD/CHEQUE IN THE NAME OF THE
COMPETITION MASTER ALONG WITH YOUR
COMPLETE POSTAL ADDRESS TO 126 INDUSTRIAL
AREA-1, CHANDIGARH 160002
THE COMPETITION MASTER
The Power to Master Your Career

12 Issues
for Rs 300

Yes!
Send me 12 issues of The Competition Master
for Rs 300 (I save Rs 240 off regular cover
price!)

Increase my savings!
Please send me 24 issues for only Rs 500.

NAME

ADDRESS

CITY

STATE/PIN CODE

EMAIL

PAYMENT DETAILS

Please send payment by DD or Chq in the name

OFFER VALID FOR LIMITED PERIOD ONLY

www.competitionmaster.com
1

FORMULAE
AND TIPS FOR CAT
There are several things questions and some easy
that you have to keep in ones. When you hit the
mind: difficult ones, you must
a) Differentiate stay calm. Skip a few
between speed and questions. Dont panic,
hurry: Many students think because if you do, you
that speed means making have almost certainly lost
guesses and blundering the battle.
on. This is wrong. Do the
q u e s t i o n s w i t h Hot tip:
concentration. Dont worry If you become tense,
about questions you could just close your eyes and
not attempt, because you take a few deep breaths.
possibly cannot do 180 Return to the paper once
questions in two hours. you are composed again.
Speed means avoiding c) Manage your time:
u n n e c e s s a r y Keep a watch before you.
calculations. Write down the time when
you should move over to
Hot tip: the new section. Dont be
Allow yourself 30 tempted to stick to the
seconds to glance over the previous section when the
section before starting. time is over. Just keep
This will help you locate the moving on.
easy questions.
b) Keep your cool. Hot tip:
There will be some difficult Each section should be
2
attempted in 28 minutes. will scan the beginning and
Allow yourself 2 minutes to the end of the line
go back on questions you automatically.
could not solve, or for When youve mastered
making some intelligent this, your reading speed
guesses. will be between 500 and
1,000 words per minute.
This is the practical limit.
COMPREHENSION Second Stage: The
Tips for speed reading next speed increase comes
Next time you are from area reading. Instead
reading a paper, try this. of sweeping lines, use
First stage: Sweep your broader hand motions to
hand from left to right make a series of zigzags of
across the page so your Ss down the page and
finger underlines each line. read several lines at once.
Follow your finger with your You can even read
eyes. The difficulty of the backward as your hand
material determines the moves to the left. Youll
speed, but move your hand comprehend very little at
a little faster than your eye first, but if you keep your
can follow comfortably. eyes following your finger,
Make your eyes work to youll find yourself
keep up. absorbing whole chunks of
Soon you will find the page at once.
yourself reading whole
phrases and ideas. As it
gets easier, keep Six hot tips for
increasing the speed. comprehension:
As you improve, instead 1. Read the questions
of sweeping whole lines before you read the
with your finger, just sweep passage. This will help you
the middle part. Your eyes locate the ideas faster.
3
2. Force your eyes to regularly as well as the
sweep entire phrases and editorials, features and
ideas. Dont read word for current affairs and
word. Avoid pronouncing Business GK. This will help
words as you read. you form your opinions and
3. Dont reread increase your awareness. A
sentences. Dont skip lines. number of people who
4. Let the context define have cleared CAT have told
unfamiliar words. Dont us that the magazine was
stop to look for them. priceless for their
5. Adjust reading speed preparation.
to the type of material. Additional reading and
6. Look for key ideas exercises:
and phrases in each
Norman Lewis: How to
paragraph.
What you should read: Read Better and Faster.
Read the editorial page of
one good English VERBAL ABILITY
newspaper everyday by the
It is important to have a
above method. This should
good vocabulary, know
not take more than 15
good grammar and again,
minutes everyday. Make it
have the reading habit.
a point to read the
economic articles and Vocabulary: A good
business news. Look up vocabulary is built up over
difficult words that you time. Reading helps. Check
encounter in a dictionary. up important words in a
Also read a magazine on dictionary. Or take a good
current affairs. Your best word-list, such as the one
bet is THE COMPETITION published in Master Guide
MASTER, which has a for MBA Entrance, and
regular management learn the usage of the
section. Read the debates words. Knowing about
4
roots of words helps. analogies.
Arranging sentences,
Hot tip: blanks: These are tricky,
The best way to learn a especially if they contain
word list is through large sentences. The
vocabulary cards. Making selections are usually from
them is an investment, current newspapers, so
because they will be helpful extra reading increases
over a period of time. speed in such questions.
Analogies, Odd man
out: This means finding Hot tip:
relations among words. Usually, the answer can
What is the relation be obtained by getting at
between SALT : SALTY? the central idea and
We can say that salty thinking what it should start
things contain salt. The or end with, or by working
best choice would be from the choices. Do not
COW : BOVINE, because waste time arranging the
that best suits the relation- entire paragraph.
ship. A good vocabulary
helps in such questions. QUANTITATIVE
Hot tip: ABILITY
Do as many analogies The importance of
as you can, to know the knowing your tables,
kind of relations that can be decimals, fractions and
asked. The Test of formulae cannot be over-
Reasoning in THE emphasised. Many
COMPETITION MASTER con- questions can be solved by
tains analogies regularly. If looking at the choices.
you do it every month, you Develop this ability and
will have a good your speed will surely
understanding of increase. We give below
5
some things which can be Quotient) + Remainder.
remembered easily. 4. Tests of divisibility:
1. Numbers: Remem- A number can be checked
ber the power of 10 in the for divisibility by the
following: millions (6), following methods:
lakhs (5), billions (9) and By 2: If the last digit of
crores (7). Some questions the given number is even
may confuse on the units. or zero.
By 3: If the sum of the
2. Rational and digits of the number are
irrational numbers: divisible by 3.
By 4: If the sum of the
Numbers which can be last two digits of the
expressed in the form number is divisible by 4.
p By 5: If the last digit of
, where p and q are the number is either zero or
q
integers and q 0 . 5.
By 6: If the number is
Examples of rational
divisible by 2 as well as 3.
numbers are By 8: If the sum of the
1 3 8 last three digits of the
, , , 0, 3, 150 etc,
2 5 5 number is divisible by 8.
By 9: If the sum of the
Irrational numbers are
digits is divisible by 9.
those which when
By 10: If the last digit is
expressed in decimal
zero.
would be in non-
terminating and non- By 11: If the difference
repeating form. Examples between the sum of the
of irrational numbers are: 2,
3, 5, 7, and so on. odd digits and the even
3. Division: digits in a number is either
Dividend = (Divisor zero or divisible by 11.
6
5. Short cuts for LCM of Fractions
multiplying: Large multipli-
cation should be avoided. = HCF of numerators
LCM of denominators
Instead, look for shortcuts
to do the sums: 7. Simplification: To
(a) To multiply by 99, simplify an expression,
999, 9999 ... : Place as always use the order
many zeroes after the specified in BODMAS:
number and subtract the Brackets, Of, Division,
number. Multiplication, Addition and
(b) To multiply by 5n: Subtraction.
Put n zeroes to the right of 8. Square roots: Learn
the number and divide it by the square roots upto 16
2n. and squares upto 32. Make
6. HCF and LCM: The memory cards to help
HCF of two or more remember these figures.
numbers is the greatest Hot tips:
number that divides each 1. Square roots can be
one of them exactly. approximated by using
r
The LCM of two or more a2 + , where a is the
2a
numbers is the product of nearest root of the number
the highest powers of all and r is the remainder.
the prime factors that occur 4
Hence 85 = 92 + 18 , which
in the numbers.
gives the square root of 85
Product of two
as 9.22 approximately. One
numbers
= HCF LCM. can approximate square
HCF of Fractions roots easily by this method.
2. To square a number,
LCM of numerators . try putting it in the form
=
HCF of denominators (a + b)2.
7
Thus 115 = (100 + 15)
2 2
(Amount of money invested
= 1002 + 152 + 2(100 x 15), by A No. of months
which can be easily invested by A) : (Amount of
computed. money invested by B No.
of months invested by B).
8. Percentages: Learn 12. Shares: It is
the fraction equivalents. important to know the
1 = 25%, 1 = 33%, 1 following terms:
4 3 5 Face value: The price at
1 which shares are issued.
= 20%, = 16% etc.
6 Always a round figure.
Many questions can be Market value: The price
solved faster if we know at which shares are traded.
these figures. Will fluctuate and will
To find growth percent- seldom be a round figure.
age or percentage change, If market value = face
always use: value, the shares are
New Quantity Old quantity
traded at par.
Old Quantity
100 If market value > face
value, the share
9. Averages: Averages commands a premium.
are found by adding up the If market value < face
values and dividing by the value, the share is at a
number of values. discount.
10. Ratio and propor- Return: The interest
tion: Can be written as a : b earned by the shares after
a one year. Always calcu-
or b . If a : b = c : d, then lated on face value.
bc = ad. Yield: Return calculated
11. Partnership: The on what is actually
share of profits divided invested. Calculated by
between two partners is: dividing return by market
8
value. 15. Time and distance:
Brokerage: When you Remember the formula,
buy a share, the buyer has Distance = Speed
to pay the brokerage, Time
which is added to the To convert km/hr into
market price. When shares
are sold, the seller gets the m/s, multiply by 5 .
18
price after the broker To convert m/s to km/hr,
deducts his brokerage 18
from the market price multiply by 5
obtained. To calculate average
13. Profit and Loss:
speed, use the formula:
Profit = SP - CP.
Average speed
Loss = CP - SP.
Gain or loss per cent 2 xy
=
(x + y)
Gain or Loss where x and y are the
= 100
CP speeds.
Marked price is what is To calculate when two
marked in the shop. It is bodies will cross each
neither CP nor SP. other, use the formula:
14. Interest: Distance
Time = .
Relative Speed
P R T
SI =
100 Speed is added when
In compound interest, bodies are going in
R n opposite directions and
A = P(1+ ) .
100 subtracted when bodies
It is advisable never to are going in the same
use this formula but work direction, to find the relative
from simple interest, by speed.
calculating interest on 16. Boats and streams:
interest. A boat rowing in still water
9
at the rate of x km/hr will be he can finish the work in x
affected if it goes into a
days.
stream which is flowing. If
If A is faster than B and
the rate of the stream is y
is twice as good in his
km/hr, the rate of the boat
work, the ratio of the work
when it goes downstream
done by A and B will be
will increase and will be
2:1.
(x + y) km/hr. However, if
However, the ratio of
the boat goes against the
time taken by A and B will
current, its speed will
be in the ratio of 1:2.
decrease and will be given
18. Areas and
by (x - y) km/hr.
volumes:
Rate in still water is
Rectangle A = L B
given by:
a) Area = Length x
1
{(rate with the current) Breadth
2 b) Diagonal2 = Length2
+ (rate against the
+ Breadth2
current)}
Rate of current is given Square
by: Area = Side2
1 1
{(rate with the current) = Diagonal2
2 2
(rate against the current)}. Four walls of a room
Area
17. Time and work: a
= 2(Length+Breadth)
person can do a piece of Height
work in x days, the work Triangle with sides a,
done by him in 1 day will be b, c
1 Area
.
x = s(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)
Conversely, if 1 days
1 1
where s = (a + b + c )
work of a person is x , then 2
10

where s = 1 (a+b+c) Solids


2 Cube with side x
Volume = x3
Triangle with base b Surface area = 6x2
and height h Longest diagonal = 3x
1 Cuboid with length l,
Area = bh
2 breadth b and height h
Equilateral triangle units
Volume = l x b x h
with side x
3 Surface area =
Area = (x2) 2(lb + bh + lh)
4
Parallelogram Longest diagonal =
Area = Base Height l2 + b2 + h2
Rhombus with Cylinder with radius r
diagonals d1 and d2 and height h
1
Area = (d1 d2) Volume = r 2h
2
Trapezium Curved surface area = 2 rh
1 Total surface area
Area = (sum of
2 = 2rh + 2 r 2
parallel sides) height Sphere with radius r
Quadrilateral with 4
Volume = r 3
diagonal d 3
1 Surface area = 4 r 2
(d)(sum of perpendi-
2 Cone with radius r and
culars on d from opposite height h Volume = 1 r 2h
3
vertices)
Circle with radius r Slant height l = r + h 2
2
Circumference = 2r Curved surface area = rl
Area = r2 19. AP, GP :
Area of sector = r2/360 In AP, to find the nth term
Volumes are given by and sum of the series, use
the following:
the following table:
11

nth term = a + (n -1)d, is an example of HP, try to


where a is the first term get the series into AP, do
and d is the common the calculations and then
difference.
change into fractions again.
n
Sum = {2a + (n -1)d}, or 20. Probability : If an event
2
n can happen in y ways and
Sum = (a + l)
2 the number of ways that a
where l is the last term. particular event can
In GP, nth term = a.r n-1, occur is x, then the
where r is the common ratio. probability of t he event
Sum of n terms x
happening is .
(rn .1) y
=a if r >1,
r-1 If x is the probability of an
2(1-rn) event happening, the
and if r <1.
1-r
probability that it will not
Sum to infinity, if r <1 ,
happen is (1 x).
of a GP is given by :
S= .
a 21. Permutations and
1-r combinations:
Geometric mean : If two n n!
Pr =
numbers a and b are given, (n-r)!
their geometric mean is
Circular permutations:
given by ab . The number of circular
Harmonic Progression : permutations of n different
The reciprocals of an AP objects is (n1)!
form a harmonic For example, if 20
progression. people are invited to a
1 1 1 1 party, to find out how many
Thus, , , , , ... ways can they and the host
3 6 9 12
be seated at a circular
12
table, since there are 21 23. Clocks: A clock has
people to be seated a dial divided into 60
around a circular table. So minutes. Each minute will
the number of ways that thus subtend an angle of 6
they can be seated around at the centre, since total
it is 20!. circle is 360. Each five-
Combinations: The minute interval subtends a
number of combinations of 30 angle.
n distinct objects taken r at A minute hand moves 6
a time, is given by:
every minute. The hour
n n! hand moves a distance of 5
Cr =
r! (n-r)! minutes or 30 in one hour.
22. Calendar: Every In one minute, he
30 1
year which is divisible by 4 moves 60 degrees, or 2 .
is a leap year. Every fourth
century is a leap year but In one hour, the minute
no other century is a leap hand moves 60 minutes,
year. Thus 400, 800, 1200 while the hour hand moves
and so on are leap years 5 minutes. The minute
but 700, 900, 1100 are not hand thus gains 55 minutes
leap years, even though over the hour hand.
they are divisible by 4. 24. Logs: The following
To solve calendar sums, rules are important:
the number of odd days will 1. Log of 1 to any base
give the answer as to the is 0. 0
day of the week that a (x = 1 for any x).
particular day should be. 2. Log of any number to
The week starts with the same base is 1. 1
Sunday (0 odd day) and (Loga a = 1, since a =
goes till Saturday (6 odd a).
days). 3. Log of any number is
13
the sum of the logs of its then
factors. dy
(log mn = log m + log = v.du + u.dv.
dx
n). u
5. If y = where u and v
4. Log of a fraction is the v
log of numerator minus log are functions of x, then
of denominator. (log m = dy d.du-u.dv
= .
log m - log n).
n dx v2
dy
6. (a) If y = e x, then = e x.
x
5. Log a = x log a. dx
6. Loga b x logb a = 1 dy
25. Calculus: Rules for (b) If y = a x, then
dx
derivatives: = a x log a.
1. The derivative of a (c) If y = logex,
constant is zero. If y = 10,
dy 1
= 0, since it does not then = .
dx x
change with respect to x. (d) If y = loga x,
dy
2. If y = xn, then dy 1
dx then = = log a.
dx x
= n.xn-1.

3. The derivative of a
term equals the derivative
GEOMETRY
1. Parallel Lines: The
of each term added
following rules are useful:
together.
(i) Corresponding
y = x 2 +2x -1,
If angles are equal.
dy d 2 (ii) Alternate angles are
then = (x )
dx dx equal.
+ d (2x) - d (1) (iii) Interior angles on
dx dx the same side are
= 2 x + 2.
supplementary.
4. When y = u.v where u 2. Triangle: A triangle is
and v are functions of x, a three sided figure. It has
14
the following properties: Theorem of Appolonius:
(i) The sum of all the Sum of the squares of two
angles is 180. sides of 2 a triangle =
(ii) The exterior angle is 2(median)2 + 2(half the
equal to the sum of the third side) .
interior opposite angles. The orthocentre is the
There are 6 exterior point where the three
angles of the triangle. altitudes of the triangle
(iii) An interior and meet.
exterior angle is The circumcentre is the
supplementary. point where the
(iv) The sum of any two perpendicular bisectors of
sides is always greater than all the sides meet. A circle
the third side. drawn with the
(v) The difference of any circumcentre as the centre,
two sides is always less can circumscribe the
than the third side. triangle.
(vi) The side opposite The incentre is the point
the greater angle will be the where the three bisectors
greatest side. of a triangle meet. The
(vii) A triangle has at inradius of the circle is the
least 2 acute angles. perpendicular distance
A median of a triangle is from the incentre to any of
the line from a vertex to the the sides of the triangle.
midpoint of the opposite The incentre divides the
side. The centroid is the bisector of any angle in the
point at which the medians ratio of (b+c) : a.
of the triangle meet. The Angle bisector
centroid divides the theorem: The bisector of
medians in the ratio 2:1. any angle of a triangle
The median bisects the divides the opposite side in
area of the triangle. the ratio of the two adjacent
15
sides. Pythagoras is repeatedly
Area of a triangle: used, which states that the
There are 2 ways to find the square of the hypotenuse
area of a triangle: equals the sum of the
1
(a) Area = (base)(height) squares of the other two
2 sides.
(b) s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) The median to the
hypotenuse bisects the
where a,b,c are the sides of hypotenuse, which is also
the triangle and the circumradius of the
s = a+b+c . triangle.
2 Pythagorean triplets:
The following are some
The isosceles triangle: examples of Pythagorean
Is a triangle in which two triplets:
sides are equal and two 3, 4, 5
angles are also equal. 5, 12, 13
Equilateral triangle: Is a 7, 24, 25
triangle in which all sides 8, 15, 17
are equal and all angles are 9, 40, 41
also equal (60). 11, 60, 61
Height = 3 side.
12, 35, 37
2 16, 63, 65
3 side 2. 20, 21, 29.
Area =
4 Congruency: Two trian-
1
Inradius = (height) gles are congruent if:
3 1. Two sides and the
Circumradius = 2 (height). included angle of one
3 triangle are respectively
equal to the two sides and
Right angled triangle:
the included angle of the
The Theorem of second triangle (SAS).
16
2. Three sides of the first hypotenuse separates the
are respectively equal to triangle into two triangles
the three sides of the which are similar to each
second triangle (SSS). other and to the original
3. Two angles and a triangle.
side of the first are Midpoint theorem: The
respectively equal to the line joining the midpoints of
two angles and one side of any two sides of a triangle
the other triangle (AAS). is parallel to the third side
4. The hypotenuse and and equal to half of it.
one side of a right angled Basic proportionality
triangle are respectively theorem: A line parallel to
equal to the hypotenuse one side of a triangle
and one side of another divides the other two sides
right angled triangle (RHS). proportionally. In the figure,
Similarity: Two triangles
DE is parallel to BC. Then,
are similar if:
AD/BD = AE/EC.
1. Three angles of one
triangle are respectively 3. Polygons: A polygon
equal to three angles of the is any closed plane figure.
second (AAA). A triangle is a polygon with
2. Two angles of one 3 sides, a quadrilateral with
triangle are respectively 4 sides, a pentagon with 5
equal to two angles of the sides and a hexagon with 6
second (AA). sides. A polygon with
3. Two sides of one infinite sides is a circle.
triangle are proportional to A regular polygon is one
two sides of the other and which has all sides and
the included angles are angles equal.
equal (SAS). In a polygon, the sum of
In a right angled all the interior angles is
triangle, the altitude to the (2n 4) right angles.
17

Area = 1 (perimeter)
the centre of the circle to
2 the mid-point of a chord is
(perpendicular from centre perpendicular to the chord.
to any side). Equal chords are
Quadrilaterals : In a equidistant from the centre.
The reverse is also true.
quarilateral, the sum of all
4. There is only one
four angles is 360. circle that can pass
Area = 1(diagonal) through three non-collinear
2 points.
(sum of perpendiculars 5. Tangents drawn from
on it from opposite an external point are equal.
vertices) 6. The angle subtended
by an arc of a circle at the
Straight lines joining the
centre is double the angle
midpoints of the adjacent
subtended by it at any
sides of any quadrilateral point on the remaining part
forms a parallelogram. of the circle.
4. Circles: Some 7. Angles in the same
qualities of circles are given segment are equal.
below. 8. The angle in a semi
1. A tangent touches a circle is a right angle.
circle at only one point. A 9. In a cyclic
quadrilateral, the sum of
chord is any line joining
the opposite angles is
any two points on the 1800. If one side of cyclic
circle. When the chord quadrilateral is produced,
passes through the centre, then the exterior angle is
it becomes the diameter. equal to the interior
2. A tangent is opposite angle. The
perpendicular to the radius. quadrilateral formed by
3. A perpendicular from angle bisectors of a cyclical
18
quadrilateral is also cyclic. TRIGONOMETRY
10. Equal arcs make In a right angled
equal chords. triangle, three ratios must
11. When two circles be learnt:
touch, their centres and the 1. Sin A
point of contact are = Opposite/ Hypotenuse
collinear. If they touch 2. Cos A
externally, the distance = Adjacent/Hypotenuse
between their centres is 3. Tan A
equal to the sum of radii = Opposite/Adjacent
and if the cicles touch
Some important ratios
internally, the distance
are given in the following
between the centres equals
table:
the difference of the radii.
12. If from the point of Angle Ratio
contact of a tangent, a Sin Cos Tan
chord is drawn then the 0 0 1 0
angle which the chord
makes with the tangent is 1 3 1
30
equal to the angle formed 2 2 3
by the chord in the 1 1
45 1
alternate segment. 2 2
3 1
13. Area of the circle is r 2. 60 3
2 2
Area of sector with angle 90 1 0 unde -
fined
= r2 .
360
19

ALGEBRA 2
c) If b 4ac is zero, then
Quadratic equations:
2 the roots are real and
The equation ax + bx + c equal. 2
= 0 where a, b, c are real d) If b 4ac is negative,
numbers and a 0 , is a the roots are complex and
quadratic equation. unequal.
Quadratic equations can 2
The value of b 4ac is
be solved by factorising. called the discriminant.
Two solutions are obtained, If and are the roots
which are also called roots
of the equation. of a quadratic equation
2
If the equation ax + bx ax 2 + bx + c = 0, then
+ c = 0 cannot be
factorised, the roots are -b c
+= and =
obtained by the formula a a

b b 2 4ac Formulae: It is useful to


x= remember the following
2a
formulae:
If and are the roots so 2 2
1. (x+y) = x + 2xy +
obtained, then 2
y.
2 2 2
b + b 2 4ac 2. (x-y) = x 2xy + y .
x= 2 2
2a 3. (x+y) (xy) = 4xy.
2 2 2
4. (x+y) +(xy) = 2(x
b b 2 4ac 2
= x= + y ).
2a 3 3 3
5. (x+y) = x + y
2
a) If b 4ac is positive, +3xy(x+y).
3
the roots and are both real 6. (xy) =
3
and unequal.
2
x y33xy(xy).
b) If b 4ac is a perfect 2 2
7. x y = (x+y)(xy).
square, then the roots are 8. x
3
+ y
3
=
rational and unequal. 2 2
(x+y)(x +y xy).
20
3 3 2
9. x y = (xy)(x + y
2
n(AB).
+ xy). For three sets,
2 2 n(AUBUC) = n(A) + n(B) +
10. (x + y + z) = [x +
2 2 n(C) n(AB) n(BC)
y + z +2(xy +yz + xz)]. n(CA) + n(ABC).
3 3 3
11. x +y + z 3xyz =
2 2 2
(x + y + z)(x +y + z xy
DATA
yz zx).
12. If x + y + z = 0, INTERPRETATION
3 3 3
then x + y + z = 3xyz. Steps to do DI
The converse is also questions:
true. 1. Spend half a minute
to look at the table or
Surds and indices: The graph. Note the years to
following formulae are which the data refers to
useful:m and the units. Sometimes
n m+n
1. a a = a . the figures may be given in
am thousands while the
2. = a mn. answer may be in millions,
an
3. (a m )n = a mn.
resulting in mistakes.
a 2. Make sure you
4. (ab)n = a nb n and ( )n understand what the table
b
an says and what it does not.
= n. 3. The level of approxi-
b
mation that can be done is
5. a 0 = 1.
assessed from the choices.
6. n a = a1/n. If the answers are wide,
7. na.b = na. nb. time should not be wasted
Sets: in working out exact
n(AUB) = n(A) + n(B). figures. If the choice none
If the sets intersect, then of the above exists, a close
n(AUB) = n(A) + n(B) approximation may be
21
required. is sufficient to answer the
4. Read the question question. The second
carefully. It will give an statement must be similarly
indication as to which row checked. If it is not
and column should be sufficient, it must be
seen. checked whether the
5. There may be one or answer can be provided by
two very large questions combining it with the
requiring calculations. second.
Attempt these at the last. 4. Read the second
6. Revise bar charts, pie statement while completely
charts, statistics and ignoring the first. This is
graphs before attempting important, otherwise the
DI questions. data in the first will
influence your answer.
DATA SUFFICIENCY 5. After both statements
Steps to solve DS have been considered
questions: individually, combine them
1. Read the statement to see whether the answer
carefully and understand is obtained by combining
the question that must be them. This step is not
answered. necessary if each
2. Read the first piece of statement is sufficient
data provided, while independently to answer
completely ignoring the the question.
second. If you read 6. Do not waste time
everything at once, it will be trying to solve a problem;
difficult to arrive at an you are only to determine
answer. whether the information is
3. Can the question be sufficient to solve the
answered on reading the problem. The exact answer
first statement only? If so, it is not required.
22
7. Sometimes choices
help. If you are sure about
the first statement, the
answer can be A or D. If
you are sure about the
second one, the answer
can be B or D. Looking at
the choices at this stage
will help you tick the right
choice.
8. When geometric
figures are given, do not
assume things going by
the look of the figures. An
angle may look like 90
degrees, but the data
provided may make it just a
little more or a little less
than a right angle. Similarly,
a triangle may look
isosceles, but the data
provided may be
otherwise. Remember, the
figures may not be drawn
to scale.
9. Note that data
sufficiency problems are
time savers since they do
not require long
calculations. So they
should be attempted first.