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Name of Student Jasmine Chao

Grade Y10 Peace

Teacher Mr. Ng

Experiment to investigate the rate of reaction between dilute Hydrochloric acid and Sodium thiosulfate.
Investigation Question -Bi
How does (or To what extent does) the Sodium thiosulfate affect the rate of reaction with Hydrochloric

Background to the Investigation question -Bi

This experiment investigates how the concentration of sodium thiosulfate affects the rate of reaction with
hydroloric acid.

A reaction will occur when the particles collide with each other. The rate of a chemical reaction can be
affected by the concentration, pressure of the reactants, size of the particles and temperature of where the
reaction takes place. Increase in concentration will affect the rate of reaction because there are more
particles of the reactants in a given volume. The particles will have a higher chance of colliding with each
other, therefore there will be more frequent collisions between the particles. On the other hand, increasing
the temperature will also affect the rate of reaction by the particles gaining more energy from the heat. They
will move faster and collide with each other more frequently. Therefore, the rate of reaction increases.
Pressure is also one of the factors which affects the rate of a chemical reaction. The higher the pressure, the
gas particles will get closer and vice versa, particles will spread apart from each other when there is a low
pressure. Therefore, the particles will collide more frequently when there is a high pressure, which increases
the rate of reaction.
In this experiment, we will investigate on the effect of changes in concentration of sodium thiosulfate
(Na2S2O3). Therefore, temperature, pressure and the size of particles should be kept the same in order to
have a fair experiment.
The rate of reaction is defined as how fast a chemical reaction takes place. The reaction time is the time
taken for the reaction to complete. In order to measure the reaction time, the time taken for the cross on the
paper to be covered by the yellow precipitate (product of reaction) will be measured.

Equation for calculating the rate of reaction (s-1) (Derived variable):

Rate of reaction = time taken/reaction time s1 (DV )

Hypothesis Bii
When there is a higher concentration of sodium thiosulphate in the solution, the product of the chemical
reaction will be formed more quickly, which requires less time will be taken to cause the cross to disappear.
If the concentration decreases, more time will be taken for the cross to be covered by the yellow precipitate.

Explanation of your HypothesisBii

More time will be taken for the cross to disappear when the concentration of sodium thiosulphate decreases.
At least two particles must collide in order for any reaction to occur. There will be less Na+ ions and S2O32-
ions in a given volume of the solution, which will cause a lower chance for particles (S2O32- ions and 2H+
ions) to collide with each other. When there are less frequent collisions between the particles, the rate of
reaction will decrease. Therefore, more time will be taken for the cross to be invisible looking from above.
On the other hand, when there is a higher concentration of sodium thiosulfate, the rate of reaction will
increase, which requires less time for the cross to disappear when looking from above the solution.


Independent variable Concentration of Sodium thiosulfate solution

Unit(s) of IV g dm-3

Range of IV measured 50g dm-3, 40g dm-3, 30g dm-3, 20g dm-3, 10g dm-3

Describe and explain In order to change the independent variable, for each 10cm3 decrease in the
the procedure to volume of Sodium thiosulfate solution, 10cm3 of water will be added to the
change the solution. The total volume of the mixed solution would be 50cm3 for each
independent concentration.

Dependent variable Reaction time - Time taken for cross to disappear

Unit(s) of DV Second (s)

Derived variable Rate of reaction

Unit(s) of DV s-1

Describe and explain In order to calculate the derived variable, 1 will be divided by the time taken for
the procedure to each trial.
calculate the derived

Controlled Explain why it Procedure to control it
variable matters to the

Describe and explain Volume of dilute The volume of dilute A measuring cylinder could be
the procedure to hydrochloric hydrochloric should used to measure the amount of
control other remain the same on dilute hydrochloric accurately.
variables in the every trial, so that the Measure 5cm3 of dilute
investigation. experiment will be fair. hydrochloric for every trial on a
If not, it will affect the measuring cylinder. Check and
rate of reaction, since make sure that the volume of the
increase in volume will solution is exactly 5cm3 each
increase the number of trial.
HCl particles and thus
the the number of
collisions between

The person timing Each person has a Decide a person to time for each
different reaction time. trial at the beginning of the
In order to have a more experiment. Be sure its the same
accurate result trend, person to time before each trial.
the same person should
be used for timing
every trial.

Temperature The temperature The whole experiment should be

during the whole conducted at the same location.
experiment should be If the air-conditioner is turned
kept the same. If not, on, it should be kept at a constant
this will affect the temperature.
energy gained by the
particles from the heat,
which will then also
affect the frequency of
collisions. Therefore, it
will be unfair.

Materials / Equipment ListBiv

50cm3 of Na2S2O3
40cm3 of Na2S2O3 (with 10cm3 of water)
30cm3 of Na2S2O3 (with 20cm3 of water)
20cm3 of Na2S2O3 (with 30cm3 of water)
10cm3 of Na2S2O3 (with 40cm3 of water)
25cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid
White paper with a black cross x 1
250ml conical flask x 5
1500ml beaker x1

100ml measuring cylinder x 1
Timer x 1
A marker to label the conical flasks (optional)
Lab clothes and goggles x 1

Risk Assessment Biv

Safety issue Reasons that you have to Safety precautions Emergency/ Treatment
consider the safety issue

People with Chemicals may easily get on Tie your hair up (if Keep calm and use water
long hair our hair which will be have long hair) to wash and see if it has
should be difficult to wash or remove been removed from hair
careful or not. If not, continue
and finish the experiment
and wash after school.

The mixture Some chemical may be toxic Lab clothes and Safety Keep calm and inform the
may get into or harmful to human, goggles should be teacher and wash my eyes
uniforms or corrosive and damage our worn during the immediately.
eyes and eyes. experiment.
injuries from
contact with

The mixture in Test tubes may fall and Contain test tubes with I will immediately clean
beakers may break and the mixture may a stable container. the floor up using towels
drop onto the cause the floor to be and do the experiment
floor. slippery, which may result again if have time.
in injury.

Method / ProcedureBiv
1. Set up all the equipment and materials for the experiment.
2. Wear lab clothes and goggles before touching any equipments.
3. Use marker to label the correct concentration on each conical flask.
4. Place the paper with a cross underneath a 250 ml conical flask.
5. Measure 50 cm3 of sodium thiosulfate solution (Na2S2O3) using a measuring cylinder and pour it
into the conical flask.
6. Measure 5cm3 of dilute hydrochloric (HCL) acid using a measuring cylinder.
7. Add the measured acid to the flask with the solution and immediately start timing. Swirl the flask to
mix the solutions.
8. Look down at the cross from above the flask. Stop the timer when the cross is totally not visible.
Record the results down.
9. Repeat the steps from 3-8 for two times.

10. Repeat the steps from 3-9, using different concentrations of sodium thiosulfate solution (which make
up 50cm3 of each solution). Mix different volumes of the Na2S2O3 with water as shown in the
materials/equipment list.
11. Pour solutions into a 1500 ml beaker, wash and clean the 250 ml conical flasks and measuring

Results - Ci
Independent Dependant Variable - Reaction Time (s)
Variable -
Concentration Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average (s)
Sodium thiosulfate
(g dm-3)

50 11.53 12.48 15.25 12.05

40 14.84 16.66 19.12 15.75

30 20.78 20.66 23.16 21.53

20 37.07 36.91 38.90 37.63

10 108.03 98.88 96.22 97.55

For trials 3, 6 and 13, it can be seen that the reaction time are 15.25, 19.12 and 1.48.03, which are all a lot
more than the values recorded in the other two trials. Therefore, they are recorded as an outlier. This
situation may be caused by not measuring the exact value of Na2S2O3 or dilute hydrochloric acid in the
measuring cylinder. They are not taken into account when calculating the average reaction time.

Qualitative Observations- Ci
During the experiment, when HCl is added into the sodium thiosulfate solution, the solution becomes cloudy
and yellow, and the solution gives off the smell of rotten egg. When the concentration decreases, the mixed
solution becomes cloudy and yellow more slowly, and the smell of rotten egg is less strong.

Processed data- Ci
Derived Variable - Rate of Reaction (s-1)
Independent Dependant
Variable - Variable - Workings Reaction Rate
Concentration of Average Reaction
sodium thiosulfate Time (s)
(g dm-3)

50 12.05 12.05
= 0.0829875519 0.08

40 15.75 15.75
= 0.0634920635 0.06
30 21.53 21.53
= 0.0464468184 0.05
20 37.63 37.63
= 0.0265745416 0.03
10 97.55 97.55
= 0.0102511533 0.01

Graph- Ci

Conclusion - Cii
Referring to my hypothesis, based on my results and graph, my results were mostly correct. According to
my hypothesis, I predicted that when there is a higher concentration of sodium thiosulphate in the solution, it
requires less time to cause the cross to disappear, which increases the rate of reaction.
According to my results and graph produced from my experiment, it can be seen that when there is a higher
concentration of sodium thiosulphate, it takes more time for the cross to disappear when looking from
above. When the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is 50g dm-3, its average reaction time is 12.05s, which
has a reaction rate of 0.08s-1. When the concentration of sodium thiosulphate has only 10g dm-3, its average
reaction time is 97.55s, which has a reaction rate of 0.01s-1. It can be seen that it shows a big difference
between the first and the last trial. However, there are still a few outliers, which may be caused by not
adding the exact amount of sodium thiosulfate or HCl into the solution.

Explanation of results Cii

Based on my conclusion and graphs, it can be seen that it was based on the collision theory. When the
concentration of sodium thiosulphate gets lower, it requires more time for the solution to go cloudy, as well
as for the cross to disappear looking from above. To conclude, the stronger the concentration, more reaction
rate will be. This occurs because there will be more molecules and particles when there is more
concentration, more molecules gets more collision between the particles. The rate of reaction gets higher
based on the turbidity of the concentration, when stronger concentration, more ions and molecules will have
more collision, which will higher the turbidity. Therefore, it will form sulphur at a faster rate and reactions
happens faster as there are more concentration, which all related to the collision theory.

Evaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii

I think that my hypothesis is valid since it matches the result of the experiment. The other groups which are
doing the similar experiment also obtained a similar result as ours. My hypothesis is valid because it clearly
explains how the independent variable (concentration of sodium thiosulfate) affects the dependant variable
(reaction time) as well as the derived variable (rate of reaction), using the collision theory. It correctly
predicted the rate of reaction and time of the result. However, my hypothesis did not include temperature as
a factor. It is an important factor that has to be considered during the experiment. When the temperature is
high, there will be more energy by the particles from the heat which will affect the collision between the

Evaluation - Validity of the method Civ

Was the method of the experiment appropriate to investigate the research question?

The method I used in the experiment is appropriate to investigate the research question, since I researched
on the method on how to calculate reaction rate and I followed that method in the experiment. Based on
my method, I controlled control variables and only focusing on the effects of changing the concentration
of sodium thiosulphate on HCl. My method answers the investigation question: how How does (or To
what extent does) the Sodium thiosulfate affect the rate of reaction with Hydrochloric acid?

Explain in detail why you did those steps(method), and how they could help you to answer your
research questions.

According to my method, I have chosen to measure the amount of sodium thiosulphate and dilute
hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder instead of other measuring tools, because it is more
accurate than using beaker or other laboratory equipments. A measuring cylinder is designed for
measuring chemical liquids and beakers are designed for containing and carrying out chemical reactions.
Therefore, a measuring cylinder is more accurate to measure volumes of liquids.
In step 3, I used a marker to label different values of concentration of sodium thiosulphate for each
conical flask, to prevent mistakenly selecting the wrong one. With label, we know which one has correct
amount of concentration. In addition, I have repeated the steps from 3-8 (in step 9) for two times in order
to improve accuracy and to eliminate errors or outliers if possible. If only one trial is done for each
different concentration of sodium thiosulphate, we do not know whether if the result is an outlier or not,
which we can determine if we do a few more trials.

Problems with the experiment The effect caused by the problem

Systematic errors and random errors

Different observers has different decisions of The dependant variable will not only be affected
whether the cross had completely disappeared or by the independent variable, but also controlled
not. variable. The results then will not be precise
Problems occurred with the timer: Each person has a enough.
different reaction time.

Measuring errors: Since the volume of chemical in This will make the results not precise and valid
the measuring cylinder is not read by the same enough when measurements are inaccurate.
person every trial, it might not be accurate enough.
Everyone has different eye level on reading.

Evaluation of the Method and Suggested Improvements - Cv

Problem with the Describe how to improve Explain why the improvements would benefit
experiment the experiment your investigation

Different person We could decide on the This could produce more accurate and precise
timed for the same person who results since it is the same person timing, reading
reaction, read the respectively responsible for and observing.
measuring cylinder timing, reading the
and observed for the measuring cylinder and
cross to disappear.

This will lead observe. Make sure it is the
inaccurate and not same person on every trial.
precise results since
not everyone has the
same eye level.

We have only done We could increase the This could help identify and eliminating outliers
three trials for each number of trials (up to 5 or and preventing them affecting the results. When
of the concentration more) for every outliers are identified, there will be more trial
results to use in calculating the average.
of sodium concentration.
Therefore, it could increase the reliability of the
thiosulphate. results.

N/A We could increase the This could produce more obvious results and
concentration of sodium more difference between each intervals.
thiosulphate between the According to my results table, the results from
trials in order to have more the concentrations 50g dm-3 and 40g dm-3 shows a
obvious results. For similar result, which could be improved by
example, increase the increasing concentrations between the intervals.
concentration from 10g dm-3
to 15g dm-3 between the

Extensions to the experiment:

We can extend the experiment by investigating how the temperature affects the rate of reaction, which
the temperature will be the independent variable and both sodium thiosulfate and HCl will be control
variables. We can also extend the experiment by investigating how the concentration of HCl affects
sodium thiosulfate, swapping the two chemicals around.

Works Cited
"BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Effect of Temperature and Concentration." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 01 May 2017.

"BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 01 May 2017.

An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2017.

Studios, Andrew Rader. "Rate of Reaction." Chem4Kids.com: Reactions: Rates of Reaction. N.p., n.d. Web.
01 May 2017. <http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_rates.html>.

GCSE CHEMISTRY - How Can the Rate of Any Chemical Reaction Be Measured? - GCSE SCIENCE. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 01 May 2017. <http://www.gcsescience.com/rc-measuring-rate-reaction.htm>.