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Bishwajit Mazumder

Nursing Instructor
Dhaka Nursing College, Dhaka
Teacher

Definition of teacher
A teacher has defined differently by many scholars. The TUKI dictionary defined as a
person who teaches or facilities the learning process (YUKI, 1981).
The Tanzania Education Act (2000) defined as any registered person in accordance
with law.
A teacher is the only person who is capable of imparting knowledge and shaping the
youths to the wider scope of knowledge. Teachers are capable of living and molding the
youths such that their power is paramount as they determine the fate of the society. Both
teachers and parents live with the children for a long time and hence they are capable of
imparting knowledge, skills an values that cannot be easily challenged by the society.
(Nyerere, 1966).
According to Senge, (2000), A teacher has been defined as a person an expert who is
capable of imparting knowledge that will help learners to build, identify and to acquire skills
that will be used to face the challenges in life. The teacher also provides to the learners
knowledge, skills and values that enhance development. An educated person is capable of
utilizing the available opportunities in both private and public sectors. The educated person
can easily secure employment as well as having life skills that will enable him/her to interact
well in the society.
According to Mbise, (2008).A teacher has been defined as a person who has
knowledge, skill, and special trainings in teaching explaining, and educating. The teacher is
the person who is capable of creating behavioral change in terms of cognitive, psychomotor
as well as affective domain.

Characteristics of effective teacher


1. Effective teachers display warmth.
2. Effective teachers are enthusiastic.
3. Effective teachers provide an overview at the start of teaching something new.
4. Effective teachers minimize the amount of time they are teaching the whole class from the
front (direct instruction).
5. Effective teachers facilitate the joint construction of knowledge through teacher-student
and student-student conversations.
6. Effective teachers use teaching techniques and approaches that research has shown to be
effective.

Characteristics of excellence in teachers


1. Are enthusiastic about their work
2. Set challenging performance
3. Set challenging performance goals for
4. Are committed to education as a
5. Project a positive attitude about
6. Display behavior consistent with
7. See students as individuals operating
8. Treat students with respect
9. Are available to students
10. Listen attentively to what students say
11. Are responsive to students needs
12. Give corrective feedback promptly to
13. Are fair in their evaluation of students
14. Presents ideas clearly
15. Respect diverse talents
16. Create a climate conducive to learning
17. Work collaboratively with Colleagues goals for themselves
18. Are knowledgeable about their work students
19. Integrate current subject matter into their profession work
20. Provide perspectives that include respect student's ability to learn for diverse views
21. Do their work in a well -prepared manner professional standard
22. Do their work in a well- organized in a broader perspective beyond the manner.
23. Are knowledgeable about how students learn.
24. Provide students with alternative ways of learning.
25. Stimulate intellectual curiosity
26. Encourage independent thinking
27. Provide cooperative learning opportunities students for students
28. Encourage students to be analytical progress listeners
29. Give consideration to feedback from students and others.
30. Provide clear and substantial evidence that students have learned.

Qualities of a good teacher


Qualities of a good teacher:
1. Committed to the work:
a. Focuses on educational needs of the students.
b. Works with passion.
c. Keen to uphold the university's values.
d. Enthusiastic about work and about teaching
2. Encourages and appreciates diversity:
a. Does not stereotype or speak negatively of others
b. Nurtures and encourages diversity.
c. Seeks and encourages understanding of, and respect for, people of diverse
backgrounds
3. Interacts and communicates respect:
a. Communicates effectively with others.
b. Encourages input from others, listening deeply and giving credit for their
contributions.
c. Acts with integrity.
d. Provides a model of high ethical standards.
e. Shows a caring attitude.
4. Motivates students and co-workers:
a. Encourages students to achieve their goals.
b. Provides constructive feedback.
c. Monitors progress of students and fosters their success.
5. Brings a wide range of skills and talents to teaching:
a. Teaching is clearly presented and stimulates high-order thinking skills.
b. Presents difficult concepts comprehensibly.
c. Brings appropriate evidence to the critique.
d. Teaches memorably.
6. Demonstrates leadership in teaching:
a. Contributes to course design and structure.
b. Contributes to publications on education.
c. Evidence of self-development in an educational context.
d. Demonstrates creativity in teaching strategies.
e. Committed to professional development in education.
7. Encourages an open and trusting learning environment:
a. Creates a climate of trust.
b. Encourages students to learn from mistakes.
c. Helps students redefine failure as a learning experience.
d. Encourages student questions and engagement in the learning process.
e. Encourages student growth with appropriate behavior-based feedback.
8. Fosters critical thinking:
a. Teaches students how to think, not what to think.
b. Encourages students to organize, analyze and evaluate.
c. Explores with probing questions.
d. Discusses ideas in an organized way.
e. Helps students to focus on key issues.
f. Trains students in strategic thinking.
9. Encourages creative work:
a. Motivates students to create new ideas.
b. Fosters innovation and new approaches.
10. Emphasizes teamwork:
a. Builds links at national and international levels in education.
b. Encourages students to work in teams.
c. Encourages collaborative learning.
11. Seeks continually to improve teaching skills:
a. Seeks to learn and incorporate new skills, and information teaching.
b. Seeks feedback and criticism.
c. Keeps up to date in specialty.
12. Provides positive feedback:
a. Listens to students and discovers their educational needs.
b. Values students, never belittles.
c. Provides constructive feedback.
d. Helps and supports people to grow.
e. Teaches students how to monitor their own progress

Responsibilities of teacher
These are the responsibilities of the teacher as follows:
1. Planning, preparing and delivering lessons to all students in the class;
2. Teaching according to the educational needs, abilities and achievement of the individual
students and groups of students;
3. Adopting and working towards the implementation of the institution development plan of
the particular school/ college they are giving service in;
4. Assigning work, correcting and marking work carried out by his/her students;
5. Assessing, recording and reporting on the development, progress, attainment and behavior
of ones students;
6. Providing or contributing to oral and written assessments, reports and references relating to
individual students or groups of students;
7. Promoting the general progress and well-being of individual students, groups of students or
class entrusted to him/her;
8. Providing guidance and advice to students on educational and social matters and on their
further education and future careers; providing information on sources of more expert advice;
9. Communicating, consulting and co-operating with other members of the school/college
staff.
10. Reviewing and evaluating ones own teaching and learning strategies, methodologies and
program/s in line with the relevant curriculum.
11. Ensuring high standards of professional practice and quality of teaching and learning of
the subject/s.
12. Participating in In-Service education and training courses as well as in continuing
professional development (CPD) opportunities, and taking part in action research exercises;
13. Maintaining good order and discipline amongst students under ones care and
safeguarding their health and safety at all times;
14. Participating in staff, group or other meetings related to the school/college curriculum or
pastoral care arrangements, for the better organization and administration of the
school/college;
15. Contributing to the professional development of new teachers and student teachers
according to arrangements agreed with the principal.
16. Ensuring the harmless care and optimum use of equipment normally used by oneself
during lessons and sees to its regular servicing and maintenance;
17. Participating in school/college assemblies;
18. Registering and monitoring the attendance of students under ones care;
19. Sharing in any possible and reasonable way in the effective management, organization,
order and discipline of the institution / college.
20. Nurtures a culture where teachers view themselves essentially as facilitators of learning
and reflective practitioners;
21. Regularly discussing, monitoring the work being carried out by the in class;
22. Liaising and collaborating with specialist teachers/resource persons and other
professionals working with statement students;
23. Making use of audiovisual technological devices/aides and other adaptations during the
delivery of the lessons;

Essential duties of a teacher


These are the essential duties of a teacher:
1. Implement current curriculum and develop improved curriculum for students with special
needs;
2. Facilitate curricular continuity throughout the school; assist teachers in reviewing the
effectiveness of current curriculum;
3. Assess and identify students to receive supplementary classroom instruction.
4. Provide individual and small group instruction to pupils in resource center and/or
classroom setting.
5. Assist staff with developing a system for inventorying, selecting and ordering instructional
materials and supplies; train and support staff in utilization of instructional materials and
equipment as needed.
6. Assist and support teachers in developing their knowledge, skills, and abilities related to
current trends in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
7. Assist with the coordination, implementation, assessment and improvement of instruction
throughout the college.
8. Assist teachers in reviewing the effectiveness of their instructional strategies; assist and
support teachers in organizing their professional development plan to improve instruction for
student success.
9. Organize and manage a resource center.
10. Supervise tutors, volunteer mentors and parent volunteers.
11. Assist teachers in aligning assessment strategies with current curriculum, instruction and
student outcomes and assist and support teachers with implementing current research of
successful educational practices in assigned classrooms.
12. Maintains records as required by the school, District and/or state and makes appropriate
reports as directed.
13. Participates in college-wide supervision of students during out-of-classroom activities.

Role of nurse teacher


These are the role of nurse teacher:
1. Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussion.
2. Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate and/ or graduate students on topics such as
pharmacology, mental health nursing, and community health care practices.
3. Keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with
colleague, and participating in professional conferences.
4. Prepare course materials such as syllabi, homework assignments and handouts.
5. Supervise student' laboratory and clinical work.
6. Evaluate and grade student's class work, laboratory and clinic work, assignments, and
paper.
7. Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
8. Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of
instruction.
9. Assess clinical education needs, and patient and client teaching needs, utilizing a variety
of methods.
10. Advise students on academic and vocational curricula, and on career issues.
11. Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
12. Maintain regularly scheduled office hours in order to advise and assist students.
13. Supervise students teaching, internship, and research work.
14. Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge, and publish findings in professional
journals, books, and/or electronic media.
15. Coordinate training programs with area universities, clinics, hospitals, health agencies,
and/or vocational schools.
16. Select and obtain materials and supplies such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
17. Demonstrate patient care in clinical units of hospitals.
18. Perform administrative duties such as serving as department head.
19. Provide professional consulting services to government and/or industry.

Assessment strategies of a teacher


Assessment strategies include:
1. Anecdotal records: Objective narrative records of student performances, strengths, needs,
progress and negative/positive behavior.
2. Authentic tasks: Activities that is genuine and purposeful. These can include real life
shopping tasks, measuring a ball-park, designing a home, building a bridge or tower, writing
about significant issues and so on.
3. Checklists, scales or charts: Identification and recording of students' achievement can be
through rubric levels, letter grade or numerical value, or simply by acceptable/unacceptable.
4. Conferences: Meetings between the student/parent/teacher and others where progress is
checked and goals for growth are established and agreed upon.
5. Contracts: Agreements or goals (verbal or written) set by the teacher/parents and the
student.
6. Games: Games are excellent opportunities for simulations and small and large group
assessment.
7. Diagnostic inventories: Student responses to a series of questions or statements in any
field, either verbally or in writing. These responses may indicate an ability or interest in a
particular field.
8. Peer evaluation: Assessment by students about one another's performance relative to
stated criteria and program outcomes.
9. Portfolios: Collections of student work that exhibit the students' efforts, progress and
achievements in one or more areas.
10. Rubrics: A set of guidelines for measuring achievement. Rubrics should state the
learning outcome(s) with clear performance criteria and a rating scale or checklist.
11. Self-evaluations: Student reflections about her/his own achievements and needs relative
to program goals.
12. Simulations: The use of problem-solving, decision-making and role-playing tasks.
13. Student journals: Personal records of, and responses to activities, experiences, strengths,
interests and needs.
14. Student profiles: A compilation of data which may include student work samples.
15. Teacher observations: Regular, first-hand observations of students, documented by the
teacher.

Meaning of teaching and Instruction


Teaching: Teaching is simulating and challenging the student learn, of enhancing has
realization of the values of a subject, helping her to bring to bear her own resources in
formulating and pursuing a method of attack on learning the subject and guiding her in the
process.
Teaching is immediate mastery of particular knowledge or skill. It is concerned with
growth and development of while personality of the student - her mind, spirit, character and
effective behavior. Teaching is a mixture of an art and a science.
Instruction: Instruction is the imparting of knowledge, developing of skills and attitudes, and
meeting of special needs in various ways ranging from structured to individualized activities,
including instructional support activities which aid and enrich the teaching-learning process.

Teaching

Definition of teaching
According to HC. Morrison, Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature
personality and less mature one which is designed to further education of the latter.
According to BO Smith, Teaching is a system of action intended to produce learning.
According to Clarke, Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce
change in student behavior.
According to Thomas F Green, Teaching is the task of a teacher which is performed for the
development of a child.

Purposes of teaching
1. To help students to -
Acquire, retain and be able to use knowledge.
Understand, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate the knowledge.
Achieve skills
Establish habit
Develop attitude.
2. To understanding of and commitment to the institution's mission.
3. To ability to communicate and connect with students.
4. To enhance knowledge about learning styles.
5. To flexibility and elasticity.
6. To linking with actual life.
7. To correlating with other subject.
8. To active participation and involvement.
9. To conducive environment and proper control.
10. To utilizing post experience through reflection and feedback.

Characteristics of effective teaching


These are the characteristics of effective teaching:
1. Begins class promptly and in a well-organized way.
2. Treats students with respect and caring.
3. Provides the significance/importance of information to be learned.
4. Provides clear explanations.
5. Holds attention and respect of student's practices effective classroom management.
5. Uses active, hands-on student learning.
6. Varies his/her instructional techniques.
7. Provides clear, specific expectations for assignments.
8. Provides frequent and immediate feedback to students on their performance. Praises
student answers and uses probing questions to clarify/elaborate answers.
9. Provides many concrete, real-lives, and practical examples.
10. Draws inferences from examples/models.and uses analogies.
11. Creates a class environment which is comfortable for students allows students to speak
freely.
12. Teaches at an appropriately fast pace, stopping to check student understanding and
engagement.
13. Communicates at the level of all students in class.
14. Has a sense of humor!
15. Uses nonverbal behavior, such as gestures, walking around, and eye contact to reinforce
his/her comments.
16. Presents him/herself in class as "real people."
17. Focuses on the class objective and does not let class get sidetracked.
18. Uses feedback from students (and others) to assess and improve teaching.
19. Reflects on own teaching to improve it.

Different styles of teaching


The following list of teaching styles highlights the five main strategies teachers use in
the classroom, as well as the benefits and potential pitfalls of each respective teaching
method.
1. Authority, or lecture style: The authority model is teacher-centered and frequently entails
lengthy lecture sessions or one-way presentations. Students are expected to take notes or
absorb information.
2. Demonstrator or coach style: The demonstrator retains the formal authority role while
allowing teachers to demonstrate their expertise by showing students what they need to know.
3. Facilitator or activity style: Facilitators promote self-learning and help students develop
critical thinking skills and retain knowledge that leads to self-actualization.
4. Delegator or group style: The delegator style is best-suited for curriculum that requires
lab activities, such as chemistry and biology, or subjects that warrant peer feedback, like
debate and creative writing.
5. Hybrid or blended style: Hybrid, or blended style, follows an integrated approach to
teaching that blends the teachers personality and interests with students needs and
curriculum-appropriate methods.

Phases of teaching
Teaching can be divided under following sentences:
Proactive phase:
It is the planning phase of teaching. For successful completion of task it is necessary that it
should be planned properly. The main steps involved in this phase are:
1. Establishment of some kind of goals or objectives: First step is establishing contain goals
or objectives and write them in proper behavioral terms.
2. Discovering ways and means to achieved. In the following aspects leaning can be done :
a. Learning experiences and material
b. Organization or sequence of content or material
c. Principles and maxims of teaching.
d. Teaching aids
e. Method, techniques, and strategies of teaching.
f. Duration of place and management of class room teaching.
Interactive phase: It's actual phase of teaching. What has been decided or planned that will
be implemented in interactive phase. This phase we can divided in :
1. Introductory phase: This phase can be name as perceptive phase. As soon as teacher
enters the class he will perceive climate of class and starts arranging class according to his
interpretation. Make initial interaction with class by responding to students greetings and
introducing topic. Here this phase will overlap with delivery phase.
2. Diagnostic and delivery phase: It is necessary for the teacher to identify how much
student know regarding topic. For appropriate interaction it is very essential to identify
student abilities and behavior. For diagnosing these things he may ask question or observe
their performance of activities. Teacher deliver lecture and correct identified problem.
3. Reactive phase: Student will react to teaching by different ways of verbal or nonverbal
responses.
Post active phase: Last phase of teaching is post reactive phase. This is phase of determining
up to what extent objectives are achieved. In this phase, teacher will:
a. Assess extent to which objectives achieved based on that she will make decision about
further continuation, alteration, or improved.
b. Suitability of content its organization may be suggested decision regarding re teaching of
content or moving to new topic may be considered.
c. Decision regarding suitability of instructional process. AV aid and teaching strategies are
evaluated.
d. Whether classroom environment and learning situation suitable? It's also evaluated.

Definition of teaching strategy


A teaching strategy comprises the principles and methods used for instruction.
OR
Teaching strategies refers to the structure, system, methods, techniques, procedures, and
processes that a teacher uses during instruction. These strategies the teacher employs to
assists student learning.

Techniques of teaching
These are the following technique which is helpful to the teacher's in using teaching method:
1. Rapport: Teacher should established rapport with her student by-
a. Through an exchange some event with the students in conversational tone. This
will help to foster a sense of ease and give impression of personal interest.
b. By beginning the lecture with review of previous lectures, tying them in with a
present one.
c. To merge the students into learning group, the question will directed to students in
various parts of the room.
2. Voice: The lecture should be presented in a clear and natural tone of voice.
3. Gesture: Whatever gestures the lecture uses should be in a natural part of the total
expression of what she is communicating. eg. Nonverbal communication, facial expression,
body language etc.
4. Eye contact: The teacher should address the students with their eyes as well as with her
speech.
5. Lecture outline and student's note: The lecture should be prepared and delivered in
several block or units. Each unit should present not more than fifteen minutes. As each unite
is complete, it should be briefly summarized with discussion for a short time. Lecture should
be present from written notes but should be read. Ask the question and keep the students to
think about it.

Steps of improving teaching


These are the steps of improving teaching:
First step: Faculty members must develop instructional awareness. This instructional
awareness is developed by-
1. Using checklists to guide self-observation and personal reflection on practice.
2. Review of videotaped samples of teaching.
3. Reading about teaching and learning to stimulate thought and reflection.
4. Review of course materials. Self-discoveries must be free of judgments.
Second step: Gather information, to compare your understanding how teaches with feedback
of others. Get feedback from students and peers. Gather information from different observers
on different occasions about how teaching affected.
Third step: Decide what to change and how to change it. Dont change all at once. Change
little by little.
Fourth step: Implement the changes decided upon. Change gradually, systematically and
whole heartedly.
The Fifth step: It is to determine the impact of the changes by assessment -self assessment,
feedback from colleagues and feedback from students.

Principles of teaching
Following are the principles of teaching:
1. The principle of aim: Definite aim should be there for every lesson. It serves as the goal
for the teacher. It will make teaching and learning interesting and effective.
2. The principle of activity or learning by doing: Child learns through self activity.
Learning by doing removes dullness of the lessons and the student don't get bored, it put them
into life situation.
3. The principle of linking with actual life and others subject: e.g. The student will learn
in the lab and practice in real situations in clinical area.
4. The principle of planning: Teaching is always well planned. It involves: selection,
division, revision.
5. The principle of interest and motivation: Children are naturally interested in those things
which are connected with their natural urges or activity. Motivation can secure the desired
results. It prepares the mind and once it is done, the children are ready to conduct anything.
6. The principle of sympathy and kind atmosphere: The teacher's kindness and sympathy
proves a stimulating dose for the slow-learning child, works miracle for the brilliant pupil.
Teaching should become a matter of pleasure for the teacher and for the student.
7. The principle of flexibility and cooperation: The plan of a lesson must provide scope to
make necessary changes. Teaching must be flexible to meet unexpected situation if any, in
the classroom.
8. The principle of diagnostic and remedial teaching: The teacher should suggest remedies
for problem and do follow up to assess the outcomes of his suggestion. Learning difficulties
should be discovered early to avoid their taking root into the learning habits of people.
9. The principle of looking ahead: An open minded teacher is always forward looking. He
is ever prepared to discover new possibilities for widening pupil's knowledge and range of
experiences.
10. The principle of creativity: The real or a good teacher is to make the pupil creative
learner. By introducing new materials, good teaching opens up fields of investigation and
enables the pupils to make original contribution to the existing store of knowledge.
Maxims of teaching
Educationalist and teachers engaged in the task of actual classroom teaching have evolved
certain simple notions and working ways based on their own experiences which may prove
quite helpful in the task of teaching these are known as maxims of teaching. Some of the
important are:
1. Proceed from known to unknown
2. Proceed from easy to difficult (simple to complex)
3. Proceed from concrete to abstract.
4. Proceed from particular to general
5. Proceed from whole to part
6. Proceed from analysis to synthesis
Some other maxims of teaching are:
a. Proceed from empirical to rational
b. Proceed from psychological to logical
c. Proceed from actual to representative

Factors of teaching
Factor I: Knowledge and abilities:
1. Knowledge of the theory, principles and techniques of Science instruction;
2. Knowledge of a variety of instructional strategies;
3. Knowledge of the education laws, policies, rules and regulations of the Bangladesh
nursing council;
4. Knowledge of the principles of teaching and classroom control;
5. Ability to isolate behavioral and adjustment problems and to recommend methods
of helping to solve the problems;
6. Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with all persons
contacted during the course of the work;
7. Ability to plan lessons, co-ordinate resources, and manage time on task;
8. Ability to create a classroom environment that is conducive to learning and
appropriate to the maturity and interests of the students;
9. Ability to cooperate and share professionally with members of the administration
and other staff;
10. Ability to maintain confidentiality about students in accordance with state and
federal law.

Factor II: Supervisory controls:


1. Works under the direct supervision or assignment of a college/ institute professor,
Assistant professor, or Counselor, as assigned by Principal;
2. Work is controlled by routine review and reporting to or consultation with
supervisor;
3. Work is reviewed through on-site visits, reports and achievement of objectives.
Factor III: Guidelines:
1. Federal safety and privacy laws, including institutional policies, guidelines and
procedures must be followed.
Factor IV: Complexity:
1. Work requires advanced judgment and ingenuity: Plans and performs complex
work which involves new or changing conditions;
2. Involved in strategic planning to carry out department policies, objectives and
programs for teaching and learning. Make decisions that involve a great deal of
responsibility.
Factor V: Personal contacts and purpose of contacts:
1. Personal contact is made with students, fellow employees, supervisors,
administrators, and parents/guardians for the purpose of obtaining, clarifying, or giving facts
or information to aid in accomplishing daily tasks and long term objectives for students and
the department.
Factor VI: Physical demands:
While performing the duties of this job, the employee is required to:
1. Stand for long periods of time with intermittent walking, standing, sitting, and
bending;
2. Talk and hear within normal range;
3. Reach with hands and arms;
4. See to read fine print;
5. Lift/push/pull up to 70 pounds.
Factor VII: Work environment:
1. Requires performing regular job functions in a typical classroom environment

References
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Brownlow Education
3. Earl, L., (2003). Assessment as Learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student
learning. Corwin Press, INC
4. Greenstein, L., 2010. What Teachers really need to know about Formative Assessment.
Hawker Brownlow Education
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