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IJIRST International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 3 | Issue 11 | April 2017

ISSN (online): 2349-6010

3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using


Numerical Relay
Anand B. Gediya Hitisha M. Modha
UG Student UG Student
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat
(India) (India)

Kuldeep V. Khant Prof. Jaydipsinh B. Zala


UG Student Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat
(India) (India)

Prof. Yashit D. Tita


Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat (India)

Abstract
This paper presents the protection of 3 phase induction motor by using numerical relay. This project is based on the study of
three phase induction motor and its faults and other is study of numerical relay. This protection system is different to others
because of numerical relay. Motor is connected to the three phase supply with help of contactor and MCB. Contactor is provided
continuous supply to the motor. CT is connected to the numerical relay. When any fault is occurred in the motor at that time
relay is sense the fault and sends a tripping signal to the contactor. Contactor opens the contacts and motor is disconnected from
supply. Now motor is perfectly protected.
Keywords: IM, LEDX Numerical Relay, OFF and ON buttons, Main Contactor Coil, MCB, Indicating Lamps, CTs,
CBCT
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

The main object of this control board is to provide protection against different types of faults for 3-phase Induction Motor. There
are different types of sources for causes faults in power system. To provide protection to entire power system from the faults,
Different protection scheme are used. There are different types of conventional relays use for protecting power system. But the
Numerical overcome the other relays in matters of features. Numerical relay is Multifunction relay which can protect, control,
and use for metering. Here we using numerical relay for protection of 3- Induction motor for various faults likes thermal
overloading, under voltage, over voltage etc.
Induction Motor and its Faults:
The induction motors are the most widely used ac motor due to its low cost, simple and extremely rugged construction, high
reliability, high efficiency, reasonably good power factor, low maintenance cost and simple starting arrangement. The
mechanical system in industries like paper mill, sugar industry and cement industries are driven by induction motors. Thus the
values of current, voltage and temperature of winding and speed of motor become very important factor for driving the system.
These factors directly affect the performance of motor. [1]
Faults in Induction Motor:
Thermal Overloading
Single Phasing
Ground Faults
Over & Under Voltage
Loss Of Load
Voltage & Current Unbalance
Reverse Phase Sequence

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 11/ 006)

Rotor Faults
Stalling (Locked Rotor)

II. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF NUMERICAL RELAY

Fig. 1: Block Diagram of Numerical Relay

Description:
The microprocessor based relay works on numbers that quantities value of signal its works on numbers so thats why its known
as Numerical Relay In which fig CT/PT are used to sense the current and voltage of the section of power system. Anti aliasing
filter is low pass filter which is used for filtering of frequency components. Output is given to the sample and hold circuit where
signal is held for specific duration of time. Now this value is given to ADC. The operation of ADC and sample and hold circuit
and also multiplexer is controlled by microprocessor through respective program. One signal is given to the multiplexer input
channel S1. Microprocessor sends a signal to the ADC for starting of conversion (SC) and ADC coverts the analog signal to the
digital form. After microprocessor reads the end of conversion (EC) signal is used to known A to D conversion is complete or
not. In case of abnormal condition is produced then microprocessor sends a signal to the trip circuit. After trip circuit opens the
CB. [4]

III. POWER CIRCUIT

Working:
Here, figure shows the power circuit for protection of three phase induction motor. In which three phase power supply is given to
the induction motor with the help of MCB and main contactor. There are three CTs are used in the circuit which are connected to
the three phase supply. CTs secondaries are connected to the LEDX numerical relay. CBCT is also used in the power circuit for
protection against earth fault to the motor. Main contactor is connected to the relay contact through OFF and ON buttons. When
we press the push button then main contactor coil A1 and A2 is energized and NO contact (M) is closed. Now motor is
connected to the supply while the moment ON indication lamp lights up, hence motor runs on the three phase supply. When any
fault occurs in the motor then the fault is sensed by the relay. Relay sends a tripping signal to the contactor. Now motor is
connected from the supply at that time trip indication lamp lights up. Now relay acts as sensing element and main contactor acts
as circuit breaker of the system.

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 11/ 006)

Fig. 2: Power Circuit

Components:
There are following components are used in our project.
LEDX Numerical Relay
Main Contactor
CTs
CBCT
OFF and ON Push Buttons
Indicating Lamps
LEDX Numerical Relay:

Fig. 3: LEDX Numerical Relay

This type of relay is microprocessor based relay. The relay display is 7 segment LED type. Its range 0.4 to 12.5amp. This is
used for multiple functions like self-checking of faults, self-testing, adaptive capability, communication etc.

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
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Main Contractor:

Fig. 4: Main Contactor

The main contactor is used to give continuous supply to the motor through its hold on contact (M). The main contactor coil (A1
& A2) is energized whenever the OFF and ON push buttons are closed [3]
CTs:

Fig. 5: CT

There are 3 CTs are used in the project. CTs are connected to the three phase supply and the CTs secondaries are connected to
the numerical relay CTs provides possibilities of standardizing the instruments and relays to a few rated currents.
CBCT:
[3]
Here one CBCT is used in our project. CBCT is provided the protection against earth faults to the motor.

Fig. 6: CBCT

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 11/ 006)

OFF and ON Push Buttons:

Fig. 7: OFF and ON Push Buttons

There are two push buttons are used ON and OFF. The off push button is a normally close contact and ON push button is
normally open contact. For connecting the motor to the supply OFF push button is used and ON push button is used to
disconnect the motor from supply [3]
Indicating Lamps:

Fig. 8: Indicating Lamps

There are two indicating lamps are used in the project. First lamp is used for ON indication and second is used for trip indication
[3]

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
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Flow of design:

Fig. 9: Flow of Design

IV. SIMULATION

Simulation of Over Current:

Fig. 10: Simulation of Over Current

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 11/ 006)

We have used a system from the sample model of the MATLAB software. As shown in the fig. the function block is used which
behaves as an over current relay. This over current relay is having inverse time characteristic whose time of operation decreases
with the increase in the fault current. The constant source block acts as a current plug setting multiplier which is a pick value for
the relay to operate. As shown in the Fig. the relay output is directly given to the three phase breaker which operates in event of
fault. The display block will show the time of operation for clearing the fault from the system. [7]
Project Model:

Fig. 11: Project model

V. FUTURE SCOPE:

This project may be used in various other ways, due to its cheap and cost efficient design. With help of numerical relay we can
easily provide better protection in the industry. In the future we can learn about protection algorithms and microprocessor
interfacing. In the future we can also make the protection system innovative and unique.

VI. CONCLUSION

After worked on this protection system we can easily conclude that with help of numerical relay we get different features like
self-checking of fault, adaptive capacity, self-monitoring, easily programmability, better communication, low burden and
multiple functions. Numerical relay is different than other relay because of by using numerical relay we have done all the faults
occurs in the motor and how to minimize these faults. This protection system helps in the industrial purpose how the motors can
be protected.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We take an opportunity to acknowledge and extend our heartfelt gratitude to our guide. Who is most responsible for help us to
complete this work. They showed to different ways to approach the problems and the need to be persistent to accomplish over
goal. Them discernment in the choice of topic, them confidence in us when we doubted over self and them admirable guidance
are some cogent reasons that make us aver that without them support this system would be a chimera. We all also thankful to
Director and Head of Department of Electrical Engineering for cooperation and support us to complete this work. We can also
like to express thanks to DSTC, JUNAGADH providing necessary facilities.

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3 Phase Induction Motor Protection using Numerical Relay
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 11/ 006)

REFERENCE
[1] Modern method for protection of Induction motor using microcontroller And Wi-Fi technology. www.IJIRCCE.com
[2] Fault detection of induction motor Using current and vibration monitoring. www.IJACR.com
[3] Power system and switchgear B.ram TMH Publication.
[4] Modern power system protection by Divyesh Oza TMH Publication
[5] Bill Schulz, Thet Myint, Pat Deibel Induction Motor protection Cooper power relay may 5, 2003
[6] Microcontroller based protection and Control of three phase induction motor. www.IJRITCC.com
[7] Ransick M.P., "Numeric protective relay basics," Industry Applications Conference, 1998. Thirty-third IAS Annual Meeting. The 1998 IEEE, vol.3, no.,
pp.2342, 2347 vol.3, 12-15 Oct. 1998
[8] Switchgear protection and power System Sunil S. Rao TMH Publication.

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