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Boni ave. mandaluyong city

College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Research Report

Sharmaine Danica G. Marcelo

Bachelor of Science in Architecture


A man is the product of his thoughts, what he thinks, he becomes.

-Mahatma Gandhi
Finished civil engineering, University of Kansas 1922
Studied architecture in Fontainebleau School of fine arts 1922
Completed his studies in Harvard University with a masteral degree in architecture

Nakpil has created in time a diverse catalogue of structures. Showing influences of French beau arts, art deco, and the
international modern style.

If a countrys architecture truly represents the most enduring evidence of a people cultural values, Filipino
architecture must increasingly offer the sharpest insight into the national character and way of life



Carillon Tower

Architect: Juan Felipe Nakpil The cream tower with maroon vertical lines is topped
Date Built: 1952 by an open-air dome. Narrow steps spiral skyward
Location: University of the Philippines, Diliman through five landings. Forged by the famous
European casters, the Van Bergen Company of
The U.P. Carillon, is still the only carillon in the Heiligerlee, Netherlands, the 46 bells of the Carillon
Philippines and the first of its kind in South East Asia, were made of bronze, tuned to the chromatic scale, at
that is played using a clavier, or a wooden keyboard. semi-tone intervals.

Gonzales Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman

Architect: Juan Felipe Nakpil the first to be built as UP transferred from Padre
Date Built: Unknown Faura, Manila to Diliman in 1949.These buildings
Location: Diliman, Quezon City share and portray modern architectural designs, and
also serve as landmarks of the Universitys early
Gonzalez Hall was named after the Universitys sixth beginnings, being part of its colorful history for the
President, Bienvenido M. Gonzalez. It completes the past one hundred years.
six pioneering buildings of the campus, and is actually

Quezon Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman

Architect: Juan Felipe Nakpil Quezon Hall is the front most building of UP Diliman.
Date Built: Unknown It is located behind the Oblation statue as an arch,
Location: University of the Philippines, Diliman, with three columns supporting the arch. Quezon Hall
Quezon City also hosts the UP Board of Regents as well as other
administrative functions and positions in the

Capitol Theater

Architect: Juan Felipe Nakpil Juan Nakpil and was built in the 1930s with an
Date Built: 1935 approximate seating capacity of 800. This theater had
Location: Escolta, Manila a double balcony, which is a rare architectural design.
With an art deco style by the architect, the theater's
The Capitol Theater, situated in Escolta, Manila, was facade has reliefs of 2 muses done by Francesco Monti.
designed by Philippine National Artist for Architecture

Avenue Theatre
Architect: Juan Felipe Nakpil Located along Rizal Avenue in Manila, the theater had
Date Built: Unknown a 1,000 seating capacity, with its lobby bearing marble
Location: Rizal Avenue, Manila finish flooring. At one point, the building housed a
hotel and also served as office space.

In 1939, 1940, 1946 - Architect of the year. In 1995 - Presidential medal of merit from
In 1950 - Gold medal of architects. president ramon Magsaysay.
In 1951 - Most outstanding professional in In 1956 - Correspondent member of colegio
architecture, from the Philippine association de arquitectos de chile.
of board examiners. In 1968 - Patnubay ng sining at kalingan
In 1952 - Honorary correspondents member award.
of societe de architects par le gouvernement In 1971 - Republic cultural heritage award.
francais. In 1972 - Rizal pro patria award.
In 1955 - Chevalier da la legion dhonneur. In 1973 - Pambansang alagad ng sining.

He obtained his elementary education from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and
Liceo de Manila.
In 1903, he went to the United States for his high school studies.
He entered Boones Preparatory School in Berkeley, California.
From 1907-1911, he attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, where he obtained his bachelor of
architecture degree.

He devoted his time and efforts to private practice organizing such important concerns as the M.Y.T. Construction

He aims to provide technological education about modern Architecture.



Philippine General Hospital (PGH)

Architect: Don Tomas Bautista Mapua the largest government hospital administered by the
Founded: 1907 university, and is designated as the National
Timeline: N/A University Hospital. It is located at Ermita, Manila in
Location: Ermita, Manila, Philippines the Philippines. It is the biggest hospital in the country
Construction: 0 with a 1,500-bed capacity. It is a mixed-use hospital,
with 1,000 beds for indigent patients and 500 beds for
The Philippine General Hospital (PGH) is a tertiary private patients, and offers some of the lowest rates for
state-owned hospital administered and operated by the patients and is generally known as the hospital for
University of the Philippines Manila, the University of indigent patients.
the Philippines System's Health Sciences Center. It is

Training School Building (Normal School)

Psychopathic Building (National Mental Hospital)

the School for the Deaf and Blind

And many provincial and municipal buildings


First Filipino Registered Architects His design of the De La Salle College

A number of private homes designed and Building, which was erected in 1916,
built by Mapua, like those of: Judge won the prize of P5, 000 against a
Arsenio Locsin on Taft Avenue and number of competing architects (three
Alfonso M. Tiaogue on Carolina Street, Spanish, two Americans, one Filipino
were awarded prizes in the annual and one German).
Manilas Beautiful House contest before In 1964: He won the Manila Cultural
World War II. Award for Architecture.
He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated in 1908.
He trained under Lorenzo Guerrero, Toribio Antillon, and Fabian de la Rosa.
He pursued architecture and was sent to the United States as one of the first
pensionados in architecture.
Arellano went to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1911 and subsequently transferred to
Drexel to finish his bachelor's degree in Architecture.

Juan Arellano was influenced by the neoclassical and eclectic styles prevailing in the US during his stay there as a
student. The old Congress building stands as a proof of this pervading influence. It bears the hallmarks of the neo-
classical style

Arellano believed that the Filipino must exalt his own native art, rather than western art, and in effect, become a
nationalist. He considered the tribal art of Filipinos in the northern and southern region the only true Filipino art,
which evolved from within, to without, from their soul, from their heart.




Cebu Provincial Capitol

Architect: Juan Arellano an inscription that says The authority of the
Date Built: 1937 1938 government emanates from the people. The capitol was
Location: Osmena Blvd., Cebu City damaged during World War II but was eventually
The capitol features a domed three-level main building rehabilitated under the Tydings War Damage Act of
flanked by a two-level wing on both sides. The concave 1946.
facade at the middle portion of the building contains

Jones Bridge
Architect: Juan Arellano districts was the Puente Grande (Great Bridge), later
Date Built: 1916 called the Puente de Espaa (Bridge of Spain) located
Location: Manila one block upriver on Nueva Street (now E. T.
The Jones Bridge spans the Pasig River, connecting Yuchengco St), the span considered to be the oldest
the districts of Binondo on Rosario with the center established in the Philippines.
of Manila. The previous bridge that connected the two

Manila Central Post Office

Architect: Juan Arellano is located in the Intramuros district of the city, at the
Date Built: 1926 1946 bank of the Pasig River. The building's main entrance
Location: Manila faces the Liwasang Bonifacio. The post office building
The Manila Central Post Office is the head office of the was built in neo-classical architecture in 1926. It was
Philippine Postal Corporation, and houses the severely damaged in World War II, and rebuilt in 1946
country's main mail sorting-distribution operations. It preserving most of its original design.

Manila Metropolitan Theater

Architect: Juan Arellano with a capacity of 1670 (846 orchestra, 116 in loge,
Date Built: 1931 1978 and 708 in balcony). During the liberation of Manila by
Location: Padre Burgos Ave., Manila the United States and Filipino forces in 1945, the
The Manila Metropolitan Theater or MET is an art deco theatre was severely damaged, losing some of its
building designed by the Filipino architect Juan M. roofing and walls battered.
Arellano, and inaugurated on December 10, 1931,

National Museum of the Philippines

Architect: Juan Arellano, Antonio Toledo home of the National Art Gallery of the National
Date Built: 1918 Museum of the Philippines. On September 30, 2010,
Location: Padre Burgos Avenue, Manila the National Historical Commission of the Philippines
The Old Congress Building (also known as the Old declared the building as a "National Historical
Legislative Building) is a building located on Padre Landmark" by virtue of Resolution No. 8 (dated
Burgos Avenue, Manila, Philippines. It is currently September 30, 2010).

In 1924: he won the top prize of 60,000 He was named director of the National
pesos in an international architecture Planning Commission by President
contest. Elpidio Quirino.
In 1935, 1947, and 1948: He headed the In 1958: He received the Gold Medal of
Board of Examiners for Architects. Merit for Architecture.
From 1947 to 1948: He was the
president of the Philippine Institute of
Architects of which he became a fellow.
Architect Philip Recto obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in Architecture
from the University of the Philippines where he was a College Scholar and
ranked 2nd Place in the graduating class of 1970.
After passing the board examinations in 1971, Recto moved to Singapore where
he gained invaluable experience in the design of modern high-rise buildings and


Contemporary style in designing.

Recto has always believed in honesty, integrity and diligence as the foundation of his profession.

Major Works:


One san Miguel Avenue

Type: Office height and location. It is the home of the Manila
Location: 1 San Miguel Avenue corner Shaw Broadcasting Company which occupies the top four
Boulevard, Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Philippines floors with executive offices, and a transmitter of
Owner: Amberland Corporation DZMB and DWYS and to a branch of international
Architect: Philip H. Recto Architects BPO company Sykes and Emerson Electric Company.
It is also near numerous office and residential
The One San Miguel Avenue is the first office tower buildings, as well as major shopping malls like SM
owned and developed by Amberland Corporation was Megamall, Shangri-La Mall, and St. Francis Square.
designed by Filipino architectural firm Philip H. Recto The building has eight double-decker elevators. The
Architects. Strategically located along San Miguel building has 6 basement and 5 aboveground floors for
Avenue corner Shaw Boulevard, it is currently one the parking of tenants and guests, a canteen at the 9th
highest buildings in Pasig City and in Ortigas Center floor.
as a whole, and is quite distinguishable due to its

Recto has designed numerous landmark buildings among which are the:

Psbank Tower
The PNOC Bldg. In Fort Bonifacio, The 54-Storey
Manuel M. Lopez Development Center (MMLDC) In Antipolo

In 1999: The state university would honor him as an Outstanding Alumnus in the field of Architecture
In 2000: Instituted the Philip H. Recto Design Excellence Award for best thesis at the College of Architecture
B.S.Architecture, University of Santo. Thomas 1972
Master in Environmental Planning, University of the Philippines, 1974
Advanced Management Development Program for Real Estate, Harvard
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 2003

Felino Palafox Jr. as the ark is to Noah. As he says It was not an act of God. The devastation caused by Typhoon
Ondoy could have been averted if humans only listened,

Through the plan and the ark, respectively, both forewarned their people of destruction to come their way if they
didnt mend their ways.

Major works:



Laureano Di Trevi Towers

Laureano De Trevi is residential condominium with a yard, a sky garden is situated at the podium
consisting of three towers in Pasong Tamo, Makati, deck which is shared by the towers. Moreover, this
Philippines. With the tallest soaring 125 meters, the area is envisioned to be a breathing green space
design concept revolves around the relationship among complete with various amenities for the use of the
man, heaven, and earth. The variation of building residents.
heights are portrayed by these elements as they reach
to the sky. To maintain the feeling of a regular home

Rockwell Club, Philippines

Rockwell Club is the sports and health club located at swimming pools and jacuzzis, restaurants, and
the ground level of the Amorsolo Square. This club meeting rooms.
features a wide range of sports and spa facilities,

Supreme Court Centennial Building Annex

Located in Padre Faura, near the Philippine General Court Annex is a design competition participated by 10
Hospital, this building is annex to the Supreme Court other architectural design firms aside from Palafox
building along Taft Avenue, Manila. The Supreme Associates.

Robinsons Pioneer, Philippines

Robinsons Pioneer covers a total commercial block encompasses supermarket and leasable spaces at the
area of 35,659.20 square meters; whose building upper ground level; department store, hardware, and
footprint is 14,954.57 square meters and its site office at the second level; and electronics store, multi-
development area is 20,704.63 square meters. This screen cinema, and leasable spaces at the third level.
mall is designed as a venue for cultural and The lower ground floor and the upper third level are
recreational activities bringing adults and children allocated for the parking and docking area, projection
together to have fun, recreate, and are entertained. It and mechanical rooms.

Sta. Elena Golf Course Community

Adjacent to prime residential Hacienda Sta. Elena in Sta. Elena Golf Course Community is composed of two
Sta. Rosa, Laguna is Sta. Elena Golf Course enclaves. The first is made of five blocks with a total of
Community. This 247-hectare golf course is designed 105 lots. Three blocks having a total of 73 lots
with residential clusters and golfing facilities. composed the second enclave.


Palafox Associates is the first Filipino Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

architectural firm cited in the Worlds (APEC) Architect registered with
Top 500 Certificate No. PH/00028, 23 April 2009
Architectural Firms of the World Consistent BCI Asia Top 10 Architecture
Architecture Magazine. In 2006, the firm Awardee (2005-2011)
ranked 94th holding the distinction of People of the Year Awadee 2010, People
being the only Southeast Asian firm in Asia Magazine
the list. The Best of the Best in 2010, BizNews
ISO 9001 (Quality Management) and ISO Asia Magazine
14001 (Environmental Management) by The Outstanding Thomasia Alumni
TUV of Germany in Architecture, Urban (TOTAL) 2009 Awardee in Architecture
Planning, Master Planning, Interior by the University of Santo Tomas
Design, Landscape Architecture and
He later studied at the De La Salle Brothers in 1935 before returning to Negros due
to the Second World War.
He returned to Manila to study Pre-Law, before shifting to pursue a Bachelor's
Degree in Music at the University of Santo Tomas.
Although he was a talented pianist, he later shifted again to Architecture, just a
year before graduating.

In his visit to the United States, he met some of his influences, Paul Rudolph and Eero Saarinen. It was then he
realized to use concrete for his buildings which was relatively cheap in the Philippines and easy to form. His buildings
look very modern that many asked if his works were of Filipino architecture.

PHILOSOPHY/STYLE: Post-Colonial Modernity



St. Andrew the Apostle Church

Architect: Leandro Locsin dedicated to Saint Andrew the Apostle, the patron
Date Built: 1967 1968 saint of Metro Manila and Bel-Air Village. The design of
Location: Bel-Air Village, Makati this parish church in Bel-Air Makati is symbolic of the
manner the martyr died crucified on an X-shaped
The Saint Andrew the Apostle Parish is a Roman cross. The butterfly shaped floor plan emanates from
Catholic Church in Bel-Air Village,Makati City. It is this cruciform.
one of the known Modern Edifices designed in 1968
by Leandro V. Locsin in Makati City. This Parish is

Philippine Pavilion 1970, Osaka

Architect: Leandro Locsin limited building budget. The dramatic roof sweeping
Date Built: 1970 up from the ground was intended to express the
Location: Osaka, Japan soaring prospects and future-oriented outlook of the
Filipino people. The architectural message was that
Since the Philippine Pavilion at Expo 70 occupied a although the Philippines are a young and developing
small corner lot opposite the large Canadian Pavilion country, it has a progressive spirit.
(a mirror-wall pyramid), the architect felt that it had to
make a strong architectural statement despite the

Philippine International Convention Center

Architect: Leandro Locsin the reclaimed area now known as the Cultural Center
Date Built: 1974 1976 of the Philippines (CCP) Complex in Pasay City (a
Location: Pasay City, Manila Manila suburb), this state-of-the-art facility has been
the host of numerous local and foreign conventions,
The Philippine International Convention Center (PICC) meetings, fairs, and social events.
is a convention center in the Philippines. Located at

Parish of the Holy Sacrifice

Architect: Leandro Locsin chapel in the University of the Philippines, Diliman.
Date Built: 1955 Known for its architectural design, the church is
Location: University of the Philippines, Diliman recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a
Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute
Parish of the Holy Sacrifice or the Church of the Holy and the National Museum respectively.
Sacrifice is commonly known as the UP Chapel. The
Parish of the Holy Sacrifice is the landmark Catholic

National Arts Center

Architect: Leandro Locsin Reservation and also houses the Philippine High
Date Built: 1976 School for the Arts, a government-run secondary
Location: Mt. Makiling, Los Banos Laguna educational institution for gifted young Filipino artists.
It is currently administered by the Cultural Center of
The Center was established in 1976 by First the Philippines. And it is also known as Tanghalang
Lady Imelda Marcos as a haven for young and aspiring Maria Makiling.
artists. Its various buildings and facilities are scattered
over 13.5 hectares of the Makiling Forest

In 1992: He received the Fukuoka Asian Culture
In 1990: He was proclaimed a National Artist of
Prize from Fukuoka City
the Philippines for Architecture by President
Corazon C. Aquino.
Manosa graduated from the University of Santo Tomas with a degree in
Bachelor of Science in Architecture in 1953.
He passed the board examination for Architects in 1954.
In 1957, Archt. Manosa finished a Landscaping Course in Tokyo University in

Francisco "Bobby" Maosa is an influential architect noted for his use of native materials like bamboo and nipa in
contemporary architectural designs.


Neo vernacular
Filipino contemporary
You must let me inject Filipino design. I design Filipino, nothing else.
Culture is the divining line; in order to design Filipino, you must know what it means to be a Filipino
Three factors make architecture truly Filipino; Filipino value, Philippine climate and the use of indigenous

Major works:


Coconut Palace
Also known as Tahanang Pilipino, the Coconut Palace coconut lumber apparently known as Imelda Madera.
is the official residence and principal workplace of the The palace is shaped like an octagon (the shape given
Vice President of the Philippines and is located at the to a coconut before being served), while the roof is
CCP Complex, in Pasay City. The Coconut Palace, built shaped like a traditional Filipino salakot or hat. Some
in 1978, was commissioned by former first lady Imelda of its highlights are the 101 coconut shell chandelier,
Marcos. It is made of several types of Philippine and the dining table made of 40,000 tiny pieces of
hardwood, coconut shells, and a specially engineered inlaid coconut shells.

San Miguel Corporation Building

It is known for having the most frequent daily
helicopter landings in the Philippines.

Professional Schools Library

The Ateneo Professional Schools was formerly known School of Business. In 1977, the school moved to
as the Ateneo Graduate School during its Padre Faura Salcedo Village, Makati City.
days. It consisted of the Law School and Graduate

Mary Immaculate Parish

will be held on 08 September 2007, Mama Mary's
The roof burned down on New Year's Eve 2007, at the Birthday!
height of the festive celebrations, due to a wayward Mary Immaculate Parish Special School was located at
kwitis (firework). Restoration is ongoing; meanwhile, Agro homes I, Moonwalk Village Las Pinas City.
Masses are held at the Fr Pierino Multipurpose Hall.
Reopening and blessing of the newly-renovated Church

Arnaiz residences
A weekend beach house for Mr. Ramon Arnaiz, these allowing all floors to enjoy its magnificent view. A
three storey residence actually gives the illusion of combination of sunshades and low glass railing, the
being a single storey family dwelling when approached user is protected from the sun and enjoys natural light
from the front entry. The rear overlooks the ocean and ventilation.

Archt. Manosa is the recipient of numerous awards from his peers and various civic and religious organizations.
December 2004: He was named one of Award given by the United Architects of
The Five Outstanding Filipino (TOFIL) by the Philippines.
the Philippine Jaycee Senate and Insular September 1994: He was also recognized
Life. by the Professional Regulations
June 2004: The Cultural Center of the Commission as the Most Outstanding
Philippines (CCP) bestowed upon him the Professional of the.
Gawad CCP Para sa Sining in the field of September 1982: His Catholic and
Architecture. Thomasian roots merited him the Papal
April 2003: Archt. Manosa was the Awardee of the Noble Knighthood of the
recipient of the 7th LIKHAGold Medal Pontifical Order of St. Gregory the Great.
William Coscuella Gained admission into Mapa, the Philippines premier
institute for higher technological learning.

It was my father who convinced me to take up Architecture. Little did I know that my fathers
wise counsel would mark an important turning point in my life?

You would be able to draw some lessons and insights, and hopefully inspiration as well. The hope is that somewhere
in these stories, there lie lessons that will somehow prove useful to you.



RCBC Plaza
Type: Office composed of two buildings: the taller RCBC Plaza
Location: 6819 Ayala Avenue corner Sen. Gil Puyat Yuchengco Tower and the smaller RCBC Plaza Tower
Avenue, 1227 Makati City, Philippines 2. The taller tower stands at 192 meters (630 ft) from
Architect: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, LLD; W.V. the ground to its architectural top, and is currently the
Coscolluela & Associates 8th-tallest complete building in Makati City, and is the
Structural engineer: Skilling Ward Magnusson 16th-tallest building in the Philippines, while the
Barkshire; R.S. Caparros Associates & Company shorter tower stands at 170 meters (560 ft).
RCBC Plaza is an office skyscraper complex located in
Makati City, Philippines. It is home to the offices of the
Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC) and is

Zuellig Building
Type: Office The Zuellig Building is an office skyscraper to be
Location: Makati Avenue corner Paseo de Roxas, constructed in Makati City, Philippines. It is owned by
Makati City, Philippines the Zuellig Group and developed by its real estate arm,
Architect: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; W.V. Bridgebury Realty Corp. It will rise to 155 metres
Coscoluella & Associates (508.53 feet), and will aim to be the first Gold level
Structural engineer: Meinhardt Philippines LEED Core and Shell Precertified structure in the

Robinsons Equitable Tower

Type: Office The Robinsons Equitable Tower, formerly known as
Location: #4 ADB Avenue corner P. Poveda Drive, the Robinsons PCI Bank Tower, is an office
Ortigas Center, Pasig, Philippines skyscraperlocated in Pasig, Philippines. It was
Architect: Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum; W.V. completed in 1997 and stands at 175 metres (574
Coscoluella & Associates feet), making it the current 2nd-tallest complete
Structural: engineer R.S. Caparros Associates & building in Pasig, and is one of the highest building in
Company the Philippines.

Philamlife Tower
Type: Office The Philamlife Tower is an office skyscraper located in
Location: 8767 Paseo de Roxas Avenue, Makati City, Makati City, Philippines. Standing at 200 metres (656
Philippines feet), it is currently the 7th-tallest building in Makati
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP - New City, and is the 14th-tallest building in the country
York, in cooperation with W.V. Coscolluela & and Metro Manila as well. The building has 48 floors
Associates above ground, and 5 basement levels for parking.
Structural engineer: Aromin & Sy + Associates, Inc.

In 1956-1957: Recipient of the Presidents Gold Medal for Architecture.
In 1997: Recipient of the Gold Medal of Merit Award from Philippine Institute of Architects (PIA).
In 1997: Awardee for Architecture Diwa ng Lahi at Patnubay ng mga Sining at Kalinangan Araw ng Maynila.
In 2005: Gawad Gintong Likha from the Architectural Archives Philippines.
In 2005: Vertical Transportation in Architecture Award.
International Patrons Award BCI Asia Top 10 Award March 2007. BCI Asia Top 10 2009 Award.



Archt. Hong obtained his Bachelor of Science in Architecture degree from the
Mapua Institute of Technology and his Master of Environmental Planning
degree from the University of the Philippines.
He is likewise the recipient of a postgraduate Diploma in Housing, Planning
and Building (obtained with distinction) from the Boucentrum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.


He is likewise the recipient of a postgraduate Diploma in Housing, Planning and Building (obtained with distinction)
from the Boucentrum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.


Hong successfully used the inquiring scientific tradition of academic research to provide realistic field solutions to the
problems of an existing building.


Spiritual Formation Center of the Lords Flock Catholic Charismatic Group,

The Calamba City Hall,
The Higher Education Development Center Building,
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology & Seismology (PHIVOLCS),


In 1992 : He was Professional of the Year awardees in Architecture

And in 2008: in Environmental Planning in 2008.
In 1868 Gaud moved to Barcelona to study architecture.
After completing three elective courses at the Provincial School of Architecture,
and two courses in the College of Science, he was able to enter the Upper
Technical School of Architecture in 1873.
He to attend classes in philosophy, history, economics and aesthetics.
John Ruskin - "Ornament is the origin of Oriental structures
architecture" Art Nouveau and shapes taken from
William Morris nature
Religion - the basis of Gaud's Organic architecture
inspiration, particularly in later years Color, Geometry
Catalan nationalism Eugne Viollet-le-Duc - medieval French
Gothicism, Modernism, Surrealism architecture.

Gaudi believed that different architectural styles did not depend on aesthetic ideas alone, but on the social and
political environments, so he widely studied philosophy, history, economics and aesthetics while he was a college
Major works:


Casa Batll
Location: Barcelona, Spain family and situated in a prosperous district of
Building Type: Apartment Building (Remodel) Barcelona.
Construction System: Concrete The building looks very remarkable like everything
Climate: Mediterranean Gaud designed, only identifiable as Modernisme or Art
Context : Urban Nouveau in the broadest sense. The ground floor, in
Style: Expressionist or Art Nouveau particular, is rather astonishing with tracery, irregular
The local name for the building is Casa dels ossos oval windows and flowing sculpted stone work.
(House of Bones), as it has a visceral, skeletal organic Much of the faade is decorated with a mosaic made of
quality. It was originally designed for a middle-class broken ceramic tiles that starts in shades of golden
orange moving into greenish blues.
Casa Mila
Location: Barcelona, Spain Map Casa Mil better known as La Pedrera meaning the
Building Type: Multifamily Housing 'The Quarry'It was a controversial design at the time
Construction System: Masonry and Concrete for the bold forms of the undulating stone facade and
Climate: Mediterranean wrought iron decoration of the balconies and windows,
Context: Urban designed largely by Josep Maria Jujol, who also
Style: Art Nouveau created some of the plaster ceilings.
In 1984, it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO.
Colonia Guell
Location: Near Barcelona, Spain Map
Building Type: Church Crypt The Church of Colnia Gell is an unfinished work by
Construction System: Brick And Stone Masonry Antoni Gaud. It was built as a place of worship for the
Climate: Mediterranean people in a manufacturing suburb in Santa Coloma de
Context: Urban Cervell, near Barcelona (Spain). Colnia Gell was
Style: Expressionist the brainchild of Count Eusebi de Gell.
Park Guell
Location: Montana Pelada, Barcelona, Spain Map Park Gell is a garden complex with architectural
Building Type: Park, Sculpture Garden, Landscape elements situated on the hill of El Carmel in the
Construction System: Earth, Plantings, and Masonry Grcia district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was
Climate: Mediterranean designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaud and
Context : Urban built in the years 1900 to 1914. It is part of the
Style: Expressionist UNESCO World Heritage Site "Works of Antoni Gaud
Sagrada Familia
Location: Barcelona, Spain Map the design of the architect Francisco de Paula del
Building Type: Church Villar, whose plan was for a Gothic revival church of a
Construction System: Masonry standard form.Antoni Gaud began work on the project
Climate: Mediterranean in 1883. On 18 March 1883 Villar retired from the
Context: Urban project, and Gaud assumed responsibility for its
Style: Expressionist design, which he changed radically.
The crypt of the church, funded by donations, was
begun 19 March 1882, on the festival of St. Joseph, to
1900: Casa Calvet named Building of the 1984: Casa Mil, Palau Gell, and
Year by the City of Barcelona Parque Gell granted World Heritage
1969: Casa Mil, Casa Vincens, Colegio status by UNESCO
Teresiano, Parque Gell, and Sagrada
Familia, named Historic-Artistic
Monuments of National Interest

Color in certain places has the great value of making the outlines and structural planes seem more energetic.
NAME: KENZO TANGE (1913-2005)
Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school.
Tange also enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to
dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and seldom attended classes.
In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's
architecture department.
Although becoming an architect was beyond his wildest dreams as a boy, it was Le Corbusiers work that stirred his
imagination so that in 1935, he became a student in the Architecture Department of Tokyo University.

"Architecture must have something that appeals to the human heart, but even then, basic forms, spaces and
appearances must be logical. Creative work is expressed in our time as a union of technology and humanity. The role
of tradition is that of a catalyst, which furthers a chemical reaction, but is no longer detectable in the end result.
Tradition can, to be sure, participate in a creation, but it can no longer be creative itself."

Major works:


Fuji Broadcasting Center

Location: Tokyo, Japan Map
Building Type: Broadcasting Center, Commercial It is known as the "Fuji TV Headquarters". Have a
Offices Mega structure of square tubes and blocks, with a
Construction System: Metal Cladding focal sphere with a large island of reclaimed land in
Climate: Temperate the Odaiba neighborhood.
Context : Urban
Style: Modern, Neo-Metabolist

Hiroshima Peace Center

Location: Hiroshima, Japan Map human kind as well as symbolizing a commitment to
Building Type: Museum and Community Center peace.
Construction System: Concrete An undeniable Modern style is expressed in one of
Climate: Humid Subtropical Kenzo Tanges first buildings in the postwar period.
Context: Urban Inevitably suggesting Le Corbusier influences, the
Style: Modern museum is supported on pillars, like Le Corbusiers
patented piloti. Furthermore, the building is
By designing the Hiroshima Peace Center and articulated with reinforced concrete, a natural
Memorial Park, Tange expressed the solidarity of convention of Corbu.

Nichinan Cultural Center

Location: Nichinan, Japan
Building Type: Cultural Center Aggressive, angular concrete masses composed to
Construction System: Reinforced Concrete restfulness.
Climate: Humid Subtropical
Context : Urban
Style: Modern

Olympic Arena
Location: Tokyo, Japan map
Timeline: 1961 to 1964 "Tokyo Olympic Stadium". Swooping roof suspended
Building Type: Sports Stadium on two 13" steel cables.
Construction System: Concrete, Steel Cable
Climate: temperate
Context : Urban
Style: Modern, Structural Expressionist

St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo

Location: Tokyo, Japan map "The plan of the building is in the form of a cross, from
Timeline: 1963 which the walls, eight hyperbolic parabolas, rise up at
Building Type: Church an angle. These open upwards to form a cross of light
Construction System: Concrete which continues vertically the length of the four
Climate: Temperate facades.The exterior surfaces are clad in stainless
Context : Urban steel, which gives them a special radiance in keeping
Style: Modern with the religious character of the building."

In 1987: winner of the Pritzker In 1973: when he received the French
Architecture Prize Architecture Academy's gold medal, he
In 1959: He received his doctorate, was the only person in the world to have
followed by numerous honorary received as well, the gold medals from
doctorates around the world. the Royal Institute of British Architects
and the American Institute of Architects.

Nevertheless, the basic forms, spaces, and appearances must be logical.

He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957.
Meier says, "Le Corbusier was a great influence, but there are many influences and they are
constantly changing. Frank Lloyd Wright was a great architect, and I could not have done
my parent's house the way that I did, without being overwhelmed by Falling Water." Meier continued, "We are all
affected by LeCorbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto, and Mies van der Rohe. But no less than Bramante,
Borromini and Bernini, Architecture is a tradition, a long continuum. Whether we break with tradition or enhance it,
we are still connected to that past."

Meier has created a series of striking, but related designs. He usually designs white Neo-Corbusian forms with
enameled panels and glass. These structures usually play with the linear relationships of ramps and handrails.
Although all have a similar look, Meier manages to generate endless variations on his singular theme.




Douglas House
Location: Harbor Springs, Michigan Map The dramatic dialogue between the whiteness of the
Building Type: House house and the primary blues and greens of the water,
Climate : Temperate trees, and sky allows the house not only to assert its
Context : Lakeside Slope own presence but to enhance, by contrast, the beauty
Style: Modern of its natural environment as well.

High Museum of Art

Location: Atlanta, Georgia Map The High Museum of Art located in Atlanta, is the
Building Type: Art Museum leading art museum in the Southeastern United States
Construction System: Concrete Frame, Enameled and one of the most-visited art museums in the world.
Steel Cladding Located on Peachtree Street in Midtown, the city's arts
Style: Modern district, the High is a division of the Woodruff Arts

Museum of Decorative Arts

Location: Frankfurt, Germany Map This dialogue strongly influenced the design of the
Building Type: Art Museum, Art Gallery Museum for the Decorative Arts in Frankfurt am Main.
Climate: Temperate The parti developed out of a notion of context that
Context : Urban takes in not only geographic features but also
Style: Modern historical and typological ones. The scheme here is
meant to connect: to respond to, enlarge, and reinforce
the public context and the urban fabric."

Smith House
Location: Darien, Connecticut There is a formal layering, giving a sense of
Building: Type House progression, as one moves across the site from the
Construction System: Vertical Wood Siding entrance road down to the shore, and the 'line of
Climate: Temperate progression' determines the major site axis.
Context : Suburban Perpendicular to this axis, the intersecting planes in
Style: Modern the house respond to the rhythms of the slope, trees,
rock outcroppings, and the shoreline.
The Atheneum
Location: New Harmony, Indiana Map The Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana serves as a
Building Type: Community Center visitation starting point to this important utopian
Construction System: Steel Frame, Porcelain settlement. The building is an object, apart from the
Enameled Cladding historic town in distance and character, whose spatial
Climate: Temperate experiences explore the relationship between
Style: Modern architecture and society as the town it reveals once

1984: Meier was awarded the Pritzker His work Jesolo Lido Village was
Prize. awarded the Dedalo Minosse
2008: He won the gold medal in International Prize for commissioning a
architecture from the Academy of Arts building.
and Letters and

Be smart, but never show it.

Wright attended a Madison high school, but there is no evidence he ever
He was admitted to the University of WisconsinMadison as a special
student in 1886. There he joined Phi Delta Theta fraternity, took classes
part-time for two semesters, and worked with a professor of civil
engineering, Allan D. Conover in 1887.
Wright left the school without taking a degree (although he was granted an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts
from the University in 1955).
Frank Lloyd Wright has influenced American architecture in a way that will always be seen. One can see his influence
in one way or another. The largest area of influence has been the American homes.
A great architect is not made by way of a brain nearly so much as he is made by way of a cultivated, enriched heart.



Taliesin (Studio)
Location: South of Spring Green, In Iowa County, Oak Park, Illinois, home and studio in 1909. The
Wisconsin impetus behind Wright's departure was his affair with
Built: 1911 Mamah Borthwick Cheney, who had been his client,
Taliesin was the summer home of American architect along with her husband, Edwin Cheney. His winter
Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright began the building in 1911 home, Taliesin West, is located in Scottsdale, Arizona.
after leaving his first wife, Catherine Tobin, and his

Florida Southern College

Motto: Lux Sapientia Lex (Latin: "Light, Wisdom, and Florida Southern College is a private college located in
Law") Lakeland, Florida, United States. It was selected by
President: Anne B. Kerr U.S. News & World Report as one of the top ten
Academic staff: 109 [2] Southern Comprehensive Colleges-Bachelors, and by
Students: 2,426 The Princeton Review as a Best Southeastern College,
Undergraduates: 2,278 a Best Value College, and included in the Best 366
Postgraduates: 148 Colleges: 2008. Florida Southern is the home of the
Location: Lakeland, Florida, United States worlds largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd
Wright architecture.

Falling water
Location: Mill Run, Pennsylvania It was designated a National Historic Landmark in
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright 1966. In 1991, members of the American Institute of
Architectural Style: Organic Architecture Architects named the house the "best all-time work of
American architecture" and in 2007, it was ranked
twenty-ninth on the list of America's Favorite
Architecture according to the AIA.

Robie House
Location: 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, It was designed and built between 1908 and 1910 by
Cook County, Illinois, USA architect Frank Lloyd Wright and is renowned as the
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright greatest example of his Prairie style, the first
Architectural style: Prairie style architectural style that was uniquely American.

Price Tower
Type: Multi-use The Price Tower is a nineteen story, 221 foot high
Location: 510 Dewey Avenue Bartlesville, Oklahoma, tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma that was designed by
U.S. Frank Lloyd Wright. It is the only realized skyscraper
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright by Wright, and is one of only two vertically-oriented
Wright structures extant (the other is the S.C.
Johnson Wax Research Tower in Racine, Wisconsin).

He received honorary degrees from
In 1941: He received Gold Medal awards several universities
from The Royal Institute of British
Architects (RIBA)
In 2000, Falling water was named "The
Building of the 20th century" in an
In 1949: He received Gold Medal awards unscientific "Top-Ten" poll taken by
from the American Institute of Architects members attending the AIA annual
(AIA). convention in Philadelphia. On that list,
In 1953: He was awarded the Franklin Wright was listed along with many of the
Institute's Frank P. Brown Medal. USA's other greatest architects.

The mother art is architecture. Without architecture of our own we have no soul of our own civilization.
I.M Pei emigrated to the us at 17 to study architecture at M.I.T. (the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) until 1940
and obtained his 'master' in architecture in 1946 from the Harvard graduate school
of design
As a student he was influenced by the work of le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Marcel
He believed that the only issue of contemporary concern was life itself; buildings should be created as living
spaces spaces of activity and thought rather than static monuments.
The relationship between site and building design Due to his reliance on abstract form and materials such as
stone, concrete, glass, and steel, Pei has been considered a disciple of Walter Gropius.
To the architectural world, Pei legacy is his belief that architecture is the mirror of life itself.


National Center for Atmospheric Research

Location: Boulder, Colorado Map
Building Type: Research Center The National Center for Atmospheric Research has
Construction System: Concrete multiple facilities, including the I. M. Pei-designed
Climate: Cold Temperate Mesa Laboratory headquarters in Boulder, Colorado.
Context: Rural Mountains NCAR is managed by the nonprofit University.
Style: Modern
Bank of China Tower
Location: Hong Kong Map
Building Type: Skyscraper, Commercial Office Tower Bank of China often is one of the big four state-owned
Construction System: Steel Frame, Glass Curtain commercial banks of the People's Republic of China. It
Wall was founded in 1912 by the Government of the
Climate: Tropical Republic of China, to replace the Government Bank of
Context: Urban Imperial China. It is the oldest bank in China. From its
Style: Modern establishment until 1942..
Christian Science Center
Location: Boston, Massachusetts Map The Christian Science Church Center is also home to
Building Type: Corporate Headquarters (Religious) one of the citys most fascinating and most visited
Construction System: Reinforced Concrete attractions - the Mapparium, located within the
Climate: Temperate Christian Science Publishing Society. A thirty-foot
Context: Urban Campus stained-glass globe room in lobby gives one an "inside
Style: Modern view" of the world. Standing on the thirty-foot glass
bridge, which traverses the diameter of this large
sphere, visitors can virtually be encompassed by the
Javits Convention Center
Location: New York, New York Map The Center is operated and maintained by the New
Building Type: Convention Center York City Convention Center Operating Corporation.
Construction System: Steel and Glass, Space Frame The exhibit space is over 675,000 square feet (62,700
Climate: Temperate m2). Planning and constructing a convention center on
Context: Urban Manhattan's west side has had a long and
Style: Modern controversial history, including efforts starting in the
early 1970s to produce a West Side development
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Location: Cleveland, Ohio Map The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was dedicated to
Building Type: Museum, Hall Of Fame archiving the history of some of the best-known and
Climate: Temperate most influential artists, producers, engineers and
Style: Electric Modern others who have, in some major way, influenced the
music industry through the genre of rock music. The
museum is part of the city's redeveloped North Coast
In 1963: Pei has won in the words of his In 1989: The first Premium Imperial for
biographer "every award of any Architecture from the Japan Art Association.
consequence in his art", including the Arnold The Lifetime Achievement Award from the
Brunner Award from the National Institute of Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum.
Arts and Letters. The 2010 Royal Gold Medal from the Royal
In 1979: The Gold Medal for Architecture Institute of British Architects.
from the American Academy of Arts and In 1983: He was awarded the Pritzker Prize,
Letters sometimes called the Nobel Prize of
In 1979: The AIA Gold Medal. architecture.
NATIONALITY: Finnish American
He took courses in sculpture and furniture at the Cranbrook Academy of Art. a
September 1929, he studied sculpture at the Acadmie de la Grande Chaumire in Paris,
Then he went on to study at the Yale School of Architecture, completing his studies in 1934.
Eero Saarinen's influence on post-World War II design and architecture is an unmistakable part of the modern
American psyche, reflecting a time of ambition and innovation.

He carefully studied the site and its surroundings to ensure that the design encompassed the whole environment. His
opinion was that, "...all parts of an architectural composition must be parts of the same form-world." The Arch was to
rise majestically from a small forest set on the edge of the great river. Saarinen considered it to be perfect in its form
and its symbolism.



Gateway Arch
Location: St. Louis, Missouri Map
Building Type: Memorial Arch, Monument, Arched gateway to the historical American West, on
Observation Tower the bank of the Mississippi River. A 630 foot high
Construction System: Stainless Steel graceful sweeping tapered curve of stainless steel, the
Climate: Temperate St. Louis Gateway Arch is the tallest memorial in the
Context: Riverside Urban Park US.
Style: Structural Expressionist Modern
TWA at New York
Location: New York, New York Map Portions of the original complex have been demolished,
Building Type: Airport Terminal and the Saarinen terminal (or head house) has been
Construction System: Concrete renovated, partially encircled by and serving as a
Climate: Temperate ceremonial entrance to a new adjacent terminal
Context: Suburban completed in 2008. Together, the old and new
Style: Modern buildings comprise JetBlue Airways' JFK operations
and are known collectively as Terminal 5 or simply T5.
Dulles Airport
Location: Chantilly, Virginia Map Washington Dulles International Airport is a public
Building Type: Airline Terminal airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles (41.6 km) west of
Construction System: Concrete downtown Washington, D.C. The airport serves the
Climate: Temperate Baltimore-Washington-Northern Virginia metropolitan
Context: Suburban area centered on the District of Columbia. It is named
Style: Modern after John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State under
Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Dulles main terminal is a
well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen.
Kresge Auditorium
Kresge Auditorium is an auditorium building for the
Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts Map Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located at 48
Building Type: School Auditorium Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts. It
Construction System: Thin Shell Concrete Dome, was designed by the noted architect Eero Saarinen,
Copper Roof with ground-breaking in 1953 and dedication in 1955.
Climate: Temperate The building was named for its principal funder,
Context: Urban Park Campus Sebastian S. Kresge, founder of S. S. Kresge Stores
Style: Structuralize Modern (corporate predecessor of Kmart) and the Kresge
John Deere and Company
Location: Moline, Illinois Map Deere & Company, usually known by its brand name
Building Type: Commercial Office Block John Deere is an American corporation based in
Construction System: Steel Frame, Weathering Steel Moline, Illinois, and the leading manufacturer of
and Glass Facade agricultural machinery in the world. In 2010, it was
Climate: Temperate listed as 107th in the Fortune 500 ranking. Deere and
Context: Wooded Company agricultural products, sold under the John
Style: Modern Deere name, include tractors, combine harvesters,
cotton harvesters, balers, planters/seeders, sprayers,
and UTVs.

In 1952: Eero Saarinen was elected a Fellow Saarinen is now considered one of the
of the American Institute of Architects. He is masters of American 20th Century
also a winner of the AIA Gold Medal. architecture.
Yamasaki grew up in auburn, Washington and attended Auburn Senior High
He enrolled in the University of Washington program in architecture in 1929.
Graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) in 1934.
He enrolled at New York University for a master's degree in architecture and got a job with the architecture firm
Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, designers of the Empire State Building.

Yamasakis interests took a new turn when he was visited by an uncle, Koken Ito, who was an architect, and he began
taking courses with aspiring architects

He described his design philosophy by quoting Ralph Waldo Emerson: beauty rests on necessities: the line of beauty is
the result of perfect economy. The cell of the beehive is built at that angle which gives the most strength with the least



World TradeCenter
Location: New York City devised the plan to incorporate twin towers;
Destroyed: September 11, 2001 Yamasaki's original plan called for the towers to be 80
Architect: Minoru Yamasaki and Emery Roth & Sons stories tall. To meet the Port Authority's requirement
Engineer: Leslie E. Robertson Associates for 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of office
space, the buildings would each have to be 110 stories
On September 20, 1962, the Port Authority announced tall.
the selection of Minoru Yamasaki as lead architect and
Emery Roth & Sons as associate architects. Yamasaki

One Woodward Avenue

Type: office Michigan. Located next to the city's Civic Center and
Location: Detroit, Michigan United States Financial District, it overlooks the International
Architect: Minoru Yamasaki and SmithGroup Riverfront and was designed to blend with the City-
County Building across Woodward Avenue and Ford
The building now known as One Woodward Avenue is Auditorium and Cobo Center to the south.
a skyscraper and class-A office center in Detroit,

One M & T Plaza

Status: Complete Minoru Yamasaki with Duane Lyman Associates and
Type: Office completed in 1966. Yamasaki was the architect for the
Location: 1 M&T Plaza, Buffalo, NY, USA World Trade Center in New York City. The Structural
Architect: Minoru Yamasaki Steel for the building was produced locally by
Bethlehem Steel, and was a product of their V50
One M&T Plaza is an office tower located in Buffalo, grade.
New York and home to M&T Bank in Erie County. The
21 floor tubular International style office was built by

Torre Picasso
Location: Paseo de la Castellana, Madrid, Spain Picasso Square, within the commercial complex AZCA
Architect: Minoru Yamasaki; in collaboration with along the Paseo de la Castellana. It was designed by
Jorge Mir Valls and Rafael Coll Pujol Minoru Yamasaki.
Torre Picasso (Picasso Tower) is a skyscraper in
Madrid, Spain. From 1988 till 2007 it was the tallest
building in Madrid with its 157 m (515 ft) and 43
floors. Torre Picasso is located next to the Pablo
Temple Beth El building
Location: 8801 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Michigan the city of Detroit, and is the oldest Jewish
Architect: Albert Kahn congregation in Michigan.
Architectural style: Classical Revival In 1982, its two former buildings in Detroit, at 3424
and 8801 Woodward Avenue were listed on the
Temple Beth El, also known as Temple Beth-El, is a National Register of Historic Places.
Reform synagogue currently located in Bloomfield
Township, Michigan. Beth El was founded in 1850 in

In 1960: Yamasaki was elected as a Fellow of Yamasaki won the American Institute of
the American Institute of Architects. Architects' First Honor Award three times.

The view outside was much more important than the exhibits.
NAME: Skidmore Owings and Merrill (SOM)
Louis Skidmore studied at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, now
known as Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois, finishing in
Nathaniel A. Owings experiences inspired him to begin to
study architecture at the University of Illinois, but had to quit the school prematurely because of illness. He
continued his education at Cornell University, earning a degree in 1927.
John Ogden Merrill Sr. studied at the University of Wisconsin from 1915 through 1917. His education was
interrupted by his war time service in the military.] During World War I, he served as a captain in the coastal
artillery. When released from the military in 1919, he continued his education.
Many of SOM's post-war designs have become icons of American modern architecture. Although SOM was one of the
first major modern American architectural firms to promote a corporate face, many famous architects, engineers and
interior designers have been associated with the various national offices.
Due to their faithful following of Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohes ideas, Frank Lloyd Wright nicknamed them "The Three
Blind Mies".
S.O.M primary expertise is in high-end commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of
the modern international-style or "glass box" skyscraper. They have built several of the tallest buildings in the world


Air Force Academy Chapel

Location: Colorado Springs, Colorado map candidates for the United States Air Force. The
Building Type: Chapel Academy's stated mission is "to educate, train, and
Climate: Cold Temperate inspire men and women to become officers of
Context: Rural Campus character, motivated to lead the United States Air
Style: Expressionist Modern Force in service to our nation." It is the youngest of the
five United States service academies, having graduated
The United States Air Force Academy is an accredited its first class in 1959.
college for the undergraduate education of officer
First Wisconsin Plaza
Location: Madison, Wisconsin map roofs to the first floor. The banking facilities, located
Building Type: Commercial Office Building on the lower, ground and first levels, penetrate deep
Construction System: STEEL AND GLASS into the building, providing generous space for the
Climate: Temperate thirty-foot high atrium. Offices on the upper floors
Context: Urban wrap around a fourth floor roof garden on three sides
Style: Modern and have unobstructed views of the centrally located
Capitol Square.
The back of the building is a straight, nine-story wall
of glass, while the front steps down with sloping glass
Weyerhaeuser Headquarters
Location: near Tacoma, Washington map Weyerhaeuser is one of the largest pulp and paper
Building Type: Commercial Offices, Ground Scraper, companies in the world. It is the world's largest private
Corporate Headquarters sector owner of softwood timberland; and the second
Construction System: Long Span Concrete, Silicone- largest owner of United States timberland, behind
Glazed Glass Plum Creek Timber. Weyerhaeuser has approximately
Climate: Temperate 20,000 employees in 13 countries, including the
Context: Rural United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, China,
Style: Modern Mexico, Ireland, France, and Uruguay.
Haj Terminal
Location: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia map pilgrims performing Hajj, has a land area of 105
Building Type: Airport Terminal square kilometers. It has three separate terminals, one
Construction System: Tensile Fabric Roofs for internal flights, the second for international flights
Climate: Desert by more than forty foreign airlines and the third
Style: Modern terminal is reserved for pilgrims. The fiberglass pilgrim
terminal is tent-shaped. Its 12-teflon coated tents are
The late King Khalid opened the King Abdul Aziz highly resistant to heat, humidity and weather
International Airport in Jeddah. This airport, which changes.
has special facilities for handling the annual influx of
Sears Tower
Location: Chicago, Illinois map
Building Type: Corporate Headquarters, Skyscraper, The building consists of nine framed tubes, which are
Commercial Office Tower actually nine skyscrapers on themselves taken
Construction System: Steel Frame with Bronze- together into one building. The other rise up to the
Tinted Glass Curtain Wall sixty-fifth floor from the sixty-sixth to the ninetieth
Climate: Temperate floor, the tower has the shape of a crucifix. Two tubes,
Context: Urban creating a rectangular, reach the full height of 442
Style: Corporate Modern meter (1451ft).
In 1996 and 1962, SOM received the August 2009, SOM received four of 13 R+D
Architecture Firm Award from the American Awards from Architect Magazine. In addition,
Institute of Architects, which recognizes the a collaboration between SOM and Rensselaer
design work of an entire firm. SOM is the Polytechnic Institute, The Center for
only firm to have received this honor twice. Architecture, Science and Ecology, was
honored with a fifth award.
NATIONALITY: German/ American
He studied architecture in Berlin and Munich (1903-1907), he received no degree.
Gropius and Meyer were influenced by Wright's style especially in the horizontality and the
wide overhanging eaves, but also in the symmetry, the corner pavilions, and the whole spirit of Wright's concept.

Gropius's educational philosophy encompassed the designing of all functional objects. His goal was to raise the level of
product design by combining art and industry. Although these principles were inherited from English reformers like
William Morris, Gropius was able to implement them when he reorganized the Arts and Crafts School in Weimar, which
became the world-famous Bauhaus




Harvard Graduate Center

Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts Map Harvard University in 1948. The first modern building
Building Type: Academic Center on the campus, it was also the first endorsement of the
Construction System: Concrete with Brick Exterior modern style by a major university and was seen in
Climate: Temperate the national and architectural presses as a turning
Context: Urban Campus point in the acceptance of the aesthetic in the U.S.
Style: Modern The physical Gropius hallmarks large windows,
flowing rooms, floating facades on raised pilotis are
The Harvard Graduate Center, also known as "the all present here.
Gropius Complex" (including Harkness Commons),
was commissioned of The Architects Collaborative by

Gropius House
Location: Lincoln, Massachusetts Map The Gropius House was the family residence of noted
Building Type: Architect's House architect Walter Gropius at 68 Baker Bridge Road,
Construction System: Wood Frame, Vertical Wood Lincoln, Massachusetts. It is now owned by Historic
Siding New England and is open to the public Wednesday
Climate: Temperate through Sunday (June 1 October 15, and weekends
Context: Semi-Rural (October 16 May 31). An admission fee is charged.
Style: Modern This house was his first architectural commission in
the United States.

Fagus Works
Location: Alfeld an Der Leine, Germany Map the company's break from the past, the factory was
Building Type: Factory designed by Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer.
Construction System: Steel, Brick Masonry, Glass For the first time a complete facade is conceived in
Climate: Temperate glassflat roof has also changed. Only in the buildings
Context: Urban by Adolf Loos which was done one year before the
Style: Early Modern Fagus Factory, have we seen the same feeling for the
pure cube. Another exceedingly important quality of
The Fagus Factory a shoe last factory in Alfeld on the Gropius's building is that, thanks to the large
Leine in Germany, is an important example of early expanses of clear glass, the usual hard separation of
modern architecture. Commissioned by owner Carl exterior and interior is annihilated.
Benscheidt who wanted a radical structure to express


Location: Dessau, Germany Map crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the
Building Type: Art and Architecture School approach to design that it publicized and taught. It
Construction: System and Glass operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German
Climate: Temperate term Bauhaus, literally "house of construction" stood
Context: Urban for "School of Building".
Style: Modern Exemplar The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as
Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined

On 12 May 1954: Walter Gropius received the award of the honorary degree of Doctor of Science.

Architecture begins where engineering ends.

NAME: LE CORBUSIER (1887 1965)
NATIONALITY: Swiss/ French
He attended a kindergarten that used Frbelian methods.
Le Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts and studied at the La-Chaux-de-
Fonds Art School.
In 1908, He studied architecture in Vienna with Josef Hoffmann.
Later in 1911, he journeyed to the Balkans and visited Bulgaria, Greece and
Le Corbusier was heavily influenced by problems he saw in industrial cities at the turn of the 19th to 20th century
(that is, from the 19th to the 20th century). He thought that industrial housing techniques led to crowding, dirtiness,
and a lack of a moral landscape. Ebenezer Howard's Garden Cities of Tomorrow heavily influenced Le Corbusier and
his contemporaries.
Le Corbusier designs in architecture, urban planning and furniture, are based on his theory of functionalism and in
the use of new symbols. One of these is concept of flat roofs, which the introduction of the use of reinforced concrete in
architecture made attainable. In Le Corbusier philosophy the creation of new functions in design is aimed at
originating modern values.



Convent of La Tourette
Location: Eveux-Sur-Arbresle, Near Lyon, France Map architects Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis and
Building Type: Monastery constructed between 1956 and 1960. Le Corbusier's
Construction System: Concrete design of the building began in May, 1953 with
Climate: Temperate sketches drawn at Arbresle, France outlining the basic
Context: Rural shape of the building and terrain of the site. La
Style: Modern Tourette is considered one of the more important
Sainte Marie de La Tourette is a Dominican Order buildings of the late Modernist style.
priory in a valley near Lyon, France designed by
Ozenfant House and Studio
Location: Paris, France Map However, it was not the only, since that same year and
Building Type: House and Artist's Studio the following other projects designed to house
Construction System: Stucco Exterior Finish painters. By then, Le Corbusier had already been
Climate: Temperate investigating the new materials (reinforced concrete),
Context: Urban Street Corner and had also developed some of his most important
Style: Early Modern work of youth. These houses studio, not represent a
This is the first work that Le Corbusier built in Paris. true embodiment of Le Corbusier's theories and are
reflections of many of them.
Palace of Assembly
Location: Chandigarh, India Map throughout the Palace of the Assembly and are slightly
Building Type: Parliament House altered to raise a large swooping concrete form high
Construction System: Cast-In-Place Concrete above the entrance. This form represents the second
Climate: Hot point of Le Cobusiers list a free facade. Pilotis allow
Context: Urban, Planned City the form to express the grandiose release of space
Style: Modern precisely as Corbusier intended. The other various
The first of Le Corbusiers architectural ideals is the facades of the building also bestow the free facade via
use of pilotis to lift the structure off of the ground. brise-soleil formed from the golden ratio.
Reinforced concrete columns are utilized in a grid
Unite d'Habitation
Location: Marseilles, France Map The Unit d'Habitation (Housing Unit) is the name of a
Building Type: Multifamily Housing modernist residential housing design principle
Construction System: Concrete developed by Le Corbusier, with the collaboration of
Climate: Mediterranean painter-architect Nadir Afonso. The concept formed the
Style: Modern basis of several housing developments designed by
him throughout Europe with this name.
Maisons Jaoul
Location: Neuilly-Sur-Seine, Paris, France Map by Le Corbusier and built in 1954-56. They are among
Building Type: Housing his most important post-war buildings and feature a
Construction System: Brick and Concrete rugged aesthestic of unpainted cast concrete "beton
Climate: Temperate brut" and roughly detailed brickwork. They were for a
Context: Urban time owned by English millionaire Lord Palumbo. They
Style: Modern now belong to two sisters who live there with their
Maisons Jaoul is a celebrated pair of houses in the families.
upmarket Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine designed


He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1961.

To create architecture is to put in order. Put what in order? Function and objects.
He attended the Cathedral School there between 1897 and 1900.
In 1905 he moved to Berlin and, without formal architectural training, became an
apprentice in the office of furniture designer (famous interior designer) Bruno
Under Behrens' influence, Mies developed a design approach based on advanced structural
techniques and Prussian Classicism. He also developed sympathy for the aesthetic credos of both Russian
Constructivism and the Dutch De Stijl group. He borrowed from the post and lintel construction of Karl Friedrich
Schinkel for his designs in steel and glass
Famous for his dictum 'Less is more', Mies attempted to create contemplative, neutral spaces through an architecture
based on material honesty and structural integrity. Over the last twenty years of his life, Mies achieved his vision of a
monumental 'skin and bone' architecture. His later works provide a fitting denouement to a life dedicated to the idea of
a universal, simplified architecture



Crown Hall
Location: Chicago, Illinois Map
Timeline: 1950 To 1956 Widely regarded as Mies van Der Rohe's masterpiece,
Building Type: Architecture School Crown Hall is one of the most architecturally
Construction System: Steel and Glass significant buildings of the 20th Century Modernist
Climate: Temperate movement. Crown Hall was completed in 1956 during
Context: Campus Mies van der Rohe's tenure as director of IIT's
Style: Modern Department of Architecture.
Lake Shore Drive Apartments
Location: Chicago, Illinois Map community due to its mullions. Mies is hailed as the
Building Type: Skyscraper Apartment Towers, father of "less is more" however 860880 Lake Shore
Multifamily Housing Drive is covered in non-functional I-beam mullions.
Construction System: Steel Frame Mies explains how the mullions do not violate his less
Climate: Temperate is more philosophy in an 1960 interview "To me
Context: Urban Near Waterfront structure is something like logic. It is the best way to
Style: Modern do things and express them. The mullions on his
This building like many of his Chicago high-rise buildings reflect the inner structure and therefore give
structures causes controversy in the pure minimalist truth to the aesthetic of the building.
New National Gallery
Location: Berlin, Germany Map The New National Gallery, the famous "temple of light
Building Type: Exhibition Building and glass" designed by Mies van der Rohe, houses the
Construction System: Steel Frame With Coffered Rib collection of 20th century European painting and
Roof sculpture. Ranging from early modern art to art of the
Climate: Temperate 1960s, the collection includes works by Munch,
Context: Urban Kirchner, Picasso, Klee, Feininger, Dix, Kokoschka,
Style: Modern and many others
Seagram Building
Location: New York, New York Map The building stands 516 feet tall with 38 stories, and
Building Type: Skyscraper, Commercial Office Tower was completed in 1958. It stands as one of the finest
Construction System: Steel Frame with Curtain Wall, examples of the functionalist aesthetic and a
Bronze Exterior "Columns" masterpiece of corporate modernism. It was designed
Climate: Temperate as the headquarters for the Canadian distillers Joseph
Context: Urban E. Seagram's & Sons with the active interest of Phyllis
Style: Modern Lambert, the daughter of Samuel Bronfman,
Seagram's CEO.
Weissenhof Apartments
Location: Stuttgart, Germany Map stucco, large windows, and glass doors; floors and roof
Building Type: Apartment Housing were hollow block between joists. The steel frame was
Construction System: Stucco Exterior crucial to Mies's architectural vision in this project. He
Climate: Temperate referred to the frame as 'the most appropriate system
Context: Suburban of construction. It enabled him to limit the use of solid
Style: Modern walls to separations between apartments, to introduce
The exterior walls of the three-story apartment block moveable partition walls, and to extensively open the
consisted of masonry infill covered by a smooth facades with glass.

In 1959: The Royal Institute of British In 1963: President Lyndon Johnson

Architects awarded Mies its Gold Medal presented Mies with the Presidential Medal of
In 1960: He received the AIA Gold Medal, the Freedom.
highest award given by the American
Association of Architects.

I don't want to be interesting. I want to be good.

He attended the Hackley School, in Tarrytown, New York.
Studied at Harvard University as an undergraduate, where he focused
on history and philosophy, particularly the work of the Pre-Socratic
Johnson interrupted his education with several extended trips to Europe.
These trips became the pivotal moment of his education; he visited Chartres,
the Parthenon, and many other ancient monuments, becoming increasingly fascinated with architecture.
As an architect, Johnson is most widely respected for his work in the early 1950s while still under the influence of Mies
Van Der Rohe
Philip Johnson design, build and maintain sustainable habitats that help to heal the earth, feel magical to live
amongst, and create spaces where you can completely unwind.
Major works:


Sony Building (New York)

Type: Office top enjoyed for its spectacular arched entranceway,
Location: 550 Madison Avenue New York City, U.S. measuring about seven stories in height. With these
Architect: Philip Johnson & John Burgee ornamental additions, the building challenged
The Sony Tower, formerly the AT&T Building, is a 647 architectural modernism's demand for stark
feet (197 m) tall, 37-story high-rise skyscraper located functionalism and purely efficient design. The effect
at 550 Madison Avenue between 55th Street and 56th the building had on the public at large has been
Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It described as legitimizing the postmodern architecture
became immediately controversial for its ornamental movement on the world stage.
Crystal Cathedral
Country: United States 2010, and in February 2012 sold the building and its
Architect(S): Philip Johnson adjacent campus to the Roman Catholic Diocese of
Style: Modern Architecture Orange for future use as the diocese's cathedral.
Since its construction the building has been the Under the terms of the sale the building and most of
principal place of worship for Crystal Cathedral the campus will continue to be used by Crystal
Ministries, a Protestant Christian church organization Cathedral Ministries for the next three years before
founded in 1955 by Robert H. Schuller and affiliated being renovated for use as a Roman Catholic
with the Reformed Church in America. Crystal cathedral.
Cathedral Ministries filed for bankruptcy in October
One Detroit Center
Type: Commercial Offices and the second tallest overall in the state behind the
Location: 500 Woodward Avenue Detroit, Michigan central hotel tower of the Renaissance Center, located
Architect: Philip Johnson & John Burgee a few blocks away. Although the Penobscot Building
One Detroit Center is a skyscraper and class-An office has more floors (45 above-ground floors compared to
building located downtown which overlooks the Detroit 43), One Detroit Center's floors are taller, with its roof
Financial District. Rising 619 feet (189 m), the 43- sitting roughly 60 feet (18 m) taller than Penobscot's.
story tower is the tallest office building in Michigan, Its floor area is 1,674,708 square feet (155,585 m2).
Hines College of Architecture
The Gerald D. Hines College of Architecture is an school and among the 10 largest gifts received by the
architecture school and is one of twelve academic University of Houston.
colleges of the University of Houston. It offers both The college offers programs in architecture, interior
undergraduate and graduate level degree programs. architecture, industrial design, and space architecture.
In March 1997, Gerald D. Hines donated $7 million to The Industrial Design Program was the winner of IDSA
the College of Architecture and the school responded National Student Merit Award - Southern District
by renaming the architecture school after him. The gift Champion of 2010 and 2011.
was the largest ever received by the architecture .
PPG Place
Location: 600 PPG Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania matching glass design consisting of 19,750 pieces of
Architect: Philip Johnson & John Burgee glass. The complex centers around One PPG Place, a
Structural Engineer: Leslie E. Robertson & 40-story office building. Groundbreaking ceremonies
Associates, R.L.L.P. occurred on January 28, 1981. The complex buildings
PPG Place is a complex in downtown Pittsburgh, opened between 1983 and 1984, and a dedication
Pennsylvania, consisting of six buildings within three ceremony took place on April 11, 1984. The buildings
city blocks and five and a half acres. Named for its were sold by The Hillman Company to Highwoods
anchor tenant, PPG Industries, who initiated the Properties in 2011.
project for its headquarters, the buildings are all of

In 1978: He received the AIA Gold Medal. In 1979: He received the Pritzker Architecture

All architects want to live beyond their deaths.

While attending high school, Sullivan met Moses Woolson, whose teachings made
a lasting impression on him, and nurtured him until his death.
After graduating from high school, Sullivan studied architecture briefly at the
Massachusetts. Learning that he could both graduate from high school.
Sullivan entered MIT at the age of sixteen. After one year of study, he moved
to Philadelphia and talked himself into a job with architect Frank Furness.
In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan; a year later, he became a partner in the firm. This marked the beginning of
Sullivan's most productive years. And it was at this firm that Sullivan would deeply influence a young designer named
Frank Lloyd Wright, who came to embrace Sullivan's designs and principles as the inspiration for his own work.
Sullivan's designs generally involved a simple geometric form decorated with ornamentation based on organic
symbolism. As an organizer and formal theorist on aesthetics, he propounded an architecture that exhibited the spirit
of the time and needs of the people. Considered one of the most influential forces in the Chicago School, his philosophy
that form should always follow function went beyond functional and structural expressions.



Wainwright Building
Location: St. Louis, Missouri worldThe building listed as a landmark both locally
Architect: Adler & Sullivan and nationally, is described as "a highly influential
Architectural Style: Chicago School prototype of the modern office building" by the
National Register of Historic Places. Architect Frank
The Wainwright Building (also known as the Lloyd Wright called the Wainwright Building "the very
Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story red first human expression of tall steel office-building as
brick office building at 709 Chestnut Street in Architecture."
downtown St. Louis, Missouri. The Wainwright
Building is among the first skyscrapers in the
Auditorium Building
Location: 430 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Illinois 60605 on April 17, 1970. It was declared a National Historic
United States Landmark in 1975, and was designated a Chicago
Architect: Dankmar Adler; Louis Sullivan Landmark on September 15, 1976. In addition, it is a
Architectural Style: Late 19th and Early 20th historic district contributing property for the Chicago
Century American Movements Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District.
Since 1947, the Auditorium Building has been the
The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best- home of Roosevelt University.
known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan.
It was added to the National Register of Historic Places
Holy Trinity Cathedral (Chicago, Illinois)
Location: 1121 N. Leavitt Street Chicago, Illinois by Louis Sullivan, one of the seminal architects of the
Architect: Louis Sullivan late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is listed on the
US National Register of Historic Places and is
Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral is the Cathedral designated a Chicago Landmark
Church of the Orthodox Church in America Diocese of
the Midwest. It is one of only two churches designed
Harold C. Bradley House
Location: 106 N. Prospect Ave., Madison, Wisconsin "both of the late residences (Babson and Bradley) were
Architect: Louis H. Sullivan; George Grant Elmslie designed by Elmslie with only occasional suggestions
Architectural Style: Prairie School from Sullivan."This can be seen in the heavy Prairie
School emphasis in the design, influenced by the
Harold C. Bradley House, also known as Mrs. residential designs of Frank Lloyd Wright and other
Josephine Crane Bradley Residence, is a Prairie School Chicago area architects of the period. In addition,
home designed by Louis H. Sullivan and George Grant there are contracts of record with the local firm Claude
Elmslie, located in Madison, Wisconsin. and Starck.
Sullivan's role in the design of the Bradley House is
often overstated. Designed very late in his career,
National Farmer's Bank of Owatonna
Location: Broadway And Cedar Streets, Owatonna, building is clad in red brick with green terra cotta
Minnesota bands, and features two large arches. Internal
Architect: Louis Sullivan elements include two stained glass windows designed
Architectural Style: Late 19th And Early 20th by Louis J. Millet, a mural by Oskar Gross, and four
Century American Movements, Other immense cast iron electroliers designed by George
Grant Elmslie and cast by Winslow Brothers Company
The National Farmers' Bank of Owatonna, Minnesota (owned by William Winslow, for whom Frank Lloyd
is a bank building designed by Louis Sullivan with Wright designed an iconic house).
decorative elements by George Elmslie. It was built in .
1908, and was the first of Sullivan's "jewel boxes". The
The International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers created the Louis Sullivan Award in 1970 to
demonstrate the appreciation of the union masonry craftworker for architectural excellence.
Form ever follows function.
He trained in a rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, with its emphasis on drawing,
at the University of Pennsylvania.
After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as
senior draftsman in the office of City Architect John Molitor. In this
capacity, he worked on the design for the 1926 Sesquicentennial
Influenced by ancient ruins, Kahn's style tends to the monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide
their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn's works are considered as monumental
beyond modernism.
Architecture is the reaching out for the truth.


Erdman Hall Dormitories

Location: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania Map The building sits at the end of a suburban campus of a
Building Type: College Dormitories college for girls. The dormitory is conceived as a large
Construction System: Concrete Frame, CMU Infill, house for approximately 150 girls. The plan is
Slate Cladding structured by three halls defined by large hoods,
Climate: Temperate which rise above the roof to bring in natural light.
Context: Suburban Campus Construction consists of reinforced concrete frame
Style: Modern with cinder block walls covered with slate on the
exterior and plaster inside.
Institute of Public Administration
Location: Ahmedabad, India Map The organization of the complex, as well as its
Building Type: School Of Government architecture, reflects the conceptual organization of
Construction System: Brick Masonry and Concrete learning which is focused on three inevitable
Climate: Desert components: the school, the students, and the
Context: Urban teachers, which constitute 'The Indian Institute of
Style: Modern Management'
Richards Medical Center
Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Map effect reminiscent of the ancient Italian towers that
Building Type: Laboratories, Offices Kahn had painted several years earlier.
Construction System: Precast Concrete with Trusses, Rather than being supported by a hidden steel frame,
Brick the building has a structure of reinforced concrete that
Climate: Temperate is clearly visible and openly depicted as bearing
Context: Urban Campus weight. Built with precisely-formed prefabricated
Style: Modern concrete elements, the techniques used in its
The building is configured as a group of laboratory construction advanced the state of the art for
towers with a central service tower. Brick shafts on the reinforced concrete.
periphery hold stairwells and air ducts, producing an
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban
Location: Dacca, Bangladesh Map Construction of the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban began in
Building Type: Government Center 1961 by the Government of Pakistan as a permanent
Construction System: Concrete, Marble building for the federal legislature of both West and
Climate: Desert East Pakistan. However, it was the eighth (and last)
Style: Modern session of the second parliament of Bangladesh that
There have been nine national elections in first used it on 15 February 1982 after its construction
Bangladesh. The first and second Parliaments used was completed on 28 January of the same year. The
the Old Shangshad Bhaban, which currently serves as Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban has been in operation and
the Prime Minister's Office. has acted as the sole complex used as the National
Assembly ever since.
University Art Center
Location: New Haven, Connecticut Map highly flexible space. Pushing technology, Kahn
Building Type: Art Gallery and Design Center implemented a tetrahedral waffle-slab that formed
Construction System: Site-Cast Concrete, Curtain both the floor of one room and the ceiling of another.
Wall Infill, Brick Adequate space for building services, including an
Climate: Temperate extensive air-conditioning system, provided a
Context: Urban Campus functional basis for this sweeping spatial gesture. The
Style: Modern resulting space, enclosing a circulation core, remained
Ambiguous functional requirements, a building to free from strict wall definition while retaining elegance
house architectural studios as well as a portion of the through exhaustive material detailing.
University's art collection led Kahn to the creation of a
In 1971: Kahn received the AIA Gold Medal. In 1971: He was elected a member of the
In 1972: RIBA Gold Medal. American Academy of Arts and Letters.

Architecture is the reaching out for the truth.

NATIONALITY: Iraqi-British
She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of
Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of
Architecture in London.
After graduating she worked with her former teachers
As a person, Hadid was influenced by the liberal and cosmopolitan upbringing she had in Iraq and Europe. Even as a
child, she was exposed to a broad outlook on life: attending school in Baghdad with Muslim, Christian, and Jewish
classmates, for example. As an architect, she was influenced by the designs of Russian suprematist architecture, as
well as constructivist artists. She also has stated that she admires the particular work of architects Ludwig Mies van
der Rohe, Erich Mendelsohn, and le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret).
Hadid has said of architecture that buildings should keep you dry and feed the soul. Her style has been described with
terms such as Deconstructivist and Neomodernist. Britains Design Museum discussed her work as follows, noting the
degree to which her Arab identity and background has affected her designs:


Guangzhou Opera House

Location: Guangzhou, People's Republic of China upon opening by architectural critic Jonathan Glancey
Architect: Zaha Hadid in The Guardian, who called it "at once highly
theatrical and insistently subtle."The dramatic
The structure was designed by Iraqi architect Zaha structure was the source of inspiration behind fashion
Hadid;its freestanding concrete auditorium set within designer Vivienne Tam's fall '10 collection.
an audacious exposed granite and glass-clad steel
frame took over five years to build, and was praised
Phaeno Science Center
Architectural Style: Deconstructivism without having to interfere with the workings of the
Location: Wolfsburg, Germany building. Phaeno is connected to the Autostadt via a
Architect: Zaha Hadid metal bridge accessed by escalators and stairs either
side. The underside of Phaeno is illuminated and the
The building effectively stands on concrete stilts "stilts" are too.
allowing visitors to the Autostadt to pass through
Type: Office The CMA CGM Tower is a 147m tall skyscraper in
Location: Marseille, France Euromditerrane, the central business district of
Architect: Zaha Hadid Marseille, France. Designed by Zaha Hadid, it will be
Structural Engineer: Arup the headquarters for CMA CGM, a major shipping
firm, consolidating 2000 employees currently spread
over 7 sites.
BMW Central Building
Location: Leipzig, Germany competition was for the design a centralized building
Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects to function as the physical connection of these three
Structural Engineer: AGP Arge Gesamtplanung, IFB buildings. It also needed to house the administrative
Stuttgart and employee needs spaces. Hadid's design took this
idea of connectivity and used to inform every aspect of
The BMW factory plan, prior to the design and build of the building. The building serves as a connection for
the central building, existed as three disconnected the assembly process steps and the employees.
buildings, all of which holding an integral part in the
production of the BMW 3 Series vehicles. The
Riverside Museum
Type: Museum the first to be opened in the city since the St Mungo
Architectural Style: Modern Museum of Religious Life and Art in 1993 and is
Location: Glasgow, Scotland expected to attract up to 1 million visitors a year.
Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects Although containing approximately the same floor
space as the previous museum facility at 7,500 sq m,
The Riverside Museum building was designed by Zaha it will create a more environmentally stable home for
Hadid Architects and engineers Buro Happold. The Glasgow's significant Transport Technology collections.
internal exhibitions and displays were designed by The building will also house a workshop and office
Event Communications. Replacing facilities at the space for the Clyde Maritime Trust.
city's Kelvin Hall, the new purpose-built museum is
2001 Equerre d'argent Prize, special mention 2007 Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture
2003 European Union Prize for Contemporary 2008 RIBA European Award for Nordpark
Architecture Cable Railway
2004 Pritzker Prize 2009 Praemium Imperiale
2005 Designer of the Year Award for Design 2010 RIBA European Award for MAXXI
Miami 2010 Stirling Prize for MAXXI National
2005 RIBA European Award for BMW Central Museum of the 21st Century Arts
Building 2011 Stirling Prize for Evelyn Grace Academy,
2006 RIBA European Award for Phaeno London
Science Center
NATIONALITY: Argentine American
After studying architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Tucumn, Pelli
completed his studies at the School of Architecture at the University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
He started his career in the New Haven offices of architect Eero Saarinen.
Pelli worked as a designer with the firm of Eero Saarinen & Associates in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, and Hamden,
Connecticut. With Saarinen, whom Pelli credits as one of his greatest influences along with Le Corbusier.
This observation corresponds with Pelli's own philosophy, which he articulated in the August 1988 issue of
Architectural Digest: "We should not judge a building by how beautiful it is in isolation, but instead by how much
better or worse that particular place ... has become by its addition. If the city has not gained by the addition, we should
seriously question the design and the building itself, no matter how beautiful and theoretically correct it may be."


Petronas Towers
Type: Commercial offices Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the CTBUH's
Location: Jalan Ampang Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia official definition and ranking, they were the tallest
Architect: Csar Pelli buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 until
Structural engineer: Thornton Tomasetti surpassed by Taipei 101, but remain the tallest twin
The Petronas Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, also buildings ever built; surpassing the World Trade
known as the Petronas Twin Towers or Menara Center.The building is the landmark of Kuala Lumpur
Berkembar Petronas in Malay) are twin skyscrapers in with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.
One Park West
Type: Residential/Office Chavasse Park, it is part of Liverpool One, a 42-acre
Location: Chavasse Park, Liverpool, England, United (17 ha) 920m redevelopment of Liverpool's city centre,
Kingdom the developer was the Duke of Westminster's
Architect: Csar Pelli Grosvenor Group. One Park west consists of 326
One Park West is a 17-storey building designed by apartments, offices, restaurants, cafs and parking.
world renowned architect Csar Pelli in central Blocks B and A of One Park West are the 21st and
Liverpool, England, United Kingdom. Bordering 31st tallest buildings in Liverpool respectively.
Repsol-YPF tower
Type: Office 2005, and the office building was completed in
Location: Macacha Gemes y J. Manso (Parcela 5 L - September 2008. The building is 160 meters (520 ft)
1y2) Puerto Madero,Buenos Aires tall and has 44 floors. It was, upon completion in
Architect: Csar Pelli 2008, the tallest office building in Argentina, and the
The Repsol-YPF tower is a corporate high-rise building third tallest overall. The building is located on the
designed by internationally recognized architect Csar corner of Macacha Gemes and Juana Manso streets,
Pelli constructed in the Puerto Madero barrio (district) in the Puerto Madero ward.
of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Construction began in
Aria Resort & Casino
Location: 3730 Las Vegas Blvd Las Vegas, Nevada highrise towers adjoined at the center. It opened on
89158 December 16, 2009 as a joint venture between MGM
United States Resorts International and Infinity World Development.
Architect: Pelli Clarke Pelli At 4,000,000 sq ft (370,000 m2) and 600 ft (180 m) in
Aria resort & Casino is a luxury resort and casino height, it is the largest and tallest structure at City
located within the CityCenter complex on the Las Center
Vegas Strip. Aria consists of two curved glass and steel
BOK Center
Location: 200 South Denver Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A. facility was built at a cost of $178 million in public
Architect: Csar Pelli & Odell Associates funds and an additional $18 million in privately-
Structural engineer: Thornton Tomasetti funded upgrades. Ground was broken on August 31,
The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 2005 and a ribbon-cutting ceremony involving Tulsa
19,100-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor musicians Garth Brooks and Hanson took place on
sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United August 30, 2008.The arena's schedule of concerts and
States. Designed to accommodate arena football, other events began on August 31 with a community
hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the choir hosted by Sam Harris.


In 2008: Yale University bestowed an In the 1995: AIA Gold Medal which recognizes
honorary Doctor of Arts degree to Pelli for his a body of work of lasting influence on the
work in Architecture. theory and practice of architecture.
In 1991: the American Institute of Architects
(AIA) listed Pelli among the ten most
influential living American architects.

How much are they able to capture your imagination and your heart? Being tall doesn't necessarily do it.
He attended Broad Ripple High School, receiving his diploma in 1950.
He earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Cincinnati where he also became
a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity.
A master's degree from Harvard University.
Graves was exposed not only to the buildings of the great classical architects but also to the writings of the great
classical critics and theorists. It was in Rome that Graves finally learned about the language of architecture. Also, in all
of his previous education, Graves had never been exposed to the literature of criticism of architecture. This experience
at the Academy had enormous influence on Michael Graves's subsequent academic career as well as on his
architectural design practice.
Graves' designs are decorative and use natural materials. The colors used for most of Graves' designs are gray, soft
blues, green stucco, and terra cotta. These colors add human qualities to the design



The Humana Building

The Humana Building, also known as the Humana Corporation and known for its postmodern
Tower, is a skyscraper in downtown Louisville, architecture. It was designed by Michael Graves.
Kentucky, located at 500 West Main Street. The 27- Construction began in October 1982 and was
story structure is headquarters of the Humana completed in May 1985.
The Portland Building
The Portland Building, alternatively referenced as considered architecturally groundbreaking at the
the Portland Municipal Services Building, is a 15-story time. The building houses offices of theCity of
municipal office building located at 1120 SW 5th Portland. It was added to the National Register of
Avenue indowntown Portland, Oregon. Built at a cost Historic Places in 2011.
of US$29 million, it opened in 1982 and was
The Walt Disney World Dolphin
The Walt Disney World Dolphin is a resort hotel composed of a 257-foot (78 m) tall triangular tower
designed by architect Michael Graves located between bisecting a 12-story rectangular mass with four 9-
Epcot and Disney's Hollywood Studios in the Walt story wings on the Swan-side of the structure. The roof
Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, of each half of the main mass is adorned with a 56-foot
next to Disney's BoardWalk Resort area. It opened on (17 m) tall Dolphin statue. On the main colored facade
June 1, 1990 and is joined to its sister hotel, the Walt there is a turquoise banana-leaf pattern echoed by a
Disney World Swan (also designed by Graves) by a similar wave pattern on the Swan.
palm-tree lined covered walkway crossing a lagoon. The statues on top of the Dolphin hotel are not
The Dolphin Resort is owned and operated by mammalian dolphins, but a stylized version of a
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide under the nautical dolphin, a common symbol used on old world
Sheraton Hotels brand. nautical maps. The design of the creatures is based on
The Dolphin and Swan share similar elements, but Triton Fountain in Rome.
each has a distinctive appearance. The Dolphin is .
The NCAA Hall
The NCAA Hall of Champions is a museum, exhibition Association (NCAA) in White River State Park in
center, and conference center that is located adjacent Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. The building was
to the national office of the National Collegiate Athletic designed by architect Michael Graves.
The International Finance Corporation
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes projects in the developing world. It promotes
sustainable private sector investment in developing sustainable private sector development primarily by:
countries. Financing private sector projects and companies
IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is located in the developing world.
headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Helping private companies in the developing world
Established in 1956, IFC is the largest multilateral mobilize financing in international financial markets.
source of loan and equity financing for private sector Providing advice and technical assistance to
businesses and governments.

In 1979: Graves was elected a Fellow of the In 2010, Graves was inducted into the New
American Institute of Architects. Jersey Hall of Fame.
In 1999: Graves was awarded the National The 2012 Richard H. Driehaus Prize for
Medal of Arts. Classical Architecture has been awarded to
In 2001: The Gold Medal from the American Michael Graves and will be presented at a
Institute of Architects. ceremony in Chicago on March 24, 2012
In 2010: The Topaz Medal from the American
Institute of Architects

In any architecture, there is equity between the pragmatic function and the symbolic function.
Name: MARCEL LAJOS BREUER (1902- 1981)
Nationality: Hungarian
Breuer studied and taught at the Bauhaus in the 1920s.
The Bauhaus curriculum stressed the simultaneous education of its
students in elements of visual art, craft and the technology of industrial
Breuer was eventually appointed to a teaching position as head of the
school's carpentry workshop.
He later practiced in Berlin, designing houses and commercial spaces.
The beginning of Breuer's adoption of concrete as his primary medium. He became known as one of the leading
practitioners of Brutalism, with an increasingly curvy, sculptural, personal idiom.
He made use of concrete to give his facade lattices a 3D and highly varied look, and in the process decisively expanded
and refined the formal vocabulary of Modernist architecture.
Major works:



J. Ford House
Location: Lincoln, Massachusetts Map including the too often neglected kitchen, face south
Building Type: House and the pleasantest view. Their arrangement in a long
Construction System: Light Wood Frame narrow block, uninterrupted by a stair well, made for
Climate: Temperate extremely economical framing. The arrangement of the
Context: Rural four bathrooms on one stack was also a notable
Style: Modern economy, achieved without sacrifice of convenience.
"The Massachusetts house by Gropius and Breuer is More difficult to detect in the plans is the wonderfully
planned with admirable logic. All major rooms, pleasant scale of the interior.
Robinson House
Location: Williamstown, Massachusetts Style: Modern
Building Type: House Robinson House, built in 1850, is an historic house at
Construction System: Field Stone Masonry, 19 Winter Street in Arlington, Massachusetts.
Weathered Cypress The house was added to the National Register of
Climate: Temperate Historic Places in 1985.
Context: Semi-Rural
St. John's Abbey
Location: Collegeville, Minnesota Map Monks from the Abbey serve parishes in the Diocese of
Building Type: Church Complex Saint Cloud and in the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and
Construction System: Cast-In-Place Concrete Minneapolis.
Climate: Temperate The Abbey's Hill Museum and Manuscript Library
Context: Rural houses the world's largest collection of manuscript
Style: Modern images. This library is also the home of the St. John's
Saint John's Abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota is a Bible, the first completely handwritten and illuminated
Benedictine monastery affiliated with the American Bible to have been commissioned since the invention
Cassinese Congregation. Saint John's is the second- of the printing press. The expenses associated with the
largest Benedictine abbey in the Western Hemisphere, Bible project have been over $6.5 million
with 153 professed monks. John Klassen, OSB,
currently serves as abbot.
Starkey House
Building Type: House about 1820 and is a two story Federal style residence.
Climate: Temperate It has two sections: a two story main section and a
Context: Waterside lower two story rear wing. Also on the property is a
Style: Modern gabled carriage house.
Otis Starkey House is a historic home located at Cape It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Vincent in Jefferson County, New York. It was built in 1985.
Breuer House I
Location: Lincoln, Massachusetts Map cantilevered upper floor with its deep corner balcony
Building Type: Architect's House suspended from tension cables of standard marine
Construction System: Wood and Stone Bearing rigging. This daring yet disciplined use of the
Walls, Wood Spans cantilever was the structural theme of this hillside
Climate: Temperate house. Breuer had been experimenting with using
Context: Rural frame walls as truss like members, and here this
Style: Modern potential inherent in wood frame construction is
Breuer House I is located in Connecticut as Breuer exploited to the utmost. The two ends of the front
House II, New Canaan set on a gently rise having facade are supported by fieldstone walls relieving the
particular view to ornamental trees. The vigorously effect of the overhangs.
horizontal-lined houses most dramatic feature is the
The Gold Medal of the American Institute of The Museum of Modern Art Award, 1968
Architects. Recognition as "Piece of Art," West German,
Honorary degrees from Harvard and the 1982
Technical University of Budapest
Studied at Los Angeles City College, eventually to graduate from the
University of Southern California's School of Architecture
Frank Gehry began to redirect his architecture by fusing the Japanese and
vernacular elements in his early work with the influence of painters and sculptors in
a sophisticated manipulation of perspective distorted shapes, sculptural masses molded by light, and buildings that
reveal their structures.
Much of Gehry's work falls within the style of Deconstructivism, which is often referred to as post-structuralist in
nature for its ability to go beyond current modalities of structural definition. In architecture, its application tends to
depart from modernism in its inherent criticism of culturally inherited givens such as societal goals and functional


Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health

Type: Research Center Camille, Mirage Resorts CEO Bobby Baldwin (who also
Location: 888 West Bonneville Avenue Las Vegas, lost his father to Alzheimer's Disease), and Bobby
Nevada 89106 United States Baldwin's wife Donna. KMA supports the mission of
Architecture Firm: Gehry Partners the Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health and has held
Structural Engineer: WSP Cantor Seinuk several star-studded galas, attended by celebrities and
Keep Memory Alive (also known as KMA) was founded notables from around the world. It has become one of
by Larry Ruvo, senior managing partner of Southern Las Vegas most important charity initiatives and a key
Wines and Spirits, in memory of his father, Lou Ruvo, participant in the nation fight against Alzheimers
a victim of Alzheimers Disease, together with his wife disease.
Iac Building
Type: Office Building base of twisted tower-sections packed together like the
Location: 555 West 18th Street cells of a bee hive, with a second bundle of lesser
New York, New York 10011 diameter sitting on top of the first. The cell units have
United States the appearance of sails skinned over the skeleton of
Architect: Frank Gehry the building. The overall impression is of two very tall
Structural Engineer: Desimone Consulting Engineers stories, which belies its actual 10-story structure.
Reminiscent of several other Gehry designs, the Vanity Fair commented that the building is perhaps
building appears to consist of two major levels: a large the world's most attractive office building.
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Location: 111 South Grand Avenue by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, and 1st and 2nd
Los Angeles, California, U.S. Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves (among other
Type: Concert Hall purposes) as the home of the Los Angeles
The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master
Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles, California, is the Chorale.
fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center. Bounded
Weisman Art Museum
Location: East Bank, University Of Minnesota, Gehry's office. It is one of the major landmarks on
Minneapolis, Minnesota campus, situated on a bluff overlooking the
The museum's current building, designed by renowned Mississippi River at the east end of the Washington
architect Frank Gehry, was completed in 1993. The Avenue Bridge. The building presents two faces,
stainless steel skin was fabricated and installed by the depending on which side it is viewed from.
A. Zahner Company, a frequent collaborator with
Binoculars Building
Type: Commercial Office both a car and pedestrian entrance. The binoculars
Architectural Style: Postmodern were designed by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van
Location: 340 Main Street Venice, California United Bruggen. The entrance to the parking garage is
States between the lenses of the binoculars. The 75,000-
Architect: Frank Gehry square-foot (7,000 m2) building was delayed for a few
The building is notable for the three different styles years after hazardous materials were found on the
used in the main facade on Main Street, particularly building site, requiring removal.
the massive sculpture of binoculars that function as
Gehry was elected to the College of Fellows of In 1999, he was awarded the AIA Gold Medal
the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in "in recognition of a significant body of work of
1974. lasting influence on the theory and practice of
He has received many national, regional, and architecture.
local AIA awards, including AIA Los Angeles He accepted the 2007 The Henry C. Turner
Chapter Gold Medal. Prize for Innovation in Construction
Gehry was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Technology from the National Building
Prize at the Tdai-ji Buddhist Temple in Museum on behalf of Gehry Partners and
1989. Gehry Technologies.

Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.
Nationality: Dutch
Graduated in the School of Design at Harvard University, USA.
Koolhaas studied at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in
Amsterdam, at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in
London and at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York
An early design method derived from such thinking was "cross-programming", introducing unexpected functions in
room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers. More recently, Koolhaas (unsuccessfully) proposed the
inclusion of hospital units for the homeless into the Seattle Public Library project (2003).
A key aspect of architecture that Koolhaas interrogates is the "Program": with the rise of modernism in the 20th
century the "Program" became the key theme of architectural design. The notion of the Program involves "an act to edit
function and human activities."
Major works:



China Central Television Headquarters

The main building is not a traditional tower, but a loop The building was built in three buildings that were
of six horizontal and vertical sections covering 473,000 joined to become one and a half buildings 30 May
m (1,552,000 ft) of floor space, creating an irregular 2007. In order not to lock in structural differentials
grid on the building's facade with an open center. The this connection was scheduled in the early morning
construction of the building is considered to be a when the steel in the two towers cooled to the same
structural challenge, especially because it is in a temperature. The CCTV building was part of a media
seismic zone. Because of its radical shape, it's said park intended to form a landscape of public
that a taxi driver first came up with its nickname d entertainment, outdoor filming areas, and production
kch (), roughly translated as, "big boxer shorts studios as an extension of the central green axis of the
Casa da Msica
Casa da Msica (English: House of Music) is a major Capital in 2001 but was only finished in the first half
concert hall space in Porto, Portugal which houses the of 2005 and immediately became an icon in the city.
cultural institution of the same name with its three The Building engineers were Arup (London) together
orchestras Orquestra Nacional do Porto, Orquestra with Afassociados (Porto). Inside outside (Petra Blaisse)
Barroca and Remix Ensemble. It was designed by the designed the large 13 curtains, ranging from
Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas with Office for 22mx15m to 65mx8m, and the gold leaf wood grain
Metropolitan Architecture and Arup-AFA, and was pattern on the large auditorium.
built as part of Porto's project for European Culture
Seattle Central Library
The Seattle Public Library's Central Library is the and includes over 400 computers open to the public.
flagship library of The Seattle Public Library system. Over 2 million individuals visited the new library in its
The 11-story (185 feet or 56 meters high) glass and first year. The library has a unique, striking
steel building in downtown Seattle, Washington was appearance, consisting of several discrete "floating
opened to the public on Sunday, May 23, 2004. The platforms" seemingly wrapped in a large steel net
362,987 square foot (34,000 m) public library can around glass skin. Architectural tours of the building
hold about 1.45 million books and other materials, began on June 5, 2006.
features underground public parking for 143 vehicles,
Embassy of the Netherlands, Berlin
The Embassy of the Netherlands in Berlin (Dutch: In the wake of the reunification the German
Nederlandse ambassade te Berlijn, German: government decided to relocate the capital to Berlin
Niederlndische Botschaft in Deutschland) is the Mitte (Center). The Netherlands, having sold their
Netherlands's diplomatic mission in Berlin, Germany. former embassy site after the War, was free to choose
The Royal Netherlands Embassy by OMA / Rem a new location and preferred Roland Ufer in Mitte, the
Koolhaas in Berlin is the new symbol and showcase for oldest Berlin settlement, next to the (new) government
the Netherlands in Germany. district of their main trade partner.
Guggenheim Hermitage Museum
The Venetian in Las Vegas. a collaboration agreement between the State
The Guggenheim Hermitage Museum was a museum Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, Russia, and the
in The Venetian, one of the world's largest hotels in Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation.
Paradise, Nevada, located on the Strip in Las Vegas, The museum finished its seven-year tenure at The
USA. It was designed by Rem Koolhaas, opened Venetian on May 11, 2008. It is now permanently
October 7, 2001, and added three more collections and closed.
exhibits subsequent to its opening. It was the result of
In 2000: Pritzker Prize In 2007: Doctor honors cause by the Catholic
In 2001: Chevalier de Lgion d'honneur Universities Leuven
In 2003: Premium Imperial In 2010: Golden Lion of the Venice Biennale
In 2004: Royal Gold Medal of Architecture for lifetime achievement

But now sustainability is such a political category that it's getting more and more difficult to think about it in a serious way.
Sustainability has become an ornament.
He was educated and subsequently taught at the Politecnico di Milano. He
graduated from the University in 1964
During his studies Renzo Piano was working under the design quidance of Franco Albini.
After his graduation in 1964 Renzo Piano worked in his father's company and during the
time 1965-1970 Renzo Piano worked in offices of Louis I. Kahn in Philadelphia and ZS.
Makowski in London. Other important influence Renzo Piano acknowledges was Pierluigi Nervi.
This is the balance of my architecture. There must be a symbiotic relationship between the collective needs of the
public and the personal needs of the individual, further elaborated in the rapport between the building and its
environmental context.


Centre Pompidou
Location: Paris, France map near Les Halles, rues Montorgueil and the Marais. It
Building Type: modern art museum was designed in the style of high-tech architecture.
Construction System: high-tech steel and glass It houses the Bibliothque publique d'information, a
Climate: temperate vast public library, the Muse National d'Art Moderne
Context: urban which is the largest museum for modern art in
Style: High-Tech Modern Europe, and IRCAM, a centre for music and acoustic
Centre Georges Pompidou also known as the research. Because of its location, the Centre is known
Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the locally as the Beaubourg. It is named after Georges
Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974
who decided its creation
Menil Collection
Location: Houston, Texas map de Menil, or to the collection itself. Dominique was an
Building Type: art museum, art gallery heir to the Schlumberger oil-drilling fortune, and John
Climate: hot was an executive of that company.
Context: semi-urban The museum also maintains an extensive collection of
Style: High-Tech Modern pop art and contemporary art from Jackson Pollock,
The Menil Collection, located in Houston (Texas, USA) Andy Warhol, Mark Rothko,Robert Rauschenberg and
refers either to a museum that houses the private art Cy Twombly, among others.
collection of founders John de Menil and Dominique
IRCAM Extension
Location: Paris, France map science about music and sound and avant garde
Building Type: non-profit offices electro-acoustical art music. It is situated next to, and
Climate: temperate is organizationally linked with, the Centre Pompidou in
Context: urban Paris. The extension of the building was designed by
Style: High-Tech Modern Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers.
IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination
Acoustique/Musique) is a European institute for
Rue de Meaux Housing
Location: Paris, France map and exacting craftsmanship with knowledge of the
Building Type multifamily housing technical aspects of the production of buildings to
Construction System: high-tech terra-cotta cladding achieve new and successful results. The appeal of the
on GFRC panel frames building's terra cotta cladding brought a durable
Climate: temperate surface material back into popularity, while revealing
Context: urban its potential for frank elegance, in contrast to
Style: High-Tech Modern neoclassical applications that often disguised the
"The Rue de Meaux Housing (1991) in Paris material."
exemplifies Piano's ability to bring together innovation
Kansai Airport Terminal
Location: Osaka, Japan map located within three municipalities, including
Building Type: airport terminal Izumisano (north), Sennan (south), and Tajiri (central),
Construction System: steel and glass in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The airport is off the
Climate: temperate Honshu shore. The airport serves as an international
Context: waterfront, artifical island in Osaka Bay hub for All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and
Style: High Tech Modern Nippon Cargo Airlines. Peach, the first international
Kansai International Airport is an international airport low-cost carrier in Japan, plans to make Kansai its
located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka main hub starting in 2012.
Bay, 38 km (24 mi) southwest of Osaka Station,
Pritzker Architecture Prize RIBA Royal Gold Medal
AIA Gold Medal Kyoto Prize
Sonning Prize

A museum is a place where one should lose one's head.

Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, and after that began studying at
Harvard University.
He was expelled from Harvard twice: first for spending all his money partying with a
vaudeville troupe, and then, after having been readmitted, for his "irresponsibility and
lack of interest." By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity
It was to be many years before he received a Sc.D. from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine.
He was very aware of the finite resources the planet has to offer, and promoted a principle that he termed
"ephemeralization", which, in essenceaccording to futurist and Fuller disciple Stewart BrandFuller coined to mean
"doing more with less"
The search for the principles governing the universe and help advance the evolution of humanity in accordance with
them... finding ways of doing more with less to the end that all people everywhere can have more and more."
Major works:


Geodesic dome

Spaceship Earth at Epcot, Walt Disney World, a endpoints of the links of the completed sphere are the
geodesic sphere projected endpoints on the sphere's surface. If this is
A geodesic dome is a spherical or partial-spherical done exactly, each sub-triangle edge is a slightly
shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of different length, requiring links of many sizes. To
great circles (geodesics) on the surface of a sphere. The minimize this, simplifications are made. The result is a
geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that compromise of triangles with their vertices lying
have local triangular rigidity and also distribute the approximately on the sphere. The edges of the
stress across the structure. When completed to form a triangles form approximate geodesic paths over the
complete sphere, it is a geodesic sphere. A dome is surface of the dome.
enclosed, unlike open geodesic structures such as Geodesic designs can be used to form any curved,
playground climbers. enclosed space. Standard designs tend to be used
Typically a geodesic dome design begins with an because unusual configurations may require complex,
icosahedron inscribed in a hypothetical sphere, tiling expensive custom design of each strut, vertex and
each triangular face with smaller triangles, and then panel.
projecting the vertices of each tile to the sphere. The

Geodesic Dome For Ford Motor Company (1953).

Patent On Geodesic Domes (1954).
The World Game (1961) And
The World Game Institute (1972).
Patent On Octet Truss (1961).
Montreal Biosphre (1967)
United States Pavilion At Expo 67


44 honorary doctoral degrees

Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects
Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects
Nominated for Nobel Peace Prize

Don't fight forces, use them.

R. Buckminster Fuller
Nationality: Italian
At about age 10 Battista went to a boarding school in Padua, where he received
classical training in Latin and literature and became an accomplished writer.
At age 20 he wrote a Latin comedy that was proclaimed the work of an ancient Roman
playwright, and which was still published as such in the late 16th century.
Battista's formal education was completed at the University of Bologna, where he
received a doctorate in canon law in 1428.
Influenced and inspired by some of these friends and colleagues, Alberti wrote on a range of subjects, from
philosophical dialogues to technical treatises to the observations on the principles of art and architecture for which he
is best known.
"a man dedicated to study and hard work can attain glory, just as well as a rich and fortunate man."
Major works:


San Sebastiano
Location: Mantua, Italy Map and was no longer being directed by Alberti. As a
Building Type: Church consequence, little remains of Albertis work apart
Construction System: Bearing Masonry from the plan, which is considered one of the earliest
Climate: Mediterranean and most significant examples of Renaissance
Context: Urban centrally-planned churches. The plan is in the shape
Style: Renaissance of a Greek cross, with three identical arms centring
San Sebastiano is an Early Renaissance church in apses, under a central cross-vaulted space without
Mantua, northern Italy. any interior partitions. The church sits on a ground-
Begun in 1460 according to the designs of Leon level crypt which was intended to serve as a
Battista Alberti, it was left partially completed in the mausoleum for the Gonzaga family.
mid 1470s, by which time construction had slowed
S. Maria Novella
Location: Florence, Italy Map great basilica in Florence, and is the city's principal
Building Type: Church Dominican church.
Construction System: Bearing Masonry The church, the adjoining cloister, and chapterhouse
Climate: Mediterranean contain a store of art treasures and funerary
Context: Urban monuments. Especially famous are frescoes by
Style: Gothic with Italian Renaissance Faade masters of Gothic and early Renaissance. They were
Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, financed through the generosity of the most important
situated just across from the main railway station Florentine families, who ensured themselves of
which shares its name. Chronologically, it is the first funerary chapels on consecrated ground.
S. Andrea
Location: Mantua, Italy Map Andrew, the church was planned in his honor. Work
Building Type: Church initially started around 1590 under the designs of
Construction System: Brick Bearing Masonry and Giacomo della Porta and Pier Paolo Olivieri, and under
Stucco the patronage of Cardinal Gesualdo. With the prior
Climate: Mediterranean patron's death, direction of the church passed to
Context: Urban Cardinal Alessandro Peretti di Montalto, nephew of
Style: Early Renaissance Sixtus V. By 1608, and banked by the then enormous
It was initially planned when Donna Costanza endowment of over 150 thousand gold scudi, work
Piccolomini d'Aragona, duchess of Amalfi and restarted anew with a more grandiose plan, mainly by
descendant of the family of Pope Pius II, bequeathed Carlo Maderno. The interior structure of the church
her palace and the adjacent church of San Sebastiano was finally completed by 1650, with additional touches
in central Rome to the Theatine order for construction added by Francesco Grimaldi.
of a new church. Since Amalfi's patron was Saint
In art, he is best known for his treatise De pictura (On painting) (1435) which contained the first scientific
study of perspective.

Let no one doubt, that the man who does not perfectly understand what he is attempting to do when painting, will never be a good
painter. It is useless to draw the bow, unless you have a target to aim to arrow at.
Nationality: British
Foster managed to gain an internship at a local architects office before submitting
a portfolio for a place at the University Of Manchester School Of Architecture.
He won a place at Manchester and then won a scholarship to continue his studies
at the Yale School of Architecture in the United States of America
Foster took a keen interest in the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Oscar
Niemeyer and graduated from Manchester in 1961.
His style has since evolved into a more sharp-edged modernity.
Major works:


St Mary Axe
Location: London, England, UK Map which it formerly occupied. The church itself was
Building Type: Commercial Office Tower, Skyscraper demolished in 1561 and its parish united with that of
Construction System: Glass Cladding St. Andrew Undershaft, which is situated on the
Climate: Temperate corner of St. Mary Axe and Leadenhall Street. The
Context: Urban name derives from the combination of the church
Style: High Tech Modern dedicated to the Virgin Mary and a neighbouring
St. Mary Axe was a medieval parish in the City of tavern, which prominently displayed a sign with an
London whose name survives as that of the street image of an axe.
Hongkong and Shanghai Bank
Location: Hong Kong, China Map The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
Timeline: 1979 To 1986 Limited is a prominent bank established and based in
Building Type: Skyscraper Commercial Office Tower, Hong Kong since 1865 when Hong Kong was a colony
Bank Headquarters of the British Empire. It is the founding member of the
Construction System: Steel Frame And Glass HSBC Group and since 1990 is now a wholly owned
Climate: Tropical subsidiary of HSBC Holdings plc.It is the largest bank
Context: Urban in Hong Kong with branches and offices throughout
Style: High-Tech Modern the Asia Pacific region including other countries
around the world.
London City Hall
Location: London, England, UK Map City Hall was constructed at a cost of 65 million on a
Timeline: 1998 To 2003 site formerly occupied by wharves serving the Pool of
Building Type: Government Offices London. The building does not belong to the GLA but
Construction System: Glass Cladding is leased under a 25-year rent.Despite the name, City
Climate: Temperate Hall is neither located in nor does it serve a city often
Context: Urban Riverside adding to the confusion of Greater London with the
Style: High-Tech Modern, Environmental Modern City of London, whose headquarters is in the
Guildhall, north of the Thames.
The Reichstag
Location: Berlin, Germany Map Style: Neoclassical With New Modern Elements.
Building Type: Capitol, Government Office Building, The Reichstag building is a historical edifice in Berlin,
National Parliament Germany, constructed to house the Reichstag,
Construction System: Cut Stone Bearing Masonry, parliament of the German Empire. It was opened in
Glass, and Steel 1894 and housed the Reichstag until 1933, when it
Climate: Temperate was severely damaged in a fire.
Context: Urban
Sainsbury Centre
Location: Norwich, England Map The Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts building was
Building Type: Art Gallery (Art Center) opened in 1978. It was designed between 1974 and
Construction System: Space Frame And Walls 1976 by the then relatively unknown architect Norman
Climate: Temperate Foster (now Lord Foster). It is situated on the western
Context: Campus edge of the University campus, beside the River Yare,
Style: High-Tech Modern and also houses the School of World Art Studies and
Since its inception the practice has received In 1994: Received the gold medal of the AIA.
more than 190 awards and citations for In 1994: he was appointed officer of the order
excellence and has won over 50 national and of the arts and letters by the ministry of
international competitions. culture in France.
1968 - 1983 cooperation with Buckminster In 1999: It was announced in the queen's
fuller on a number of projects. birthday honors list that sir Norman foster
In 1983: Foster was awarded the RIBA royal has been honored with a life peerage, taking
gold medal. the title lord foster of Thames bank.
In 1990: The RIBA trustees medal was made In 1999: he was awarded the prestigious 21st
for the Willis Faber Dumas building. he was pritzker architecture prize laureate
knighted. considered the Nobel Prize of architecture.
My mission is to create a structure that is sensitive to the culture and climate of its place.

Name: EDWIN MAXWELL FRY (1899 1987)

Nationality: British
Fry was educated at the Liverpool Institute High School.
He served in the King's Liverpool regiment at the end of the First World War.
After the war he received an ex-serviceman's grant that enabled him to enter
Liverpool University School of architecture in 1920, where he was trained in "the
suave neo-Georgian classicism of Professor Charles Reilly. The curriculum of the
course included town planning as an important component, and Fry retained an
interest in planning throughout his career.
He gained his diploma with distinction in 1923.
His early works shows the strong influence of Ludwig Van De Rohe a leading proponent of the international style in
"An independent functionalist design idiom modified from the main German and French progenitors of the modern
Major works:



Impington Village College

Village colleges were the brainchild of Henry Morris, were effectively reduced to secondary modern schools;
the then Chief Education Officer for Cambridgeshire, since 1974 village colleges have returned to their
who had a vision of a school that would serve the original mission as schools for the whole community.
whole community, stem migration from the Indeed, many argue that the village college model had
countryside to the towns, and provide a decent a large influence on the design of the Comprehensive
education to pupils who had previously only been system.[citation needed]
served by the upper years of Elementary schools. Under Morris' influence, many of the colleges have had
Between the implementation of the Education Act distinguished architects, notably the one at Impington
1944 and Cambridgeshire's adoption of the designed by Walter Gropius and Maxwell Fry.
Comprehensive school system in 1974, village colleges
Pilkington Group Limited
Pilkington Group Limited is a multinational glass was an independent company listed on the London
manufacturing company headquartered in St Helens, Stock Exchange and for a time was a constituent of
United Kingdom. It is a subsidiary of the Japan-based the FTSE 100 Index.
NSG Group. Prior to its acquisition by NSG in 2006 it
Margate railway station
Margate railway station serves the town of Margate in Ramsgate, Canterbury West and Ashford
Thanet in Kent, England. Train services are provided International. Peak hour trains run to St Pancras via
by Southeastern. Chatham and Gravesend and to London Cannon
Trains from the station generally run to London Street.
Victoria via Chatham, or to London St Pancras via

Ramsay Hall
Ramsay Hall is situated on Maple Street in central Student Hostel designed by Ralph Tubbs and was
London, on the border of Fitzrovia and Bloomsbury constructed at the same time.
around a hundred metres from Tottenham Court Ramsay Hall was designed by Maxwell Fry and
Road. At a rate of 170 a week for the 2011-12 constructed between 1951 and 1954. In 2008 the
academic year, it is widely regarded by students as the building received a major refurbishment and an 8
most overpriced of UCL student residences. The storey extension containing 91 rooms was added, at a
building is located within the Bloomsbury total cost of 8 million. The architects for the project
Conservation Area. It occupies the same block as, and were Levitt Bernstein and it won a Camden Building
forms a single unified building with, the YMCA Indian Excellence Award in 2009.
Ramsgate Railway Station
Ramsgate railway station serves the town of Ramsgate line. Train services are currently provided by
in Thanet in Kent, England, and is located about 10 Southeastern.
minutes away on foot from the town centre. The Ramsgate railway station is a fine 1920s brick built
station lies on the Chatham Main Line 127 km (79 station thought to have been designed by Edwin
miles) east of London Victoria, the Kent Coast Line, Maxwell Fry, and built between 1924-6. Margate
and the Ashford to Ramsgate (via Canterbury West) station and the demolished Dumpton Park station are
of a similar design. The building is Grade II listed.
In 1972: Fry was elected ARA in 1966 and In 1963: An honorary Fellow of the American
advanced to RA. Institute of Architects.
In 1964: He was awarded the institute's Royal He was an honorary LLD of Ibadan
Gold Medal University, and towards the end of his life he
In 1995: He was appointed CBE. became Professor of Architecture at the Royal
In 1956: Was elected a corresponding Academy.
member of the Acdemie Flamande.
He completed technical school in Liberec, Czech Republic, which is now Technical
University Liberec (a plaque located in front of Pavilion H commemorates this)
Studied at Dresden Technical University before moving to Vienna.
He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay Ornament and Crime
he repudiated the florid style of the Vienna Secession, the Austrian version of Art Nouveau.
In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in
To understand fully Looss radical, innovative outlook on lifehis admiration for the classical tradition, his passion for
all aspects of design, lifestyle and taste, and the breadth of his ideas.

Major works:



Michaelerplatz 3 ("Looshaus")
The House of Michaelerplatz is Loos' most famous apartments above the business floors. The business
building, and though it is hard to see now at the floors were originally a gentlemen's outfitter, but are
time, his most controversial. One of the first modern now a bank.
office buildings in Vienna, the steel concrete The facade of the lower stories is quite ornate, chiefly
construction provides wide structural spans with through the rich, green Cipollino (Greek) marble.
flexible space use. (The marble pillars across the Inside the business floors are opulent through the
storefront entrance are not load-bearing.) richness of their materials, contrasting a modern
The building occupies a commanding position opposite minimalism in the detailing.
the imperial Hofburg, and provides four stories of
Khuner Villa
Location: on the Kreuzberg, Payerback, Austria map so anachronistically alpine, so rustic, raises a
Building Type: house theoretical question. It has to be asked if, or to what
Construction System: timber frame, stone extent, this manifest contradiction of languages
foundation, metal roof reveals a poetic dissociation, a sort of architectural
Climate: alpine schizophrenia." "...Loos...rationally explores the
Context: rural possibilities of artisan skill within the limits of an
Style: early Modern or Neo-Vernacular unbiased logic that is founded on the potential of the
"Contemporary to the whitewashed masterpieces of his material.
last phase... this country house that is so vernacular,
Villa Mller
The Villa Mller is an architectural structure designed company called Kapsa and Mller. The company
in 1930 by architect Adolf Loos, born in Brno, Austria- specialized in reinforced concrete, developing new
Hungary (later Czechoslovalia). The villa is located in construction techniques. After the building was
Prague, Czech Republic. The house was designed completed, Loos celebrated his 60th birthday there
originally for Mr. Frantiek Mller and his wife, Milada with a few friends. The couple freely inhabited the
Mllerov. The building was commissioned by house for eighteen years before Communists seized
Frantiek Mller and his wife, Milada Mllerov. Mr. control of it in 1948.
Mller was an engineer and co-owned a construction
Rufer House
Location: Vienna, Austria map for the nighttime zone. The whole is concluded by a
Building Type: house garret (with various service rooms and a terrace). The
Construction System: bearing masonry pivot of the composition is the single central pillar that
Climate: temperate serves both a structural function and to conduct the
Context: suburban electrical, water and heating systems. The structural
Style: Early Modern scheme is in fact extremely simple, made up of the
The house has four floors, plus a basement where the load-bearing external walls and the above- mentioned
janitors lodging and services are located. The living single pillar.
area is on the first floor while the upper floors are used
Steiner House
Steiner's house was designed for the painter Lilly external forces, such as rigid building codes at the
Steiner and her husband Hugo. It is located in a time. They allowed only one facing the street and a
suburb of Vienna, where planning adjustments were "sleep" (a window built into sloping roof)
strong enough to have a direct impact on the final This house is on a manifesto of the poetics of the
design. Loos was the architect who carried forward, architect.
within the limits imposed by the configuration, and
In October 2008, an exhibition on Adolf Loos's work opened in the City of Prague Museum, examining his
often overlooked achievements in the Czech Republic. The exhibition travels to London as "Learning to Dwell:
Adolf Loos in the Czech Lands" at the Royal Institute of British Architects.

The room has to be comfortable; the house has to look habitable.



Nationality: American
His parents brought him up under the teachings of the Swedenborgian
Church of New Jerusalem, which ingrained in him the strong belief that man
should strive to be of service to others.
After failing admissions tests for both Harvard and Yale, and an
unsuccessful stint at politics, Burnham apprenticed as a draftsman under
William LeBaron Jenney
Under the design influence of Root, the firm had produced modern buildings as part of the Chicago School. Following
Roots premature death from pneumonia in 1891, the firm became known as D.H. Burnham & Company.
Much of his career work modeled the classical style of Greece and Rome. In his 1924 autobiography, Louis Sullivan,
one of the leading architects from the Chicago School but one who had enjoyed difficult relations with Burnham over
an extended period.
Major works:

Burnham and Root

Burnham and Root was the name of the company that (World's Fair) in 1893. The two men met when they
John Wellborn Root and Daniel Hudson Burnham worked as apprentice draftsmen in the offices of
established as one of Chicago's most famous Drake, Carter, and Wright in 1872. A year later they
architectural companies of the nineteenth century. established their own architecture office and began
During their eighteen years of partnership, Burnham work by building private residences for the wealthy
and Root designed and built residential and elite of Chicago's meat industry. Both of them married
commercial buildings. Their success was crowned with into wealthy families which allowed them to establish a
the coordination of the World's Columbian Exposition basis for their business.
Flatiron Building
Type: Office building completion in 1902, it was one of the tallest buildings
Location: 175 Fifth Avenue New York City in the city and the only skyscraper north of 14th
Architect: D.H. Burnham & Co.: Street. The building sits on a triangular island-block
Architectural style: Renaissance, Skyscraper formed by Fifth Avenue, Broadway and East 22nd
The Flatiron Building (or Fuller Building, as it was Street, with 23rd Street grazing the triangle's northern
originally called) is located at 175 Fifth Avenue in the (uptown) peak. As with numerous other wedge-shaped
borough of Manhattan, New York City and is buildings, the name "Flatiron" derives from its
considered to be a groundbreaking skyscraper. Upon resemblence to a cast-iron clothes iron.
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition (the official and American industrial optimism. The Chicago
shortened name for the World's Fair: Columbian Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by
Exposition,[1] also known as The Chicago World's Fair) Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted. It was
was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues
the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's thought a city should be. It was designed to follow
arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French
York City; Washington, D.C.; and St. Louis for the neoclassical architecture principles based on
honor of hosting the fair. The fair had a profound symmetry, balance, and splendor.
effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image,
Postal Square Building
Architectural style: Beaux-Arts Burnham used for the neighboring Union Station.
Location: 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE Construction for the Postal Square Building began in
Washington, D.C. 1911 on a lot near the Capitol. Planning began with a
Architect: Daniel Burnham 1901 proposal by the Senate Parks Commission. The
The Postal Square Building (formerly the City Post commission called for three buildings to mark the
Office) served as the main post office for the city of northern end of the Capitol complex. While the first
Washington, D.C., from the building's completion in two buildings in the plan, Union Station and the Postal
1914 to 1986. It now houses the National Postal Square Building, were completed early in the 20th
Museum, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, offices of the century, the 1901 plan would not be fully implemented
United States Senate, and a Capital City Brewery until the completion of the Thurgood Marshall Federal
restaurant. Architect Daniel Burnham designed the Judiciary Building in 1992.
building in the Beaux-Arts style the same style
Washington Union Station
Washington Union Station is a train station and Washington Metro subway trains and local buses. It
leisure destination visited by 32 million people each opened in 1907 and at its height during World War II
year in the center of Washington, D.C. The train some 200,000 people passed through it every day. It is
station is served by Amtrak, MARC and Virginia also the headquarters for Amtrak.
Railway Express commuter rail services as well as by


Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will not die
Name: PETER BEHRENS (1868 1940)
Nationality: German
Behrens attended the Christianeum Hamburg from September 1877 until
Easter 1882.
He studied painting in his native Hamburg, as well as in Dsseldorf and
Karlsruhe, from 1886 to 1889.
He was important for the modernist movement, as several of the movements leading names (for exampleLudwig Mies
van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius) worked for him when they were young.
Behren can be considered a key figure in the transition from Jugendstil to Industrial Classicism. He played a central
role in the evolution of German Modernism.
Major works:



I. G. Farben Office
Location: Frankfurt, Germany map of the IG Farben conglomerate in Frankfurt am Main,
Building Type: commercial offices Germany. It is also known as the Poelzig Ensemble or
Construction System: brick masonry Poelzig Complex, and previously as the IG Farben
Climate: temperate Complex, and the General Creighton W. Abrams
Style: Dutch Expressionist Modern Building. The building's original design was the
The IG Farben Building or the Poelzig Building was subject of a competition which was eventually won by
built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters the architect Hans Poelzig.
Behrens House
Location: Darmstadt, Germany map ancilliary services in the basement, and the main
Building Type: architect's house bedrooms and studio space above. While this format
Construction System: brick and stucco facade, wood was quite typical for a small burgeois house, its
interior internal and external expression was unusual,
Climate: temperate particularly for its combination of features drawn from
Context: suburban the English Arts and Crafts movement...with elements
Style: Art Nouveau such as the high-pitched roof drawn from the German
The house is organized about a dining and music room vernacular."
on the raised ground floor, with a kitchen and
A. E. G. High Tension Factory
Location: Berlin, Germany map Buffalo. Glass and iron took over a workshop of an
Timeline: timeline industrial plant, with an enormous span (28.16 yd.;
Building Type: factory 25.6 m). Behrens achieved a plastic effect and a
Construction System: glass and steel with masonry dynamic form of construction of the trusses, which
Climate: temperate were pulled towards the outside, as well as through
Context: urban the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas which
Style: Early Modern were drawn towards the inside. In particular, the
"The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-Moabit on monumental shape of the façade with corner
the corner of Hutten Street of 1909 ...represented pylons, which could not be considered a necessity for
the culmination of his efforts to give architectural construction, and which were built with a thin ferro-
dignity to a workplace, similar to the achievement of concrete shell, caused criticism among younger
[Frank Lloyd Wright] with the Larkin Building in architects.

In 1907, AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitts-Gesellschaft) retained Behrens as artistic consultant. He designed the
entire corporate identity (logotype, product design, publicity, etc.) and for that he is considered the first
industrial designer in history.
Nationality: Brazilian
He spent his youth as a typical young Carioca of the time: bohemian and relatively
unconcerned with his future. He concluded his secondary education at age 21
He entered the Escola de Belas Artes (Brazil), from which he graduated as engineer
architect in 1934.
The corbusian influence is evident in the early works of Oscar Niemeyer.
The architect gradually acguired his own style: the lightness of the curved forms created
spaces that transformed the architectural scheme into something that was hitherto unknown; harmony, grace and
elegance are the adjectives that are most appropriate to describe the work of Oscar Niemeyer. The adaptations
produced by the architect to connect the baroque vocabulary with modernist architecture made possible formal
experiences in spectacular volumes, executed by famous mathematicians including the Brazilian Joaquim Cardoso and
the Italian Pier Luigi Nervi.



The Oscar Niemeyer Museum

Location: Curitiba, Paran, Brazil importance of the collection, it represents a cultural

Building Type: art museum institution of international significance.
Construction System: reinforced concrete, tile The museum features many of Niemeyer's signature
mosaic, glass curtain wall elements: bold geometric forms, sculptural curved
Climate: warm temperate volumes placed prominently to contrast with
Context: urban rectangular volumes, sinuous ramps for pedestrians,
Style: Expressionist Modern large areas of white painted concrete, and areas with
It is also known as Museu do Olho or Museum of the vivid murals or paintings. Though rooted in modern
Eye, due to the design of the building. architecture since his involvement in the international
The museum focuses on the visual arts, architecture style, Niemeyer's designs have much in common with
and design. For its magnificence, beauty and for the postmodern architecture as well and this is as
contemporary a building as the artwork it displays.
United Nations Headquarters
Location: New York, New York map "Providing office accommodation for 3,400 employees,
Building Type: international government office center, the Secretariat is a 39 story building with an
skyscraper, assembly hall aluminum grille to conceal equipment on the roof. The
Construction System: reinforced concrete, glass narrow end walls are of white marble; the other two
curtain wall, aluminum exterior elevations are surfaced with green-tinted glass. Floors
Climate: temperate devoted to mechanical equipment divide these glass
Context: urban riverside facades into three parts...."
Style: Modern
Church of St Francis
Location: Pampulha, Brazil map a further platform for the choir. The campanile and
Building Type: church entrance porch are free-standing elements. Light
Construction System: concrete penetrates the vaulted building through the vertical
Climate: tropical louvres at the entrance and above the altar. The
Style: Organic Modern spaces inside remain relatively subdued. Overlaying
"The shaping of the church by Niemeyer and his the structure, the architect invited artists to cover the
engineer Cardozo is not so playful as it at first concrete walls with mosaics which, when seen with the
appears. This controversial church was built up whites, blues and browns of the uncovered parts
through a series of mathematically determined create a polychromatic effect."
parabolic arches, the main chapel arch itself covering
Niteri Contemporary Art Museum
The Niteri Contemporary Art Museum is situated in 16 meters high; its cupola has a diameter of 50 metres
the city of Niteri, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and is one of with three floors. The museum projects itself over Boa
the citys main landmarks. It was completed in 1996. Viagem, the 817 square metres (8,790 sq ft) reflecting
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer with the assistance of pool that surrounds the cylindrical base like a flower,
structural engineer Bruno Contarini, who had worked in the words of Niemeyer.
with Niemeyer on earlier projects, the MAC-Niteri is
Cathedral of Braslia
Location: Braslia, Brazil structure constructed from 16 concrete columns,
Established: 1958 weighing 90 tons each.
The Cathedral of Braslia the Roman Catholic The exterior of the cathedral resembles the circular
cathedral serving Braslia, Brazil, and serves as the plan and ribbed structure of Liverpool Metropolitan
seat of the Archdiocese of Braslia. It was designed by Cathedral, but the latter is clad in solid material, while
Oscar Niemeyer, and was completed and dedicated on the Cathedral of Braslia allows light in and out for
May 31, 1970. The cathedral is a hyperboloid almost the full height of the ribs.
In 1988: Niemeyer was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, the most prestigious award in architecture,
for the Cathedral of Braslia.
Pier Luigi Nervi attended the Civil Engineering School of Bologna, from which
he graduated in 1913.
After graduation, Nervi joined the Society for Concrete Construction. Nervi
spent several years in the Italian army during World War I from 19151918,
when he served in the Corps of Engineering.
His formal education was quite similar to that experienced by today's civil
engineering student in Italy.
Nervi was a contemporary of Mies Van Der Rohe and half a generation removed from Frank Lloyd Wright, two other
pioneers in the use of steel and concrete in architecture. Philosophically, his work was consonant with theirs.
Economy, function, and simplicity were prevailing principles for the three. There, similarities ended. And from that
point, Nervi exploded
Architecture, for Nervi, was "a synthesis of technology and art." To find the logical solution to a limiting set of factors
within a highly competitive situation was, for him, "to build correctly." His mastery of concrete bespoke a love for its
adaptability. "Concrete is a living creature which can adapt itself to any form, any need, any stress," he once said.



Stadio Artemio Franchi

Former names: Stadio Comunale Stadio Artemio Franchi is a football stadium in
Location: Florence, Italy Florence, Italy. It is currently the home of ACF
Owner: Municipality of Florence Fiorentina. The stadium was temporarily noticed as
Surface: Grass the host of Italy's Six Nations matches from 2012The
Architect: Pier Luigi Nervi old nickname of the stadium was "Comunale."
Capacity: 47,290 The stadium was built in 1931and holds 47,290
Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption
Location: 1111 Gough Street, San Francisco, The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption, also
California 94109, United States known locally as Saint Mary's Cathedral, is the
Affiliation: Roman Catholic Church principal church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Architect(s): Pier Luigi Nervi, Pietro Belluschi, John San Francisco in San Francisco, California. It is the
Michael Lee, Paul A. Ryan and Angus McSweeney mother church of the Catholic faithful in the California
Architectural style: Structural Expressionist Modern counties of Marin, San Francisco and San Mateo and
Direction of faade: North is the metropolitan cathedral for the Ecclesiastical
Capacity: 2,500 seats province of San Francisco. The rector of the cathedral
is Msgr. John Talesfore
Palazzo Del Lavoro
Location: Turin, Italy map "The Palace of Labour designed and built by Nervi and
Location: 1959 to 1961 his son Antonio for the Turin exhibition of 1961 was
Building Type: exhibition Hall the result of a competition held in 1959. The building:
Construction System: concrete, steel, reinforced containing 85,000 square feet of exhibition spacehad
curtain wall to be capable of conversion to a technical school at the
Climate: mediterranean end of the exhibition. It was erected in less than
Context: exposition site eighteen months.
Style: Modern
Paper Mill At Mantua
Location: Mantua, Italy
Timeline: 1961 to 1962 "The structure, which covers an area of 86,000 sq.ft.,
Building Type: factory, paper mill is designed to contain large modern machinery for the
Construction System: suspended roof, concrete piers manufacture of paper. The main reason for choosing
Climate: mediterranean this type of roof was the need for a clear span of 525 ft.
Style: Modern to allow for future extensions to the plant.

Exhibition Building, Turin

Location: Turin, Italy map Style: Modern
Location: 1948 to 1949
Building Type: exhibition hall "The hall is rectangular and covers an area of 240 feet
Construction System: long span reinforced concrete x 309 feet. On one of the two shorter sides is a semi-
Climate: Mediterranean circular apse. Windows are arranged in the
Context: urban corrugation of the prefabricated roof elements."

Pier Luigi Nervi was awarded Gold Medals by He was also awarded the Frank P. Brown
the Institution of Structural Engineers, the Medal of The Franklin Institute in 1957.
AIA, and the RIBA.
He pursued his undergraduate architecture degree at the Polytechnic
University of Valencia along with a post-graduate course in urbanism.
Following graduation in 1975, he enrolled in the ETH Zurich|Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology in Zrich, Switzerland, for graduate work in civil
In 1981, after completing his doctoral thesis, "On the Foldability of space frame Space Frames", he started his
architecture and engineering practice.
As his chief influences Calatrava has named two architects of sharply opposing styles: the Catalonian Spanish
maverick Antonio Gaudi whose irregular buildings evoked organic growth, and the Eero Saarinen designer of the
Gateway Arch in St. Louis.
He continues a tradition of Spanish modernist engineering that includes Flix Candela and Antonio Gaud.
Nonetheless, his style is also very personal and derives from numerous studies of the human body and the natural


Athens Olympic Sports Complex

Full name: Olympic Athletic Center of Athens Athletic Center of Athens has hosted the
Location: Maroussi, Athens, Greece Mediterranean Games in 1991, the World
Architect: Santiago Calatrava (Revamping) Championship in Athletics in 1997 as well as other
The complex consists of five major venues as well as important athletic and cultural events.OACA was the
other supplementary sport facilities. The Olympic main venue for the Athens Olympic Games in 2004.
Auditorio de Tenerife
Type: Arts complex The Auditorio de Tenerife "Adn Martn" formerly
Architectural style: Expressionist named, but still commonly referred to as, Auditorio de
Location: Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain Tenerif. The building is framed within the tenets of
Structural system: Concrete frame & precast concrete late-modern architecture of the late 20th century. It is
ribbed roof also regarded as the finest modern building in the
Architect: Santiago Calatrava Valls Canary Islands and one of the most emblematic
buildings of Spanish architecture.
Puente del Alamillo
Location: Seville (AndalusiaSpain) has proved most striking. This bridge represents the
Designer: Santiago Calatrava soaring aspirations of the city of Seville in preparation
The bridge was constructed as part of infrastructure for Expo'92, and is visible from the top of La Giralda,
improvements for Expo 92. The original intent was to the sentimental roof of the city, linking Seville's past
build two symmetrical bridges on either side of the and present.
island, but in the end, the Alamillo's singular design
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Location: Jerusalem, Israel The Jerusalem Chords Bridge or Jerusalem Bridge of
Designer: Santiago Calatrava Strings also called the Jerusalem Light Rail Bridge is a
Material: steel (pylon and box girder) reinforced cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge at the entrance to
concrete, Mitzpe yellowish limestone (abutments) the city of Jerusale. The bridge is used by Jerusalem
basalt cobblestone paving, glass, stainless steel Light Rail's Red Line, which began service on August
(walkway) 19, 2011. The bridge which cost about $70 million
(NIS 246 million) was inaugurated on June 25, 2008.
Ciutat de les Arts i les Cincies
The Ciutat de les Arts i les Cincies is an important modern tourist destination in the city of
entertainment-based cultural and architectural Valencia. The City of Arts and Sciences is situated at
complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most the end of the former riverbed of the river Turia.
In 1979: August Perret Award In 2004: James Parks Morton Interfaith
In 1992: London Institution of Structural Award from the Interfaith Center of New York
Engineers Gold Medal In 2005: American Institute of Architects
In 1993: Toronto Municipality Urban Design Gold Medal
Award In 2006: Eugene McDermott Award in the
In 1996: Gold Medal for Excellence in the Arts from the Council for the Arts at MIT
Fine Arts from the Granada Ministry of (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Culture In 2006: Honorary Engineering Degree from
In 1997: Honoris Causa degree awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Delft University of Technology In 2007: Honorary Engineering Degree from
In 1999: Prince of Asturias Award in Arts Columbia University
In 2000: Algur H. Meadows Award for In 2007: Awarded with the Spanish National
Excellence in the Arts from the Meadows Architecture Award
School of the Arts, Southern Methodist In Design Futures Council Senior Fellow

It's very atmospheric. It's not a building that is a severe statement in the skyline. We need the height; otherwise, the building almost
disappears because it is so slender.
He attended Harcourt Butler higher secondary school.
In 1951-1954, he attended Delhi School of Architecture in New Delhi.
The two major influences that he encountered is the time when he returned to India. He
admits that those influences have helped him in his development as an architect.
1. When he became a Professor at the School of Planning and Architecture in New
2. After studying the Projects of Le Corbusier made contemporary designs. After the success achieved by him in
the planning of Chandigarh City, it became evident to Raj Rewal that Modern means can be applied to build
in India.

Raj Rewal is recognized internationally for buildings that respond sensitivity to the complex demands of rapid
urbanization, climate and culture. In a country that is both developing and industrialized, whose architectural
inheritance is ancient and recent and whose society is conservative and pluralist, Rewal's work combines sophisticated
technology and a sense of history and context, imparted not only by design but by local material such as ochre and
rose sandstone, evoking the great Mogul monuments.




Energy Technology Center

Building Type: Education & Research The building has been aimed to provide graceful and
Year: Ongoing dynamic architectural design in harmony with
The Energy Technology Centre has been made to ecological values, while meeting all the office
facilitate research in energy technologies which is a requirements.
timely need for India when emission of carbon
monoxides and global warming are critical concerns.
National Institute Of Immunology
Building Type: Education & Research assistants and unmarried researchers. Each of these
Year: 1990 dwellings is in its own cluster close to the entrance of
The primary function of the institute is scientific the site. The central building also acts as a gateway
research. The programmed contains laboratories, and its axis corresponds with the main spine of the
study rooms, a library, auditorium, a director's house scheme.
and lodgings for professors with families, married

Gas Training Institute

Building Type: Education & Research covered corridors facing the courtyards. The first floor
Year: 1996 includes a conference room, audio-visual &
The function of the building is to impart technical publication, demonstration and recreation facilities,
education to persons working in the gas and and the second floor houses the library, seminar room
petroleum sector. The ground floor consists of various and classrooms. The primary structure of the
activities like workshops, display, cafeteria & auditorium consists of steel pipes supporting ferro-
auditorium, integrated into a well-knit complex by cement "bubble domes".

National Centre for Biological Sciences

Building Type: Education & Research amongst scientists. The roof terraces and green
Year: 2000 enclosures are an important feature of the design. The
The research laboratories function around serene 20 acres of site gently sloping from north to south
surroundings and provide ample space for interaction forms part of an agricultural university.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Building Type: Education & Research Within the site, a road is proposed which connects all
Year: 1993 the diverse building blocks at the rear. This ensures
The thrust areas in which the centre is engaged are segregation between the pedestrian and vehicular
agriculture, human and animal health. The centre also movement and allows all the major blocks to have
provides training facilities to scholars from developing uninterrupted views of the landscape.

In 1989: Gold Medal by the Indian Institute of Architecture in the post independence era in
Architects. India.
In 1989: Robert Mathew Award by the In 2001: Lifetime achievement award by the
Commonwealth Association of Architects. Institution of Engineers (India).
In 1993: Mexican Association of Architects In 2002: IBC award by the Indian Building
award for regional values. Congress for Excellence in Built Environment
In 1994: Architect of the Year Award by J.K. for Parliament Library building, New Delhi.
Trust for the design of World Bank Resident In 2003: Golden Architect Award by A+D and
Mission building in New Delhi. Spectrum Foundation
In 1995: Great Master's Award by J.K. Trust In 2005: Chevalier des Arts des Lettres
for lifetime contribution to Modern award, by the French Government
Filippo enrolled in the Arte della Seta, the silk merchants' Guild, which also
included goldsmiths, metalworkers, and bronze workers.
He became a master goldsmith in 1398.
Brunelleschi influenced some of the greatest minds of the time such as Michelangelo and Donatello.

He developed the concept of linear perspective, showing how to create the illusion of depth on a flat surface.




Florence Cathedral
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (English: Basilica three buildings are part of the UNESCO World
of Saint Mary of the Flower) is the cathedral church of Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence
Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, and are a major attraction to tourists visiting the
was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of region of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy's largest
Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 churches, and until development of new structural
with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. The materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest
exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever
panels in various shades of green and pink bordered constructed.
by white and has an elaborate 19th century Gothic The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman
Revival faade by Emilio De Fabris. Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is
The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, currently Giuseppe Betori.
includes the Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. The
Ospedale degli Innocenti
The Ospedale degli Innocenti ('Hospital of the architecture. The hospital, which features a nine bay
Innocents', also known in old Tuscan dialect as the loggia facing the Piazza SS. Annunziata, was built and
Spedale degli Innocenti) is a historical building in managed by the "Arte della Seta" or Silk Guild of
Florence, central Italy. Designed by Filippo Florence. That guild was one of the wealthiest in the
Brunelleschiwho received the commission in 1419, it city and, like most guilds, took upon itself
was originally a children's orphanage. It is regarded as philanthropic duties.
a notable example of early Italian Renaissance

Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence

The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is church to replace the eleventh-century Romanesque
one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated rebuilding. Filippo Brunelleschi, the leading
at the centre of the citys main market district, and the Renaissance architect of the first half of the fifteenth
burial place of all the principal members of the Medici century, was commissioned to design it, but the
family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III. It is one of building, with alterations, was not completed until
several churches that claim to be the oldest in after his death. The church is part of a larger monastic
Florence; when it was consecrated in 393 it stood complex that contains other important architectural
outside the city walls. For three hundred years it was works: the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi; the
the city's cathedral before the official seat of the bishop Laurentian Library by Michelangelo; the New Sacristy
was transferred to Santa Reparata. San Lorenzo was based on Michelangelo's designs; and the Medici
also the parish church of the Medici family. In 1419, Chapels by Matteo Nigetti.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici offered to finance a new

Santo Spirito, Florence

The Basilica of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito ("St. located in the Oltrarno quarter, facing the square with
Mary of the Holy Spirit") is a church in Florence, Italy. the same name. The building on the interior is one of
Usually referred to simply as Santo Spirito, it is the pre-eminent examples of Renaissance architecture.

Pazzi Chapel
The Pazzi Chapel is a religious building in Florence, of Renaissance architecture. It is located in the "first
central Italy, considered to be one of the masterpieces cloister" of the Basilica di Santa Croce.


Brunelleschi's dome was the greatest architectural feat in the Western world.

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