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BUILDING DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ARCHITECHTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING

UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY MARA SHAH ALAM

CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY III (BCM 514)

ASSIGNMENT PART 2 (B)

Prepared By : MOHD HAIZAIRI B. RAZALI
No. Matrix : 2013620178
Class : AP246 4C
Prepared For : Prof Madya Sr Hj Jamaludin Bin Mohd Aris

SOIL NAILING Project lebuh raya usaha sama Berhad (PLUS Berhad) is widening the existing dual-3-lane carriageway into dual 4-lane carriageway from Shah Alam interchange to Jalan Duta Toll Plaza. PART B 1. The total length of the widening project is 63. Bukit Lanjan to Rawang interchange and Nilai Utara interchange to Seremban interchange (including south bound toward Port Dickson interchange). the project is scheduled to be completed in December 2014 .3 km.

reinforcement. installation hex nut and washers installation Step 5. Install and grout nail Step 4. Drill nail holes small cut Step 3. Construction of Step 6. Place temporary pacing (include (includes strip drain shotcrete. Excavate Step 2.Methods Step 1. bearing plate. Place final facing on subsequent level permanent wall s (including building of toe drain .

Nail Installation and Grouting Nail bars are placed in the pre-drilled hole. Following appropriate curing time for the temporary facing. which is placed at approximately the middle of the facing thickness (see lower part of Figure 2.Step 1 Excavation. geocomposite drainage strips are installed on the excavation face approximately midway between each set of adjacent nails. The reinforcement typically consists of welded wiremesh (WWM).Construction of Temporary Shotcrete Facing. A grout pipe (tremie) is also inserted in the drill hole at this time.) thick. the drilling and grouting take place in one operation. The width of the excavated platform or bench must be sufficient to provide access to the installation equipment. The bar is . corrugated plastic sheathing can also be used to provide an additional level of corrosion protection. and horizontal spacing from this excavated platform. Step 4. The bars are most commonly solid. Step 2. typically on the order of 24 to 48 hours. The drill hole is then filled with cement grout through the tremie pipe. Step 3. Prior to Step 4 (facing placement). A temporary facing system is then constructed to support the open-cut soil section before the next lift of soil is excavated. although hollow steel nails can be also used have seen increased usage.1).The most typical temporary facing consists of a lightly reinforced shotcrete layer commonly 100 mm (4 in. When corrosion protection requirements are high. a steel bearing plate is placed over the nail head protruding from the drill hole. diameter. The drainage strips are the nunrolled to the next wall lift. If hollow self-drilling bars are used (only as temporary structures). Initial excavation is carried out to a depth for which the face of the excavation has the ability to remain unsupported for a short period of time. Centralizers are placed around the nails prior to insertion to help maintain alignment within the hole and allow sufficient protective grout coverage over the nail bar. inclination. The depth of the excavation lift is usually between 1 and 2m (3 and 6 ft) and reaches slightly below the elevation where nails will be installed. The drainage strips extend to the bottom of the excavation where collected water is conveyed via a toe drain away from the soil nail wall. The length of the WWM must be such that it allows at least one full mesh cell to overlap with subsequent WWM panels.Drilling Nail Holes Drill holes are drilled to a specified length. The grout is commonly placed under gravity or low pressure.

or prefabricated panels. A hex nut and washers are subsequently installed to secure the nail head against the bearing plate. This usually requires a minimum of 24hours. the shotcrete must have cured for at least 72 hours or have attained atleast the specified 3-day compressive strength [typically 10. Construction of a Final. the vertical drainage strip is unrolled downward to the subsequent lift. Before proceeding with subsequentexcavation lifts. The temporary shotcrete is continued with a cold joint with the previous shotcrete lift. reinforced shotcrete. the drainage strip is tied to a collecting toe drain. Steps 1 through 4 are repeated for the remaining excavation lifts. Step 6. The reinforcement of permanent facing is conventional concrete bars or WWM.5 MPa (1. After the bottom of the excavation is reached and nails are installed and load tested. A new panel of WWM is then placed overlapping at least one full mesh cell. Construction of Subsequent Levels. testing of the installed nails to measure deflections (for comparisonto a pre-specified criterion) and proof load capacities may be performed prior to proceeding with the next excavation lift.500 psi). Step 5. At the bottom of the excavation. Permanent Facing. a final facing may be constructed. Final facing may consist of cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete. then lightly pressed into the first layer of fresh shotcrete. The hex nut is tightened to a required minimum torque after the temporary facing has sufficiently cured. If required. At each excavation lift. horizontal joints between excavation lifts are avoided to the maximum extent possible . When CIP concrete and shotcrete are used for the permanent facing.

and •soil nail walls have performed well during seismic events owing to overall system flexibility. this is particularly important when construction occurs under a bridge. Some of these advantages are described below: Construction • requires smaller ROW than ground anchors as soil nails are typically shorter. • installation of soil nail walls is relatively rapid and uses typically less construction materials than ground anchor walls. Performance •soil nail walls are relatively flexible and can accommodate relatively large total and differential settlements. • because significantly more soil nails are used than ground anchors. • less disruptive to traffic and causes less environmental impact compared to other construction techniques. • soil nailing is advantageous at sites with remote access because smaller equipment is generally needed. piles or underground utilities) are encountered. particularly when compared to braced excavations. and • the number of contractors with qualifications and experience in soil nail wall construction is increasing each year. . • provides a less congested bottom of excavation.g. cobbles or boulders. • easy adjustments of nail inclination and location can be made when obstructions (e. the horizontal position of ground anchors is more difficult to modify almost making adjustments in the field costly. • overhead construction requirements are smaller than those for ground anchor walls because soil nail walls do not require the installation of soldier beams. • there is no need to embed any structural element below the bottom of excavation as with soldier beams used in ground anchor walls. adjustments to the design layout of the soil nails are more easily accomplished in the field without compromising the level of safety. on the other hand.Advantages of Soil Nail Walls Soil nail walls exhibit numerous advantages when compared to ground anchors and alternative top-down construction techniques.. • measured total deflections of soil nail walls are usually within tolerable limits.

Some of the potential disadvantages of soil nail walls are listed below: • soil nail walls may not be appropriate for applications where very strict deformation control is required for structures and utilities located behind the proposed wall. • soil nail walls are typically equivalent in cost or more cost-effective than ground anchor walls when conventional soil nailing construction procedures are used. inclination. as the system requires some soil deformation to mobilize resistance. • soil nail walls are not well-suited where large amounts of groundwater seeps into the excavation because of the requirement to maintain a temporary unsupported excavation face. • permanent soil nail walls require permanent. underground easements. and length of soil nails in the upper rows.Cost •soil nail walls are more economical than conventional concrete gravity walls when conventional soil nailing construction procedures are used. post tensioning of soil nails can overcome this shortcoming in most cases. and • construction of soil nail walls requires specialized and experienced contractors . but this step increases the project cost • the occurrence of utilities may place restrictions on the location. and • shotcrete facing is typically less costly than the structural facing required for other wall systems.

while they also produce some obvious drawbacks Advantages of gabion wall 1. The rock fill comes in various sizes and colors to accommodate the volume and design of each wall. making them customized for each application. forms a section that can be placed into a man-made wall. The gravel and rocks used in gabion construction are natural to the environment and can endure years of wear through water erosion. .2. Handling and Construction The construction materials for gabion walls are easy to transport to sites. Dozens of gabions can be locked together and stacked upon each other. They can endure repeated wave pounding and stream flow without disintegration. which when filled with small rocks. form the banks of stream beds and reinforce dunes in coastal areas. Their function provides a barrier to retard and slow erosion processes caused by water or excessive seepage on steep or mild slopes. due to the flexibility of their wire mesh construction. The gabions can be placed to follow a grade along a wall. Gabions have several beneficial advantages to the environment. GABION WALL The location at the Km 21 Lebuh Raya Utara Lembah Klang (NKVE) methods Gabion consists rectangular steel wire mesh basket. The tops of gabion walls can taper to follow any change in landscape elevation. 2. Endurance Gabion walls resist breakage and separation. The galvanized wire used in the mesh resists corrosion and rust. Speed of construction remains fast. easy to unload and place.

The front-facing walls appear bland and mechanical in design. Wall Assembly and Cost Although gabion walls offer a good economic choice for most applications. Inspection Gabion walls must be inspected on a regular basis to insure their integrity. which has caused heavier than normal water flow. the permeability remains good. Endurance In instances of high velocity streams and wave interaction. 5. they remain more expensive to install than natural vegetated slopes or riprap. Application Gabion walls can be used in the formation of pond and damn walls. 4. They must also be immediately inspected and evaluated after any storm. pond and beach settings. where the topsoil is loose and has no root foundation.3. where very thick and long walls must be used to protect large beach areas. Gabion walls require heavy equipment to construct. similar to the way sidewalks cap the top of wall structures. Cement caps can be placed on top of gabion walls. They provide protection against hill and mud slides. Aesthetics Gabion structures have suffered a reputation for being unsightly and unnatural in river. Maintenance If the rocks shift or become worn down inside the metal baskets as a result of heavy water and wave activity. while decreasing the water velocity by breaking it up and dispersing the pressure over a wide are Disadvantages of gabion wall 1. . spilling the rock fill. 2. gabion wall wire mesh baskets can abrade and tear open. Large gabion walls constructed on tourist beaches serve as a distraction. which can be costly and time-consuming. 3. allowing sufficient natural drainage of runoff. since mechanical lifting is required to set heavy walls sections in place. riverbanks and drainage channels. as well as cladding for building structures. rather than form natural-looking rock barriers. For very tall gabion stacks. the entire wall must be disassembled to reached the damaged area. any damage to the lower areas requires the removal of the upper wall elevations. Gabions can be used to fashion interconnected beds for slope stabilization. Drainage Due to the pebble and gravel construction of gabion walls. 4.

adjust where needed Install AB fieldstone facing units. Therefore. They are built from solid concrete or rock rubble mortared together. GRAVITY RETAINING WALL Gravity walls are earliest known retaining structures. and due to their massive. level and adjust install AB fieldstone anchoring units Install and compact wall rock and backfill soils sweep to remove excess materials for proper placement of the next course Compact wall rock and backfill soils install filter fabric and string line to starting on the blocks place AB Caps . 1. they develop little or no tension. they are usually not reinforced with steel. Gravity walls are economical for heights up to 3m (10feet) Methods Install base material. and compact level blocks. level. The lateral forces from backfill is resisted by the weight of wall itself.

 Compact and level trench. See finishing details for information on retaining wall ending options. Check plans to see how much buried block is required. alignment and the wall batter as the retaining wall stacks up. (200 mm) of impermeable fill on the last lift to finish off wall.  Complete the retaining wall to required height. Step 4: Install Wall Rock and Backfill Materials  Fill the hollow cores and a minimum of 12 in.  Buried block should be a minimum of 6 in.  From course 2 and above use a plate compactor to compact directly on the blocks as well as the area behind the blocks. Step 3: Install Base Course  Begin at the lowest retaining wall elevation.  Stack the next course of blocks so that the vertical seams are offset from the blocks below by at least 3 in. an 18 in.  Fill the block cores and behind the block with wall rock a minimum of 12 in.  *For walls under 4 ft. See approved plans for location and specifications. Place retaining wall blocks on base material.Step 1: Site Preparation and Excavation  Remove surface vegetation and organic soils. place a minimum of 6 in. (1. (75 mm) or 1/4 the length of the block. (100 mm) of wall rock base material is acceptable. (300 mm) behind the retaining wall with wall rock. This can be done when installing the next course of block. (460 mm) wide by 10 in. Use approved soils to backfill behind the wall rock.  Check and adjust for level. . (150 mm). (610 mm) wide and 12 in. excavate base trench a minimum of 24 in.  Drain pipe is required for retaining walls over 4 ft.*  Compact and level base material. Refer to design details on an alternate drain location. (1. (300 mm) deep. Step 5: Install Additional Courses  Remove all excess material from the top surface of retaining wall blocks. (300 mm).2 m) tall or are constructed in silty or clay soils.  Use a plate compactor to consolidate the area behind the block. (200 mm) or less.2 m). Compact in lifts of 8 in. Step 2: Install Base Material  Per the approved plans.  Site Soils Engineer should verify that a proper base is established. by sliding the block into place.  Per the approved plan. (200 mm) or less.  Use approved soils to backfill behind the wall rock and in front of the base course. Compact in lifts of 8 in. (250 mm) deep trench with 4 in.  Use 8 in. (150 mm) of wall rock in the base trench and rake smooth.*  Remove unsuitable soils and replace with compactable materials. check and adjust for level and alignment of each unit.

The gravity wall is prone to sliding failure – often requires key and propping. 4. The gravity wall can look attractive if built from natural stone. Cheap and simple to build – no specialized equipment is needed for construction. 2. The reinforced concrete wall takes up little space. . 3. 3. Not suitable for soft soils due bearing failure. Disadvantages 1. Limited height.Advantages 1. 2. Space needed behind wall for construction and backfilling.