Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

Secrtariat CEN/TC 341 /WG 5

Borehole expansion tests

Responsable : Catherine Pineau


ligne directe : +33 (0)1 41 62 84 67
catherine.pineau@afnor.fr
CEN/TC 341 /WG 5 N 52 E
Assistante : Mireille Mathieu (Supersedes documents CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N49
ligne directe : +33 (0)1 41 62 81 26 and N 49 corrected)
mireille.mathieu@afnor.fr

on : 2003-01-23
Le comit membre franais :

Working Document for CEN/TC 341/WG 5


Soil investigation and testing
Association
Phicometer shearing test
Franaise de

Normalisation
11 avenue Francis de Pressens
F : Sols : reconnaissance et essais - Essai de cisaillement au Phicomtre
93571 Saint -Denis La Plaine
Cedex

France
D : Boden : Erkundung und Prfungen - Scherversuch mit Phikometer
Tl. : +33 (0)1 41 62 80 00

Fax : +33 (0)1 49 17 90 00

http://www.afnor.fr
Note : This document take into account the decisions taken at the 5th meeting in
Paris on January 2003

Association reconnue

d'utilit publique

Comit membre franais

du CEN et de l'ISO

Siret 775 724 818 00015

Code NAF 751 E


CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Contents

CONTENTS..........................................................................................................................................2

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................4

1. SCOPE .........................................................................................................................................4

2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES .........................................................................................................5

3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................5


3.1. PHICOMETER ............................................................................................................................5
3.2. PHICOMETER SOUNDING .............................................................................................................6
3.3. PHICOMETER BOREHOLE.............................................................................................................6
3.4. PHICOMETER SHEAR TEST ...........................................................................................................6
3.5. PHICOMETER CURVE ..................................................................................................................7
3.6. PHICOMETER COHESIO N .............................................................................................................7
3.7. PHICOMETER ANGLE OF FRICTION .................................................................................................7
3.8. OPERATOR ...............................................................................................................................7
4. SYMBOLS.....................................................................................................................................8

5. EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................................9
5.1. PHICOMETER PROBE ..................................................................................................................9
5.2. THE CONNECTING LINES ............................................................................................................ 10
5.2.1. pulling rods ..................................................................................................................... 10
5.2.2. lines ............................................................................................................................... 11
5.3. EQUIPMENT AT GROUND SURFACE .............................................................................................. 11
5.3.1. Pulling device ................................................................................................................. 11
5.3.2. Pressure-volume control unit (CU) ................................................................................... 11
5.3.3. Measurement of displacement during the pulling of the probe ............................................ 11
5.4. MEANS OF MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL .................................................................................... 11
5.4.1. Times ............................................................................................................................. 11
5.4.2. Pressure, volume and pulling force................................................................................... 11
5.4.3. Axial displacement .......................................................................................................... 11
5.4.4. Display of readings.......................................................................................................... 11
5.4.5. Dimensions of the probe.................................................................................................. 12
6. TEST PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................... 12
6.1. CHECKS AND MEASUREMENTS BEFORE INSERTION OF THE PROBE IN THE GROUND.............................. 12
6.2. INSERTION OF THE PROBE IN THE GROUND AND ZERO SETTING ........................................................ 12
6.3. R EALISATION OF PRELIMINARY TEST............................................................................................ 12
6.3.1. Phase of dilation of the measuring cell.............................................................................. 12
6.3.2. Pulling test of the probe................................................................................................... 13
6.3.3. End of the test ................................................................................................................ 14
6.3.4. Spacings between the tests ............................................................................................. 14
6.3.5. Uncertainties of measurements:....................................................................................... 14
7. EXPRESSION OF THE RESULTS ................................................................................................ 15
7.1.1. Curve of shearing - mechanical characteristics i and ci .................................................... 15
7.1.2. Associated curves ........................................................................................................... 17
8. REPORTING THE RESULTS ....................................................................................................... 17
8.1. PHICOMETER TEST SHEET ......................................................................................................... 17
8.2. PHICOMETER TEST REPORT ....................................................................................................... 19
8.3. PHICOMETER LOG .................................................................................................................... 20

2
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................................... 21

APPENDIX A CHARACTERISTIC OF THE PHICOMETER PROBE (NORMATIVE).............................. 23

APPENDIX B CALIBRATIONS CHECKS (NORMATIVE) ................................................................. 24


B.1 CALIBRATION OF THE MEASURING APPARATUS .................................................................................. 24
B.2 CALIBRATIONS AND CONTROLS OF CORRECT OPERATION TO REALIZE ON BUILDING SITE........................... 24
APPENDIX C EXECUTION OF THE PHICOMETER BOREHOLE (NORMATIVE) ................................ 28
C.1 DRILLING THE PHICOMETER BOREHOLE ........................................................................................... 28
C.2 LENGTH OF BOREHOLE BEFORE INSERTING THE PROBE ...................................................................... 29
C.3 CHOICE OF THE MEMBRANE ........................................................................................................... 29
C.4 TIME BETWEEN DRILLING AND TESTING ............................................................................................ 29
APPENDIX D DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHEARING (NORMATIVE)............ 30
D.1 DETERMINATION OF THE VALUES OF T AND PC ................................................................................... 30
D.2 DETERMINATION OF THE SHEARING CURVE OF THE GROUND ................................................................ 30

3
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Foreword

This European Standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC341/WG 5.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by , and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by .

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

1 Scope
This document applies to the shear test in place using the Phicometer. The test method covers the
procedure for drilling the borehole, inserting the probe, and performing the test in soils and weak rock. It
does not include high pressure testing in hard rock. The test works best in sands, silts, clays and weak
rocks, which will maintain open test cavity or which can be held open with drilling fluid.

NOTE 1: Very soft and very loose soils present difficulties examined later in this standard. Soils and weak
rocks which are not sufficiently homogeneous will give difficulties at the analysis stage.

NOTE 2: For depths below 30 m there may be difficulties in deflating and recovering the probe.

The Phicometer shear test is an in situ axial shear test carried out in a borehole.. A cylindrical probe
lowered on rods is expanded against and engages with the borehole wall by means of projections on the
outside curved surface.

The test uses a succession of fixed pressures and is conducted by pulling on the rods at a constant rate of
displacement and measuring the shear force needed to cause a failure in the pocket wall. The internal
pressure is then raised one step and a second pull applied. The measurement is the table of successive
pressures and associated forces. The test is showed in Figure 1.

4
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

string of rods pulling force

ground surface

casing

ground

expandable probe
with r adial
projections
borehole

a) borehole with casing b) inserting the probe to the c) radial expansion of probe d) pulling on probe with
level of test to engage projections constant radial pressure

Figure 1: General arrangement of a Phicometer borehole shear test

2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed
hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revised later the unspecified one of these
publications do not apply to this European Standard only if they were incorporated there by amendment or
revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the publication to which it is refers applies.

EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules


EN 1997- 2, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 2 : Design assisted by testing
EN ISO 22475-1: 2002 (E), Geotechnical Engineering Drilling and sampling methods and ground water
measurements
EN ISO 224476-x : 2002 (E), Geotechnical Engineering Mnard pressuremeter test Part 1: test without
unload-reload cycle
ENV 13005 : 1999 Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement

3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this standard, the following terms and definitions apply:

3.1 Phicometer

The equipment is used to carry out a Phicometer shear test, excluding the means necessary to place the
Phicometer probe into the ground consists of the following units:
- a Phicometer probe
- a pressure and volume Control Unit (CU)
- a line to connect the probe to the CU
- a pulling device placed on the ground surface
The equipment may also include a data logger.

5
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

A Phicometer is shown in figure 2:

optional data logger

pressure measurement of axial displacement


control unit pulling force control
pressure regulator pulling device
and injection device with timer

volume measurement reaction base

display of readings
benchmark

string of rods

connecting lines
ground

borehole with casing if required

Phicometer probe

Figure 2: The Phicometer

3.2 Phicometer sounding

The whole series of sequential operations necessary to perform Phicometer testing at a given location: i.e.
drilling a Phicometer borehole and performing Phicometer shear tests in this borehole.

3.3 Phicometer pocket


The cylindrical cavity with a circular cross section made in a borehole into which the Phicometer probe is
placed.

3.4 Phicometer shear test


The process during which the Phicometer probe is installed in the pocket, inflated against the pocket wall
and pulled to determine the shear force resulting. This process is repeated at a succession of fixed
pressures to give a pressure versus shear stress graph.

3.5 Phicometer shear stress


The shear stress in the cavity wall determined from the quotient of the net pulling force divided by the
sheared surface area involved at each pressure step.

6
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

3.6 Phicometer curve


The Phicometer curve is the plot of Phicometer shear stress versus the radial pressure applied (see
Figure3).

3.7 Phicometer shearing diagram


Diagram obtained from the Phicometer curve using analysis set up in Annex D.

3.8 Phicometer cohesion


An in situ cohesion c i obtained from thePhicometer curve, see Annex D and Figure 5.

3.9 Phicometer angle of friction


The in situ angle of friction i obtained from the Phicometer shearing diagram, see Annex D and Figure 5.

3.10 Operator
The qualified person who runs the test.

7
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

4 Symbols

For the purpose of this standard, the following symbols apply:

Table 1 - Symbols

Symbol Description Units


ci Phicometer. cohesion kPa
ds Diameter of the probe after injection of a volume V, measured over the projection. mm
dt Diameter of the pocket at the level of the test. mm
ls Conventional length of the sheared zone mm
pc Conventional pressure applied to the ground after corrections. kPa
pe Probe stiffness after corrections during the calibration. ???
ph Pressure due to the column of liquid of injection (between zc and zs ). kPa
pI Mnard pressuremeter limit pressure (EN ISO 22476-1). kPa
pm Pressure loss of the membrane for a specific expansion kPa
pr Liquid pressure reading at the CU transducer elevation in the liquid circuit, when kPa
the transducer elevation is zc
pz Liquid pressure at the Phicometer measuring cell center kPa
T Pulling force on the probe.corrected for the road weight kN
t Time. s
Tl Maximum pulling force kN
3
V Volume injected into the probe as read on the CU. cm
v Rate of axial displacement of the probe during the pulling phase. mm/s
3
Vd Volume injected into the probe read at the beginning of the application of pulling cm
force.
3
Vf Volume injected into the probe read at the end of the application of pulling force. cm
3
Vs Initial volume of the measuring cell. ???? cm
z Elevation, positively counted above datum. m
zc Elevation of the pressure measuring device of the liquid injected into the m
Phicometer measuring cell.
ze Elevation of the drilling fluid surface at the beginning of the test. m
zs Elevation of the centre of the probe at the beginning of the test. m
zw Elevation of the ground water table (or free water surface in a marine or river m
environment)
l Axial displacement of the probe during shearing. mm
p Loading pressure increment.
t Time the loading pressure level is held.
tp Time of loading pressure hold during the preliminary phase.
V Injected volume change from 30 seconds to 60 seconds after reaching the
pressure hold.
l Uncertainty to the measure of axial displacement.
p Uncertainty to the measure of the radial pressure.
T Uncertainty on the effort of pulling.
V Uncertainty to the measure of volume injected.
v Uncertainty on the pulling speed.
3
i Unit weight of the liquid injected into the measuring cell. kN/m
3
w Unit weight of water. kN/m
i Angle of friction measured in situ with the Phicometer.
Conventional limit shear stress.

8
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

5 Equipment

In addition to the drilling tools, it is necessary to have an equipment specific to this test :

5.1 Phicometer probe

The probe represented on figure 4 consists of a slotted device, called "expandable shear head and a
radially expandable cylindrical cell called "measuring cell.

The expandable shear head is a hollow cylinder connected rigidly to the pulling rods to ensure its operation
and to transmit the pulling force from the surface of the ground; it comprises:
- a central zone of measurement, made up of six initially jointed rigid plates, and parallel to the axis of the
probe comprising ten annular protuberance;
- two guard zones, consisting in metal blades which act as spring;
- a expandable measuring cell placed inside the expandable shear head and which is composed of a steel
core, of a deformable flexible membrane as well as lines for liquid injection used to inflate this cell.
The characteristics of the probe are given in appendix A. Two types of deformable membranes exist:
- a standard membrane;
- a reinforced membrane.

9
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

A-A
10
C
hd
4

ld2
ld1
guard zone 1 dc

6 ds0
7
C B-B
(before test) 9
3
measuring zone

1
3 2

2
ls
lt

A A
lc

ds0
B-B
B B (during test) 9
9 1 3
2
7
guard zone

6 A A
5

dc

dc
ds0
1 expandable shear head 6 rings for tightening of the membrane
2 steel core 7 joints
3 measuring cell membrane 8 fluid for inflating the membrane
4 lines for liquid injection 9 annular protuberance
5 purge 10 probe rods coupling

Figure 3 Phicometer probe

5.2 The connecting lines

5.2.1 pulling rods


2 2
A string of steel rods of cross-section area ranging between 7 cm and 15 cm connects the probe to the
equipment placed on the ground surface.
The part of the pulling rods out of the ground is threaded over all its length.

10
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

5.2.2 lines

The flexible lines connecting the pressure volume control unit to the probe, are used to inject the fluid in the
measuring cell.
3
The expansion coefficient of this line must be lower than 0,1 cm /MPa per meter of line.

5.3 Equipment at ground surface

It includes:
- a pulling device;
- a pressure volume control unit allowing the pressurization and the expansion of the probe;
- an measuring device for checking the speed of pulling of the rods.

5.3.1 Pulling device

It includes:
- a reaction base with eventually plates for repartition on the ground;
- a hollow jack inside whose the train of rods passes through;
- a system of setting in traction of the pulling rods;
- a blocking system of the jack on the rods;
- a device that measure of the pulling force, eventually placed just above the probe.

5.3.2 Pressure-volume control unit (CU)

Placed at the ground surface, the pressure-volume control unit allows to ensure the expansion of the probe
and to measure, according to time, the pressure as well as the volume of the liquid injected.
The pressurizing device shall permit:
- reaching a pressure from at least 1,5 MPa;
- keeping constant the pressure in the measuring cell during each stage of pulling;
- implementing a pressure increment in less than 10 seconds.
A pressure-volume control unit such as that used for MNARD pressuremeter test (standard EN-ISO
22475-1) is appropriate; only the circuit inflating the central cell is used.

5.3.3 Measurement of displacement during the pulling of the probe

The device is intended to obtain and to keep constant the rate of displacement of the pulling rods by
comparison to a fixed reference mark. It also makes it possible to measure displacements during the
pulling of the probe (final phase? until shear failure?).

5.4 Means of measurement and control

5.4.1 Times

The means used must allow a measurement of time correct to the second,

5.4.2 Pressure, volume and pulling force

Maximum uncertainties of the measuring instruments of pressure, the volume and the pulling force must be
such that they do not exceed the values indicated at paragraph 6.3.5.

5.4.3 Axial displacement

The means used must allow a measurement of displacement with an uncertainty not exceeding the value
indicated at paragraph 6.3.5.

5.4.4 Display of readings

At the site the pressure and volume Control Unit (CU) must give to the operators a simultaneous and
instantaneous display of the following readings: time, pressure and volume of the liquid injected into the
measuring cell, shear displacement and pulling force.

11
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

5.4.5 Dimensions of the probe

The external diameter of the expandable shear head is measured with the slide caliper within a tolerance of
0,1 mm. The length of the measuring cell is measured within a tolerance of 0,1 mm.

6 Test procedure

The test is carried out by increment of radial pressure p. Each shearing test comprises two successive
stages:
a) application on the borehole wall of a radial pressure kept constant during 60 seconds;
b) pulling of the probe (phase of shearing) at constant rate of displacement v by keeping constant the
radial pressure:
The loading programme is defined according to the Mnard pressure limit estimated in the soil at the level
of the test. Each pressure is kept constant during the phase of pulling of the probe. The duration for the
passage of a stage to the following must be lower than a value t. Unloading is done without stage.

The following operations are to be realized successively:

6.1 Checks and measurements before insertion of the probe in the ground

Before inserting the probe into the borehole, the calibrations and controls of correct operation described in
the appendix B are carried out.
The level of water or drilling mud is recorded right before the insertion of the probe.

6.2 Insertion of the probe in the ground and zero setting

The drilling technique for the installation of the probe depends on the type of soils, their state, the presence
or not of a water table. It shall meet the specifications in appendix C.
The length of drilling before the introduction of the probe is such as it does not exceed the position of the
probe during the test of more than 1,5 m. It acts in all the cases to descend the probe in a borehole from
diameter dt , such as:

62mm dt < 65mm

The elevation of the test corresponds to the medium of the zone of measurement (at the moment of the
installation).
Once the probe descended on the level from the test, the train of stems and the probe solidarized with the
train of stems is raised until stabilization of the effort in order to put this material in suspension on the
device of surface.
The force necessary to cause this rising is noted then it is taken as origin for the measuring of the effort of
pulling.
This way of proceeding makes it possible to check that the system slides in drilling and to take account of
the parasitic efforts due to the weight of the train of stems and the probe and with possible frictions on the
walls of drilling.
To be freed from the parasitic efforts on the train of stems, the device of measurement of the effort of
pulling can be placed just above the probe. If the effort is not stabilized for a rising of 5 cm, the test is
abandoned.

6.3 Realisation of preliminary test

6.3.1 Phase of dilation of the measuring cell

the pressure Pr measured with the pressure gauge is increased gradually by stages of pressure of step:
p = 50 kPa for the fairly compact soils (pressure measuring limit pressure considered ranging
between 0,3 MPa and 1 MPa);
p = 100 kPa for the compact grounds (pressure measuring limiting pressure considered higher or
equal to 1 MPa).
Each stage of pressure is maintained constant for one tp duration of 60 s.
To each stage, the pressure applied pr is noted as well as the volume injected into the measuring cell at
times:

12
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

t=30s and t=60s

The pressure applied to the level of the probe is conventionally given by:

pz = pr+ ph

Where:
ph is calculated according to case, by one of the formula below (see figure 5):
- probe above the level of water or mud in borehole (z w and z e < zs ):
ph = (z c - zs ).i
- probe below the level of water or mud in borehole (z w or z e > zs ):
ph = (z c - z e).i
3
i is taken conventionally equal to 10 kN/m .

z elevation liquid pressure reading

zc elevation of control unit

ground surface level


0

ze level of fluid in borehole


zw
ground water table

zs phicometer
probe

Figure 4: location of the probe and the conditioner of pressure during a test

This preliminary phase is continued until the pressure applied to the level of the probe is higher at least 50
kPa than the pressure necessary to its own dilation for volume injected corresponding (see appendix B)
and until obtaining the one of the following conditions:
3
1) the volume of the probe is at least 200 cm or the pressure read reached 600 kPa;
2) the variations of volume between 30 s and 60 s make appearance a beginning of creep of the
ground.
The creep of the soil is conventionally regarded as reached if the variation of volume V, between 30 s and
3
60 s, is simultaneously higher than 6 cm and 1,5 times that measured during the preceding stage.
If the creep of the ground is observed before the first condition is not reached, the test is stopped (too soft
soil or too loose and thus apart from the applicability of the test).

The pressure pr is then reduced in accordance with table 1 and the pulling test is immediately done.

6.3.2 Pulling test of the probe

6.3.2.1 Loading programme of the cell

The pulling test is done by successive steps while keeping constant, for each stage, the pressure pr
measured with the pressure gauge.
The loading programme is given in table 1 according to the estimated limiting pressure of the soil when: ph
< 0,1 MPa.

13
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Table 2 - Choice of the pressure hold for ph < 0,1 MPa

limit pressure Pressure during steps 1 to 4 Pressure during following steps


estimated of
the soil MPa MPa
MPa
N1 N2 N3 N4 condition N5 N6 N7 N8
V f > 350 cm
3
0,40 0,45 0,50 0,55
0,3 ph < 1 0,2 0,25 0,3 0,35
V f 350 cm
3
0,45 0,55 0,65 0,75
pl 1 V f > 350 cm
3
0,45 0,55 0,65 0,75
0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4
V f 350 cm
3
0,55 0,70 0,85 1,00

When ph is equal to or higher than 0,1 MPa, and so that the first points of shearing remain sufficiently close
to the origin (see figure 3a), the pressure applied to each pressure hold is decreased by the following
values:

0,1 MPa si 0,1 ph 0,15MPa;


0,15 MPa if 0,15 ph 0,3 MPa for the soils of pl 1 MPa;
0,15 MPa if 0,15 ph 0,2 MPa for the soils of pl 1 MPa;
0,2 MPa if 0,2 ph 0,3 MPa for the soils of pl 1 MPa.

6.3.2.2 Shearing of the soil for a pressure hold

The pressure pr is regulated with the value defined for the stage concerned.
Volumes shall be read and recorded at the following times: 30 s and 60 s. Vd is the volume read with 60 s.
The pressure pr being maintained constant, the probe is pull from the ground surface under a constant rate
of displacement of 2 mm/min.
The pulling force is recorded at least all 30 seconds.
The pulling test is stopped either when the pulling force was stabilized during three consecutive
measurements separated by 30 s, or when a displacement of 7 mm, measured at the head of the train of
stems, was reached. Vf volume is then recorded.
The process is renewed for the following stage.

6.3.3 End of the test

The shear test is led until :


- is the eight stages of shearing envisaged by table 1 is realized;
3
- is the volume injected into the measuring cell exceeds 600 cm .
The pressure in the probe is then slackened completely and the effort of residual pulling is raised after a
latency of T = 60 S and T = 120 S. the probe are then extracted from drilling, the state of filling of spaces
between the rings, by the ground, is noted (filling: total, partial or null) as well as nature of material.
The level of water or mud of drilling is consigned new just aprs extraction of the probe.

6.3.4 Spacings between the tests

The distance between two consecutive tests should not be lower than 1 m.

6.3.5 Uncertainties of measurements:

Depth measurements:
Uncertainty at the distance between the medium of the zone of measurement and the top of drilling before
the beginning of the test should not exceed largest of the two values:
- 10 cm;
- 1/100 length of the stems of connection.

Volume injected into the measuring cell:


Uncertainty to the measure of the volume of the liquid introduced into the cell must be lower or equal to
largest of the two values:

14
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

3
- 2cm ;
- 1 % of the maximum read value.

Diameter external of the probe:


Uncertainty to the measure of the diameter external of the probe must be lower or equal to 0,l mm.

Pressure:
By taking account of the clean resistance of the membrane, the hydrostatic pressure inside the pipe and
that reigning in drilling, uncertainty is lower or equal to smallest values:
- 5 % of the measured value;
- 1 % of the maximum value of the field of measurement.

Effort of pulling:
Uncertainty to the measure of the effort of pulling is largest of the two following values:
- 250 N;
- 1 % of the value read.

Rate of travel during pulling:


Uncertainty on the rate of travel must be lower or equal to 0,2 mm/min beyond the first stage.

Displacement:
Uncertainty on the displacement axial l measured on the level of the surface of the ground compared to a
fixed reference mark must be lower or equal to 0,2 mm.

7 Expression of the results

The data reduction and the exploitation of the measurements consist in determining the parameters
characteristic of a Phicometer shearing test (see appendix D):
- angle of friction measured in situ i;
- cohesion measured in situ c i

With this intention, it is appropriate to respect the following stages:


- determination of the limit pulling force to each stage;
- determination with each stage of corrected radial pressure pc , and the shear stress , according to the
method described in the appendix D, D.1 paragraph;
- layout of the graphs of presentation (see paragraph 8.2 and appendix D D.2 paragraph) and
adjustment of the right-hand side of shearing;
- determination of the in situ angle of friction i and in situ cohesion c i (see appendix D).

7.1.1 Curve of shearing - mechanical characteristics i and ci

In a diagram having for X-coordinates radial pressures pc and ordinates limit shear stresses , each stage
of test is represented by a point. Conventionally, a straight line is adjusted (best fit) on the representative
points of shearing (see figure 1a).

15
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

shear stress
i

ci

radial pressure

pc
a) Coulomb envelope and characteristic ci, i

injected volume
during shearing

Vf-Vd

radial pressure

pc
b) Curve of expansion of the probe during pulling phases
injected volume

ci
significant zone used for
determination of parameters
radial pressure

pc
c) Evolution of injected volume according to the radial pressure

Figure 5: Shearing curves

Three zones can be generally distinguished on this diagram:


- setting the contact of the probe with the borehole wall while making the annular protuberances
penetrate the soil;
- shearing under several pressures maintained constant. Pressure applied in the probe remaining lower
than the pressure corresponding at the end of the pseudoelastic phase within the meaning of the
Mnard pressuremeter test;

16
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

- shearing under higher radial pressure that corresponding to the end of the pseudoelastic phase.

Only the intermediate part of the curve is used for the adjustment of a straight line. This line is the failure
envelope or the Coulomb envelope. The slope of this line is the tangent of the angle of friction measured in
situ with Phicometer i the ordinate at the origin of this line is the cohesion measured in situ with the
Phicometer c i.

7.1.2 Associated curves

Two other curves are associated that allow to determine the Coulomb envelope:
- the expansion curve of the probe which represents the difference in volume injected into the probe
between the beginning and the end of the phase of pulling (Vf - Vd), according to the stage of pressure
pc (see figure 3b);
- the loading curve which represents the evolution of volume injected V in the measuring cell according
to pressure pc of the successive stages (see figure 3c).

8 Reporting the results

8.1 Phicometer test sheet

The test sheet comprises the following minimal indications:


- the reference to the present standard EN ISO 22476-1;
- identification number of the borehole in which the test was carried out;
- depth of the test compared to the top of borehole;
- the name of the operators who carried out the test and the one of the company;
- the references of the apparatus used and the calibrations of the probe;
- method and tools used to prepare the test cavity and the depth reached;
- the date and the hour of the beginning of the test;
- the distance between the top of the borehole and the level of the pressure tap;
- depth of water or mud in drilling right before introduction of the probe and right after extraction of this one;
- the type of membrane (normal or reinforced);
- table of the volume, pressure readings carried out during the preliminary phase at 30 s and 60 s at each
pressure loading level;
- table of the readings carried out under each phase of shearing (stage of pressure, initial volume injected
with 30 s and 1 min (V d), reading of the pulling force T function of the axial displacement of probe l); final
volume injected Vf at the end of the phase of pulling;
- state of filling between the annular protuberance of the probe after retrieving the probe to the surface and
if possible the nature of the extracted soil.

An example of Phicometer test sheet is given on figure 6. A copy of the latest calibration sheet shall be
available with the test sheets that refer to.

17
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Company:_________________________________ Phicometer shearing test


_________________________________________ conforming to EN ISO 22476-6
File No:______________ Location:____________
Borehole N:______________________________
____________________ Job site:_____________
Drilling rig:___________ Drilling tool:__________ Drilling realised
____________________ ____________________ between _____ m and ______m
before testing
Altitude of control unit depth water table Fluid elevation in Test elevation:
z c =_____________m z w =_____________m borehole at the beginning z s =_____________m
of test
Calibration probes n______Date : ____/____/____ Test : ____Dates : ___/____/____Hour :___:___:__
Preliminary phase of the test
If z s z e ph = 10( z c z e ) in kPa Effort to support the string of rods and the probe
before anchoring
If z s > z e p h = 10( z c z s ) in kPa
ph = ____________________________kPa z elevation liquid pressure reading
Paliers p______kPa
zc
0, 3 pl < 1 MPa 50 elevation of control unit

pl 1MPa 100
Pressure Pressure volume injected
hold pr V
3
30 V3060 0
ground surface level
N cm 60 3
cm ze level of fluid in borehole
0 0 0
zw
ground water table

zs phicometer
probe

Calibration curve of the probe


Curves pressure - Volume
Injected volume cm3
700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0
pz MPa
pz=pr+ph
a) Preliminary phase

Figure 6: Phicometer shearing test Example

18
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Company:__________________ Phicometer shearing test


__________________________ conforming to EN ISO 22476-6
File No:______________ Location:____________
Borehole N:_____________
____________________ Job site:_____________
Apparatus measures Calibration date:_____________
Elevation of test: _________ m
Reference:_________ Reference:__________________
Shearing phase of the test
pz=pr+ph with (see preliminary phase) ph=________________________
Hold (1) l mm T Hold (2) l mm T Hold (3) l mm T
pr
pz
V(30s)
Vd(60s)
Vf
Vf -Vd
Tl
Hold (4) l mm T Hold (5) l mm T Hold (6) l mm T
pr
pz
V(30s)
Vd(60s)
Vf
Vf -Vd
Tl
Hold (7) l mm T Hold (8) l mm T
pr State of the probe:____________
pz
V(30s)
Nature of soils in annular
Vd(60s)
protuberance:_______________
Vf
Vf -Vd Observations:_____________
Tl
Volume in:__________
Units Pressure in:_________ pr=0 1 mn
Operators:___________________
Pulling force in:______ 2mn
b) shearing phase

Figure 6: Phicometer shearing test - Example (end)

8.2 Phicometer test report

The report for a single Phicometer shearing test shall include :

1) A signed copy of the Phicometer test sheet which was recorded during the test ;

2) A Phicometer test report presented in the form of a graphic document comprising the following
information:
- reference to the present standard document ISO EN 22476-6;
- identification number of the borehole in which the test was carried out;
- elevation of the test;
- the type of borehole drilling technique and drilling tool used;
- elevation of water or mud in borehole;
- a graph representing the values of measured according to corrected pressure pc on the level of the
probe for each stage and the representation of the straight lines of shearing adjusted (see figure 3a);
- values of the in situ angle of friction i and in situ cohesion c i selected (see figure 3a);
- a graph representing the dilation of the cell measuring (Vf - Vd) to each stage according to pc (see figure
3b);

19
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

- a graph representing the evolution of V volume the measuring cell according to pc during the course of the
whole of the stages of shearing (see figure 3c).
The Company representative shall sign each Phicometer test report.

8.3 Phicometer log

All information are presented in the form of a document (see figure 7) which comprises the following
minimal indications:
- the reference to the present standard document ISO EN 22476-6;
- the reference of the location plan and possibly planimetric co-ordinates of the borehole;
- the altimetric coordinate of the ground surface compared to a reference mark;
- elevation of water or mud in the borehole and the level of the water table if it is known;
- the technique and tool used for drilling as well as the date;
- information on the grounds met during drilling (nature of the grounds, depth of the layers, possibly
resistance to the advance of the drilling tool);
- a representation according to the depth of the following numerical values:
- in situ angle of friction i;
- in situ cohesion c i
The in situ angle of friction is expressed by a whole number of degrees. In situ cohesion is expressed in
kiloPascal with, at most, two significant figures.

- observations related to the realisation of the tests as well as the incidents and the operational details not
envisaged in this document and likely to have an influence on the results.

20
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Phicometer shearing test File Nr:______________________


conforming to EN ISO 22476-6 Borehole Nr:__________________

Borehole location plan


Date:___________________________________ X:______________________
Location:________________________________ Y:______________________
Z:______________________
Depth Soil profile Tools Resistance to drilling In situ angle of friction i In situ cohesion
BGL (m) in degrees c i in kPa
10 20 30 40 -

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9
Observations Company Name
Signature

Figure 7: Phicometer test report Example

9 Bibliography

G PHILIPPONNAT "Le phicomtre. Essai de cisailleemnt direct in situ), Revue Franaise de


Geotechnique, No 35, 1986.

21
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

G PHILIPPONNAT Le phicomtre. Analyse de 200 essais de cisaillement in situ, Annales de I' ITBTP,
No 460, December 1987.
G PHILIPPONNAT, Mr. ZERHOUNI Interprtation de lessai au phicomtre", Revue Franaise de
Geotechnique, No 65, October 1993.

22
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Appendix A
Characteristic of the Phicometer probe
(normative)

Table A.1: Characteristics of the Phicometer probe


Characteristic references symbols units value tolerance
225 +1
Length l mm
-1
58 +1
Outside diameter ds,0 mm
-1
Annular 10
protuberance (-) 0
Measuring number
zone Depth of 5 +0,2
hd mm
protuberance -0,2
Expansible
Thickness of 1,0
shear hear +0,0
protuberance at ld,1 mm
-0,2
edge
Thickness of 3,5
+0,2
protuberance at ld,2 mm
-0,2
base
slot length (along 710 +10
lf mm
tube axis) -0
Guard zone
33 +2
Internal diameter df mm
-2
Distance between 328 +10
lc mm
ring -0
Steel core
31,5 +0,5
Outside diameter dc mm
-0,5
Measuring
Standard
(for V=500cm3)
pe kPa 260
cell pressure loss
membrane
Outside diameter ds mm 79 ds 84
Reinforced
(for V=500cm3)
pe kPa 380
pressure loss
membrane
Outside diameter ds mm 80 ds 85

23
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Appendix B
Calibrations Checks
(normative)

B.1 Calibration of the measuring apparatus

The instruments and means of measurement are managed in accordance with the regulations laid down by
the National Office of Metrology (BNM).

The periodicity of the checks is defined in agreement with an accredited laboratory or a similar institute.

The use of pressure gauges and sensors implies their connection with a standard every six months at the
maximum. The certificate comprises the date of the last connection, the name of the organization which
carried out it and the limiting date before which must be carried out next connection. If the examination of
the results proved, in particular, stability in time, the periodicity could be modified in agreement with the
organization inspector.

The device of measurement of volume is subjected to a calibration at the time of its startup with a length of
pipe lower than 1 m.

B.2 Calibrations and controls of correct operation to realize on building site

Of controls are to be carried out on the material of measurement, and the probe intended for the tests.

B.2.1 Means of measurement

Every month or all the 100 tests and for each period of freezing, the proof of the accuracy of the pressure
gauges, dynamometers or of the pressure pick-ups must be made, for example by using a material of
reference. The official reports are filed in accordance with the rules in force in the firm.

B.2.2 Phicometer probe

The membrane is selected according to the characteristics of the nature of the ground subjected to test
(see C.3 appendix). For the beginning of any working station, for each change of configuration of the probe
of the Phicometer and each time that a modification of connection between the controller pressure-volume
and the probe int ervenes, it is advisable to carry out controls and measurements described hereafter.
This series of measurements is undertaken only when the probe was prepared to be inserted into the
ground, i.e. when it was equipped the suitable length of lines and that was carried out to the purging of
bubbles contained in the cell and the circuit of injection of the liquid while turning over the probe so that the
air cock is in top.

B.2.2.1 Probe pre-inflation


3
The probe is inflated three times at least at the open air by injecting 600 cm of liquid. Then the volume
measuring device is zeroed whilst keeping the centre of the measuring cell level with the pressure
transducer.

B.2.2.2 Pressure loss of the Phicometer probe

Procedure of calibration the probe is placed near the pressure regulator, i.e. out of the ground, as indicated
on figure B.1.

24
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

z elevation
elevation of control unit
zc

phicometer
zs probe
ground surface level
0

Figure B.1: Location of the probe and the pressure regulator during the calibration

3 3 3
The volumeter is regulated successively of 200 cm to 600 cm by steps of 100 cm .
Once injected the fixed volume, liquid of injection circuit is closed and the corresponding pressure pr is
th
measured. The outside diameter ds of the probe is measured with middle height on the 5 ring (starting
from the top) and always on the same diameter by means of a slide caliper.
A probe in good condition must present the criteria of pressure loss and dilation given in B.1 table where ds
is expressed in millimetres and pe in kilo Pascal.

table B.1: Criteria for controlling the state of the probe


3
Volume injected cm normal membrane reinforced membrane
68 d s 72 68 d s 72
200
p e 180 p e 220
79 d s 84 80 d s 85
500
p e 260 p e 380
3
If, for a volume of 500 cm injected into the probe:
- the diameter is higher than the values given in table B.1, it is necessary to dismount the probe, to clean
it and start again the calibration;
- the diameter is lower than the values given in table B.1, the probe should be rejected.
Figure 6.2 presents an example of a calibration sheet.

25
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Company:_______________________________
File Nr:__________________________________ location:_______________ Calibration
Site:__________________
date:____________________________________ Probe reference Nr:
hour:____________________________________ normal reinforced
z c =________m operator
z s =________m
pe=pr+10(z c -z s )
avec pe et pr en
kPa et z c, zs en m
observation:
__________

Probe calibration Control criteria


injected pressure outside diameter
volume calculate measured at the
read injected
V d mid height standard membrane reinforced membrane
3 pr volume
cm pe of probe ds
kPa V
kPa mm 3
cm
0 ds pe ds pe
200 mm kPa mm kPa
300 200 68 d s 72 180 68 d s 72 220
400
500 500 79 d s 84 260 80 d s 85 380
600
- if pe higher than the values above the probe is
out of service
3
- To dismount the probe if for V = 500 cm the
diameter are higher than the values above.
600
injected volume R injected volume
600
cm3 cm3 N N
R R
500 500

400 N 400

300 R N N
300
200 R R
200
100 N calibration pressure 100
pe outside diameter
0 ds
100 200 300 0
kPa
60 70 80 mm
180 220 260 380
N standard membrane N standard membrane 68 72 79 84

R reinforced membrane R reinforced membrane 68 72 80 85

Figure B.2: Calibration of the probe - Example

B.2.2.3 Examination of the calibration

Starting from preceding measurements, two curves are plotted (see figure B.2):

- the curve pressure-volume: V = f(pe) which is traced with correction if necessary (i.e. when the probe was
not placed on the same level as the pressure transducer) the measurement of pressure ph of the hydraulic
head ph between z c and z s (see figure B.1).
The pressure loss of the probe pe is, after corrections:

26
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

pe = ph + pr
Where:
ph represents the hydraulic head correction;
pr represents the pressure read with the pressure gauge.

- the curve volume-diameter: V = g(d) is also traced.


In order to allow an analysis of the test on computer, the curve V = f(pe) is adjusted by the least squares
method such as:
b
V = a.(pe) ;

a and b being coefficients for adjustment.


The curve V = g(ds ) in the same way is adjusted with a linear law

V = c.ds + d;

c and d being coefficients for adjustment.


The volume loss of the circuit is neglected.

27
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Appendix C
Execution of the Phicometer borehole
(normative)

C.1 Drilling the Phicometer borehole

The drillings techniques depend on type of soils, their state and the existence or not of a water table.
Informative table C.1 presents various usual methods with their condition of uses.

Table C.1 Drilling techniques for Phicometer boreholes

Preboring
By Rotary Drilling* By Driving
Soil Type
HA HAS CFA DTS CD RP DS VDS
Medium stiff clay R R R R n O n n
Stiff clay and marl R R R O n n
Silt :
- above ground R O R O n O O O
water table

- below water table n R n O O O n n


Loose sand :
- above ground R R O O n O n n
water table
- below water table n R O n O n n
Medium dense and n
dense sand R R R R R O O
Coarse soils : gravels, O R O O
cobbles, boulder clay O
Weathered rock R R O R O O
Soft rock

R Recommended HA Hand auger (post-hole or Iwan type) DS Driven sampler


O Tolerated HAS Hand auger with slurry circulation VDS Vibro driven sampler
n Not tolerated CFA
DTS
Continuous flight auger (in the dry)
Disintegrating tool (drag bit) with slurry
STDT Slotted tube with inside
desagregating tool
Not suited circulation DST Driven slotted tube
CD Core drilling TWS Thin wall sampler
RP Rotary percussion

* Rotation speed should not exceed 60 rpm and tool diameter be more than 1,15 ds
+ If necessary, a preliminary drilling at a small diameter (dt < ds ) may be performed.
Slurry circulation : pressure should not exceed 500 kPa or the flow exceed 15 l/min.
If the borehole is carried out by rotary drilling, the pressure on the drilling tool, measured at the top of string
of rods shall be less than 200 kPa.
t With special care means add a guard tube at the toe of the slotted tube, carry out the tests while going
down, keep slurry level in casing higher than water table level.

28
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

C.2 Length of borehole before inserting the probe


The length of borehole to be realised before placing of the probe is such as it does not exceed the position
of the probe during the test of more than 1,5 metre. Only one test is carried out by drilling level. After each
test, the probe is retrieved from borehole in order to be cleaned.

C.3 Choice of the membrane


The reinforced membrane is used only in soils presenting coarse grain with asperities being likely to cause
burstings of the normal membrane during the test. In all the other cases, a normal membrane is used.

C.4 Time between drilling and testing


The test shall be performed immediately after completion of drilling.
The possible casing and reboring of highest part of the borehole are stopped at least 1 m above the level of
the test.

29
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

Appendix D
Determination of the characteristics of shearing
(normative)

D.1 Determination of the values of t and pc

For each stage of shearing, couples of values: ultimate stress of shearing of the ground T and conventional
radial constraint PC, are given as follows:

D.1.1 Corrections of the radial pressure

During one test to a given elevation z s , radial pressure pc being exerted on the ground is equal to the
pressure pr read with the pressure regulator, increased by the hydrostatic pressure ph as defined in
paragraph 6.3.1 and decreased by the pressure loss of the probe pe for volume injected corresponding
(see B.2.2.3 paragraph):

pc = pr+ ph - pe

D.1.2 Calculation of the limit shear stress

The shear stress is provided by the formula:

Tl
=
.l s .d s
with for a pressure level:
- Tl is the limit pulling force;
- ls is the conventional length of the zone of measurement of probe l = 23 cm;
- ds is the diameter of the probe corresponding to the volume injected at the end of the stage Vf , it results
from the calibration curve V = g(ds ) (see paragraph B.2.2.3).

D.2 Determination of the shearing curve of the ground

D.2.1 Determination of the significant zone of the shearing curve

The three graphs described in paragraphs 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 are plotted (see figure 3).
If values of (Vf - Vd) for first stages go while decreasing appreciably and if the corresponding points of the
graph V = f (pc ) form a curve with the concavity directed towards the axis of the pc , they is that the
penetration of the rings in the intact ground is insufficient and the corresponding points must be eliminated
for the adjustment of the Coulomb envelope.
If, for the last stages, the general shape of the curve V = f (pc ) has a concavity directed towards the axis of
, it is an indication of creep of soil under the exerted radial pressures; the corresponding points must also
be eliminated.

D2.2 Determination of the in situ shearing parameters i and ci

The line of shearing is adjusted by the method of least squares on the remaining significant points of the
curve = (pc ) which must correspond to a variation of Vf volume according to pc taking a linear form. So
that the test can be interpreted validly, it is necessary that there remain at least three significant points.
The in situ angle of friction i measured in place with the Phicometer is defined by the slope of the
Coulomb envelope.
In situ cohesion c i, measured in place with the Phicometer is the ordinate at the origin of this line.

30
CEN/TC 341/WG 5 N 52 E

NOTE : This page is not part of the standard. It was in the first draft and will be put
somewhere in the text if necessary or will be deleted.

Phicometer sounding
The whole series of sequential operations necessary to perform Phicometer testing at a given location: i.e.
drilling a Phicometer borehole and performing Phicometer shear tests in this borehole.

The information collected thanks to drilling as well as the characteristics obtained during the tests allows:
- to appreciate the succession of the soil horizons and possibly their nature;
- to define strength properties to shearing usable in the dimensioning of certain works;
- to contribute to the evaluation of side friction on inclusions placees in the ground.

Phicometer borehole
The realisation of a test requires the execution of a borehole possibly tubed up to the level of test to
introduce the probe into the ground. The choice between the various techniques and drilling tools is carried
out according to the nature of the soil and the state of the grounds layers met, in order to minimise the
amount of disturbance to the borehole wall (see appendix C).
The direct installation of the probe by soil displacement is excluded.

Phicometer shear test


After inserting the probe in the predrilled hole (see figure 1.a) at the desired level (see figure 1.b), the test is
performed as follows:
- a preliminary phase which consists in expanding the probe under a sufficient pressure to engage the
annular protuberances of the probe in the borehole wall (see figure 1 c);
- a shear phase which includes a succession of shearings, under increasing radial pressures (see figure
1 d).
At each stage of shearing, a radial pressure is imposed in the probe and is maintained constant. Then, the
probe is subjected to a gradually increased pulling force so that the rate of axial displacement of the probe
is kept constant.

Volume of the cell of the probe


The measuring cell of the probe is a cylinder of initial volume Vs which corresponds to the reading of the
zero on the volume indicator.
When an additional volume liquid V is injected into the probe, the latter, while inflating, comes in contact
with the ground in which the annular protuberances engage.

Conventional limit shear stress


Taken measurements make it possible to determine under a radial pressure pc a conventional limit pulling
force Tl.
The conventional limit shear stress under this radial pressure pc is given by the formula:
Tl
=
.l s .d s

31