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# 10/4/2012

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## Power System Analysis

Bilal Masood " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Introduction
Need of Electricity: Like Human Breathing
Electrical engineers are concerned with every step in
the process of generation, transmission,
distribution, and utilization of electrical energy.
The electric utility industry is probably the largest
and most complex industry in the world.
The electrical engineer who works in that industry
will encounter challenging problems in designing
future power systems to deliver increasing amounts
of electrical energy in a safe, clean, and economical
manner.
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## Simple Power System

Every power system has three major
components
Generation: source of power, ideally with
a specified voltage and frequency
Load: consumes power; ideally with a
constant resistive value
Transmission system: transmits power;
ideally as a perfect conductor
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Complications
No ideal voltage sources exist
Loads are seldom constant
Transmission system has resistance, inductance,
capacitance and flow limitations
Simple system has no redundancy so power
system will not work if any component fails
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Notation - Power
" Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

## Power: Instantaneous consumption of energy

Power Units
Watts = voltage x current for dc (W)
kW 1 x 103 Watt
MW 1 x 106 Watt
GW 1 x 109 Watt
Installed U.S. generation capacity is about
900 GW ( about 3 kW per person)
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Notation - Energy
Energy: Integration of power over time; energy
is what people really want from a power system
Energy Units
Joule = 1 Watt-second (J)
kWh Kilowatthour (3.6 x 106 J)
Btu 1055 J; 1 MBtu=0.292 MWh
U.S. electric energy consumption is about 3600
billion kWh (about 13,333 kWh per person,
which means on average we each use 1.5 kW of
power continuously)
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## Power System Examples

Electric utility: can range from quite small, such
as an island, to one covering half the continent
there are four major interconnected ac power
systems in North American, each operating at 60
Hz ac; 50 Hz is used in some other countries.
Airplanes and Spaceships: reduction in weight is
primary consideration; frequency is 400 Hz.
Ships and submarines
Automobiles: dc with 12 volts standard
Battery operated portable systems
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## The System Aging

In the northeastern United States, the bulk
transmission system operates primarily at 345 kV.
The majority of this system originally was
constructed during the 1960s and into the early
1970s, and its substations, wires, towers, and poles
are, on average, more than 40 years old.
The combination of aging infrastructure, increased
congestion, and the lack of significant expansion in
transmission capacity has led to the need to
carefully prioritize maintenance and construction,
which in turn led to the evolution of the science of
asset management, which many utilities have
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Role of Technology
The expansion of the transmission network will be
very difficult, if not impossible, if the traditional
approach of adding new overhead lines continues.
Issues of land availability, concerns about property
values and other licensing concerns make new lines
a difficult proposition in many areas of the World.
New approaches to expansion will be required to
improve the transmission networks of the future.
Where new lines are the only answer, more
underground solutions will be chosen. In some
circumstances, superconducting cable will become a
viable option.
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Monitoring System
Monitoring systems for real-time ratings and better
computer control schemes are providing improved
information to control room operators to run the
system at higher load levels.
The development and common use of FACTS family
of devices like static var compensators for voltage
and reactive control and the general use of new
solid-state equipment to solve real problems are just
around the corner and should add a new dimension
to the traditional wires and transformers approach
to addressing stability and short-term energy
storage issues.
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## History of Electric Power Systems

At Pearl Street, dc generators, then called dynamos, were
driven by steam engines to supply an initial load of 30
kW for 110-V incandescent lighting to 59 customers in a
one-square-mile area.
The limitations of maximum distance and load were
overcome in 1885 by William Stanleys development of a
commercially practical transformer.
Stanley installed an ac distribution system in
Massachusetts, to supply 150 lamps.
With the transformer, the ability to transmit power at
high voltage with corresponding lower current and lower
line-voltage drops made ac more attractive than dc.
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## History of Electric Power Systems

Early 1880s Edison introduced Pearl Street dc
system in Manhattan supplying 59 customers
1884 Sprague produces practical dc motor
1885 invention of transformer
Mid 1880s Westinghouse/Tesla introduce
rival ac system
Late 1880s Tesla invents ac induction motor
1893 First 3 phase transmission line operating
at 2.3 kV
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## History of Electric Power Systems

1896 ac lines deliver electricity from hydro
generation at Niagara Falls to Buffalo, 20 miles
away
Early 1900s Private utilities supply all
customers in area (city); recognized as a
natural monopoly; states step in to begin
regulation
By 1920s Large interstate holding companies
control most electricity systems
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## History of Electric Power Systems

1935 Congress passes Public Utility Holding
Company Act to establish national regulation,
breaking up large interstate utilities (repealed
2005)
1935/6 Rural Electrification Act brought
electricity to rural areas
1930s Electric utilities established as vertical
monopolies
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Technological Development
The following examples are noteworthy:
1. The suspension insulator.
2. The high-speed relay system, currently capable of detecting
short circuit currents within one cycle (0.017 s)
3. High-speed, extra-high-voltage (EHV) circuit breakers,
capable of interrupting up to 63-kA three-phase short-
circuit currents within two cycles (0.033 s)
4. High-speed reclosure of EHV lines, which enables
automatic return to service within a fraction of a second
after a fault has been cleared
5. The EHV surge arrester, which provides protection against
transient over-voltages due to lightning strikes and line-
switching operations
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## Technological Development (System

Automation)
6. Power-line carrier, microwave, and fiber optics as communication
mechanisms for protecting, controlling, and metering transmission lines
7. The principle of insulation coordination applied to the design of an entire
transmission system
8. Energy control centers with supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) and with automatic generation control (AGC) for centralized
computer monitoring and control of generation, transmission, and
distribution
9. Automated distribution features, including advanced metering
infrastructure (AMI), reclosers and remotely controlled sectionalizing
switches with fault-indicating capability, along with automated
mapping/facilities management (AM/FM) and geographic information
systems (GIS) for quick isolation and identification of outages and for rapid
restoration of customer services
10. Digital relays capable of circuit breaker control, data logging, fault
locating, self-checking, fault analysis, remote query, and relay event
monitoring/recording.
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## Technological Development (HVDC)

HVDC also has the advantage that it may be the
only feasible method to:
1. interconnect two asynchronous networks;
2. utilize long underground or underwater cable
circuits;
3. bypass network congestion;
4. reduce fault currents;
5. share utility rights-of-way without degrading
reliability; and
6. mitigate environmental concerns
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Vertical Monopolies
" Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

## Within a particular geographic market, the

electric utility had an exclusive franchise
In return for this exclusive
Generation
franchise, the utility had the
obligation to serve all
Transmission
existing and future customers
at rates determined jointly
Distribution by utility and regulators

## Customer Service It was a cost plus business

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Utility Restructuring
" Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

## Driven by significant regional variations in

electric rates
Goal of competition is to reduce rates through
the introduction of competition
Eventual goal is to allow consumers to choose
their electricity supplier
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Energy Economics
Electric generating technologies involve a tradeoff
between fixed costs (costs to build them) and
operating costs
Nuclear and solar high fixed costs, but low operating
costs
Natural gas/oil have low fixed costs but high operating
costs (dependent upon fuel prices)
Coal, wind, hydro are in between
Also the units capacity factor is important to
determining ultimate cost of electricity
Potential carbon tax seen as unlikely soon
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" Bilal Masood"
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## Electric utility: can range from quite small, such as an

island, to one covering half the continent there are four
major interconnected ac power systems in North American,
each operating at 60 Hz ac; 50 Hz is used in some other
countries. (Such as Pakistan).
" Bilal Masood"
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## Power System Examples

Airplanes and Spaceships: reduction in weight is
primary consideration; frequency is 400 Hz.

## Automobiles: dc with 12 volts standard

Battery operated portable systems.
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Who is Responsible?
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Course Contents
Power system
analysis knowledge.

## The applicability of power systems analysis broadly

in all areas , i.e., Generation, Transmission,
Distribution & Utilization and particularly in
transmission & Distribution

## Current & Voltage

relations on a
transmission line

Analysis of Different
types of Faults

Symmetrical Faults
and unsymmetrical
faults
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## " Bilal Masood" 10/4/2012

Course Contents
Symmetrical
Components

System
Per unit
modeling&
quantities,
Network
power triangle
calculations

Transient
Stability Power Flow
analysis of Solutions
power systems