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ABB drives

Technical guide book


2 ABB drives I Technical guide book
ABB drives - Technical guide book

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE64514482 REV F 17.6.2011

Technical guide book I ABB drives 3


4 ABB drives I Technical guide book
Contents

1. Direct torque control explains what DTC is; why and how it
has evolved; the basic theory behind its success; and the features 1
and benefits of this new technology.

2. EU Council Directives and adjustable speed electrical


power drive systems is to give a straightforward explanation
of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive
2
Systems.

3. EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power


drive system assists design and installation personnel when 3
trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC
Directive in the users systems and installations when using AC
drives.
4
4. Guide to variable speed drives describes basics of different
variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial
processes.

5. Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems explains


5
how to avoid damages.

6. Guide to harmonics with AC drives describes harmonic


distortion, its sources and effect, and also distortion calculation 6
and evaluation with special attention to the methods for reducing
harmonics with AC drives.

7. Dimensioning of a drive system. Making dimensioning 7


correctly is the fastest way of saving money. Biggest savings can
be achieved by avoiding very basic mistakes. These dimension-
ing basics and beyond can be found in this guide.

8. Electrical braking describes the practical solutions available


8
in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back
into electrical energy.

9. Guide to motion control drives gives an overview of high 9


performance drives and motion control.

10. Functional safety guide introduces the Machinery Directive


and the standards that must be taken into account when design- 10
ing a machine, in order to ensure operational safely.

Technical guide book I ABB drives 5


ABB drives

Technical guide No. 1


Direct torque control -
the worlds most advanced
AC drive technology
2 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1
Technical guide No. 1
Direct torque control - the worlds most
advanced AC drive technology
1

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE58056685 REV C 6.6.2011

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 3


4 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General ..............................................................................................7 1
This manuals purpose ........................................................................7
Using this guide .................................................................................7
What is a variable speed drive? ...........................................................8
Summary ...........................................................................................8

Chapter 2 - Evolution of direct torque control ...........................................8


DC motor drives .................................................................................9
Features ........................................................................................9
Advantages ...................................................................................9
Drawbacks ..................................................................................10
AC drives - Introduction ....................................................................10
AC drives - Frequency control using PWM .........................................11
Features ......................................................................................11
Advantages .................................................................................12
Drawbacks ..................................................................................12
AC drives - Flux vector control using PWM ........................................12
Features ......................................................................................12
Advantages .................................................................................13
Drawbacks ..................................................................................13
AC drives - Direct torque control .......................................................14
Controlling variables .....................................................................14
Comparison of variable speed drives .................................................15

Chapter 3 - Questions and answers ........................................................17


General ............................................................................................17
Performance ....................................................................................18
Operation .........................................................................................24

Chapter 4 - Basic control theory .............................................................28


How DTC works ...............................................................................28
Torque control loop...........................................................................29
Step 1 Voltage and current measurements ....................................29
Step 2 Adaptive motor model .......................................................29
Step 3 Torque comparator and flux comparator .............................30
Step 4 Optimum pulse selector ....................................................30
Speed control ..................................................................................31
Step 5 Torque reference controller .................................................31
Step 6 Speed controller ...............................................................31
Step 7 Flux reference controller ....................................................31

Chapter 5 - Index .....................................................................................32

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 5


6 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1
Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
Direct torque control - or DTC - is the most advanced AC drive
1
technology developed by any manufacturer in the world.

This technical guides purpose


The purpose of this technical guide is to explain what DTC is;
why and how it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success;
and the features and benefits of this new technology.

While trying to be as practical as possible, this guide does require


a basic understanding of AC motor control principles.

It is aimed at decision makers including designers, specifiers,


purchasing managers, OEMs and end-users; in all markets such
as the water, chemical, pulp and paper, power generation, mate-
rial handling, air conditioning and other industries.

In fact, anyone using variable speed drives (VSD) and who would
like to benefit from VSD technology will find this technical guide
essential reading.

Using this guide


This guide has been designed to give a logical build up as to
why and how DTC was developed.

Readers wanting to know the evolution of drives from early DC


techniques through AC to DTC should start at chapter 2 (page 8).

For those readers wanting answers about DTCs performance,


operation and application potential, please go straight to chapter
3 (page 17) Questions and answers.

For an understanding of DTCs basic control theory, turn to


page 28.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 7


Chapter 2 - Evolution of direct torque
control

What is a variable speed drive?


To understand the answer to this question we have to understand
that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is to control
the flow of energy from the mains to the process.

Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. Two


physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and
speed. To control the flow of energy we must therefore, ultimately,
control these quantities.

In practice, either one of them is controlled and we speak of


torque control or speed control. When the VSD operates
in torque control mode, the speed is determined by the load.
Likewise, when operated in speed control, the torque is deter-
mined by the load.

Initially, DC motors were used as VSDs because they could eas-


ily achieve the required speed and torque without the need for
sophisticated electronics.

However, the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology


has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent
performance of the DC motor, such as fast torque response and
speed accuracy, while using rugged, inexpensive and mainte-
nance free AC motors.

Summary
In this section we look at the evolution of DTC, charting the four
milestones of variable speed drives, namely:

DC motor drives 9
AC drives, frequency control, PWM 11
AC drives, flux vector control, PWM 12
AC drives, direct torque control 14

We examine each in turn, leading to a total picture that identifies


the key differences between each.

8 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Evolution of direct torque control

DC motor drives

Figure 1: Control loop of a DC motor drive

Features

Field orientation via mechanical commutator


Controlling variables are armature current and field current,
measured DIRECTLY from the motor
Torque control is direct

In a DC motor, the magnetic field is created by the current through


the field winding in the stator. This field is always at right angles to
the field created by the armature winding. This condition, known
as field orientation, is needed to generate maximum torque. The
commutator-brush assembly ensures this condition is maintained
regardless of the rotor position.

Once field orientation is achieved, the DC motors torque is easily


controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the
magnetising current constant.

The advantage of DC drives is that speed and torque - the two


main concerns of the end-user - are controlled directly through
armature current: that is the torque is the inner control loop and
the speed is the outer control loop (see Figure 1).

Advantages

Accurate and fast torque control


High dynamic speed response
Simple to control

Initially, DC drives were used for variable speed control because


they could easily achieve a good torque and speed response
with high accuracy.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 9


Evolution of direct torque control

A DC machine is able to produce a torque that is:

Direct - the motor torque is proportional to the armture


current: the torque can thus be controlled directly and
accurately.
Rapid - torque control is fast; the drive system can have
a very high dynamic speed response. Torque can be
changed instantaneously if the motor is fed from an ideal
c u r re n t s o u rc e . A v o l t a g e f e d d r i v e s t i l l h a s a f a s t
response, since this is determined only by the rotors
electrical time constant (ie, the total inductance and
resistance in the armature circuit)
Simple - field orientation is achieved using a simple
mechanical device called a commutator/brush assembly.
Hence, there is no need for complex electronic control
circuitry, which would increase the cost of the motor
controller.

Drawbacks

Reduced motor reliability


Regular maintenance
Motor costly to purchase
Needs encoder for feedback

The main drawback of this technique is the reduced reliability


of the DC motor; the fact that brushes and commutators wear
down and need regular servicing; that DC motors can be costly
to purchase; and that they require encoders for speed and posi-
tion feedback.

While a DC drive produces an easily controlled torque from zero


to base speed and beyond, the motors mechanics are more
complex and require regular maintenance.

AC drives - Introduction
Small size
Robust
Simple in design
Light and compact
Low maintenance
Low cost

The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been


partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the
DC drive, such as fast torque response and speed accuracy,
while utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor.

10 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Evolution of direct torque control

AC drives - Frequency control using PWM

Figure 2: Control loop of an AC drive with frequency control


using PWM

Features

Controlling variables are voltage and frequency


Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator
Flux provided with constant V/f ratio
Open-loop drive
Load dictates torque level

Unlike a DC drive, the AC drive frequency control technique


uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling
variables, namely voltage and frequency.

Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator


which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motors
stator windings. This technique is called pulse width modulation
(PWM) and utilises the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards
the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant.
The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train
dictating both the voltage and frequency.

Significantly, this method does not use a feedback device which


takes speed or position measurements from the motors shaft
and feeds these back into the control loop.

Such an arrangement, without a feedback device, is called an


open-loop drive.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 11


Evolution of direct torque control

Advantages

Low cost
No feedback device required - simple

Because there is no feedback device, the controlling principle


offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical
AC induction motors.

This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require


high levels of accuracy or precision, such as pumps and fans.

Drawbacks

Field orientation not used


Motor status ignored
Torque is not controlled
Delaying modulator used

With this technique, sometimes known as scalar control, field


orientation of the motor is not used. Instead, frequency and volt-
age are the main control variables and are applied to the stator
windings. The status of the rotor is ignored, meaning that no
speed or position signal is fed back.

Therefore, torque cannot be controlled with any degree of ac-


curacy. Furthermore, the technique uses a modulator which
basically slows down communication between the incoming
voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to
respond to this changing signal.

AC drives - Flux vector control using PWM

Figure 3: Control loop of an AC drive with flux vector control using PWM

Features

Field-oriented control - simulates DC drive


Motor electrical characteristics are simulated - motor model
Closed-loop drive
Torque controlled INDIRECTLY

12 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Evolution of direct torque control

To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor,


ie, to perform the field orientation process, the flux-vector drive
needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside
the AC induction motor.

With flux vector PWM drives, field orientation is achieved by elec- 1


tronic means rather than the mechanical commutator/brush
assembly of the DC motor.

Firstly, information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back


rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by
means of a pulse encoder. A drive that uses speed encoders is
referred to as a closed-loop drive.

Also the motors electrical characteristics are mathematically


modelled with microprocessors used to process the data.

The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical


quantities such as voltage, current and frequency, which are the
controlling variables, and feeds these through a modulator to the
AC induction motor. Torque, therefore, is controlled INDIRECTLY.

Advantages

Good torque response


Accurate speed control
Full torque at zero speed
Performance approaching DC drive

Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed, giving it


a performance very close to that of a DC drive.

Drawbacks

Feedback is needed
Costly
Modulator needed

To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy,


a feedback device is required. This can be costly and also adds
complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor.

Also, a modulator is used, which slows down communication


between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the
need for the motor to respond to this changing signal.

Although the motor is mechanically simple, the drive is electri-


cally complex.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 13


Evolution of direct torque control

AC drives - Direct torque control

Figure 4: Control loop of an AC drive using DTC

Controlling variables

With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB, field


orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor
theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using
modulation. The controlling variables are motor magnetising
flux and motor torque.

With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a ta-


chometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position
of the motor shaft.

DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware avail-


able and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how
a motor works.

The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10


times faster than any AC or DC drive. The dynamic speed ac-
curacy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop
AC drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback.

DTC produces the first universal drive with the capability to


perform like either an AC or DC drive.

The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and


advantages of DTC.

14 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Evolution of direct torque control

Comparison of variable speed drives


Let us now take a closer look at each of these control blocks
and spot a few differences.

Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Figure 2: Control loop with


drive frequency control

Figure 3: Control loop with flux Figure 4 Control loop of an AC


vector control drive using DTC

The first observation is the similarity between the control block of


the DC drive (Figure 1) and that of DTC (Figure 4).

Both are using motor parameters to directly control torque.

But DTC has added benefits including no feedback device is


used; all the benefits of an AC motor (see page 10); and no
external excitation is needed.

Table 1: Comparison of control variables

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 15


Evolution of direct torque control

As can be seen from table 1, both DC drives and DTC drives use
actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. Thus, the
dynamic performance is fast and easy. Also with DTC, for most
applications, no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed back
a speed or position signal.

Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control


blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences, the main
one being that no modulator is required with DTC.

With PWM AC drives, the controlling variables are frequency and


voltage which need to go through several stages before being
applied to the motor. Thus, with PWM drives control is handled
inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor.

16 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Chapter 3 - Questions and answers

General
What is direct control?
1
Direct torque control - or DTC as it is called - is the very latest
AC drive technology developed by ABB and is set to replace
traditional PWM drives of the open- and closed-loop type in the
near future.

Why is it called direct torque control?

Direct torque control describes the way in which the control of


torque and speed are directly based on the electromagnetic state
of the motor, similar to a DC motor, but contrary to the way in
which traditional PWM drives use input frequency and voltage.
DTC is the first technology to control the real motor control
variables of torque and flux.

What is the advantage of this?

Because torque and flux are motor parameters that are being
directly controlled, there is no need for a modulator, as used in
PWM drives, to control the frequency and voltage. This, in effect,
cuts out the middle man and dramatically speeds up the response
of the drive to changes in required torque. DTC also provides
precise torque control without the need for a feedback device.

Why is there a need for another AC drive technology?

DTC is not just another AC drive technology. Industry is de-


manding more and existing drive technology cannot meet these
demands.

For example, industry wants:

Better product quality which can be partly achieved with


improved speed accuracy and faster torque control.
Less down time which means a drive that will not trip un-
necessarily; a drive that is not complicated by expensive
feedback devices; and a drive which is not greatly affected
by interferences like harmonics and RFI.
Fewer products. One drive capable of meeting all appliction
needs whether AC, DC or servo. That is a truly universal
drive.
A comfortable working environment with a drive that pro-
duces much lower audible noise.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 17


Questions and answers

These are just some of the demands from industry. DTC can
deliver solutions to all these demands as well as bringing new
benefits to many standard applications.

Who invented DTC?

ABB has been carrying out research into DTC since 1988 foll ow-
ing the publication of the theory in 1971 and 1985 by German
doctor Blaschke and his colleague Depenbrock. DTC leans on
the theory of field oriented control of induction machines and
the theory of direct self control. ABB has spent over 100 man
years developing the technology.

Performance
What are the main benefits of DTC technology over traditional AC drive
technology?

There are many benefits of DTC technology. But most signifi-


cantly, drives using DTC technology have the following excep-
tional dynamic performance features, many of which are obtained
without the need for an encoder or tachometer to monitor shaft
position or speed:

Torque response: - How quickly the drive output can reach


the specified value when a nominal 100 percent torque refer-
ence step is applied.
For DTC, a typical torque response is 1 to 2 ms below 40 Hz
compared to between 10-20 ms for both flux vector and DC
drives fitted with an encoder. With open loop PWM drives (see
page 11) the response time is typically well over 100 ms. In
fact, with its torque response, DTC has achieved the natural
limit. With the voltage and current available, response time
cannot be any shorter. Even in the newer sensorless drives
the torque response is hundreds of milliseconds.

Accurate torque control at low frequencies, as well as full


load torque at zero speed without the need for a feedback
device such as an encoder or tachometer. With DTC, speed
can be controlled to frequencies below 0.5 Hz and still provide
100 percent torque right the way through to zero speed.

Torque repeatability: - How well the drive repeats its out-


put torque with the same torque reference command. DTC,
without an encoder, can provide 1 to 2 percent torque repeat-
ability of the nominal torque across the speed range. This is
half that of other open-loop AC drives and equal to that of
closed-loop AC and DC drives.

18 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Questions and answers

Motor static speed accuracy: - Error between speed ref-


erence and actual value at constant load. For DTC, speed
accuracy is 10 percent of the motor slip, which with an 11
kW motor, equals 0.3 percent static speed accuracy. With
a 110 kW motor, speed accuracy is 0.1 percent without en-
coder (open-loop). This satisfies the accuracy requirement 1
or 95 percent of industrial drives applications. However, for
the same accuracy from DC drives an encoder is needed.

In contrast, with frequency controlled PWM drives, the


static speed accuracy is typically between 1 to 3 percent.
So the potential for customer process improvements is sig-
nificantly higher with standard drives using DTC technology.

A DTC drive using an encoder with 1024 pulses/revolution


can achieve a speed accuracy of 0.01 percent.

Dynamic speed accuracy: - Time integral of speed devia-


tion when a nominal (100 percent) torque speed is applied.
DTC open-loop dynamic speed accuracy is between 0.3
to 0.4%sec. This depends on the gain adjustment of the
controller, which can be tuned to the process requirements.

With other open-loop AC drives, the dynamic accuracy is eight


times less and in practical terms around 3%sec.If we furnish
the DTC controller with an encoder, the dynamicspeed accu-
racy will be 0.1%sec, which matches servo drive performance.

What are the practical benefits of these performance figures?

Fast torque response: - This significantly reduces the speed


drop time during a load transient, bringing much improved
process control and a more consistent product quality.

Torque control at low frequencies: - This is particularly-


beneficial to cranes or elevators, where the load needs to be
started and stopped regularly without any jerking. Also with
a winder, tension control can be achieved from zero through
to maximum speed. Compared to PWM flux vector drives,
DTC brings the cost saving benefit that no tachometer is
needed.

Torque linearity: - This is important in precision applications


like winders, used in the paper industry, where an accurate
and consistent level of winding is critical.

Dynamic speed accuracy: - After a sudden load change, the


motor can recover to a stable state remarkably fast.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 19


Questions and answers

FEATURE RESULT BENEFIT


Good motor speed Allows speed to be Investment cost
accuracy without controlled better than savings. Increased
tachometer. 0.5 percent accuracy. reliability. Better
No tachometer needed process control.
in 95 percent of all Higher product
applications. quality. Leads to a
true universal drive.
Excellent torque Drive for demanding Similar performance
control without applications. Allows to DC but without
tachometer. required torque at tachometer. Reduced
all times. Torque mechanical failures
repeatability 1 percent. for machinery. Less
Torque response time downtime. Lower
less than 5ms. investment.
Full torque at zero No mechanical brake Investment cost
speed with or without needed. Smooth saving. Better
tachometer/encoder. transition between load control. Can
drive and brake. Allows use AC drive and
drive to be used in motor instead of
traditional DC drive DC. Standard AC
applications. motor means less
maintenance and
lower cost.
Control down to zero Servo drive Cost effective, high
speed and position performance. performance torque
with encoder. drive; provides
position control
and better static
accuracy. High
accuracy control with
standard AC motor.

Table 2: Dynamic performance features and benefits offered by DTC


technology

Apart from excellent dynamic performance figures, are there any other
benefits of DTC drive technology?

Yes, there are many benefits. For example, DTC drives do not
need a tachometer or encoder to monitor motor shaft speed
or position in order to achieve the fastest torque response ever
from an AC drive. This saves initial cost.

20 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Questions and answers

FEATURE RESULT BENEFIT


Rapid control DC link Power loss ride through. Drive will not trip. Less
voltage. down time. Avoids
process interruptions.
Less waste in continuous
process. 1
Automatic start Starting with motor Can start into a motor
(Direct restart). residual inductance that is running without
present. No restarting waiting for flux to decay.
delay required. Can transfer motor from
line to drive. No restart.
No interruptions on
process.

Automatic start Synchronises to rotating No process interruptions.


(Flying start). motor. Smooth control of
machinery. Resume
control in all situations.

Flux braking. Controlled braking Investment cost savings.


between two speed Better process control.
points. No delay required as
in DC braking. Can be
used for decelerating to
other than zero speed.
Reduced need for brake
chopper and resistor.

Flux optimization. Motor losses minimised. Controlled motor.


Less motor noise.

Self identification/ Tuning the motor to drive Easy and accurate


Auto-tuning. for top performance. set-up. No parameter
tuning required. Less
commissioning time.
Guaranteed starting
torque. Easy retrofit for
any AC system.

No predetermined Low noise. No fixed Cost savings in acoustic


switching pattern of carrier, therefore barriers in noise sensitive
power devices. acoustic noise applications. No harmful
reasonable due to mechanical resonances.
white noise spectrum. Lower stresses in
gearboxes, fans, pumps.

No limits on maximum Can accelerate and Better process control.


acceleration and decelerate in quickest
deceleration rate. time possible without
mechanical constraints.

Table 3: User features and benefits offered by DTC technology

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 21


Questions and answers

Also a DTC drive features rapid starting in all motor electro-


magnetic and mechanical states. The motor can be started
immediately without delay.

It appears that DTC drives are most advantageous for high performance
or demanding drive applications. What benefits does DTC bring to
standard drives?

Standard applications account for 70 percent of all variable speed


drives installed throughout industry. Two of the most common
applications are in fans and pumps in industries like heating, ven-
tilating and air conditioning (HVAC), water and food and drinks.

In these applications, DTC provides solutions to problems like


harmonics and noise.

For example, DTC technology can provide control to the drive


input line generating unit, where a conventional diode bridge is
replaced with a controlled bridge.

This means that harmonics can be significantly reduced with


a DTC controlled input bridge. The low level current distortion
with a DTC controlled bridge will be less than a conventional
6-pulse or 12-pulse configuration and power factor can be as
high as 0.99.

For standard applications, DTC drives easily withstand huge and


sudden load torques caused by rapid changes in the process,
without any overvoltage or overcurrent trip.

Also, if there is a loss of input power for a short time, the drive
must remain energised. The DC link voltage must not drop below
the lowest control level of 80 percent. To ensure this, DTC has
a 25 microseconds control cycle.

What is the impact of DTC on pump control?

DTC has an impact on all types of pumps. Because DTC leads


to a universal drive, all pumps, regardless of whether they are
centrifugal or constant torque type (screw pumps) can now be
controlled with one drive configuration, as can aerators and
conveyors. DTC technology allows a drive to adjust itself to
varying application needs.

For example, in screw pumps a drive using DTC technology


will be able to adjust itself for sufficient starting torque for a
guaranteed start.

22 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Questions and answers

Improved power loss ride through will improve pumping avail-


ability during short power breaks.

The inherent torque control facility for DTC technology allows


the torque to be limited in order to avoid mechanical stress on
pumps and pipelines. 1
What is the impact of DTC technology on energy savings?

A feature of DTC which contributes to energy efficiency is a


development called motor flux optimization.

With this feature, the efficiency of the total drive (that is controller
and motor) is greatly improved in fan and pump applications.

For example, with 25 percent load there is up to 10 percent total


energy efficiency improvement. At 50 percent load there can be
2 percent total efficiency improvement.

This directly impacts on operating costs. This feature also sig-


nificantly reduces the motor noise compared to that generated
by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive.

Has DTC technology been used in many installations?

Yes, there are hundreds of thousands of installations in use. For


example, one of the worlds largest web machine manufacturers
tested DTC technology for a winder in a film finishing process.

The Requirement:
Exact torque control in the winder so as to produce high quality
film rolls.

The Solution:
Open-loop DTC drives have replaced traditional DC drives and
latter flux vector controlled AC drives on the centre drives in the
rewind station.

The Benefits:
Winder station construction simplified and reliability increased.
The cost of one tachometer and associated wiring equals that
of one 30 kW AC motor. This provides significant investment
cost savings.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 23


Questions and answers

Operation
What is the difference between DTC and traditional PWM methods?

Frequency control PWM and flux vector PWM

Traditional PWM drives use output voltage and output fre-


quency as the primary control variables but these need to be
pulse width modulated before being applied to the
motor.

This modulator stage adds to the signal processing time and


therefore limits the level of torque and speed response
possible from the PWM drive.

Typically, a PWM modulator takes 10 times longer than DTC to


respond to actual change.

DTC control

DTC allows the motors torque and stator flux to be used as


primary control variables, both of which are obtained directly
from the motor itself. Therefore, with DTC, there is no need for
a separate voltage and frequency controlled PWM modulator.
Another big advantage of a DTC drive is that no feedback device
is needed for 95 percent of all drive applications.

Why does DTC not need a tachometer or position encoder to tell it


precisely where the motor shaft is at all times?

There are four main reasons for this:

The accuracy of the motor model (see page 29).


Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor (see
page 29).
The fast processing speeds of the DSP and optimum pulse
selector hardware (see page 30).
No modulator is needed (see page 14).

24 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Questions and answers

When combined to form a DTC drive, the above features pro-


duce a drive capable of calculating the ideal switching voltages
40,000 times every second. It is fast enough to control individual
switching pulses. Quite simply, it is the fastest ever achieved.

Once every 25 microseconds, the inverters semiconductors are 1


supplied with an optimum switching pattern to produce the
required torque. This update rate is substantially less than any
time constants in the motor. Thus, the motor is now the limiting
component, not the inverter.

What is the difference between DTC and other sensorless drives on the
market?

There are vast differences between DTC and many of the sensor-
less drives. But the main difference is that DTC provides accurate
control even at low speeds and down to zero speed without
encoder feedback. At low frequencies the nominal torque step
can be increased in less than 1ms. This is the best available.

How does a DTC drive achieve the performance of a servo drive?

Quite simply because the motor is now the limit of performance


and not the drive itself. A typical dynamic speed accuracy for
a servo drive is 0.1%s. A DTC drive can reach this dynamic
accuracy with the optional speed feedback from a tachometer.

How does DTC achieve these major improvements over traditional


technology?

The most striking difference is the sheer speed by which DTC


operates. As mentioned above, the torque response is the
quickest available.

To achieve a fast torque loop, ABB has utilised the latest high
speed signal processing technology and spent 100 man years
developing the highly advanced motor model which precisely
simulates the actual motor parameters within the controller.

For a clearer understanding of DTC control theory, see


page 28.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 25


Questions and answers

Does a DTC drive use fuzzy logic within its control loop?

No. Fuzzy logic is used in some drives to maintain the accelera-


tion current within current limits and therefore prevent the drive
from tripping unnecessarily. As DTC is controlling the torque
directly, current can be kept within these limits in all operating
conditions.

A drive using DTC technology is said to be tripless. How has this been
achieved?

Many manufacturers have spent years trying to avoid trips during


acceleration and deceleration and have found it extraordinarily
difficult. DTC achieves tripless operation by controlling the actual
motor torque.

The speed and accuracy of a drive which relies on computed rather


than measured control parameters can never be realistic. Unless you are
looking at the shaft, you are not getting the full picture. Is this true with
DTC?

DTC knows the full picture. As explained above, thanks to the so-
phistication of the motor model and the ability to carry out 40,000
calculations every second, a DTC drive knows precisely what the
motor shaft is doing. There is never any doubt as to the motors
state. This is reflected in the exceptionally high torque response
and speed accuracy figures quoted on pages 18 and 19.

Unlike traditional AC drives, where up to 30 percent of all switch-


ings are wasted, a drive using DTC technology knows precisely
where the shaft is and so does not waste any of its switchings.

DTC can cover 95 percent of all industrial applications. The


exceptions, mainly applications where extremely precise speed
control is needed, will be catered for by adding a feedback de-
vice to provide closed loop control. This device, however, can
be simpler than the sensors needed for conventional closed
loop drives.

Even with the fastest semiconductors some dead time is introduced.


Therefore, how accurate is the auto-tuning of a DTC drive?

Auto-tuning is used in the initial identification run of a DTC drive


(see page 29). The dead time is measured and is taken into ac-
count by the motor model when calculating the actual flux. If we
compare to a PWM drive, the problem with PWM is in the range
20 to 30 Hz which causes torque ripple.

26 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Questions and answers

What kind of stability will a DTC drive have at light loads and low speeds?

The stability down to zero speed is good and both torque and
speed accuracy can be maintained at very low speeds and light
loads. We have defined the accuracies as follows:
1
Torque accuracy: Within a speed range of 2 to 100 percent
and a load range of 10 to100 percent, the torque accuracy is
2 percent.

Speed accuracy: Within a speed range of 2 to 100 percent and


a load range of 10 to 100 percent, the speed accuracy is 10
percent of the motor slip. Motor slip of a 37 kW motor is about
2 percent which means a speed accuracy of 0.2 percent.

What are the limitations of DTC?

If several motors are connected in parallel in a DTC-controlled in-


verter, the arrangement operates as one large motor. It has no
information about the status of any single motor. If the number
of motors varies or the motor power remains below 1/8 of the
rated power, it would be best to select the scalar control macro.

Can DTC work with any type of induction motor?

Yes, any type of asynchronous, squirrel cage motor.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 27


Chapter 4 - Basic control theory

How DTC works


Figure 5, below, shows the complete block diagram for direct
torque control (DTC).

Walk around the block

Figure 5: DTC comprises two key blocks: Speed control and torque
control

The block diagram shows that DTC has two fundamental sec-
tions: the torque control loop and the speed control loop. Now
we will walk around the blocks exploring each stage and showing
how they integrate together.

Lets start with DTCs torque control loop.

28 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Basic control theory

Torque control loop

Step 1 Voltage and current measurements

In normal operation, two motor phase currents and the DC bus


voltage are simply measured, together with the inverters switch
positions.

Step 2 Adaptive motor model

The measured information from the motor is fed to the Adaptive


motor model.

The sophistication of this motor model allows precise data about


the motor to be calculated. Before operating the DTC drive, the
motor model is fed information about the motor, which is collected
during a motor identification run. This is called auto-tuning and
data such as stator resistance, mutual inductance and saturation
coefficients are determined along with the motors inertia. The
identification of motor model parameters can be done without
rotating motor shaft. This makes it easy to apply DTC technol-
ogy also in retrofits. The extremely fine tuning of motor model is
achieved when the identification run also includes running the
motor shaft for some seconds.

There is no need to feed back any shaft speed or position with


tachometers or encoders if the static speed accuracy require-
ment is over 0.5 percent, as it is for most industrial applications.

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 29


Basic control theory

This is a significant advance over all other AC drive technology.


The motor model is, in fact, key to DTCs unrivalled low speed
performance.

The motor model outputs control signals which directly represent


actual motor torque and actual stator flux. Also shaft speed is
calculated within the motor model.

Step 3 Torque comparator and flux comparator

The information to control power switches is produced in the


torque and flux comparator.

Both actual torque and actual flux are fed to the comparators
where they are compared, every 25 microseconds, to a torque
and flux reference value. Torque and flux status signals are cal-
culated using a two level hysteresis control method.

These signals are then fed to the optimum pulse selector.

Step 4 Optimum pulse selector

Within the optimum pulse selector is the latest 40 MHz digital


signal processor (DSP) together with ASIC hardware to determine
the switching logic of the inverter. Furthermore, all control signals
are transmitted via optical links for high speed data transmission.

This configuration brings immense processing speed such that


every 25 microseconds the inverters semiconductor switching
devices are supplied with an optimum pulse for reaching, or
maintaining, an accurate motor torque.

The correct switch combination is determined every control


cycle. There is no predetermined switching pattern. DTC has
been referred to as just-in-time switching, because, unlike
traditional PWM drives where up to 30 percent of all switch
changes are unnecessary, with DTC each and every switching
is needed and used.

This high speed of switching is fundamental to the success of


DTC. The main motor control parameters are updated 40,000
times a second. This allows extremely rapid response on the
shaft and is necessary so that the motor model (see step 2) can
update this information.

It is this processing speed that brings the high performance fig-


ures including a static speed control accuracy, without encoder,
of 0.5 percent and the torque response of less than 2 ms.

30 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Basic control theory

Speed control

Step 5 Torque reference controller

Within the torque reference controller, the speed control output


is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage.

It also includes speed control for cases when an external torque


signal is used. The internal torque reference from this block is
fed to the torque comparator.

Step 6 Speed controller

The speed controller block consists both of a PID controller


and an acceleration compensator. The external speed reference
signal is compared to the actual speed produced in the motor
model. The error signal is then fed to both the PID controller and
the acceleration compensator. The output is the sum of outputs
from both of them.

Step 7 Flux reference controller

An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the flux refer-
ence controller to the flux comparator block. The ability to control
and modify this absolute value provides an easy way to realise
many inverter functions such as flux optimization and flux brak-
ing (see page 21).

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 31


Chapter 5 - Index
A flux braking 21, 31
acceleration compensator 31 flux comparator 30, 31
accuracy control 20 flux optimization 21, 23, 31
AC drive 1, 3, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, flux reference controller 31
19, 20, 23, 26, 30 flux vector 12, 15, 18, 23, 24
AC drive using DTC 14, 15 flux vector control 12, 15
AC drive with flux vector control 12 food 22
AC motor 20 frequency control 11, 15, 24
aerators 22 fuzzy logic 26
air condition 22
ASIC 30 G
auto-tuning 21, 26, 29 gearbox 21

B H
Blaschke 18 harmonics 22
braking 21, 31 heating 22
HVAC 22
C hysteresis control 30
closed-loop 12, 18
closed-loop drives 12 I
commissioning 21 inertia 29
control cycle 30 initial cost 20
controlled input bridge 22 L
controlling variables 16 load torque 18, 22
control loop 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 26, 28, 29, 31 loss of input power 22
control variables 15, 24 low frequencies 18, 19, 25
conveyors 22
costs 20, 21, 23 M
maintenance 20
D mechanical brake 20
DC bus voltage 29, 31 modulator 16, 24
DC drive 9, 12, 15, 16, 20 motor flux optimization 23
DC link voltage 21, 22 motor model 12, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31
DC motor 9 motor noise 21, 23
Depenbrock 18 motor static speed 19
diode bridge 22 motor torque 30
direct torque control 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, mutual inductance 29
15, 16, 28
drive input line generating unit 22 N
DSP 24, 30 noise 21, 22, 23
DTC 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, nominal torque step 25
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 O
dynamic speed accuracy 19, 25 operating cost 23
E optical link 30
electronic controller 16 optimum pulse selector 30
elevators 19 output frequency 24
encoders 16, 20, 24, 25, 29, 30 output voltage 24
energy savings 23 P
external speed reference 31 paper industry 19
external torque signal 31 PID controller 31
F pipelines 23
fan 21, 22, 23 position control 20
feedback device 18, 24, 26 position encoder 24
field oriented control 18 power factor 22
film finishing 23 power loss ride through 21, 23

32 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1


Index

predetermined switching pattern 21, 30 V


pump 21, 22, 23 variable speed drives 15, 22
PWM 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 23, 24, 26, 30 ventilating 22 1
PWM AC drive 16, 23, 24, 26, 30 voltage 16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31
R W
reliability 20 water 22
restart 21 web machine 23
retrofit 21 winder 19, 23
S Z
saturation coefficient 29 zero speed 18, 20, 21, 25, 27
scalar control 27
sensorless 25
servo drive 20, 25
signal processing 24, 25
signal processing time 24
speed 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31
speed accuracy 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 29
speed control 26, 28, 30, 31
speed controller 31
speed control loop 28
speed control output 31
speed response 24
stability 27
start 21, 22, 28
starting 21, 22
static accuracy 20
static speed accuracy 19, 29
stator 24, 29, 30, 31
stator flux 24, 30, 31
stator resistance 29
stress 21, 23
switching pattern 21, 25, 30
switching pulses 25
T
tacho 16, 20, 24, 29
tachometer 16, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29
time constant 25
torque 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31
- control 9, 12, 14, 20, 23, 28
- loop 25
- repeatability 20
- response 20, 25, 26, 30
- ripple 26
torque and flux comparator 30
torque comparator 30, 31
torque control loop 28
torque reference controller 31
trip 21, 22, 26
U
universal 20, 22

Technical guide No. 1 | Direct torque control 33


34 Direct torque control | Technical guide No. 1
Contact us

3AFE58056685 REV C EN 6.6..2011 #15700


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 2


EU Council Directives and
adjustable speed electrical power
drive systems
2 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2
Technical guide No. 2
EU Council Directives and adjustable speed
electrical power drive systems

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE61253980 REV D 29.4.2011

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 3


4 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................9
This guides purpose...........................................................................9
How to use this guide .......................................................................10
Responsibilities and actions .........................................................10
Tickboxes ....................................................................................10
Cross-referencing ........................................................................10 2
Chapter 2 - General questions and answers............................................11
What are these EU Council Directives? ..............................................11
How does EMC affect me? ...............................................................11
What is EMC? ..................................................................................11
What is an electromagnetic environment? ..........................................12
How does electromagnetic interference show up? .............................12
What emissions can drives cause? ....................................................12
How is this emission seen? ...............................................................13
How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? ....................................13
Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? ...........13
If a drive is CE marked, I need not worry. True? ..................................13

Chapter 3 - CE marking ...........................................................................15


What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives? .........................15
What is CE marking for? ...............................................................15
Is CE marking a quality mark? ......................................................16
What is the legal position regarding CE marking? ..........................16
What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives? ....16
If I buy a CE marked drive, will I meet the technical requirements
of the directives? .........................................................................16
What happens if, as an end-user, I put together a system -
do I have to put CE marking on? ..................................................17
What about spare parts that I buy for a drive?
Do I negate the CE mark if I replace a component? .......................17
If drives are classed as components, on subassemlies they
cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE mark. Is this true? ..............17
In summary ......................................................................................18
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the end users ..........................................................18
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler ........................18
Finished appliance .......................................................................19
Finished appliance intended for the end users ...............................19
Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler 19
Systems (Combination of finished appliances) ...............................19

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 5


All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus,
apply to the combination as a whole. ..........................................................20
Apparatus ...................................................................................20
Fixed installation ..........................................................................20
Equipment ...................................................................................20

Chapter 4 - Purchasing decisionsfor PDSs .............................................21


What you need to know and do.........................................................21
If you are a machine builder buying a PDS... ......................................25
Actions you must take ..................................................................26
When buying a PDS... .......................................................................28
Path 1 .........................................................................................29
Actions you must take ..................................................................29
Path 2 .........................................................................................30
Actions you must take ..................................................................30
Path 3 .........................................................................................30
Actions you must take ..................................................................31
If you are an end-user buying a CDM/BDM or PDS ............................31
...You have the following responsibilities ........................................31
Actions you must take ..................................................................32
If you are a panel builder buying a CDM/BDM ....................................32
Additional actions ........................................................................34
If you are a distributor buying a CDM/BDM... .....................................35
If you are an installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS... ...........................35

Chapter 5 - Terminology ..........................................................................36


Technical documentation (TD) ...........................................................36
What is technical documentation? ................................................36
Why is technical documentation deemed to be important?.............36
Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation? 37
What is the shelf life of technical documentation? ..........................37
How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? ........................37
Can drive manufacturers help more? .............................................37
How to make up a TD .......................................................................38
1. Description of the product ........................................................38
2. Procedures used to ensure product conformity .........................38
3. If chosen a statement from notified body ...................................39
4. Actions by the notified body .....................................................39
Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects) .....................................40
What is a technical file? ...............................................................40
How to make up a technical file.........................................................40
Drawings and diagrams ................................................................40
Health and safety .........................................................................40
Machine design ...........................................................................40
Other certificates required ............................................................40
Certificate of Adequacy .....................................................................41
What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? .............................41
How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy ............................................41

6 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Statement ........................................................................................41
When the statement is needed .....................................................41
How to obtain a report ......................................................................42
Declaration of conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) ...43
How to obtain a Declaration of conformity .....................................43
What is a Declaration of incorporation? .........................................44
Is there no way out of this type of declaration? ..............................45
What a Declaration of incorporation contains ................................45
Type certification ..............................................................................46
How to obtain type certification .........................................................46 2
Chapter 6 - Authorities and bodies ..........................................................47
Competent authority .........................................................................47
Notified body ...................................................................................47

Chapter 7 - Standards and directives ......................................................48


Directive or standard? .......................................................................48
Harmonised standards for PDSs .......................................................48
How to recognise a European standard ........................................49
Your questions answered ..................................................................50
Which standards directly relate to drives? .....................................50
What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? ............................50
What are the solutions to radiated emissions? ...............................51
Do I have to conform to the standards? ........................................51
Can I be fined for not conforming? ...................................................51
The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 .......................................51
PDS of category C1: ....................................................................52
PDS of category C2: ....................................................................52
PDS of category C3: ....................................................................53
PDS of category C4: ....................................................................53
Examples concerning applications of different approaches .............54
Machinery Directive 98/37/EC ...........................................................55
How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? .......................55
Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? ............................56
Low Voltage Directive .......................................................................56
How does the LVD affect my drive? ..............................................56
Why is the Declaration of conformity important? ............................57
EMC Directive ..................................................................................57
How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? ...............................57
Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking? .........................58
Summary of responsibilities ..........................................................59
Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives ..............................60

Index .......................................................................................................61

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 7


8 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2
Chapter 1 - Introduction

This guides purpose


The aim of this Technical guide No. 2* is to give a straight-forward
explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to
power drive systems (PDSs). For an explanation of the terminolo-
gy of PDSs, see pages 21 and 22.
2
While Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the subject of
most concern within the industry, it must be realised that the
EMC Directive is only part of the overall EU initiative on common
safety standards.

It is the intention of this guide to offer users of AC or DC power


drive systems - whether machine builders, system designers,
distributors, OEMs, end-users or installers - some clear practical
guidelines and courses of action.

*Notes

1 The content of this technical guide is ABB Oys, Drives in-


terpretation of events as of July 2007. However, we reserve
the right to develop and evolve these interpretations as more
details become available from notified bodies (see chapter 6),
competent authorities (see chapter 6), organisations and from
our own tests.

2 Other technical guides available in this series include:

Technical guide No. 1 -


Direct torque control (3AFE58056685)

Technical guide No. 3 -


EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power drive
system (3AFE61348280)

Technical guide No. 4 -


Guide to variable speed drives (3AFE61389211)

Technical guide No. 5 -


Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
(3AFE64230247)

Technical guide No. 6 -


Guide to harmonics with AC drives (3AFE64292714)

Technical guide No. 7 -


Dimensioning of a drive system (3AFE64362569)

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 9


Introduction

Technical guide No. 8 -


Electrical braking (3AFE64362534)

Technical guide No. 9 -


Guide to motion control drives (3AFE68695201)

Technical guide No. 10 -


Functional safety (3AUA0000048753)

How to use this guide


The guide is divided into 7 sections.

Section 4 looks at purchasing decisions for PDSs. Please note


the following about the structure of this section:

Responsibilities and actions

Each type of purchaser is offered an explanation of their respon-


sibilities. This is for awareness. No action is needed.

Following the responsibilities is a set of actions. If the purchaser


follows these actions, step-by-step, then conforming to the
relevant directives will be straightforward.

Tickboxes

Alongside the actions are tickboxes. Purchasers can photocopy


the relevant pages and use them as a checklist with each item
being ticked off as it is achieved.

Cross-referencing

Because of the complexity of conforming to each directive, this


guide inevitably carries a lot of cross-references to other sec-
tions. In the margin you will come across:

Defined on page XX

You are advised to turn to the page number reference.

You will also notice other references within the text. These can
be referred to if the item is unclear but is not essential for achiev-
ing compliance.

Key point:
Within the text you will see:

Key point
These are key observations that must be observed.

10 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Chapter 2 - General questions and answers

It is very important that users of PDSs fully understand all the


various rules and regulations and how they apply to PDSs. That
is the purpose of this guide.

What are these EU Council Directives?

It is important to realise that EMC cannot be divorced from other 2


European legislation. So before answering this question, we need
to look at the other legislation and how it affects the purchase
and installation of drives.

Quite simply there are three directives that mainly affect a drives
safety against risks and hazards. These are:

Directive Mandatory Page

Machinery Directive 1995-01-01 pg 55


Low Voltage Directive 1997-01-01 pg 56
EMC Directive 1996-01-01 pg 57

But more on each of these directives later. Let us first explain


EMC and look at some concerns of the industry.

How does EMC affect me?

From January 1, 1996 the EU Councils Electromagnetic Com-


patibility Directive (89/336/EEC and its successor 2004/108/EC)
has been compulsory. It applies to all electrical and electronic
equipment sold within the EU and affects virtually all manufactur-
ers and importers of electrical and electronic goods.

Key point:
Electrical equipment that does not conform to the regulations
may not be sold anywhere in the EEA (European Economic Area).

What is EMC?

EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. It is the ability of


electrical/electronic equipment to operate problem-free within
an electromagnetic environment. Likewise, the equipment must
not disturb or interfere with any other products or systems within
its locality.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 11


General questions and answers

What is an electromagnetic environment?

The electromagnetic environment is everywhere but it varies


from place to place. The reason is that there are many different
sources of disturbance which can be natural or man-made.

Natural sources consist of electrical discharge between clouds,


lightning or other atmospheric disturbances. While we cannot
influence these sources we can protect our products and sys-
tems from their effects.

Man-made disturbances are those generated by, for example,


electrical contacts and semiconductors, digital systems like mi-
croprocessors, mobile radio transmitters, walkie-talkies, portable
car telephones and power drive systems.

Such a variety of equipment, each with its own emission char-


acteristics, is often used so near to other electrical equipment
that the field strengths they create may cause interferences.

Key point:
It is important that all PDSs are immune to these natural and
man-made disturbances. While drives manufacturers strive to
make their products immune, the directive lays down minimum
standards for immunity, thereby ensuring all manufacturers
achieve the same basic level.

How does electromagnetic interference show up?

Electromagnetic interference shows up in a variety of ways.


Typical examples of interference include a poorly suppressed
automobile engine or dynamo; an electric drill causing patterning
on the TV screen; or crackling from an AM radio.

The microprocessor and power electronic component, switch


rapidly and therefore, can cause interference at high frequencies,
unless proper precautions are taken.

What emissions can drives cause?

The normal operation of any drive involves rapid switching of


high voltages and this can produce radio frequency emission. It
is this radiation and emission that have been seen to have the
potential to disturb other circuits at frequencies below 200 MHz.

Modern equipment contains considerable communications and


other digital electronics. This can cause considerable emissions
at frequencies above 200 MHz.

12 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


General questions and answers

How is this emission seen?

The main emission is via conduction to the mains. Radiation


from the converter and conducting cables is another type of
emission and it is especially demanding to achieve the radiated
emission limits.

How do I avoid electromagnetic interference?

You need to ensure two things:


2
that the equipment generates minimum emission.
that the equipment is immune to outside effects.

Key point:
In the case of power drive systems, a lot hinges on the quality
of the installation.

Electromagnetic interference needs to be conducted to earth


(ground potential) and no system can work unless it is properly
connected.

Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then?

Unfortunately, the process is not that simple. Virtually everyone


in the supply chain has a responsibility to ensure a product, a
system and an installation complies with the essential require-
ments of the EMC Directive.

The key is to clearly understand who has responsibility for what.


In the forthcoming pages we take a look at various types of
purchasers and examine the steps each should take to meet all
three directives mentioned on page 11.

Everyone from manufacturer to installer to user has a responsi-


bility in complying with EMC rules.

If a drive is CE marked, I need not worry. True?

Again this is a big misconception. Just because a drive has CE


marking does not necessarily mean it meets the EMC Directive.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 13


General questions and answers

Key point:
This will all become clear by referring to the section purchasing
decisions for PDSs, page 21.

CE marking according to the EMC Directive cannot normally be


applied to a module that is no more than a chassis with exposed
terminals.

14 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Chapter 3 - CE marking

What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives?


CE marking, shown below, is the official signature of the Dec-
laration of conformity (see pages 43 and 44) as governed by
the European Commission. It is a very specific graphic symbol
and must be separated from other marks.
2

CE marking is a system of self certification to identify equipment


that complies with the relevant applicable directives.

If a drive is the subject of several directives and, for example,


conforms with the Low Voltage Directive (see page 56), then,
from 1997, it is compulsory that it shows CE marking. That
marking shall indicate that the drive also conforms to the EMC
Directive (page 57). CE marking shall indicate conformity only
to the directive(s) applied by the manufacturer.

Key point:
NOTE: There must be technical documentation supporting the
Declaration of conformity.
For more on technical documentation, please refer to pages
from 36 to 40.

What is CE marking for?

CE marking is mainly for the benefit of authorities throughout


the EU and EEA countries who control the movement of goods.
CE marking shows that the product complies with the essential
requirements of all relevant directives, mainly in the area of techni-
cal safety, compatibility issues and conformity assessment. There
are three directives that are relevant to drives, but CE marking
may be attached to indicate compliance with one of them only
(see the previous page).

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 15


CE marking

Is CE marking a quality mark?

Most definitely not. As CE marking is self certification, you can


be assured that certification has been carried out.

What is the legal position regarding CE marking?

Anyone applying CE marking is legally liable and must be able


to prove the validity of his actions to the authorities. CE marking
confirms compliance with the directives listed in the Declaration
of conformity (see pages 43 and 44).

What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives?

As far as a purchaser of a drive is concerned, anything that car-


ries the CE mark must have a functional value to him.

Thus, a complete drive product, which can be safely cabled and


powered up on its own, shall carry the CE marking.

If I buy a CE marked drive, will I meet the technical requirements of the


directives?

In practice, you will see drive products with CE marking. But it


is important to understand just why the product was given CE
marking in the first place.

Basically a drive has no functional value. It is only of practical


use when connected to, say, a motor which in turn is connected
to a load.

Therefore, as far as the Machinery Directive is concerned a drive


cannot have CE marking unless it is part of a process compris-
ing the drive, motor and load.

As for the EMC Directive, the equipment that make up a proc-


ess include cabling, drives and motor. CE marking can only be
affixed if all items forming such a process conform to the re-
quirements of the directive. Therefore, the drive manuals include
detailed instructions for installation.

However, in the eyes of the Low Voltage Directive, a built drive


does have functionality. That is, through the drives parameters
you can program the drive and obtain an input and output signal.
Thus, if a drive conforms to the Low Voltage Directive it can carry
CE marking. Refer to pages from 58 to 60 for explanations of
the three directives.

16 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


CE marking

What happens if, as an end-user, I put together a system -


do I have to put CE marking on?

Yes. Anyone putting together a system and commissioning it is


responsible for the appropriate CE marking.

Key point:
Turn to page 31 for more details about the end-users respon-
sibilities. 2
What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE mark if
I replace a component?

Equipment supplied before the application of the directives,


can be repaired and supplied with spare parts to bring it back
to the original specification. However, it cannot be enhanced or
reinstalled without meeting the directives.

For equipment supplied after the application of the directives,


the use of the manufacturers spare parts should not negate the
CE marking. However, the manufacturer or supplier should be
consulted about upgrading, as some actions could affect the
CE marking criteria.

If drives are classed as components, on subassemlies they cannot be


EMC certified or carry a CE mark. Is this true?

You need to first understand the terminology now being applied


to drives. See below and pages 21 and 22 for this.

A complete drive module (CDM) is normally a component in a


system and as such has no functional value unless it is connected
to the motor when it becomes a PDS.

The CDM shall be CE marked if it is to be installed with simple


connections and adjustments that do not require any EMC-
knowledge.

If awareness of the EMC implication is needed in order to install


a CDM, it is not considered as an apparatus. Thus, it shall not
be CE marked according to the EMC directives.

If a CDM or BDM is intended for incorporation in PDS by profes-


sional manufacturers only (panel builders, machine builders), it
shall not be CE marked, nor is Declaration of conformity given
by the CDM/BDM manufacturer. Instead installation instructions
shall be supplied in order to help the professional manufacturers.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 17


CE marking

In summary
The EMC Directive defines equipment as any apparatus or fixed
installation. As there are separate provisions for apparatus and
fixed installations, it is important that the correct category of the
equipment is determined.

In technical-commercial classifications the following terminol-


ogy is frequently used: components, sub-assemblies, finished
appliances (ie, finished products), a combination of finished
appliances (ie, a system), apparatus, fixed installations and
equipment.

The key issue here is whether the item to be considered is for


end users or not:
If it meant for end users, the EMC directive applies
If it meant for manufacturers or assemblers, the EMC direc-
tive does not apply

Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an


apparatus by the end users

A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on


the market which are:
For incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user,
Available to end users and likely to be used by them.

These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as


apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. The instruc-
tions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly
should include all relevant information, and should assume that
adjustments or connections can be performed by an end-user
not aware of the EMC implications.

In such case the component is considered equivalent to appa-


ratus. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this
category, eg, a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit
(CDM) to the enduser who installs it into his own system. All
provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark, Declaration
of conformity and technical documentation).

Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an


apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler

Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into


an apparatus or an other sub-assembly by other manufacturers
or assemblers are not considered to be apparatus and are
therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. These components
include resistors, cables, terminal blocks, etc.

18 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


CE marking

Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category
as well, eg, basic drive module (BDM). These are meant to be
assembled by a professional assembler (eg, panel builder or
system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery
of the manufacturer of the BDM. According to the EMC Directive,
the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions
for installation and use.

Note:
The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is re-
sponsible for CE mark, Declaration of conformity and technical
2
documentation.

Finished appliance

A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical


and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers a
function and has its own enclosure. Similarly than components,
the interpretation finished appliance can be divided into two
categories: it can be intended for the end users, or for the other
manufacturers or assemblers.

Finished appliance intended for the end users

A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of


the EMC Directive, if it is intended for the end-user and thus has
to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive.

Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler

When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an in-


dustrial assembly operation for incorporation into other appa-
ratus, it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive
and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such
finished appliances.

Systems (Combination of finished appliances)

A combination of several finished appliances which is combined,


and/or designed and/or put together by the same person (ie,
the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the
market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user
and intended to be installed and operated together to perform
a specific task.

All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus, apply to the
combination as a whole.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 19


CE marking

Apparatus

Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof


made commercially available (ie, placed on the market) as a
single functional unit, intended for the end-user, and liable to
generate electromagnetic disturbance, or the performance of
which is liable to be affected by such disturbance.

Fixed installation

A particular combination of several types of apparatus, equip-


ment and/or components, which are assembled, installed and
intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.

Equipment

Any apparatus or fixed installation

20 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Chapter 4 - Purchasing decisions for PDSs

What you need to know and do


Starting on page 23, we offer a step-by-step guide relating
to your purchasing requirements for power drive systems.

Key point: 2
Before turning to page 23, you need to know the following terms
for PDSs and their component parts, which may be unfamiliar
to many users.

TERMS THAT YOU MUST KNOW


1. Basic drive module (BDM) consists of the converter
section and the control circuits needed for torque or
speed. A BDM is the essential part of the power drive
system taking electrical power from a 50 Hz constant
frequency supply and converting it into a variable form
for an electric motor.

2. Complete drive module (CDM) consists of the drive


system without the motor and the sensors mechanically
coupled to the motor shaft. The CDM also includes
the Basic Drive Module (BDM) and a feeder section.
Devices such as an incoming phase-shift transformer
for a 12-pulse drive are considered part of the CDM.

3. Power drive system, or PDS, is a term used through-


out this technical guide. A PDS includes the frequency
converter and feeding section (the CDM and BDM), mo-
tors, sensors, all cabling, filters, panels and any other
components needed to make the PDS work effectively.

Note: The load is not considered part of the PDS, but the
CDM can incorporate the supply sections and ventilation.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 21


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

HOW THE TERMS


FIT TOGETHER

Installation or part of installation

Power drive system (PDS)


CDM
(Complete drive module)

System control and sequencing

BDM (Basic drive


module)
Control section
Converter section

Feeder section
Field supply
Auxiliaries
Others

Motor & sensors

Driven equipment
or load

Now we strongly advise you turn to page 23, to discover the


type of person you are.

22 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

To make this technical guide easy to use, we have also


identified certain types of people who will be involved in
the purchasing of drives.

Please identify the type nearest to your job function and turn to
the relevant section

WHO ARE YOU?


IF THIS IS
YOU, TURN
2
NOW TO
PAGE...
Machine builder
is a person who buys either a PDS, CDM or BDM and 25
other mechanical or electrical component parts, such as a
pump, and assembles these into a machine.
Note: A machine is defined as an assembly of linked parts
or components, at least one of which moves. It includes
the appropriate actuators, control and power circuits
joined together for a specific application, in particular for
processing, treatment, moving or packaging of a material.

System designer
carries out all the electrical design of the power drive 28
system, specifying all component parts which comprise a
PDS.

End-user
is the final customer who will actually use the machine, 31
PDS or CDM/BDM.

Panel builder
constructs enclosures into which a panel builder will 32
install a variety of components, including a CDM/BDM
and sometimes the motor. However, the built enclosure
does not constitute a machine.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 23


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

WHO ARE YOU?


IF THIS IS
YOU, TURN
NOW TO
PAGE...
Distributor
acts as the sales distribution channel between the CDM/ 35
BDM manufacturer and the end-user, machine builder,
OEM, panel builder or system designer.

Installer
carries out the entire electrical installation of the PDS. 35

Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)


For the purposes of purchasing drives, an OEM will
normally fall into the category of a machine builder, system 25
designer or panel builder. Therefore, if you identify yourself
as an OEM, refer to the relevant pages for each of these 28
job functions. 32

Drive manufacturer

System designer - Distributor


p.28 - p.35
Machine
builder
or OEM Panel builder Panel builder -
- p.25 - p.32 p.32

Installer - p.35 Installer - p.35

End-user - page 31

24 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

NOTE: Before reading this section we strongly urge you to


familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 21-24.

If you are a machine builder buying a PDS...


...You have the following responsibilities:

1. Because you are building a complete machine, which in-


cludes coupling up the motors to the PDS and providing the
mechanical guarding and so on, you are liable for the total
mechanical and electrical safety of the machine as specified
2
in the Machinery Directive.

Therefore, the PDS is ultimately your responsibility. You need


to ensure that the entire PDS meets the Machinery Directive.
Only then can CE marking be applied to the whole machine.

2. You are also responsible for the electrical safety of all parts of
the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive.

3. You must ensure electrical equipment and components are


manufactured in accordance with the EMC Directive. The
manufacturer of these parts is responsible for EMC for that
particular part. Nevertheless you are responsible for EMC for
the machine. You may choose electrical parts not in accord-
ance with the EMC directive, but then you have the respon-
sibility for compliance of parts.

Note: Be aware that combining CE marked sub-assemblies


may not automatically produce an apparatus that meets the
requirements.

4. You must ensure that the PDS or its component parts carry
declarations of conformity in accordance with the electrical
safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.

5. You must be able to assure an authority and customers


that the machine has been built according to the Machinery
Directive, the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Direc-
tive. It may be necessary to issue technical documentation to
demonstrate compliance. You must keep in mind that you and
only you have responsibility for compliance with directives.

6. A Declaration of conformity according to the directives above


must be issued by the machine builder and CE marking must
then be affixed to the machine or system.

7. Any machine that does not comply must be withdrawn from


the market.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 25


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

Actions you must take

To meet the Machinery Directive (see page 55) you need to:

a. Comply with the following mechanical safety checklist.


The aim is to eliminate any risk of accident throughout the
machinerys life. This is not a complete list, the detailed
list is contained within the Machinery Directive:

Eliminate risk as far as possible, taking the necessary


protective measures if some risks cannot be eliminated.

Inform users of the residual risks; indicate whether any


training is required and stress the need for personal
protective equipment.

Machinery design, construction and instructions must


consider any abnormal use.

Under the intended conditions of use, the discomfort,


fatigue and stress of the operator must be reduced.

The manufacturer must take account of the operators


constraints resulting from the use of personal protective
equipment.

Machinery must be supplied with all essential equipment


to enable it to be used without risk.

b. Comply with the following electrical safety checklist: To ensure


the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in
the Low Voltage Directive (refer to page 56) you need to
comply with the following safety checklist, which is not
necessarily complete.

The electricity supply should be equipped with a discon-


necting device and with emergency devices for prevention
of unexpected startup.

The equipment shall provide protection of persons against


electric shock from direct or indirect contact.

26 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

The equipment is protected against the effects of:

overcurrent arising from a short circuit.

overload current.

abnormal temperatures.

loss of, or reduction in, the supply voltage.

overspeed of machines/machine elements.


2
The electrical equipment is equipped with an equipotential bond-
ing circuit consisting of the:

PE terminal.
conductive structural parts of the electrical equipment and
the machine.
protective conductors in the equipment or the machine.

The control circuits and control functions ensure safe


operation including the necessary inter-lockings,
emergency stop, prevention of automatic re-start, etc.

Defined on page 40

c. Compile a technical file for the machine, including the PDS.

Key point:
Generally, must carry CE marking and have a Declaration of
conformity.

For machines that pose a high risk of accident, a type certi-


fication (see page 46) is required from a notified body. Such
machinery is included in Annex IV of the Machinery Directive.

The type certificate issued should be included in the technical


file for the machine or safety component. Refer now to page 40.

2. Declarations of conformity from each of the


component suppliers whose products make up the PDS
and incorporate them into the technical documenta-
tion, referring to all three directives. If buying a
PDS from a system designer (see below), he should
be able to provide all declarations. If system designer
or component supplier cannot provide a Declaration
of conformity, the responsibility of demonstrating
compliance according to EMC Directive or Low
Voltage Directive lies on machine builder.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 27


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

3. Pass this technical documentation to a notified


body. The machine builder SHOULD NOT pass
the file on to an end-user. Based on the technical
documentation, obtain a Certificate of Adequacy or
technical report from a notified body.

Defined on pages 43, 45 and 46

4. Issue a Declaration of conformity for the entire


machine. Only then can you apply CE marking.

5. Pass the Declaration of conformity related to all


three directives on to the end-user of the machine.

6. Apply CE marking to the machine.

7. Congratulations! You have successfully complied with


the main requirements for safe and efficient operation
of a machine.

When buying a PDS...


...You have the following responsibilities:

1. The PDS is a complex component of the machine. Therefore,


the Machinery Directive has to be complied with by issuing
a Declaration of incorporation.

2. Because a PDS is not a machine, the only directives which


need to be complied with are the Low Voltage Directive and
the EMC Directive.

3. The responsibility for Declaration of conformity and apply-


ing CE marking rests with both the system designer and the
supplier of the component parts which make up the power
drive system.

28 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

The system designer has to decide if he is going to place his


delivery on the market as a single functional unit or not

if the answer is YES, the delivery shall be classified as a


system.

if the answer is NO, the delivery shall be classified as an


installation.

A. If the delivery is classified as a system, the system designer


has to choose one of two paths to follow:
2
Path 1
All components have EMC compliance

1. EMC behaviour is based on a components performance.

2. Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE


marking of individual complex components

3. PDS is an system according to the EMC Directive (as placed


on the market as a single functional unit).

4. The Declaration of conformity as well as the instructions for


use must refer to the system as whole. The system designer
assumes responsibility for compliance with the Directive.

Note 1: The system designer is responsible for producing the


instructions for use for the particular system as whole.
Note 2: Be aware that combining two or more CE marked sub-
assemblies may not automatically produce a system that meets
the requirements.

5. No CE marking is required for a system as whole, as long as


each part bears the CE mark.

Actions you must take

1. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of


the component suppliers.

2. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the


system.

3. Issue technical documentation for the system.

4. Issue a Declaration of conformity.

5. DO NOT issue a CE mark.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 29


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

Path 2

Components without EMC compliance

1. EMC behaviour is designed at the system level


(no accumulated cost by device specific filters etc).

2. Responsibility lies with the system designer who decides the


configuration (place or a specific filter etc).

3. PDS is a system according to the EMC Directive


(as placed on the market as a single functional unit).

4. Declaration of conformity and CE marking are required for


the system.

Actions you must take

1. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each


of the component suppliers.

2. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure


the design meets the required EMC behaviour, ie, the
location of filters.

Defined on pages 36-46

3. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the


system.

4. Issue technical documentation for the system.

5. Issue a Declaration of conformity and CE mark.

B. If the delivery is an installation, the system designer has one


path to follow:

Path 3

All components have EMC compliance

1. EMC behaviour is based on a components performance.

2. Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE


marking of individual complex components.

3. PDS is an installation according to the EMC Directive.

4. No Declaration of conformity or CE marking is required for a


fixed installation, (such as an outside broadcast radio station)
DOC and CE marking are needed.

30 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

Actions you must take

1. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of


the component suppliers.

2. Transfer all installation guidelines and Declaration


of conformity for each of the components, as issued
by suppliers, to the machine builder.

3. DO NOT issue a Declaration of conformity or CE


marking as this is not allowed for fixed installations.
2

If you are an end-user buying a CDM/BDM or PDS

Key point:
An end-user can make an agreement with the drives supplier
so that the supplier acts as the machine builder. However, the
end-user is still responsible for the machines safety.

The supplier who acts as the machine builder will issue a Dec-
laration of conformity when the work is complete.

Once an intermediary panel builder incorporates a CDM/BDM


into a panel, he creates a part of a PDS.

The panel builder then has the same responsibilities as the drives
manufacturer.

...You have the following responsibilities

1. For the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine


of which the drive is part of, as specified in the Machinery
Directive.

2. For the electrical safety of the drive as specified in the Low


Voltage Directive.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 31


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

3. To ensure the drive carries a Declaration of conformity in


accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low
Voltage Directive.

4. To be able to demonstrate to the authorities that the machine


to which the drive is being fitted has been built to both the
Machinery Directive and Low Voltage Directive.

5. The manufacturer of the drive is responsible for determining


the EMC behaviour of the drive.

6. The resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the as-


sembler of the final product, by following the manufacturers
recommendations and guidelines.

Actions you must take

The following needs to be completed by either the end-user


directly or the third party engaged to build the machine.

1. To meet the Machinery Directive (refer to page 55) you need


to follow the actions listed for a machine builder on pages
25-28.

2. Follow installation instruction issued by manufacturers in order


to fulfill the requirements of the EMC Directive and the Low
Voltage Directive.

3. Ensure that equipment (CDM/BDM/PDS) is operated according


to manufacturers instruction in order to guarentee right way
of operation.

If you are a panel builder buying a CDM/BDM


...You have the following responsibilities:

1. The panel builder has two options:

Option A - To buy non-CE marked components

This could save the panel builder money because he buys


components which are not tested for EMC or safety. However,
the responsibility is then the panel builders and this will incur
considerable costs as the entire panel needs to be tested.

32 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

If the panel builder buys non-CE marked components, the


drive may be made to conform without further testing if the
components themselves have been tested. However, tested
components do not carry the CE mark but must carry suitable
instructions for installation. It is these instructions which must
be demonstrably met.

Option A - Actions to meet these responsibilities

1. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each of


the component suppliers.
2
2. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure
the design meets the required EMC behaviour, ie, the
location of filters.

3. Issue technical documentation for the system.

4. If you choose to assess yourself you must make


reference to EMC Directives:

2004/108/EC;

And to harmonised standard:

EN 61800-3

And you must make reference to LVD Directive:

2006/95/EC

And corresponding harmonized standard:

EN 61800-5-1 or EN 50178

Defined on pages 36-46

5. Once testing is completed, the results need to be


included in the technical documentation (TD)
for the panel.

6. Technical documentation shall be assessed by


youself in order to demonstrate compliance. You
may use Notified Body for assessment as well.

7. You must then issue the Declaration of conformity


and CE marking for the panel.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 33


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

Option B - To buy CE marked components

Option B - Actions to meet these responsibilities

1. Buying CE marked components creates a system or


an apparatus (refer to page 17-20) depending on the
nature of the panel.

2. Although the panel builder does not have to carry out


tests, he must ensure he conforms to the installation
guidelines given by each of the component
manufacturers.
Note: Be aware that combining two or more CE-
marked components may not automatically produce
a system, which meets the requirements.

3. Beware! These guidelines could differ greatly from


those given for normal installation purposes because
the components will be in close proximity to each
other.

4. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the


system or apparatus.

5. Issue technical documentation.

6. Issue a Declaration of conformity.

7. Apply CE marking to your panel in the case of an


apparatus. In the case of a system DO NOT apply CE
marking.

Additional actions

The panel can be either sold on the open market or use as part
of a machine. For each option there is a different requirement:

1. If you know that the panel is to be used as part of a


machine then you must request from the CDM / BDM
manufacturer a Declaration of incorporation.

2. The Declaration of incorporation must be supplied


with the panel to the machine builder, but CE
marking based on Machinery Directive MUST NOT be
affixed. This is because CE marking always needs a
Declaration of conformity.

34 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Purchasing decisions for PDSs

Key point:
The Declaration of incorporation CAN NOT be used to apply
CE marking.

3. The machine builder will need this Declaration of


incorporation because he has to construct a
technical documentation (TD) for the machine and
in that file all the declarations need to be included.
2
If you are a distributor buying a CDM/BDM...
...You have the following responsibilities:

1. If a distributor is selling boxed products, like CDMs and BDMs


(drives), direct from the manufacturer, his only responsibility is
to pass on the installation guidelines to the end-user, ma-
chine builder or system designer. In addition, the Declara-
tion of conformity must be passed to the machine builder
or system designer.

2. Both the installation guidelines and the Declaration of


conformity are available from the manufacturer.

Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities

1. Pass all installation guidelines and declaration of con-


formities to either the end-user, machine builder or system
designer.

If you are an installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS...


...You have the following responsibilities:

1. You must ensure that the installation guidelines of the ma-


chine builder and/or system designer are adhered to.

Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities

1. Follow machinery builder and/or system designer Instal-


lation guidelines.

2. See Technical guide No. 3 for recommended installation


guidelines.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 35


Chapter 5 - Terminology

Technical documentation (TD)


APPLIED TO: electrical equipment

RESPONSIBILITY: e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t m a n u f a c t u re r,
system designer, panel builder, OEM,
installer

REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive, Low Voltage Directive

What is technical documentation?

Technical documentation (TD) must be provided for the entire


equipment or system and if required is to show a competent
authority that you have met the essential requirements of the
EMC Directive (see page 57) and Low Voltage Directive (see
page 56).

The TD consists of three parts:

1. A description of the product.

2. Procedures used to ensure conformity of the product to the


requirements.

3. A statement from a notified body, if third party assessment


route is chosen.
Note: Using a notified body is voluntary and can be decided
by the manufacturer

Key point:
The full content of the technical documentation are given on
pages 36-39.

Why is technical documentation deemed to be important?

Anyone placing a product onto the market within the EU must


be able to show that the product meets the requirements of the
appropriate EU Council Directive and must be able to dem-
onstrate this to a competent authority without further testing.

Technical documentation allows the appropriate Declaration of


conformity to be drawn up.

36 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Terminology

Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation?

The content of the technical documentation is meant for the


authorities, and thus the electrical equipment manufacturer does
not have to give the technical documentation or any part of it
to the customer.

However, as the customer needs to know whether the product


is in conformance, he will obtain this assurance from the docu-
mentation delivered with the product. It is not required to supply
a declaration of conformity with the product, but the end-user
2
may ask for this from the manufacturer.

What is the shelf life of technical documentation?

Any technical documentation must be accessible to the ap-


propriate authorities for 10 years from the last relevant product
being delivered.

How do I ensure that tests are always carried out?

The whole system is based on self certification and good faith.


In various parts of Europe the methods of ensuring compliance
will vary. Supervision of these regulations is achieved through
market control by a competent authority. If the equipment fails
to meet the requirements of the EMC and Low Voltage Directives
competent authorities can use the safeguard clause of the Direc-
tives (withdraw the product from the market, take legal action).

Can drive manufacturers help more?

Manufacturers accept that there is a need to work more closely


with OEMs and machine builders where the converter can be
mounted on the machine. A standard assembly or design should
be achieved so that no new parts of technical documentation
need to be created.

However, the idea of mounting drives in motor control centres


(MCCs) must be much more carefully thought out by system
specifiers.

The concept of mounting several drives in a motor control


centre must be more carefully thought out, as the summing of
high frequency emissions to determine the effects at the MCC
terminals is a complex issue and the possibilities of cross cou-
pling are multiplied.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 37


Terminology

How to make up a TD
1. Description of the product

(Note: You can photocopy these pages and use as a tickbox


checklist)

i. identification of product

a. brand name.

b. model number.

c. name and address of manufacturer or agent.

d. a description of the intended function of the apparatus.

e. any limitation on the intended operating environment.

ii. a technical description

a. a block diagram showing the relationship between


the different functional areas of the product.

b. relevant technical drawings, including circuit diagrams,


assembly diagrams, parts lists, installation diagrams.

c. description of intended interconnections with other


products, devices, etc.

d. description of product variants.

2. Procedures used to ensure product conformity

i. details of significant design elements

a. design features adopted specifically to address EMC


and electrical safety problems.

b. relevant component specifications.

c. an explanation of the procedures used to control variants


in the design together with an explanation of the
procedures used to assess whether a particular change
in the design will require the apparatus to be re-tested.

d. details and results of any theoretical modelling of


performance aspects of the apparatus.

38 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Terminology

e. a list of standards applied in whole or part.

f. the description of the solution adopted in order to


comply with the directive.

ii. test evidence where appropriate

a. a list of the EMC and electrical safety tests performed


on the product, and test reports relating to them,
including details of test methods, etc.
2
b. an overview of the logical processes used to decide
whether the tests performed on the apparatus were
adequate to ensure compliance with the directive.

c. a list of the tests performed on critical sub-assemblies,


and test reports or certificates relating to them.

3. If chosen a statement from notified body

This will include:

i. reference to the exact build state of the apparatus


assessed

ii. comment on the technical documentation.

iii. statement of work done to verify the contents and


authenticity of the design information.

iv. statement, where appropriate, on the procedures


used to control variants, and on environmental,
installation and maintenance factors that may be
relevant.

4. Actions by the notified body

The notified body will study the technical documentation and


issue the statement and this should be included in the technical
documentation.

Note: When compiling the technical documentation you may


need all Declarations from suppliers, ie, Declaration of con-
formity and Declaration of incorporation depending on the
parts, to ensure they carry CE marking.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 39


Terminology

Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects)


APPLIED TO: machines and safety components

RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder / system designer

REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive

What is a technical file?

A technical file is the internal design file which should show how
and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self
certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route.

If a Declaration of incorporation is included in a set of papers and


this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and
simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of
his machine, it is possible to use this as a part of a technical file.

How to make up a technical file


Drawings and diagrams

1. Overall drawings of the machine.

2. Control circuit diagrams.

Health and safety

1. All drawings, calculations and test results used to check the


machines conformity with essential health and safety require-
ments.

Machine design

1. Lists of the essential health and safety requirements, harmo-


nised standards, other standards and technical specifications
used when designing the machine.

2. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards presented


by the machine.

Other certificates required

1. A technical report or certificate issued by a notified body


- if required.

2. A copy of the instructions for the machine.

40 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Terminology

3. For series produced machines, the control measures that


are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in
conformity with the directive.

Certificate of Adequacy
APPLIED TO: machines / safety components

RESPONSIBILITY: notified body / machine builder

REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive


2
What if standards cannot be wholly implemented?

In this case the adequacy of the technical file is proved by a


Certificate of Adequacy issued by a notified body.

How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy


The Certificate of Adequacy is a document drawn up by a
notified body. Once the body has established that the techni-
cal file contains all the necessary information, the Certificate
of Adequacy will be issued.

Key point:
The Certificate of Adequacy provided should be included in
the technical file.

Statement
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment

RESPONSIBILITY: notified body

REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive

When the statement is needed

The primary way for manufacturer (or his authorised representa-


tive in the Community) to demonstrate the compliance is to use
internal production control method. If the manufacturer chooses,
he may use other method based on an assessment of a noti-
fied body.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 41


Terminology

How to obtain the statement


The manufacturer shall present the technical documentation to
the notified body and request the notified body for an assess-
ment thereof. The manufacturer shall specify to the notified body
which aspects of the essential requirements must be assessed.

The notified body shall review the technical documentation


and assess whether the technical documentation properly
demonstrates that the requirements of the Directive. If the com-
pliance of the apparatus is confirmed, the notified body shall
issue a statement confirming the compliance of the apparatus.

Key point:
The statement provided shall be included in the technical
documentation.

Report
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment

RESPONSIBILITY: notified body / competent body

REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive

What if standards cannot be wholly implemented?

In the event of a challenge the manufacturer or importer may


submit a report issued by a notified body. This report is based
on the technical file.

How to obtain a report


The report is a document drawn up by a notified body. Once the
body has established that the technical documentation contains
all the necessary information and the equipment fulfils the require-
ments of the Low Voltage Directive, the report will be issued.

Key point:
The report provided should be included in the technical docu-
mentation.

42 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Terminology

Declaration of conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects)


APPLIED TO: electrical equipment and electrical
equipment of machines

RESPONSIBILITY: equipment manufacturer

REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive


and EMC Directive
2
How to obtain a Declaration of conformity
You need to provide the following:

1. a reference to the Directive(s),

2. an identification of the apparatus to which it refers (including


name, type and serial number),

3. the name and address of the manufacturer and, where appli-


cable, the name and address of his authorised representative
in the Community,

4. a dated reference to the specifications under which conformity


is declared,

5. the date of the declaration,

6. the identity and signature of the person empowered to bind


the manufacturer or his authorised representative.

Declaration of conformity (for mechanical safety aspects)


APPLIED TO: machines

RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder

REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive

How to obtain a Declaration of conformity


You need to provide the following:

1. business name and full address of the manufacturer or, his


authorised representative;

2. name and address of the person authorised to compile the


technical file, who must be established in the Community;

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 43


Terminology

3. description and identification of the machinery, including ge-


neric denomination, function, model, type, serial number and
commercial name;

4. a sentence expressly declaring that the machinery fulfils all


the relevant provisions of the machinery Directive

5. where appropriate, the name, address and identification


number of the notified body which carried out the EC type-
examination and the number of the EC type-examination
certificate;

6. where appropriate, the name, address and identification


number of the notified body which approved the full quality
assurance system;

7. a list to the harmonised standards or the other technical


standards and specifications used;

9. the place and date of the declaration as well as the identity and
signature of the person empowered to draw up the declaration
on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised representative.

Declaration of incorporation
APPLIED TO: machines or equipment intended for
incorporation into other machinery

RESPONSIBILITY: drives manufacturer / machine builder /


panel builder

REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive

What is a Declaration of incorporation?

Drives manufacturers must meet the appropriate parts of the


Machinery Directive and provide a Declaration of incorporation
which states that the drive does not comply on its own and must
be incorporated in other equipment.

This declaration will show the standards that have been applied
to the parts of the system within the manufacturers scope.

This declaration includes a statement restricting the user from


putting the equipment into service until the machinery into which
it is to be incorporated, or of which it is to be a component, has
been found, and declared, to be in conformity with the provi-
sions of the Machinery Directive and the national implementing
legislation, ie, as a whole including the equipment referred to in
this declaration.

44 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Terminology

The declaration then lists the standards relating to the Machinery


and Low Voltage Directives which the manufacturer has met.

It concludes that the entire equipment must meet the provisions


of the directive.

Quite simply, the manufacturer passes on the responsibility to


the machine or system builder.

Is there no way out of this type of declaration?


2
No. You must understand that because the manufacturer may
be supplying only one part in a machinery, such as the inverter,
the manufacturer is legally obliged to ensure that whoever puts
the system together must check that it is safe.

Only then can the machine or system builder use the Declaration
of incorporation in his technical file of the machine.

Key point:
Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of incorporation
covering the Machinery Directive for all built PDS products.

What a Declaration of incorporation contains

1. business name and full address of the manufacturer or his


authorised representative;

2. description and identification of the partly completed machin-


ery including generic denomination, function, model, type,
serial number and commercial name;

3. a sentence declaring which essential requirements of the


Directive are applied and fulfilled;

4. an undertaking to transmit, in response to a reasoned request


by the national authorities, relevant information on the partly
completed machinery;

5. a statement that the partly completed machinery must not be


put into service until the final machinery into which it is to be
incorporated has been declared in conformity with the provi-
sions of the Directive;

6. the place and date of the declaration as well as the identity and
signature of the person empowered to draw up the declaration
on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised representative.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 45


Terminology

Type certification
APPLIED TO: machines and safety components

RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder / approved body

REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive

How to obtain type certification


Type certification is carried out by an notified body who will es-
tablish that the unit supplied, along with a technical file, may be
used safely and that any standards have been correctly applied.

Once the type certification has established this, a type exami-


nation certificate will be issued.

46 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Chapter 6 - Authorities and bodies

The responsibility for product conformity is given to the manufac-


turer. If there is any doubt about conformity, then the Authorities
can demand technical documentation to show that a product
complies with the directives concerning the product.

When assessing product conformity, a manufacturer can use a


third party to examine the conformity. 2
The following types of authorities and bodies exist:

Competent authority
A competent authority in any EU or EEA country supervises
markets to prevent hazardous products being sold and marketed.
They can also withdraw such products from markets.

Notified body
A notified body issues type certificates for products, which have
their own directives and/or require type testing.

To find a suitable competent authority or notified body you can


contact:
EU Commission
Enterprise and Industry DG
Information and Documentation Centre
BREY 5 / 150
B-1049 Brussels
Belgium
Ph: +32 2 296 45 51

Or you may find contact through web.site: http://ec.europa.eu/


enterprice/electr_equipment/

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 47


Chapter 7 - Standards and directives

The use of standards is voluntary, but compliance with directives


without the use of harmonised standards is extremely difficult.

There are two ways to show that a power drive system or part
of it conform:

Use of harmonised standards (EN).

By way of a technical documentation when no harmonised


standards exist, or if all parts of a harmonised standard can-
not be applied.

Key point:
It is recommended to use technical documentation even when
standards are harmonised as it makes it easier to show conform-
ity afterwards, if required by authorities.

Directive or standard?
The legislation of the European Union is defined by different
directives.

The directives concerning power drive systems are known as


new approach directives, which means that they do not include
exact figures or limits for products. What they do include is es-
sential requirements mainly for health and safety which make
the application of the relevant harmonised standards mandatory.

The requirements of directives are firmly established in standards.


Standards give exact figures and limits for products.

The responsibility for defining standards in Europe rests with three


committees: CEN, for areas of common safety, CENELEC, for
electrical equipment and ETSI, for telecommunications.

Harmonised standards for PDSs


To remove technical barriers to trade in EU or EEA countries,
the standards are harmonised in member states.

In the harmonisation procedure, all member states are involved


in developing the Committees proposals for their own national
standard. A standard becomes harmonised when published in
the Official Journal of the EU.

48 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

The idea is that if a product conforms to the harmonised


standard, it is legally manufactured and when placed onto
the market in one country, it must be freely marketed in other
member countries.

How to recognise a European standard

Harmonised standards come in the following format:

XX EN 60204-1
2
where

XX = the national prefix (eg BS = UK; SFS = Finland)


EN = the abbreviation of Euronorm
60204-1 = an example of a standard number

The numbering of European standards follows a well structured


and organized sequence:
EN 50225:1996 (the year of availability of the EN is separated
from the number by a colon)
EN 50157-2-1:1996 (the part number is indicated by a hy-
phen)

The first two numerals indicate the origin of the standard:


40xxx to 44xxx cover domains of common CEN/CENELEC
activities in the IT field
45xxx to 49xxx cover domains of common CEN/CENELEC
activities outside the IT field
50xxx to 59xxx cover CENELEC activities, where
EN 50xxx refer to the standards issued by CENELEC only
EN 55xxx refer to the implementation of CISPR documents
60000 to 69999 refer to the CENELEC implementation of IEC
documents with or without changes

European standards are adopted and confirmed by CENELEC


member countries by adding national prefix before the stand-
ard id (for example: SFS-EN 60601-1, DIN EN 60601-1, BS EN
60601-1).

There is also some clue as to a standards status:

prEN 50082-2 = proposal for standard sent to member states


ENV 50 = pre-standard which is in force for 3 years to
obtain practical experience from member
states

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 49


Standards and Directives

Your questions answered


Which standards directly relate to drives?

At the moment, there are three Product Specific Standards


(see page 50) which relate to the compliance with EU directives.
They are called as EN 61800-3 Adjustable speed electrical
power drive systems. Part 3: EMC product standard includ-
ing specific test methods, which relates to EMC Directive,
EN 61800-5-1 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems.
Part 5-1: Safety requirements. Electrical, thermal and energy,
which relates to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-5-2,
Part 5-1: Safety requirements. Electrical, thermal and energy,
which relates to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-5-2
Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems. Part 5-2: Safety
requirements. Functional safety, which relates to Machinery
Directive.

In addition there are other standards which need to be taken


account:

EN 60204-1, Electrical Equipment of Machines, which, in


addition to being a Low Voltage Directive standard for all
electrical equipment, is also an electrical safety standard
under the Machinery Directive.
EN 50178 according to Low Voltage Directive and
EN 61800-1/2/4, which give rating specifications for Power
Drive Systems (LV DC, LV AC and MV AC PDS respectively).
EN 61000-3-2 and EN 61000-3-12 which give requirements
for harmonic current caused by equipment

What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives?

For emissions there are two main aspects to be considered:

Conducted emissions: these are seen on the power supply


cables and will also be measured on the control connections,
while radiated emissions are air borne.

Conducted emissions at low frequencies are known as har-


monics which have been a familiar problem to many users of a
PDS. Where harmonics are concerned EN 61800-3 refers to EN
61000-3-2 which applies for equipment under 16 A per phase.
In addition, the harmonics standard EN 61000-3-12 applies up
to 75 A per phase.

At the moment following groups can be separated


Below 16 A per phase
Professional, over 1kW => No limits.
Other > the limits specified.
Between 16 A and 75 A per phase

50 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

Equipment for public low voltage systems => the limits


specified.
Equipment for other systems => the limits specified

Conformity with conducted emissions can be helped by good


product design and is readily achieved, in most situations, using
filters, providing this is for a single drive.

Radiated emissions: These are more problematic. While it is


possible to make the drive enclosure into a Faraday cage and
thereby have all radiation attenuated to earth, in practice it is
2
the outgoing connections where inadequate cabling radiates
emissions and cross couples with other cables in the vicinity.
Important attenuation methods are shielded cables and 360o
grounding.

What are the solutions to radiated emissions?

The most important solutions are good installation practice, tight


enclosure, shielded cables and 360o grounding. (See Technical
guide No. 3 for tips and advice).

Do I have to conform to the standards?

The use of standards is voluntary, but compliance with a Direc-


tive without the use of Harmonised Standards is difficult in the
majority of cases.

Can I be fined for not conforming?

Yes. Failure to comply with any of the Directives will be a criminal


offence.

The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3


This standard defines the required emission and immunity levels
of PDSs and the test methods to measure the levels. In Europe,
the standard takes precedence over all generic or product family
EMC standards previously applicable.

The standard defines two environments where equipment can


be used:

First environment
environment that includes domestic premises, it also includes
establishments directly connected without intermediate trans-
formers to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies
buildings used for domestic purposes. Houses, apartments,
commercial premises or offices in a residential building are
examples of this kind of locations.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 51


Standards and Directives

Second environment
environment that includes all establishments other than those
directly connected to a low voltage power supply network
which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. Indus-
trial areas, technical areas of any building fed from a dedicated
transformer are examples of second environment locations

The standard divides PDSs and their component parts into four
categories depending on the intended use

PDS of category C1:

A PDS with rated voltage less than 1,000V and intended for
use in the first environment. A (PDS (or CDM) sold as built
to the end-user.

Description
Placed on the market. Free movement based on compliance with
the EMC Directive. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE
Marking are required.

The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the


PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures are
described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented
by a layman.

When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another


product, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the
responsibility of the assembler of the final product, by following
the manufacturers recommendations and guidelines.

PDS of category C2:

PDS with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, which is neither a


plug in device nor a movable device and is intended to be
installed and commissioned only by a professional.

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an ap-


paratus, system or installation.

Description:
Placed on the market. Intended only for professional assemblers
or installers who have the level of technical competence of EMC
necessary to install a PDS (or CDM/BDM) correctly. The manu-
facturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for providing
Installation Guidelines. The EC Declaration of Conformity
and CE Marking are required.

52 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another


product, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the
responsibility of the assembler of the final product.

PDS of category C3:

PDS with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, intended for use
in the second environment.

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold as built to the end-user or


in order to be incorporated into an apparatus, system or
2
installation.

Description
Placed on the market. Free movement based on compliance with
the EMC Directive. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE
Marking are required.

The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the


PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures are
described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented
by a layman.

When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another


product, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the
responsibility of the assembler of the final product, by following
the manufacturers recommendations and guidelines.

PDS of category C4:

PDS with rated voltage equal to or above 1,000 V, or rated


current equal to or above 400 A, or intended for use in com-
plex systems in the second environment.

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an ap-


paratus, system or installation.

Description
Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements
but radio frequency emission. They assessed only when it is
installed in its intended location. Therefore category C4 PDS is
treated as a fixed installation, and thus has no requirement for
EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking.

The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation


to identify the fixed installation, its electromagnetic compatibility
characteristics and responsible person, and to indicate the pre-
cautions to be taken in order not to compromise the conformity
of that installation.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 53


Standards and Directives

In order to comply the above requirements in the case of cat-


egory C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM), the user and the manufacturer
shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements of the
intended application. In this situation, the user defines the EMC
characteristics of the environment including the whole installation
and the neighborhood. The manufacturer of PDS shall provide
information on typical emission levels and installation guidelines
of the PDS which is to be installed. Resulting EMC behaviour is
the responsibility of the installer (eg, by following the EMC plan).

Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category


C4 PDS after commissioning, the standard includes procedure
for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an
installation.

Examples concerning applications of different approaches

1. BDM used in domestic or industrial premises, sold without


any control of the application.

The manufacturer is responsible that sufficient EMC will be


achieved even by a layman. Although the EMC Directive ap-
plies to the apparatus and fixed installations only (generally
components are excluded), it states that the components which
are intended for incorporation into apparatus by the end user
and which liable to generate electromagnetic disturbances are
included. Thus, if members of the public (end-users) buy a com-
ponent off the shelf, they will not have to worry about compliance
when they fit it to their machine. Therefore, the responsibility for
compliance and CE Marking such components under EMC lies
with the manufacturer. Depending of intended installation location
category C1 or C3 equipment is allowed.

2. PDS or CDM/BDM for domestic or industrial purposes,


sold to professional assembler.

This is sold as a sub-assembly to a professional assembler who


incorporates it into a machine, apparatus or system. Condi-
tions of use are specified in the manufacturers documentation.
Exchange of technical data allows optimization of the EMC
solutions. In addition of categories C1 and C3, also category
C2 is allowed.

3. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in installations.

The conditions of use are specified at the time by the purchase


order; consequently an exchange of technical data between sup-
plier and client is possible. It can consist of different commercial
units (PDS, mechanics, process control etc).

54 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

The combination of systems in the installation should be con-


sidered in order to define the mitigation methods to be used to
limit emissions. Harmonic compensation is an evident example
of this, both for technical and economical reasons.

In addition of categories C1, C2 and C3, also category C4 is


allowed.

4. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in machine.

PDS or CDM/BDM combined with application device (machine)


2
such as a vacuum cleaner, fan, pump or such like, ie, ready to
use apparatus. Similarly inverters (E.Q. subassemblies of BDMs)
come under this class of components. On their own they do
not have an intrinsic function for the end-users, but are sold to
professional installers who incorporate them into a machine, ap-
paratus or system. They are not on sale directly to the end-user.

Therefore for EMC Directive point of view the PDS/CDM/BDM


here is a component which is excluded from the directive. The
machine builder is responsible for all EMC issues. The manufac-
turer of PDS/CDM/BDM is responsible for providing installation,
maintenance and operation instructions to the machine builder
in order to achieve compliance with EMC Directive.

Nevertheless, it is recommended to use category C1, C2, C3 or


C4 PDS/CDM/BDM rather than drives without any compliance.

Machinery Directive 98/37/EC


How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive?

This directive concerns all combinations of mechanically joined


components, where at least one part is moving and which have
the necessary control equipment and control and power input
circuits.

The directive concerns all machines but not those like lifts, which
have a specific directive.

The new machinery Directive 2006/42/EC has been published.


Since the old directive 98/37/EC can be used until December
29, 2009, the changes due to the new directive will be consider
in the future editions of this Guide.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 55


Standards and Directives

Key point:
As far as drives are concerned, the new version of EN 60204-1,
ed. 5, is already published. The old and the new versions can
be used until June 1, 2009. After that date only the new version
shall be applied.

On its own, the complete drive module (CDM) does not have
a functional value to the user. It always needs its motor coupled
to the driven load before it can function effectively. Thus, it can-
not carry the CE marking based on the Machinery Directive.

Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy?

To obtain a copy of the Machinery Directive you can contact a


local competent authority or download it from European Unions
web-site related to the legislation (http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/).

Low Voltage Directive


How does the LVD affect my drive?

2006/95/EC

This directive concerns all electrical equipment with nominal


voltages from 50 V to 1 kV AC and 75 V to 1.5 kV DC.

The aim of the directive is to protect against electrical, mechani-


cal, fire and radiation hazards. It tries to ensure only inherently
safe products are placed on the market.

All parts of a PDS from converters and motors to control gear


must conform with the Low Voltage Directive.

To guarantee that a product complies, the manufacturer must


provide a Declaration of conformity. This is a Declaration that
the product conforms to the requirements laid down within this
Directive.

If a product conforms to the Directive and has a Declara-


tion of conformity, then it must carry the CE marking.

In the case of a power drive system, the Declaration of con-


formity is needed for each of its component parts. Thus, the
Declaration of conformity for the complete drive module (CDM)
and for the motor have to be given separately by the manufac-
turer of each product.

56 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

Key point:
Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of conformity
covering the Low Voltage Directive for all built PDS/CDMs.
These are drives built into an enclosure, which can be wired
up to the supply and switched on without any further work being
undertaken. This is in contrast to an open chassis (BDM), which
is a component and needs an enclosure.

Why is the Declaration of conformity important? 2


Key point:
Without the Declaration of conformity the CDM could not carry
the CE marking and therefore it could not be sold within EEA
countries and therefore could not be used legally in any system.

EMC Directive
How does the EMC Directive affect my drive?

2004/108/EC

The intention of the EMC Directive is, as its name implies, to


achieve EMC compatibility with other products and systems.
The directive aims to ensure emissions from one product are low
enough so as not to impinge on the immunity levels of another
product.

There are two aspects to consider with the EMC Directive:

the immunity of the product.


the emissions from that product.

Although the directive expects that EMC should be taken into


account when designing a product, in fact EMC cannot be han-
dled by design only it shall be measured quantitatively as well.

Key point:
Most drives bear CE-marking. Newertheless, some cases drives
are part of the machinery or process equipment/system and
classified as components they are not included into the EMC
directive.

The machine builder, therefore, has the final responsibility to


ensure that the machine including any PDS and other electrical
devices, meets the EMC requirements.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 57


Standards and Directives

At each stage of the manufacturing process, from component


to system, each manufacturer is responsible for applying the
appropriate parts of the directive. This may be in the form of
instructions on how to install or fit the equipment without causing
problems. It does not imply that there is a string of Declarations
of conformity to be compiled into a manual.

Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking?

A frequency converter is likely to be only a part of a power drive


system.

Yet it is the entire system or machinery that must meet the re-
quirements of the EMC Directive.

So, drives manufacturers are in a position to choose whether to


put CE marking on to a frequency converter to indicate com-
pliance with the EMC Directive or to deliver it as a component
without CE marking.

Key point:
It is the responsibility of the person who finally implements the
system to ensure EMC compliance.

Either the machine builder or system supplier has the final


responsibility that the machine or system including the drive
and other electrical and electronic devices will meet the EMC
requirements.

A drive manufacturer is able to help machine builder or system


supplier by providing BDM/CDM/PDS which are according to
the EMC directive and CE-marked.

58 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Standards and Directives

Summary of responsibilities

Summary of manufacturers responsibilities in the application of


EC Directives to systems containing a PDS:

Warnings & guide


Power drive system

Machinery Directive Low Voltage EMC Directive


2
Directive
Any safety relevant EN 61800-5-1 EN 61800-3
standard such as EN 50178
EN 61800-5-2, EN 60204-1
EN 60204-1, etc

TECHNICAL FILE TECHNICAL FILE TECHNICAL


DOCUMENTATION

Apply Harmonised Apply Harmonised Apply Harmonised


Standards as far as Standards Standards
possible

Declaration of EU Declaration of EU Declaration of


Incorporation Conformity Conformity

No CE marking CE mark applied CE mark applied


as the PDS is a
component of the
machine

If some of the directives result in CE marking, the PDS (or CDM or BDM)
can be CE marked with the corresponding Declaration of conformity.

An analogue of this procedure occurs for each end product which is to be


combined with a PDS. However, check all directives applicable to the end
product.

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 59


Standards and Directives

Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives

Machine

Technical Declaration
documentation of
conformity
PDS

* ** ** *

Notified
body **
for Statement
MD,
EMCD
and LVD

Competent authority

* Only if required during market surveillance


** Optional procedure, if chosen by the manufacturer

60 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2


Index

A L
abnormal temperatures 27 Low Voltage Directive 11, 56, 57, 59
apparatus 34, 38
M
B machine builder 23, 24, 25, 40, 41,
basic drive module 22 46
BDM 22, 31, 32, 35, 57, 59 machinery builder 35
C
Machinery Directive 11, 40, 41, 46,
55, 59
2
CDM 22 MCC 37
CE mark 32, 34, 59 microprocessor 12
CEN 48, 49 mobile radio transmitters 12
CENELEC 48, 49 motor 22
certificate of adequacy 41 motor control centre 37
competent authority 47, 60
complete drive module 22 N
components 30, 34 notified body 40, 41
component supplier 29, 30, 33
conducted emissions 51 O
control circuit diagrams 40 OEM 24
overload current 27
D
Declaration of conformity 29, 30, P
31, 34, 57, 59 panel builder 23, 24, 32
Declaration of incorporation 34, 35, parameters 16
59 PDS 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,
distributor 24 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 48, 57,
drive 22, 24 59, 60
phase-shift transformer 21
E portable car telephones 12
EEA 11, 15, 47, 48, 57 power drive system 22, 59
electrical safety 25, 26, 31, 32, 50
electromagnetic compatibility 53 S
EMC 11, 29, 30, 33, 36, 39, 57, 59 safety component 40, 41, 46
EMC Directive 30 screen 12
EN61800-3 33, 50 self certification 15, 16, 37
end user 23, 24 sensor 22
ETSI 48 short circuit 27
EU 11, 49, 59 single functional unit 29, 30
EU Council Directives 1, 11 standards 39, 40, 46, 48, 50, 51
European Union 48 system designer 23, 24, 30, 35
systems 1, 3, 9, 12, 13, 21, 48, 50,
F 51, 53, 55, 57, 59
Faraday cage 51
filter 30, 33 T
frequency converter 21, 58 TD 33, 35, 36, 38
technical construction file 38
H technical documentation 15, 28, 29,
harmonics 9, 50 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 48
harmonised standard 48, 49 technical file 27, 59, 60
type certificate 27
I type certification 46
IEC 49 type examination certificate 46
indirect contact 26
installation 22 W
installation guidelines 29, 30 walkie-talkies 12
installation instructions 18
installer 24

Technical guide No. 2 | EU Council Directives 61


62 EU Council Directives | Technical guide No. 2
Contact us

3AFE61253980 REV D EN 29.4.2011 #15647


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 3


EMC compliant installation and
configuration for a power drive
system
2 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Technical guide No. 3
EMC compliant installation and
configuration for a power drive system

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE61348280 REV D 14.6.2011

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 3
4 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General ..............................................................................................7
Purpose of this guide ..........................................................................7
Directives concerning the drive ...........................................................7
Who is the manufacturer? ...................................................................7
Manufacturers responsibility ...............................................................7
OEM customer as a manufacturer .......................................................8
Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer ...........................8
Definitions ..........................................................................................8
Practical installations and systems ......................................................8
Earthing principles ..............................................................................9
3
Product-specific manuals ....................................................................9

Chapter 2 - Definitions .............................................................................10


Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of PDS ......................................10
Immunity ..........................................................................................10
Emission ..........................................................................................10
Power drive system ..........................................................................11
Types of equipment ..........................................................................12
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation ................12
into an apparatus by the end users ...................................................12
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation ................12
into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers ....................12
Finished appliance ............................................................................13
Finished appliance intended for end users .........................................13
Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or assembler .......13
Systems (combination of finished appliances) ....................................14
Apparatus ........................................................................................14
Fixed installation ...............................................................................14
Equipment .......................................................................................14
CE marking for EMC .........................................................................14
Installation environments ...................................................................15
First environment ..............................................................................15
Second environment .........................................................................16
EMC emission limits .........................................................................16
PDS of category C1 .....................................................................16
PDS of category C2 .....................................................................16
PDS of category C3 .....................................................................16
PDS of category C4 .....................................................................17

Chapter 3 - EMC solutions.......................................................................19


General ............................................................................................19
Solutions for EMC compatibility .........................................................19
Emissions ........................................................................................19

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 5
Conducted emission .........................................................................19
Radiated emission ............................................................................20
Enclosure ....................................................................................20
Cabling and wiring .......................................................................20
Installation ...................................................................................21
Clean and dirty side ..........................................................................21
RFI filtering .......................................................................................22
Selecting the RFI filter .......................................................................23
Installation of the RFI filter .................................................................23
Selection of a secondary enclosure ...................................................23
Holes in enclosures ..........................................................................24
360 HF earthing ..............................................................................25
HF earthing with cable glands ...........................................................25
HF earthing with conductive sleeve ...................................................26
360 earthing at motor end ...............................................................27
Conductive gaskets with control cables .............................................28
The shielding should be covered with conductive tape. ......................28
Installation of accessories .................................................................29
Internal wiring ...................................................................................29
Control cables and cabling ................................................................31
Power cables ...................................................................................32
Transfer impedance ..........................................................................33
Use of ferrite rings ............................................................................33
Simple installation.............................................................................35
Typical installation .............................................................................35

Chapter 4 - Practical examples ...............................................................35


Example of by-pass system <100 kVA ...............................................36
Typical example of 12-pulse drive ......................................................37
Example of EMC plan .......................................................................39

Chapter 5 - Bibliography .........................................................................41

Chapter 6 - Index .....................................................................................42

6 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
This guide assists design and installation personnel when trying
to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive
in the users systems and installations when using AC drives.

Purpose of this guide


The purpose of this guide is to guide original equipment manufac-
turers (OEM), system integrators and panel builders (assemblers)
in designing or installing AC drive products and their auxiliary 3
components into their own installations and systems. The aux-
iliaries include contactors, switches, fuses, etc. By following
these instructions it is possible to fulfill EMC requirements and
give CE marking when necessary.

Directives concerning the drive


There are three directives that concern variable speed drives.
They are the Machinery Directive, Low Voltage Directive and EMC
Directive. The requirements and principles of the directives and
use of CE marking are described in technical guide No. 2 EU
Council Directives and adjustable electrical power drive systems.
This document deals only with the EMC Directive.

Who is the manufacturer?


According to the EMC Directive (2004/108/EC), the definition
of a manufacturer is following: This is the person responsible
for the design and construction of an apparatus covered by the
Directive with a view to placing it on the EEA market on his own
behalf. Whoever modifies substantially an apparatus resulting
in an as-new apparatus, with a view to placing it on the EEA
market, also becomes the manufacturer.

Manufacturers responsibility
According to the EMC Directive the manufacturer is responsible
for attaching the CE mark to each unit. Equally the manufacturer
is responsible for writing and maintaining technical documenta-
tion (TD).

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 7
Introduction

OEM customer as a manufacturer


It is well known that OEM customers sell equipment using their
own trademarks or brand labels. Changing the trademark, brand
label or the type marking is an example of modification resulting
in as new equipment.

Frequency converters sold as OEM products shall be considered


components (complete drive module (CDM) or basic drive module
(BDM)). Apparatus is an entity and includes any documentation
(manuals) intended for the final customer. Thus, the OEM-cus-
tomer has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning the EMC
of equipment, and he shall issue a Declaration of Conformity and
technical documentation for the equipment.

Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer


According to the EMC Directive, a system is defined as a com-
bination of several types of equipment, finished products, and/
or components combined, designed and/or put together by
the same person (system manufacturer) intended to be placed
on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an
end- user and intended to be installed and operated together to
perform a specific task.

A panel builder or system integrator typically undertakes this kind


of work. Thus, the panel builder or system integrator has sole
and ultimate responsibility concerning the EMC of the system.
He cannot pass this responsibility to a supplier.

In order to help the panel builder/system integrator, ABB Oy


offers installation guidelines related to each product as well as
general EMC guidelines (this document).

Definitions
The EMC Product Standard for Power Drive Systems, EN 61800-3
(or IEC 61800-3) is used as the main standard for variable speed
drives. The terms and definitions defined in the standard are also
used in this guide.

Practical installations and systems


This guide gives practical EMC examples and solutions that are
not described in product specific manuals. The solutions can be
directly used or applied by the OEM or panel builder.

8 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Introduction

Earthing principles
The earthing and cabling principles of variable speed drives are
described in the manual Grounding and cabling of the drive
system, code 3AFY61201998. It also includes a short descrip-
tion of interference phenomena.

Product-specific manuals
Detailed information on the installation and use of products,
cable sizes etc. can be found in the product specific manuals.
This guide is intended to be used together with product specific
manuals.
3

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 9
Chapter 2 - Definitions

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of PDS

EMC stands for Electromagnetic compatibility. It is the ability


of electrical/electronic equipment to operate without problems
within an electromagnetic environment. Likewise, the equipment
must not disturb or interfere with any other product or system
within its locality. This is a legal requirement for all equipment
taken into service within the European Economic Area (EEA).
The terms used to define compatibility are shown in figure 2-1.

Disturbance
level
Immunity level
Immunity limit

Compatibility
margin
Emission limit
Emission level

Independent variable eg,frequency

Figure 2-1 Immunity and emission compatibility.

As variable speed drives are described as a source of interfer-


ence, it is natural that all parts which are in electrical or airborne
connection within the power drive system (PDS) are part of the
EMC compliance. The concept that a system is as weak as its
weakest point is valid here.

Immunity
Electrical equipment should be immune to high-frequency and
low-frequency phenomena. High-frequency phenomena include
electrostatic discharge (ESD), fast transient burst, radiated elec-
tromagnetic field, conducted radio frequency disturbance and
electrical surge. Typical low-frequency phenomena are mains
voltage harmonics, notches and imbalance.

Emission
The source of high-frequency emission from frequency converters
is the fast switching of power components such as IGBTs and
control electronics. This high-frequency emission can propagate
by conduction and radiation.

10 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Definitions

Power drive system


The parts of a variable speed drive controlling driven equip-
ment as a part of an installation are described in EMC Product
Standard EN 61800-3. A drive can be considered as a basic
drive module (BDM) or complete drive module (CDM) according
to the standard.

It is recommended that personnel responsible for design and


installation have this standard available and be familiar with this
standard. All standards are available from the national stand-
ardization bodies.

Systems made by an OEM or panel builder can consist more


or less of the PDS parts alone, or there can be many PDSs in 3
a configuration.

The solutions described in this guide are used within the definition
of power drive system, but the same solutions can, or in some
cases, should, be extended to all installations. This guide gives
principles and practical EMC examples, which can be applied
to a users system.

Installation or part of installation

Power drive system PDS


Complete drive module CDM

System control and


sequencing

Basic drive module


BDM control, converter
and protection

Feeding section
auxiliaries and others

Motor
and
sensors Driven
equipment

Figure 2-2 Abb reviations used in drives.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 11
Definitions

Types of equipment
The EMC Directive (2004/108/EC) defines equipment as any ap-
paratus or fixed installation. As there are separate provisions for
apparatus and fixed installations, it is important that the correct
category of the equipment (PDM, CDM or BDM) is determined.

In technical-commercial classifications the following terminol-


ogy is frequently used: components, sub-assemblies, finished
appliances (ie, finished products), a combination of finished
appliances (ie, a system), apparatus, fixed installations and
equipment.

The key issue here is whether the item is meant for end users
or not:
if it is meant for end users, the EMC directive applies;
if it is meant for manufacturers or assemblers, the EMC
directive does not apply.

Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation


into an apparatus by the end users
A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on
the market, which are:
for incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user,
available to end-users and likely to be used by them.

These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as


apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. The instruc-
tions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly
should include all relevant information, and should assume that
adjustments or connections can be performed by an end user
not aware of the EMC implications.

In such case the component is considered equivalent to appa-


ratus. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this
category, eg, a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit
(CDM) to the end user who installs it into his own system. All
provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark, EC declara-
tion of conformity and technical documentation).

Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation


into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus or another sub-assembly by other manufacturers
or assemblers are not considered to be apparatus and are
therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. These components
include resistors, cables, terminal blocks, etc.

12 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Definitions

Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category
as well, eg, basic drive modules (BDM). These are meant to be
assembled by a professional assembler (eg, panel builder or
system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery
of the manufacturer of the BDM. According to the EMC Directive,
the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions
for installation and use.

Note:
The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is respon-
sible for the CE mark, the EC Declaration of Conformity, and the
technical documentation.

Finished appliance
3
A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical
and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers
a function and has its own enclosure. Similarly to components,
the interpretation finished appliance can be divided into two
categories: it can be intended for end users, or for other manu-
facturers or assemblers.

Finished appliance intended for end users


A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of
the EMC Directive if it is intended for the end-user and thus has
to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive.

Variable speed power drive products that fall into this category
are whole power drive systems (PDS) or complete drive mod-
ules (CDM). In this case all provisions of the EMC Directive will
apply (CE mark, EC Declaration of Conformity, and technical
documentation). The drive product manufacturer is responsible
for the CE mark, EC Declaration of Conformity, and technical
documentation.

Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or assembler


When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an in-
dustrial assembly operation for incorporation into other appa-
ratus, it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive
and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such
finished appliances.

The variable speed power drive products that fall into this cat-
egory are basic drive modules (BDM). The approach is the same
as for components or sub-assemblies when they are intended
for incorporation into an apparatus by another manufacturer or
assembler. Thus the manufacturer or assembler of the panel or
system is responsible for all actions relating to the EMC Directive.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 13
Definitions

Systems (combination of finished appliances)


A combination of several finished appliances which is combined,
and/or designed and/or put together by the same party (ie,
the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the
market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user
and intended to be installed and operated together to perform
a specific task.

All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus,


apply to the combination as a whole. The variable speed power
drive products that fall into this category are power drive systems
(PDS). Thus the manufacturer of the PDS is responsible for all
actions relating to the EMC Directive.

Apparatus
Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof
made commercially available (ie, placed on the market) as a
single functional unit, intended for the end-user, and liable to
generate electromagnetic disturbance, or the performance of
which is liable to be affected by such disturbance.

Fixed installation
A particular combination of several types of apparatus, equip-
ment and/or components, which are assembled, installed and
intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.

Equipment
Any apparatus or fixed installation

CE marking for EMC


Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus by the end users need to carry the CE marking
for EMC.

Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into


an apparatus by another manufacturer or assembler do not need
to carry the CE marking for EMC.
Note: The products may carry the CE marking for other direc-
tives than EMC.

14 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Definitions

Apparatus and systems must be CE marked.

Fixed installations are required to satisfy various parts of the


Directives, but are not required to be CE marked.

Figure 2-3 The CE mark.

Installation environments
The PDSs can be connected to either industrial or public power
distribution networks. The environment class depends on the
way the PDS is connected to power supply. The environment 3
classes are first and second environment according to the
EN61800-3 standard.

First environment
The first environment includes domestic premises. It also in-
cludes establishments directly connected without intermediate
transformer to a low-voltage power supply network which sup-
plies buildings used for domestic purposes.

Medium voltage network

Public low-voltage network Industrial low-voltage network


Point of measurement for Point of measurement
conducted emission 2 nd environment
1st environment

Equipment PDS

Figure 2-4 Illustration of environment classes.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 15
Definitions

Second environment
The second environment includes all establishments other than
those directly connected to a low-voltage power supply network
which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes.

EMC emission limits


The product standard EN 61800-3 divides PDSs into four cat-
egories according to the intended use. In Europe, the standard
takes precedence over all generic or product family EMC stand-
ards previously applicable. Limits for certain conditions can be
selected by using the flow chart shown in figure 2-5.

PDS of category C1

A PDS (or CDM) with rated voltage less than 1000 V and intended
for use in the first environment. A PDS (or CDM) sold as built
to the end user.

The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of


the PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures
are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.

When PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product, the


resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility of the
assembler of the final product, by following the manufacturers
recommendations and guidelines.

PDS of category C2

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, which
is neither a plug in device nor a movable device and is intended
to be installed and commissioned only by a professional. A
PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus,
system or installation.

When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another


product, the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the re-
sponsibility of the assembler of the final product.

PDS of category C3

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, in-
tended for use in the second environment. A PDS (or CDM/BDM)
sold as built to the end user or in order to be incorporated into
an apparatus, system or installation.

16 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Definitions

The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of


the PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures
are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.

When a PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product,


the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility
of the assembler of the final product, by following the manufac-
turers recommendations and guidelines.

PDS of category C4

A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage equal to or above 1,000 V,


or rated current equal to or above 400 A, or intended for use in
complex systems in the second environment. A PDS (or CDM/ 3
BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus, system or
installation.

Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements


except for radio frequency emission. They are assessed only
when it is installed in its intended location. Therefore a category
C4 PDS is treated as a fixed installation, and thus has no re-
quirement for an EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking.

The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation


to identify the fixed installation, its electromagnetic compatibility
characteristics and the person responsible, and to indicate the
precautions to be taken in order not to compromise the conform-
ity of that installation.

In order to comply with the above requirements in the case of a


category C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM), the user and the manufacturer
shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements for the
intended application. In this situation, the user defines the EMC
characteristics of the environment including the whole installa-
tion and the neighborhood. The PDS manufacturer shall provide
information on typical emission levels and installation guidelines
for the PDS to be installed. The resulting EMC behavior is the
responsibility of the installer (eg, by following the EMC plan).

Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category


C4 PDS after commissioning, the standard includes a procedure
for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an
installation.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 17
Definitions

EN 61800-3
EMC product standard for PDS

1st environment 2nd environment


(public low-voltage network) (industrial network)

EMC plan

C
O
N
D
U
C
T
E
D

Disturbance

R
A
D
I
A
T
E
D

Figure 2-5 Emission limits for PDS.

18 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Chapter 3 - EMC solutions

General
The solutions used to fulfill immunity and both radiated and
conducted emission requirements are described in this chapter.

Solutions for EMC compatibility


There are some basic principles which must be followed when
designing and using drive systems incorporating AC drive prod-
ucts. These same principles were used when these products
were initially designed and constructed, where such issues as 3
printed circuit board layout, mechanical design, wire routing,
cable entries and other special points were all considered in
great detail.

Emissions
The emissions can be classified into two types; conducted emis-
sion and radiated emission. The disturbances can be emitted in
various ways as shown in the following figure:

Radiated emission

Control

Supply
network Process

Conducted
emission Motor
Motor
connection

Earth

Figure 3-1 Emissions.

Conducted emission
Conducted disturbances can propagate to other equipment via
all conductive parts including cabling, earthing and the metal
frame of an enclosure.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 19
EMC solutions

Conductive emissions can be reduced in the following way:

By RFI filtering for HF disturbances


Using ferrite rings in power connection points
Using an AC or DC choke (even meant against harmonics,
it reduce HF disturbances as well.
Using an LCL filter in the case of regenerative drives
Using a du/dt filter

Radiated emission
To be able to effectively prevent disturbance through the air, all
parts of the power drive system should form a Faraday cage
against radiated emissions. The installation of a PDS includes
cabinets, auxiliary boxes, cabling, motors, etc.

Some methods for ensuring the continuity of the Faraday cage


are listed as follows:

Enclosure

The enclosure must have an unpainted non-corroding surface


finish at every point where other plates, doors, etc. make
contact.
Unpainted metal-to-metal contacts shall be used throughout,
with conductive gaskets, where appropriate.
Use unpainted installation plates, bonded to a common earth
point, ensuring all separate metal items are firmly bonded to
achieve a single path to earth.
Use conductive gaskets in doors and covers. Separate the
radiative ie, dirty side from the clean side by metal covers
and design.
Holes in enclosure should be minimized.

Cabling and wiring

Use special HF cable entries for high frequency earthing of


power cable shields.
Use conductive gaskets for HF earthing of control cable
shield.
Use shielded power and control cables. See product specific
manuals.
Allow no breaks in the cable shields.
Select low impedance shield connections on the MHz range.
Route power and control cables separately.
Use twisted pairs to avoid disturbances.
Use ferrite rings for disturbances, if necessary.
Select and route internal wires correctly.
See product specific manuals

20 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

Installation

Auxiliaries used with complete drive modules (CDMs) should


be CE marked products conforming to both the EMC & Low
Voltage Directives, NOT ONLY to the LV directive, unless they
are intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another
manufacturer or assembler.
Selection and installation of accessories in accordance with
manufacturers instructions.
For wall-mounted units, strip the sheathing of a motor cable
back far enough to expose the copper wire screen so that
the screen can be twisted into a pigtail. Keep the short pigtail
short and connect it to the ground.
For cabinet models, lead the cables into the inside of the
enclosure. Apply 360 grounding of the cable shield at the 3
entry into the cabinet. See product specific manuals.
360 earthing at motor end. See motor manuals.

Clean and dirty side


The circuit before the point where the supply power is connected
to the CDM and where the filtering starts is referred to as the
clean side. The parts of the BDM that can cause disturbances
are described as the dirty side.

Enclosed wall-mounted drives are designed so that the circuit


followed by the output connection is the only dirty part. That is
the case if the installation instructions of the drive are followed.

To be able to keep the clean side clean, the dirty parts are
separated into a Faraday cage. This can be done either with
separation plates or with cabling.

Rectifier

RFI
filter
Dirty side
Clean side

Figure 3-2 Clean and dirty sides of the BDM.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 21
EMC solutions

When using separation plates, the rules for enclosure holes are
applicable (see Holes in enclosures section later in this chapter).

When the Faraday cage is formed by cabling, the rules for ca-
bling must be applied (see sections on cabling and wiring in this
chapter and follow the product specific instructions for the drive).

The use of additional components, eg, contactors, isolators,


fuses, etc. in some cases makes it difficult to keep the clean
and the dirty side separate.

This can happen when contactors or switches are used in circuits


to change over from clean to dirty side (eg, by-pass).

Some examples of solutions are described in chapter 4, Practi-


cal examples.

RFI filtering
RFI filters are used to attenuate conducted disturbances in a line
connecting point where the filter leads the disturbances to earth.

Output filters attenuate disturbances at the output of a PDS.


Eg, du/dt and common mode filters help somewhat, even if they
have not been designed for RFI.

Filters cannot be used in a floating network (IT-network) where


there is high impedance or no physical connection between the
phases and the earth.

Line Line

Figure 3-3 Example of filtering integrated in drive module.

Figure 3-3 shows an example of integral, distributed filtering.


Some drive products need a separate filter (see product specific
instructions).

22 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

Selecting the RFI filter


An RFI filter is selected to attenuate the conducted disturbances.
It is not possible to compare the disturbances measured from
a source, and the insertion loss for a filter, as the measurement
base for the two items of information will not correspond.

It is always necessary to test a filter in conjunction with the


source of disturbance to ensure adequate attenuation and to
meet applicable emission limits.

Installation of the RFI filter


Reliable HF/low impedance connections are essential to ensure
proper functioning of the filter, therefore the following instructions
3
are to be followed.
The filter shall be assembled on a metal plate with unpainted
connection points all in accordance with the filter manufac-
turers instructions.
The orientation of the filter must be such that it provides
enough distance between the input and output wiring of the
filter in order to prevent cross-coupling between the clean
and dirty side.
The length of the cable between the filter and the drive must
be minimized.
The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the cable
which connects the filter to the drive
The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the mo-
tor cable

Selection of a secondary enclosure


Where the BDM is to be installed, (eg, an IP00 open chassis
converter), or if additional components are to be connected to
the dirty side of an otherwise compliant unit, it is always neces-
sary to provide an EMC enclosure.

For enclosed chassis modules where the motor connections


are made directly to the converter output terminals and all the
internal shielding parts are fitted, there are no requirements for
special enclosures.

If drives are fitted with output switching devices, for example,


then an EMC enclosure will be needed, as the integral Faraday
cage will no longer apply.

As a reminder, EMC is only one part of enclosure selection. The


enclosure is sized according to several criteria:

Safety
Degree of protection (IP rating)

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 23
EMC solutions

Heat rejection capability


Space for accessory equipment
Cosmetic aspects
Cable access
EMC compliance
General requirements for EMC compatibility

The manufacturers guidelines for construction and earthing


must be followed.

FARADAY CAGE

Unpainted back
plates

Limited hole size

Conductive
sealing
at the door
Enough locks
at the door

Gland / bottom
plates
Conductive
Conductive gasket for
sleeves control cables

Figure 3-4 Typical enclosure aperture detail.

Holes in enclosures
In most cases, some holes must be made in the enclosure eg,
for door devices, louvers, locks, cables, etc.

When an EMC enclosure is to be used, the maximum diagonal


or diameter for any hole is 100 mm, which equates to 1/10th
of the wavelength of a 300 MHz frequency. This dimension has
been found acceptable in EMC tests.

Holes bigger than 100 mm must be covered with a metal frame


surrounding the aperture and earthed to the enclosure.

Larger viewing holes can be covered by proprietary glazing with


conductive coating.

24 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

Glazing must be connected to non-painted metal surrounds with


conductive double-sided tape or conductive gasket.

Maximum size 72x72 mm


instrument
Twisted pair

<100 mm

Install locks to
unpainted door

3
Metal cover for
holes >100 mm

Check that there is no holes >100 mm

Figure 3-5 Essential points of power connections.

360 HF earthing
360 HF earthing should be done everywhere where cables enter
the drive enclosure, auxiliary connection box or motor. There are
different ways to implement the HF earthing. The solutions used
in ABBs CDM/BDM products are described here.

HF earthing with cable glands


The cable glands, which are specially designed for 360 HF
earthing, are suitable for power cables with a diameter less
than 50 mm.

Cable glands are not normally used for control cables due to the
fact that the distance from the control connections to the cable
glands is often too long for reliable HF earthing. If the glands
are used with control cables, the cable shielding must continue
as near to the control connections as possible. Only the outer
insulation of cable should be removed to expose the cable screen
for the length of the cable gland.

To get the best possible result from HF earthing, the cable shield-
ing should be covered with a conductive tape. The tape must
cover the whole surface of the shielding, including pigtail, and
should be tightly pressed with fingers after every single turn.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 25
EMC solutions

SUPPLY CABLE MOTOR CABLE

As short unshielded
wires as possible
Cable shielding Short pigtail
covered with
conductive tape Unpainted gland plate

EMC cable Conductive shielding


gland & compression seal

Clamping nut

Cable
Continuity of
faraday cage

Figure 3-6 Essential points of power connections.

HF earthing with conductive sleeve


360 HF earthing in power cable entries can be done by using
a conductive sleeve around the cable shielding. The sleeve is
connected to the Faraday cage by tightening it to the specially
designed collar in the gland plate.

Short pigtail

Note conductive tape on the cable shielding

Conductive
sleeve
Unpainted
gland plate with
collars

Unpainted bottom plate


Cable
Continuity of
faraday cage

Figure 3-7 360 earthing with conductive sleeve.

26 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

0.5...0.6 Nm (4.4...5.3 lbf in)

1.5 Nm (13 lbf in)

Above cable clamp, 3


cover bare shield with
insulating tape

Cable clamp on bare shield


1.5 Nm (13 lbf in)

Motor cable Braking resistor cable

Figure 3-8 360 earthing with clamping of cable shield.

The advantage of this solution is that the same sleeve can be


used for cables with different diameters.

The cable can be mechanically supported by clamps, and a


specific cable gland is not required.

Note that the sleeve does not act as a strain relief clamp.

360 earthing at motor end


The continuity of the Faraday cage at the motor end must be
ensured by the same methods as in cabinet entry, namely:

Faraday cage and IP55 degree of protection. This includes:


Cable gland providing galvanic contact must be used for
clamping the cable.
Cable shielding should be sealed with conductive tape.
Conductive gaskets should be used for sealing both the
cable gland plate and the terminal box cover
Note: Please check availability from motor manufacturer. It is
common that this is one option for the motor
Pigtails of earthing conductors must be as short as possible.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 27
EMC solutions

Figure 3-9 shows a Faraday cage solution at the motor end.

For motors that are not totally enclosed, such as in cooling


form IC01, IC06, etc. the continuity of the Faraday cage must
be ensured in the same manner as for the converter enclosure.

Cable shielding covered


with conductive tape

Short pigtail

EMC cable
gland

Conductive gasket

Continuity of
faraday cage

Figure 3-9 Essential points in motor cabling.

Conductive gaskets with control cables


The 360 HF earthing for control cables can be done with con-
ductive gaskets. In this method the shielded control cable is led
through two gaskets and pressed tightly together, as shown in
figure 3-9.

When gaskets are mounted at a gland plate, the cable shielding


must continue as near to the control connections as possible. In
this case the outer insulation of the cable should be removed to
allow connection to the shield for the length of the gasket transit.

The shielding should be covered with conductive tape.


The best HF earthing is achieved if gaskets are mounted as near
to the control connections as possible.

The gaskets must be installed to connect with the earthed un-


painted surfaces of the gland plate to which they are mounted.

All connection tails should be as short as possible, and twisted


in pairs where appropriate. The cable shield should be earthed
to the connection end by a short pigtail.

The hole size in a gland plate required by these gaskets is typi-


cally 200 x 50 mm.

28 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

As short as possible

Control

Shield
connections

Wrap copper tabe around the stripped part of


the cable under the clamp. Be careful.
Do not cut the grounding wire. Clamp as
close to the terminals as possible.

Figure 3-10 Essential points for control cabling transit.


3
Installation of accessories
The variety of accessories that can be installed is so large that
only basic principles for selection and installation can be given
for them.

Accessories can, however, be divided into two categories de-


pending on how immune/sensitive they are. The protected device
in this context means its ability to keep the Faraday cage closed.
It is therefore recommended to use metal enclosed/shielded
devices wherever such devices are available.

The rules for holes in the enclosure must be applied if there are
devices forming a bridge between the clean side and the dirty
side, which can be disturbed.

Typical open devices are fuses, switch fuses, contactors etc.,


which do not have a metal covering around them.

In general, such devices cannot be installed into the clean side


without protective metallic shielding plates. The rules for holes
in the enclosure must then be applied.

Some examples of protected and open devices are given in the


chapter Practical examples.

Internal wiring
There are some basic rules for internal wiring:
Always keep clean and dirty side cables separate and shielded
from one another.
Internal clean power connections with integrally filtered drive
units, eg, from contactor to converter input, do not require
shielded cables but may require de-coupling ferrite rings
where they enter the converter input.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 29
EMC solutions

Use twisted pair wires wherever possible.


Use shielded twisted pairs for signal level outward and return
wires exiting from the overall enclosure.
Avoid mixing pairs with different signal types eg,
110 V AC, 230 V AC, 24 V DC, analogue, digital.
Run wires along the metal surface and avoid wires hanging
in free air, which can become an antenna.
If plastic trunking is used, secure it directly to installation
plates or the framework. Do not allow spans over free air,
which could form an antenna.
Keep power and control wiring separate.
Use galvanically isolated (potential free) signals.
Keep wires twisted as near the terminal as possible.
Keep pigtails as short as possible.
Earthing connections should be as short as possible in flat
strip, multi-stranded or braided flexible conductors for low
RFI impedance.

DOOR DEVICE Twist these ANALOG SIGNALS


pairs of pairs
+10 V
GND
CABINET AI1+
DEVICE (0...10 V)
AI1-
Use shielded cables for Analog mA signals
For earthing rules see part Control Cabing
AI3+
AI3- (4...20 mA)
Analog
AO1+
Signal (V)
AO1-
Analog
AO2+
Signal (mA)
AO2-

POTENTIAL FREE Dont mix different


DIG. OUTPUT signal levels
DIGITAL INPUTS
DI1
DO
DO DI3

DI6
+24 V d.c.
+24 V d.c.
GND

RELAY OUTPUTS
(pot. free)
+24 V d.c.
GND
NC
Common
NO
NC
Diode for DC relay Common
NO
Dont mix different signal levels NC
Common
230 V a.c NO
N
RC filter or Twist the pairs
varistor for up to terminals
AC relay
CLEAN SIDE U1
Avoid parallel running with control wires SUPPLY
V1 CONNECTION
Cross in 90
W1
DIRTY SIDE Keep these separate (see figure 3-11)
U2
Avoid parallel running with control wires MOTOR
V2
Cross in 90 angle OUTPUT
W2

Figure 3-11 Principles of wiring inside CDM.

30 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

Control cables and cabling


The control cabling is a part of the Faraday cage as described
in the section Conductive gaskets with control cables.

In addition to correct HF earthing there are some basic rules for


control cabling:

Always use shielded twisted pair cables:


double-shielded cable for analogue signals
single-shielded for other signals is acceptable, but double-
shielded cable is recommended.
Dont run 110/230 V signals in the same cable as lower signal
level cables.
Keep twisted pairs individual for each signal. 3
Earth directly on the frequency converter side.

If instructions for the device at the other end of the cable specify
earthing at that end, earth the inner shields at the end of the more
sensitive device and the outer shield at the other end.

Route signal cables according to figure 3-12 whenever possible,


and follow instructions given by the product specific manuals.

Product specific manual

Motor cable

Mains cable

Signal / control cables

Figure 3-12 Routing principles of control cables.

There is more about control cabling in the Grounding and cabling


of the drive system documents and in product specific manuals.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 31
EMC solutions

Power cables
As the cables are part of the PDS they are also part of the Faraday
cage. To be able to meet the EMC requirements, power cables
with good shielding effectiveness must be used.

The purpose of the shield is to reduce radiated emission.

In order to be efficient, the shield must have good conductiv-


ity and cover most of the cable surface. If the cable shield is
used as protective earthing, the shield cross area (or equivalent
conductivity) must be at least 50 percent of the cross sectional
area of the phase conductor.

The product specific manuals describe some cable types that


can be used in mains supply and motor output.

If such types are not available locally, and because cable manu-
facturers have several different shield constructions, the types
can be evaluated by the transfer impedance of the cable.

The transfer impedance describes the shielding effectiveness


of the cable. It is commonly used with communication cables.

The cable can consist of either braided or spiral shield, and the
shield material should preferably be either copper or aluminum.

The suitability for certain drive types is mentioned in the product


specific manuals.

Figure 3-13 Galvanized steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield.

Figure 3-14 Layer of copper tape with concentric layer of copper wires.

Figure 3-15 Concentric layer of copper wires with an open helix of


copper tape.

32 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
EMC solutions

Transfer impedance
To meet the requirements for radiated emission, the transfer
impedance must be less than 100 m/m in the frequency range
up to 100 MHz. The highest shielding effectiveness is achieved
with a metal conduit or corrugated aluminum shield. Figure
3-16 shows typical transfer impedance values of different cable
constructions. The longer the cable run, the lower the transfer
impedance required.

Transfer
impedance
(mOhm/m)
Non-recommended cable
3
Galvanised steel or tinned
copper wire with braided
shield (fig. 3-12)

Layer of copper tabe with


concentric layer of copper wires
(fig. 3.13)

Corrugated shield

Frequency (MHz)

Figure 3-16 Transfer impedance for power cables.

Use of ferrite rings


In particular cases, due to high emission levels, common mode
inductors can be used in signal cables to avoid interfacing prob-
lems between different systems.

Common mode disturbances can be suppressed by wiring


conductors through the common mode inductor ferrite core
(figure 3-17).

The ferrite core increases inductance of conductors and mutual


inductance, so common mode disturbance signals above a cer-
tain frequency are suppressed. An ideal common mode inductor
does not suppress a differential mode signal.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 33
EMC solutions

Figure 3-17 Ferrite ring in signal wire.

The inductance (ie, the ability to suppress HF disturbances) can


be increased by multiple turns of the signal wire.

When using a ferrite ring with power cable, all phase conductors
should be led through the ring. The shielding and possible earth
wire must be wired outside the ring to keep the common mode
inductor effect. With power cables it is not normally possible to
make multiple turns through the ring. The inductance can be
increased by using several successive rings.

If for any reasons the installation instructions cannot be followed


and therefore additional ferrites or filters are added afterwards,
it is recommended that measurements be made to show con-
formance.

34 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Chapter 4 - Practical examples

Simple installation
Most simple installations of PDS include three cables only: sup-
ply cable, motor cable and cable for brake resistor as shown in
Figure 4-1.

Drive
INPUT OUTPUT

External brake
resistor
Motor

Notes:
1), 2) If shielded cable is used, use a separate PE cable (1) or a cable
with a grounding conductor (2) if the conductivity of the input cable
shield is < 50 percent of the conductivity of the phase conductor.
Ground the other end of the input cable shield or PE conductor at the
distribution board.
3) 360 degrees grounding recommended if shielded cable
4) 360 degrees grounding required
5) Use a separate grounding cable if the conductivity of the cable shield
is < 50 percent of the conductivity of the phase conductor and there
is no symmetrically constructed grounding conductor in the cable.

Figure 4-1 Most simple PDS installation

Typical installation
Shielded cables are shown interconnecting the primary parts,
ensuring attenuation of radiated emissions. The supply is made
through the RFI filter.

The Faraday cage is earthed and all the emissions are drained
to earth.

In the case shown in figure 4-2, the cabinet is not required to be


EMC proof, because connections are made directly in an EMC
compliant frequency converter.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 35
Practical examples

Transformer

360 HF earthing

Shielded cable

Metal
frame
cabinet

Cabinet
Unpainted
mounting
plate

Metal box Drive


RFI
BRAKE FILTER
RESISTOR

Rectifier

Metal box
BRAKE
CHOPPER

CONTROL

Motor
For connection details, see output
Product Specific Manual
for chopper and resistor.
1) Short pigtail
to PE, both common
and pair screen
For more details, see section 2) 360 HF grounding
on 360 EARTHING AT 3) For rules, see part
CONTROL
MOTOR END
CABLING

Figure 4-2 Typical PDS configuration.

Example of by-pass system <100 kVA


In this case it is difficult to ensure that no cross coupling occurs
between the dirty side of the converter and the clean side above
the direct on line (DOL) contactor. Contactors are not RFI barri-
ers, and the coil circuits are also vulnerable.

A suitable RFI filter at the supply input connections would require


to be able to pass the DOL starting current, which can be six to
seven times the normal full load current, and would be greatly
oversized for normal running, which makes it difficult to design.
Ferrite cores used in the feeds to the contactor will help attenu-
ate the coupled noise as shown in figure 4-3.

36 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Practical examples

Transformer 360 HF earthing


Shielded cable

RADIATIVE ie, DIRTY side

Metal
frame
cabinet

Cabinet 1
supply
connection

The ferrite in the DOL circuit is Ferrite Isolator


for cross coupling of clean and
dirty side Motor Output of PDS

Metal box RFI


3
DRIVE
CONTROL MODULE FILTER Metal box
BY-PASS RELAYS
CONTROL OR PLC

Control

Isolator
1) Short pigtail
tp PE, both common
and pair shield
3) For rules, see part
Contactor Contactor CONTROL
CABLING

Motor
output

Metal box
Safety sw.

For more details, see


360 MOTOR EARTHING

Figure 4-3 Basic scheme with by-pass.

Typical example of 12-pulse drive


In this case a 12-pulse rectifier is an IT system, unearthed due
to the delta winding; therefore any filter in the line must be at
the primary side of the phase shift transformer.

Experience has shown that, in this case, with short connections


to the busbars, the earth shield between the transformer windings
is not quite adequate for conducted emissions attenuation for use
in the first environment. Therefore an RFI filter may be needed
at the primary side of the transformer for EMC compliance. An
RFI filter is not normally needed for the second environment.

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 37
Practical examples

For equipment fed from an IT system, a similar procedure can


be used. An isolating transformer allows the PDS to be earthed
and to use a suitable filter, for use in the first environment. The
point of coupling is at a medium voltage and emissions may
be considered at the next low voltage point of coupling in the
system. The level of emissions should correspond to those for
the appropriate environment. For definitions, see the Installation
environments section in chapter 2.

360 HF grounding

Shielded cable

Shielded control cables


Low voltage supply

Point of Control & display


measurement Enclosure, with segregation

Shielded motor
cables

RFI
FILTER

Common DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS


earth
Incoming switch Phase shift Rectifiers Inverter Output choke
fuse contactor transformer (Ferrite)
(if integrated)

Note: All equipment inside must be enclosed


Figure 4-4 12-pulse converter system fed at LV.

360 HF grounding

Shielded cable

Medium or high voltage supply Shielded control cables

Point of Enclosure, Control & display


measurement with segregation Shielded motor
cables

Common DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS


earth

Incoming switch Phase shift Rectifiers Inverter Output choke


fuse contactor transformer (Ferrite)
(if integrated)

Figure 4-5 12-pulse converter system fed at LV (CDM, transformer and


switch fuse have separate housing).

38 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Practical examples

Example of EMC plan


This is a form for making an EMC plan where the user and the
manufacturer analyze the installation and define the measures
to be taken to achieve electromagnetic compatibility. The plan
defines the responsibilities of the manufacturer, the installer and
the user of the drive. All these parties establish the plan jointly.
Fill in and answer the questions below.

Step 1: Name the parties


Manufacturer/supplier ABB Oy, Drives
End user ABC Paper company
3
Order no. 123456789
Type of facility Paper machine PM3
(eg, chemical factory,
paper machine)
Application Sectional drive system
(eg, pump. fan, conveyor)

Step 2: Collect power distribution and earthing data


Power Point of coupling: identification code for
distribution distribution panel, switchgear or trans-
former
Transformerc T11
Type of distribution system TN-C,
TN-S TT,
IT
Earth bus How and where bonded?
At supply transformer T11

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 39
Practical examples

Step 3: Collect EMC data (high frequency range, only)


RFI Any equipment in the building or Yes / No
Sensitive near installation location sensitive to
equiment RF disturbances (eg, process con-
in the trol and measurement, data buses,
facility computers, remote control, etc.)? Data handling unit for
Describe. process control
Approximate distance from PDS 5 metres
and cabling of PDS
Most likely coupling path for Conducted
disturbance Radiated
RFI Any broadcast or communications Yes / No
Sensitive receiver antennas visible or near the
equipment facility (eg, radar, radio/TV broad-
outside the cast, amateur, microwave or other)?
facility Describe.
Frequency Hz
Distances from the antenna metres

Step 4: Define the installation rules


Follow the installation rules given in the hardware manual of the drive.
Assess the following items and describe the solutions.
EMC Items to be considered
Effectiveness
Cabling - cabling according to ABB cabling standards and
guidelines (cable types, installation, separate trays etc.)
- earthing according to ABB instructions
(earthing of trays etc.)
Dedicated - dedicated supply transformer T11 with static EMC-shield
transformer

Signature(s) by person(s) responsible for EMC

Date 26/09/2007
Signature(s)
Joe Smith

40 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
Chapter 5 - Bibliography

Various texts are referred to in this guide. They are recommended


further reading to assist in achieving compliant installations:

EN 61800-3, Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems -


part 3, EMC product standard including specific test (published
by CENELEC, Brussels, Belgium and National Standards organi-
zations in EU member countries).

EN 61800-3:2004

Interference Free Electronics by Dr. Sten Benda (published by 3


ABB Industry Ab, Vsters, Sweden)

Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives and adjustable


speed electrical power drive systems, code 3AFE61253980
(published by ABB Oy Drives, Helsinki, Finland)

Grounding and cabling of the drive system, code 3AFY61201998


(published by ABB Oy Drives, Helsinki, Finland)

Technical guide No. 3 | EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 41
Chapter 6 - Index
Symbols G
12-pulse rectifier 37 gasket 22, 23, 25
A gland plate 25, 26, 27
antenna 30 H
apparatus 7, 12, 13, 14 harmonics 10
appliance 12, 13, 14 high-frequency emission 10
assembler 7, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, high-frequency phenomena 10
21 I
B imbalance 10
basic drive module 8, 11 isolating transformer 38
C IT system 37, 38
cabinet 13, 20, 21, 27, 35 L
cable gland 25, 27 low-frequency phenomena 10
CE mark 7, 12, 14, 15 low-voltage network 15
CENELEC 41 Low Voltage Directive 7
complete drive module 8, 11 M
components 12 Machinery Directive 7
conducted radio frequency distur- manufacturer 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16,
bance 10 17, 21, 23, 24, 27
conduction 10 medium voltage network 15
control electronics 10 motor 19, 22, 25, 27, 31
converter 23, 28, 29, 35, 36, 38
cross coupling 36 N
customer 8 notches 10

D O
delta winding 37 original equipment manufacturers
DOL 36 7
double shielded cable 31 P
drive 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, phase shift transformer 37
20, 21, 22, 25, 29, 31, 32, 37, 39, pigtail 25, 27, 28
40 plastic trunking 30
E point of coupling 38
EEA 7, 10 power components 10
electrical surge 10 power distribution networks 15
Electromagnetic compatibility 10 power drive system 1, 3, 10, 11
electromagnetic disturbance 14 power supply network 15, 16
electromagnetic environment 10 R
electrostatic discharge 10 radiated electromagnetic field 10
enclosure 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, radiation 10
24, 26, 28, 38 RFI filter 20, 23, 35, 37
end user 12, 13, 16, 39 S
environment 10, 15, 16, 37 second environment 16, 17
equipment 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, single functional unit 8, 14
19, 24, 38, 40 strain relief clamp 27
F sub-assembly 12
Faraday cage 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, system 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
27, 28, 29, 31, 32 16, 17, 19, 20, 31, 33, 36, 37, 38,
fast transient burst 10 39, 41
ferrite core 33 T
ferrite ring 33, 34 technical documentation 7, 8, 12,
finished appliance 12, 13, 14 13
first environment 15, 16, 37 transformer 15, 37, 38
fixed installation 12, 14, 15, 17 twisted pair 24, 30, 31
frequency converter 31, 35
U
fuse 38
unrestricted 15
user 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16

42 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS | Technical guide No. 3
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Technical guide No. 4


Guide to variable speed drives
2 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4
Technical guide No. 4
Guide to variable speed drives

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE61389211 REV C 12.5.2011

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 3


4 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General ..............................................................................................7

Chapter 2 - Processes and their requirements ..........................................8


Why variable speed control? ...............................................................8
Industrial segments with VSD processes..............................................9
Variables in processing systems ........................................................10
Machines are used to alter materials properties... .............................11
Well defined shape .......................................................................11
Indefinite shape ...........................................................................11
...and to transport materials ..............................................................12
Solid materials .............................................................................12
Liquid materials ...........................................................................12
Gaseous materials .......................................................................12 4
Chapter 3 - The workhorse of industry: the electric motor ......................13
Electric motors drive most machines .................................................13
Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy ....................14
Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction .....................15
The efficiency of the drive system ......................................................16
Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required .............................17
The load, friction and inertia resist rotation .........................................18
The motor has to overcome the loading torque ..................................19
The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed .............20

Chapter 4 - Variable volumes require some form of control ....................21


Variable material flow and input/output requirements ..........................21
Simpler control methods ...................................................................22
The best control method is VSD ........................................................23
Mechanical, hydraulic and electrical VSDs .........................................24
Hydraulic coupling .......................................................................24
DC drive ......................................................................................24
AC drive ......................................................................................24
Electrical VSDs dominate the market .................................................25
Maintenance costs .......................................................................25
Productivity .................................................................................25
Energy saving ..............................................................................25
Higher quality ..............................................................................25
The AC drives market is growing fast .................................................26

Chapter 5 - AC drive: the leading control method ...................................27


The basic functions of an AC drive ....................................................27
A motors load capacity curves with an AC drive ................................28

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 5


AC drive features for better process control .......................................29
Reversing ....................................................................................30
Torque control .............................................................................30
Eliminating mechanical vibrations ..................................................30
Power loss ride-through ...............................................................31
Stall function ...............................................................................31
Slip compensation .......................................................................32
Flying start ..................................................................................32
Environmental features .................................................................33
EMC............................................................................................33

Chapter 6 - Cost benefits of AC drives ....................................................34


Technical differences between other systems and AC drives ...............35
No mechanical control parts needed .................................................36
Factors affecting cost .......................................................................37
Investment costs: mechanical and electrical components ...................38
The motor ...................................................................................38
The AC drive................................................................................38
Installation costs: throttling compared to AC drive ..............................39
Operational costs: maintenance and drive energy ..............................40
Total cost comparison ......................................................................41

Chapter 7 - Index .....................................................................................42

6 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
This guide continues ABBs technical guide series, describing
different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in
industrial processes. Special attention has been given to electri-
cal VSDs and especially to AC Drives.

The guide tries to be as practical as possible. No special know-


ledge of VSDs is required, although basic technical know-how
is required to fully understand the terms and descriptions used.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 7


Chapter 2 - Processes and their
requirements

Why variable speed control?


To understand why variable speed control is necessary, we first
need to understand the requirements of different processes.
These processes can be divided into two main categories;
material treatment and material transport, although there are
many different sub-categories that come under these two basic
headings.

Common to both main categories, however, is the need to be


able to adjust the process. This is accomplished with VSDs.
This chapter describes the main industrial and non-industrial
processes using VSDs.

8 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Processes and their requirements

Examples

Industrial:
Chemical industry
Pulp, paper, printing
Food & beverage
Power plants
Mining
Metal industry
Machine shops Non-industrial:
Plastics HVAC
Textiles Water treatment

Industrial segments with VSD processes


Industrial processes are numerous, and the list above mentions
just some of the industrial segments with VSD processes. What
4
they have in common is that they all require some kind of control
using VSD.

For example, in air conditioning applications (part of HVAC), air


flow requirements change according to the humidity and tem-
perature in the room. These can be met by adjusting the supply
and return air fans. These adjustments are carried out with VSDs.

Fans are also used in power plants and the chemical industry.
In both cases, the fans need to be adjusted according to the
main process. In power plants, the main process changes due
to varying demands for power at different times of the year, day
or week. Likewise, the need for VSDs differs according to the
process.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 9


Processes and their requirements

Variables in processing systems


This diagram shows what kinds of variables affect the processing
system. These variables can be divided into energy and mate-
rial variables. In the processing system itself, material or energy
is processed by means of mechanical power, electromagnetic
influence, thermal influence, chemical and biological reactions
or even nuclear power.

Each process needs the material and energy supplied to accom-


plish the required process. The product or final material state is
the output of the process, but in every process, waste, in the
form of energy and/or material, is also produced.

In processing systems, VSDs are used to control the mechanical


power of the different machines involved in the process.

Material treatment can also be controlled by VSDs. A good ex-


ample is a drying kiln, in which the hot air temperature must be
constant. The process is controlled by controlling the speed of
the hot air fans using VSDs.

10 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Processes and their requirements

4
Machines are used to alter materials properties...
As mentioned earlier in this guide, working machine processes
can be divided into two categories. The first category is material
treatment, which is accomplished using various types of process-
ing apparatus to alter a materials properties into another form.

Well defined shape

Processing apparatus can be divided into two groups according


to the resulting shape of the material being treated. The shape
can be either well defined or indefinite. Materials with a well-
defined shape, such as paper, metal and wood, are processed
with machinery. Examples are paper machines, rolling mills and
saw mill lines.

Indefinite shape

Materials with an indefinite shape, such as various food products,


plastics etc., are processed with plant equipment. Examples of
this kind of equipment are margarine stirrers, and different kinds
of centrifuges and extruders.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 11


Processes and their requirements

...and to transport materials


The second category consists of machines which transport
material to a desired location. This group consists of conveying,
dosing and pressure changing apparatus. These machines can
be divided into three different sub-groups according to whether
the type of material being treated is a solid, liquid or gas.

Solid materials

Solid materials, such as shipping containers, metal, wood, miner-


als and of course people, are transported by conveying appara-
tus. Such apparatus includes cranes, conveyors and elevators.

Liquid materials

Liquid materials, for example, water, oil or liquid chemicals, are


transported by pumps.

Gaseous materials

Gaseous materials such as air are transported using fans, com-


pressors or blowers. A special application of these machines is
air conditioning.

In the diagram above, five different types of machines are pre-


sented. They either shape or transport different types of material,
but all of them can be potentially used with Variable Speed Drives.

12 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Chapter 3 - The workhorse of industry:
the electric motor
All of the machines mentioned earlier in this guide are com-
monly driven by electric motors. It can be said that the electric
motor is the workhorse of industrial processes. In this chapter,
we will take a closer look at electrical motors - especially the
squirrel cage AC motor, which is the most common motor used
in industrial processes.

Electric motors drive most machines


Every machine consists of four different components, shown in
the diagram. These components are energy control, the motor,
transmission and the working machine. Together, the first three
components comprise the so called drive system. This drive
system can transform a given type of energy, usually electrical,
into mechanical energy, which is then used by the working ma-
chine. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power
supply.

In each of the three drive system components, variable speed


control is possible. Variable speed control can be accomplished,
for example, using a frequency converter as the energy control
component, a two speed motor as the motor component and
gears as the transmission component.

As mentioned earlier, most machines are driven by an electric


motor. Electric motors can be divided into AC and DC motors.
AC motors, particularly squirrel cage motors, are the most com-
monly used motors in industrial processes.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 13


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy


An AC motors ability to convert electrical energy into mechani-
cal energy is based on electromagnetic induction. The voltage
in stator windings forms the current and magnetic flux. The di-
rection of this flux can be determined using the right hand rule
from the stator current.

By changing the direction of the voltage in stator windings, the


direction of the flux can also be changed. By changing the volt-
age direction in the three phase motor windings in the correct
order, the magnetic flux of the motor starts to rotate. The motors
rotor will then follow this flux with a certain slip. This is the basic
principle used to control AC motors.

This control can be achieved using a frequency converter. As the


name suggests, a frequency converter changes the frequency of
the alternating current and voltage. A frequency converter con-
sists of three parts. Regular 50 Hz 3-phase current is fed in to the
rectifier part, which converts it to direct current. The DC voltage
is fed into the DC bus circuit, which filters the pulsating voltage.
The inverter unit then connects each motor phase either to the
negative or the positive DC bus according to a certain order.

To receive the flux direction shown in the diagram, switches V1,


V4 and V5 should be closed. To make the flux rotate counter-
clockwise, switch V6 has to be closed but V5 has to be open.
If switch V5 is not opened, the circuit will short circuit. The flux
has turned 60 counterclockwise.

14 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction


There are eight different switching positions in the inverter. In
two positions, the voltage is zero, ie, when all the phases are
4
connected to the same DC bus, either negative or positive. So
in the remaining six switching positions there is voltage in the
motor windings, and this voltage creates magnetic flux.

The diagram shows these six switching positions and the flux
directions, which the voltage in the windings generates in each
case. Voltage also generates current in the windings, the direc-
tions of which are marked with arrows in each phase.

In practice, control is not quite as simple as presented here.


Magnetic flux generates currents in the rotor. These rotor cur-
rents complicate the situation. External interference, such as
temperature or load changes, can also cause some control dif-
ficulties. Nevertheless, with todays technology and know-how,
it is possible to effectively deal with interference.

Electrical VSDs also provide many additional benefits, such as


energy savings, because the motor does not use more electrical
energy than required. Furthermore, control is better than with
conventional methods, because electrical VSDs also provide the
possibility for stepless control.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 15


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

The efficiency of the drive system


The total efficiency of the drive system depends on the losses in
the motor and its control. Both drive and motor losses are ther-
mal, so they appear as heat. Input power to the drive system is
electrical in form, while output power is mechanical. That is why
calculating the coefficient of efficiency () requires knowledge of
both electrical and mechanical engineering.

Electrical input power Pin depends on voltage (U), current (I) and
the power factor (cos). The power factor tells us what propor-
tion of the total electric power is active power and how much is
so called reactive power. To produce the required mechanical
power, active power is required. Reactive power is needed to
produce magnetisation in the motor.

Mechanical output power P out depends on the required torque


(T) and rotating speed (n). The greater the speed or torque re-
quired, the greater the power required. This has a direct effect
on how much power the drive system draws from the electrical
supply. As mentioned earlier, the frequency converter regulates
the voltage, which is fed to the motor, and in this way directly
controls the power used in the motor as well as in the process
being controlled.

Electrical switching with transistors is very efficient, so the effi-


ciency of the frequency converter is very high, from 0.97 to 0.99.
Motor efficiency is typically between 0.82 and 0.97 depending
on the motor size and its rated speed. So it can be said that
the total efficiency of the drive system is always above 0.8 when
controlled by a frequency converter.

16 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required


In some cases, reversed rotation of the motor is required. 4
In addition, torque direction requirements might change. These
factors combined form the so called four quadrant drive. The
name comes from the four different quadrants (I to IV) shown
in the diagram.

I quadrant: In the first quadrant, the motor is rotating clockwise.


Because the torque is in the same direction as the speed, the
drive is accelerating.

II quadrant: In the second quadrant, the motor is still rotating


clockwise, but the torque is in the opposite direction, so the
drive is decelerating.

III & IV quadrants: In the third and fourth quadrant, the motor
is rotating counterclockwise and the drive is again accelerating
or decelerating, depending on the torque direction.

With a frequency converter, torque direction changes can be im-


plemented independent of the direction of rotation. To produce an
efficient four quadrant drive, some kind of braking arrangement
is required. This kind of torque control is especially required in
crane applications, where the rotation direction might change,
but the torque direction remains the same.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 17


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

The load, friction and inertia resist rotation


The motor must produce the required torque to overcome the
load torque. Load torque consists of friction, inertia of the moving
parts and the load itself, which depends on the application. In
the example in the diagram, the motor torque has to be greater
than the load torque, which is dependent on the mass of the
box, if the box is to rise.

Load factors change according to the application. For example,


in a crusher, the load torque is dependent not only on friction
and inertia, but also on the hardness of the crushed material. In
fans and blowers, air pressure changes affect the load torque,
and so on.

18 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

The motor has to overcome the loading torque


In any case, the loading torque has to be known before select-
ing the motor for the application. The required speed also has
to be known. Only then can a suitable motor be selected for 4
the application.

If the motor is too small, the requirements cannot be met and


this might lead to serious problems. For example, in crane ap-
plications, a motor that is too small may not be able to lift the
required load quickly enough to the desired height. It might even
drop the load completely, as shown in the diagram. This could
be disastrous for people working at the harbour or site where
this crane would be used. To calculate the rated torque of the
motor the following formula can be used:

P[kW]
T[Nm]=9550 x
n[1/min]

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 19


The workhorse of industry: The electric motor

The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed
A motors torque/speed curve is unique and has to be calculated
for every motor type separately. A typical torque/speed curve is
shown in the graph as Tm. As can be seen, the maximum load
torque is reached just below nominal speed.

Load torque Tl usually increases with speed. Depending on the


application it can be linear or quadratic. The motor will auto-
matically accelerate until the load torque and motor torque are
equal. This point is shown on the graph as the intersection of
Tm and Tl. Actual torque (Tact) is shown on the y-axis and actual
speed (nact) on the x-axis.

These are the principles that govern how an ordinary squirrel


cage motor works. With a frequency converter, optimal control
performance can be obtained from the motor and the whole drive
system. This will be introduced later in this guide.

20 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Chapter 4 - Variable volumes require some
form of control
In most processes there is at least one variable. This variable
causes the need for process adjustment. Therefore variable
processes and material volumes need some form of control.

In this chapter we will look at processes and their variables. We


will also examine different control methods.

Output
Input Process

Interference
Typical cases 4
Application Input Interference Output
1 Submersible pump Water level
2 Pump application Water level Water flow
3 FD fan Heat demand Atmospheric pressure
4 Sawmill line Log diameter Hardness of wood
5 Screw conveyor Material volume
6 Feeder Hardness of material Load
7 Grinder Wear of the grind

Variable material flow and input/output requirements


There may be many different parameters involved in a process,
the most common being input, output and interference. These
parameters may need to be constant or they may need to be
changed according to a preset pattern. As discussed in the first
chapter, there are always inputs and outputs present in a process
and, in almost every case, interference as well.

In some processes there is no interference and the input is


constant. This kind of process works without any variable speed
control. However, if the output parameters need to be changed,
the input is variable or there is interference present, then vari-
able speed control might be the solution to fulfilling the process
requirements.

The above table lists some processes in which variable speed


control is required. It also shows the reasons for the control;
input, interference or output.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 21


Variable volumes require some form of control

Simpler control methods


There are many simpler control methods in existence such as
throttling or bypass control. The construction of such equip-
ment is usually very simple and the investment may look cost
effective at first.

However, there are many drawbacks. For example the optimal


process capacity, which gives the best quality of the process,
is very difficult to achieve with simple control. An increase in
production capacity usually requires reconstruction of the whole
process and with each direct on-line startup there is a risk of
electrical and/or mechanical damage.

The simple control methods are also energy consuming, so in


addition to the total operating cost being higher than with VSDs,
the environmental effects, such as CO2 emissions from power
plants, also increase. Therefore, the total life-cycle cost of invest-
ment in simple control methods is much higher than with VSDs.

22 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Variable volumes require some form of control

The best control method is VSD


4
The best control method for most systems is VSD. Imagine you
are driving a car for example. If you are driving on a highway and
entering a populated area, you need to reduce speed so that
you dont risk your own and other peoples lives.

The best possible way to do this is of course to reduce motor


rotation speed by taking your foot off the gas pedal and, if nec-
essary, changing to a lower gear. Another possibility would be
to use the same gear, keep your foot on the gas and reduce
speed simply by braking. This would not only cause wear on the
engine and brakes, but also use a lot of fuel and reduce your
overall control of the vehicle. Furthermore, the original goal of
reducing speed without risking your own and other peoples lives
would not have been achieved.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 23


Variable volumes require some form of control

Mechanical, hydraulic and electrical VSDs


Above are the four most common VSDs in the industrial sec-
tor. Mechanical variable speed control usually uses belt drives,
and is controlled by moving conical pulleys manually or with
positioning motors.

Hydraulic coupling

In hydraulic coupling, the turbine principle is used. By changing the


volume of oil in the coupling, the speed difference between the
driving and driven shafts changes. The oil amount is controlled
with pumps and valves.

DC drive

In the DC drive, a DC converter changes the motor supply volt-


age fed to the DC motor. In the motor, a mechanical inverter, a
commutator, changes direct current to alternating current.

AC drive

In the frequency converter or AC drive, a standard squirrel cage


motor is used, so no mechanical inverters are required. The
speed of the motor is regulated by a frequency converter that
changes the frequency of the motor voltage, as presented earlier
in this guide. The frequency converter itself is controlled with
electrical signals.

The diagram shows the location of the control equipment for


each type of VSD. In mechanical and hydraulic VSDs, the con-
trol equipment is located between the motor and the working
machine, which makes maintenance very difficult.

In electrical VSDs, all control systems are situated in an electri-


cal equipment room and only the driving motor is in the process
area. This is just one benefit of electrical VSDs. Other benefits
are presented on the following page.

24 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Variable volumes require some form of control

Electrical VSDs dominate the market


Here are the four most important arguments for using electrical
VSDs, presented along with estimated VSD market shares in
Europe in 2000. The four main benefits of using electrical VSDs
are highlighted at the turning points of the speed curve.
4
Maintenance costs

Direct on-line starting stresses the motor and also the electrical
equipment. With electrical VSDs, smooth starting is possible and
this has a direct effect on maintenance costs.

Productivity

Process equipment is usually designed to cater for future pro-


ductivity increases. Changing constant-speed equipment to
provide higher production volumes requires money and time.
With the AC drive, speed increases of 5 to 20 percent are not a
problem, and the production increase can be achieved without
any extra investment.

Energy saving

In many processes, production volumes change. Changing


production volumes by mechanical means is usually very inef-
ficient. With electrical VSDs, changing the production volume
can be achieved by changing the motor speed. This saves a lot
of energy particularly in pump and fan applications, because the
shaft power is proportional to the flow rate to the power of three.

Higher quality

The accurate speed control obtainable with electrical VSDs re-


sults in process optimization. The optimal process control leads
to the best quality end product, which means the best profit for
the customer.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 25


Variable volumes require some form of control

Due to these benefits, electrical VSDs are dominating the market,


as can be seen from the table above. AC and DC drives together
account for over 75 percent, and AC drives for more than 50
percent, of the total VSD market in Europe in 2000.

The AC drives market is growing fast


This diagram shows the projected development of the electrical
VSDs market to the year 2000. As can be seen, the AC drives
market is growing at almost 10 percent per year, which accounts
for the entire growth of the electrical and VSD market. The market
share of DC drives is diminishing, and the total DC market size
remains approximately constant. This progress is due to the
development of AC drives technology.

As presented earlier in this guide, the AC drive has many benefits


over other process control methods. The difference between
the AC and the DC motor is that the DC motor has a mechani-
cal commutator, utilising carbon brushes. These brushes need
regular maintenance and the commutator itself complicates the
motor structure and consumes energy. These are the main rea-
sons why the AC drives market share is growing in comparison
to DC drives.

26 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Chapter 5 - AC drive: the leading control
method
Taking into account everything presented so far, we can con-
fidently say that the AC drive is the leading control method. In
the following chapter we will take a closer look at the different
features of the AC drive, and the levels of performance the drive
can offer.

The basic functions of an AC drive


In this diagram, the basic functions of an AC drive are presented.
There are four different components in AC drive motor control.
These components are the user interface, the motor, the electri-
cal supply and the process interface.

An electrical supply feeds the required electricity to the drive;


one selection criteria for the drive is the supply voltage and its
frequency. The AC drive converts the frequency and voltage and
feeds the motor. This conversion process is controlled by signals
from the process or user via the process and user interfaces.

The user interface provides the ability to observe the AC drive


and obtain different process information via the drive. This makes
the drive easy to integrate with other process control equipment
and overriding process control systems.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 27


AC drive: the leading control method

A motors load capacity curves with an AC drive


If the motor is driven without a frequency converter, its load
capacity curves cannot be modified. It will produce a speci-
fied torque at certain speed and maximum torque cannot be
exceeded.

With a frequency converter drive, there are different loading op-


tions. The standard curve, Curve 1 in the diagram, can be used
continuously. Other curves can only be used for certain periods
of time, because the motors cooling system is not designed for
this kind of heavy use.

These higher load capacity levels might be needed, for example,


during startup. In certain applications, as much as twice the
amount of torque is required when starting. With a frequency con-
verter this is possible, meaning that a motor can be dimensioned
according to its normal use. This reduces the investment cost.

To be able to use these features it is very important that the load,


the AC drive and the motor are compatible. Otherwise the motor
or the converter will overheat and be damaged.

28 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


AC drive: the leading control method

Important features:
- inputs and outputs
- reversing function
- ramp times acceleration/deceleration
- variable torque V/Hz settings
- torque boosting
- eliminating mechanical vibrations
- load limits to prevent nuisance faults
- power loss ride-through
- stall function
- slip compensation
- flying start

AC drive features for better process control


AC drives also have other internal features and functions which
4
are sometimes required for better process control. Examples of
these features are listed in the diagram. With inputs and outputs
for example, different kinds of process information can be fed to
the drive and it will control the motor accordingly. Alternatively,
the load can be limited to prevent nuisance faults and to protect
the working machine and the whole drive system.

In the following sections the listed features are presented in


more detail.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 29


AC drive: the leading control method

Reversing

Reversing the motor rotation is simple to accomplish with an AC


drive. With ABBs frequency converters it can be achieved simply
by pressing one button. Furthermore, it is possible to set different
acceleration and deceleration ramp times. The ramp form can
also be modified according to the users wishes. In the diagram
(above, left) an S-ramp has been presented. Another possibility
could be a linear ramp.

Torque control

Torque control is relatively simple with an AC drive. Torque


boosting, which was presented earlier, is necessary if a very
high starting torque is required. Variable torque U/f settings
mean that maximum torque can be achieved at a lower speed
of rotation than normal.

Eliminating mechanical vibrations

Mechanical vibrations can be eliminated by by-passing critical


speeds. This means that when a motor is accelerated close to
its critical speed, the drive will not allow the actual speed of
the motor to follow the reference speed. When the critical point
has been passed, the motor will return to the regular curve very
quickly and pass the critical speed.

30 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


AC drive: the leading control method

Power loss ride-through

The power loss ride-through function is used if the incoming


supply voltage is cut off. In such a situation, the AC drive will
continue to operate using the kinetic energy of the rotating motor. 4
The drive will be fully operational as long as the motor rotates
and generates energy for the drive.

Stall function

With an AC drive, the motor can be protected in a stall situation


with the stall function. It is possible to adjust supervision limits
and choose how the drive reacts to the motor stall condition. Pro-
tection is activated if three conditions are met at the same time.

1. The drive frequency has to be below the preset stall frequency.

2. The motor torque has to rise to a certain limit, calculated by


the drive software.

3. The final condition is that the motor has been in the stall limit
for longer than the time period set by the user.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 31


AC drive: the leading control method

Slip compensation

If the motor load torque is increased, the speed of the motor will
decrease as shown in the diagram (above, left). To compensate
for this slip, the torque/speed curve can be modified with the
frequency converter so that torque increase can be accomplished
with the same speed as previously.

Flying start

The flying start feature is used when a motor is connected to a


flywheel or a high inertia load. The flying start works even without
a speed feedback. In case of rotating motor, the inverter is first
started with a reduced voltage and then synchronised to the
rotating rotor. After synchronised the voltage and the speed are
increased to the corresponding levels.

32 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


AC drive: the leading control method

Environmental features

Any drive system has to handle different environmental stresses


such as moisture or electrical disturbances. The squirrel cage
4
motor is very compact and can be used in very hostile condi-
tions. The IP54 degree of protection guarantees that it can work
in a dusty environment and that it can bear sprinkling water from
any direction.

The frequency converter usually has an IP21 degree of protec-


tion. This means that it is not possible to touch the live parts and
that vertically dripping water will not cause any harm. If a higher
degree of protection is required, it can be obtained, for example,
by installing the drive inside a cabinet with the required degree
of protection. In such cases, it is essential to ensure that the
temperature inside the cabinet will not exceed the allowed limits.

EMC

Another important environmental feature is electromagnetic com-


patibility (EMC). It is very important that a drive system fulfills the
EMC directives of the European Union. This means that the drive
system can bear conductive and radiative disturbances, and that
it does not send any conductive or radiative disturbances itself
either to the electrical supply or the surrounding environment.

If you require more information about the EMC directives and


their effects on drives, please refer to ABBs Technical guide No.
3, EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power
Drive System.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 33


Chapter 6 - Cost benefits of AC drives

In addition to their technical advantages, AC drives also provide


many cost benefits. In this chapter, these benefits are reviewed,
with the costs divided into investment, installation and opera-
tional costs.

At the moment there are still plenty of motors sold without vari-
able speed AC drives. This pie chart shows how many motors
below 2.2 kW are sold with frequency converters, and how
many without. Only 3 percent of motors in this power range are
sold each year with a frequency converter; 97 percent are sold
without an AC drive.

This is astonishing considering what we have seen so far in


this guide. Even more so after closer study of the costs of an AC
drive compared to conventional control methods. But first lets
review AC drive technology compared to other control methods.

34 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Cost benefits of AC drives

Technical differences between other systems and AC drives 4


AC drive technology is completely different from other, simpler
control methods. It can be compared, for example, to the dif-
ference between a zeppelin and a modern airplane.

We could also compare AC drive technology to the development


from a floppy disk to a CD-ROM. Although it is a simpler infor-
mation storage method, a floppy disk can only handle a small
fraction of the information that a CD-ROM can.

The benefits of both these innovations are generally well known.


Similarly, AC drive technology is based on a totally different
technology to earlier control methods. In this guide, we have
presented the benefits of the AC drive compared to simpler
control methods.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 35


Cost benefits of AC drives

No mechanical control parts needed


To make a proper cost comparison, we need to study the con-
figurations of different control methods. Here we have used
pumping as an example. In traditional methods, there is always
a mechanical part and an electrical part.

In throttling you need fuses, contactors and reactors on the


electrical side and valves on the mechanical side. In On/Off
control, the same electrical components are needed, as well as
a pressure tank on the mechanical side. The AC drive provides
a new solution. No mechanics are needed, because all control
is already on the electrical side.

Another benefit, when thinking about cost, is that with an AC


drive we can use a regular 3-phase motor, which is much cheaper
than the single phase motors used in other control methods.
We can still use 220 V single phase supply, when speaking of
power below 2.2 kW.

36 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Cost benefits of AC drives

Conventional methods: AC drive:


both electrical and all in one
mechanical parts
many electrical parts only one electrical component
mechanical parts need regular no mechanical parts, no wear
maintenance and tear
mechanical control is energy saves energy
consuming

Factors affecting cost


This list compares the features of conventional control methods
with those of the AC drive, as well as their effect on costs. In
4
conventional methods there are both electrical and mechanical
components, which usually have to be purchased separately. The
costs are usually higher than if everything could be purchased
at once.

Furthermore, mechanical parts wear out quickly. This directly


affects maintenance costs and in the long run, maintenance is
a very important cost item. In conventional methods there are
also many electrical components. The installation cost is at least
doubled when there are several different types of components
rather than only one.

And last but not least, mechanical control is very energy consum-
ing, while AC drives practically save energy. This not only helps
reduce costs, but also helps minimise environmental impact by
reducing emissions from power plants.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 37


Cost benefits of AC drives

Investment costs: mechanical and electrical components


In this graph, the investment structure as well as the total price of
each pump control method is presented. Only the pump itself is
not added to the costs because its price is the same regardless
of whether its used with an AC drive or valves. In throttling, there
are two possibilities depending on whether the pump is used in
industrial or domestic use. In an industrial environment there are
stricter requirements for valves and this increases costs.

The motor

As can be seen, the motor is much more expensive for traditional


control methods than for the AC drive. This is due to the 3-phase
motor used with the AC drive and the single phase motor used
in other control methods.

The AC drive

The AC drive does not need any mechanical parts, which reduces
costs dramatically. Mechanical parts themselves are almost al-
ways less costly than a frequency converter, but electrical parts
also need to be added to the total investment cost.

After taking all costs into account, an AC drive is almost always


the most economical investment, when compared to differ-
ent control methods. Only throttling in domestic use is as low
cost as the AC drive. These are not the total costs, however.
Together with investment costs we need to look at installation
and operational costs.

38 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Cost benefits of AC drives

Throttling AC drive

Installation material 20 USD 10 USD


Installation work 5h x 65 USD = 1h x 65 USD =
325 USD 65 USD
Commissioning 1h x 65 USD = 1h x 65 USD =
work 65 USD 65 USD
Total 410 USD 140 USD

Savings in installation: 270 USD!

Installation costs: throttling compared to AC drive


Because throttling is the second lowest investment after the AC
drive, we will compare its installation and operating costs to the 4
cost of the AC drive. As mentioned earlier, in throttling there are
both electrical and mechanical components. This means twice
the amount of installation material is needed.

Installation work is also at least doubled in throttling compared to


the AC drive. To install a mechanical valve into a pipe is not that
simple and this increases installation time. To have a mechanical
valve ready for use usually requires five hours compared to one
hour for the AC drive. Multiply this by the hourly rate charged by
a skilled installer to get the total installation cost.

The commissioning of a throttling-based system does not usu-


ally require more time than commissioning an AC drive based
system. One hour is usually the time required in both cases. So
now we can summarise the total installation costs. As you can
see, the AC drive saves up to USD 270 per installation. So even
if the throttling investment costs were lower than the price of a
single phase motor (approximately USD 200), the AC drive would
pay for itself before it has even worked a second.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 39


Cost benefits of AC drives

Throttling AC drive saving


50 percent
Power required 0.75 kW 0.37 kW
Annual energy 4000 hours/year 3000 kWh 1500 kWh
Annual energy cost with 0.1 300 USD 150 USD
USD/kWh
Maintenance/year 40 USD 5 USD
Total cost/year 340 USD 155 USD
Savings in one year: 185 USD!

Operational costs: maintenance and drive energy


In many surveys and experiments it has been proved that a 50
percent energy saving is easily achieved with an AC drive. This
means that where power requirements with throttling would be
0.75 kW, with the AC drive it would be 0.37 kW. If a pump is
used 4000 hours per year, throttling would need 3000 kWh and
the AC drive 1500 kWh of energy per year.

To calculate the savings, we need to multiply the energy con-


sumption by the energy price, which varies depending on the
country. Here USD 0.1 per kWh has been used.

As mentioned earlier, mechanical parts wear a lot and this is


why they need regular maintenance. It has been estimated
that whereas throttling requires USD 40 per year for service,
maintenance costs for an AC drive would be USD 5. In many
cases however, there is no maintenance required for a frequency
converter.

Therefore, the total savings in operating costs would be


USD 185, which is approximately half of the frequency converters
price for this power range. This means that the payback time of
the frequency converter is two years. So it is worth considering
that instead of yearly service for an old valve it might be more
profitable to change the whole system to an AC drive based
control. To retrofit an existing throttling system the pay-back
time is two years.

40 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Cost benefits of AC drives

Total cost comparison


In the above figure, all the costs have been summarised. The 4
usual time for an operational cost calculation for this kind of
investment is 10 years. Here the operational costs are rated to
the present value with a 10 percent interest rate.

In the long run, the conventional method will be more than twice
as expensive as a frequency converter. Most of the savings with
the AC drive come from the operational costs, and especially
from the energy savings. It is in the installation that the highest
individual savings can be achieved, and these savings are real-
ised as soon as the drive is installed.

Taking the total cost figure into account, it is very difficult to


understand why only 3 percent of motors sold have a frequency
converter. In this guide we have tried to present the benefits of
the AC drive and why we at ABB think that it is absolutely the
best possible way to control your process.

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 41


Chapter 7 - Index
A H
ABB 30, 33, 41 harbour 19
AC drive 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, hydraulic coupling 24
30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,
41 I
AC drives market 26 industrial processes 13
AC motor 13, 14 inertia 18, 32
active power 16 input power 16
interference 15, 21
B inverter 14, 15, 24
belt drives 24 IP21 33
blowers 18 IP54 33
braking 17, 23
bypass control 22 L
linear ramp 30
C load capacity curves 28
coefficient of efficiency 16
Commissioning 39 M
commutator 24, 26 machine 11, 13, 24, 29
contactors 36 magnetic flux 14, 15
crane 17, 19 maintenance 24, 25, 26, 37, 40
critical speed 30 mechanical power 16
crusher 18 mechanical vibrations 29, 30
current 14, 15, 16, 24 motor load 32
motor losses 16
D motor phase 14
DC bus 14, 15 motor size 16
DC converter 24 motor stall condition 31
DC drive 24, 26 motor windings 14, 15
DC motor 24, 26
Direct on-line starting 25 N
drive frequency 31 nuisance faults 29
drive software 31 O
drive system 16, 20, 29, 33 output power 16
E P
electrical disturbances 33 power factor 16
electrical equipment room 24 power loss ride-through 29, 31
electrical supply 16, 27, 33 power plants 22, 37
electromagnetic compatibility 33 process control 25, 26, 27, 29
electromagnetic induction 14, 15 processing system 10
EMC 33 pump 24, 25, 36, 40
EMC directives 33
energy 14, 15, 22, 25, 26, 31, 37, R
40, 41 rated speed 16
Reactive power 16
F reactive power 16
fans 18 reactors 36
flux 14, 15 rectifier 14
flying start 29, 32 reference speed 30
flywheel 32 reversing function 29
four quadrant drive 17 right hand rule 14
frequency converter 14, 16, 17,
20, 24, 28, 32, 33, 34, 40, 41
friction 18
fuses 36

42 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4


Index

S
S-ramp 30
slip 14, 29, 32
squirrel cage motor 20, 24, 33
stall frequency 31
stall function 29, 31
stator 14
stepless control 15
T
temperature 15, 33
throttling 22, 36, 39, 40
torque 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32
transistors 16
V
valve 40
valves 24, 36
variable speed control 8, 21, 24
4
variable speed drives 1, 3
voltage 14, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31
VSD 9, 15, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26

Technical guide No. 4 | Guide to variable speed drives 43


44 Guide to variable speed drives | Technical guide No. 4
Contact us

3AFE61389211 REV C EN 12.5.2011 #15677


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 5


Bearing currents in modern
AC drive systems
2 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5
Technical guide No. 5
Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE64230247 REV C EN 27.4.2011

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 3


4 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General .............................................................................................7
Avoiding bearing currents ..................................................................7

Chapter 2 - Generating bearing currents ...................................................8


High frequency current pulses ............................................................8
Faster switching ................................................................................9
How are HF bearing currents generated? .............................................9
Circulating current ........................................................................9
Shaft grounding current .................................................................9
Capacitive discharge current ........................................................10
Common mode circuit ......................................................................10
Stray capacitances ..........................................................................11
How does the current flow through the system? ................................12
Voltage drops ...................................................................................13
Common mode transformer ..............................................................14
Capacitive voltage divider .................................................................15

Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency bearing current damage .............17


5
Three approaches ............................................................................17
Multicore motor cables .................................................................17
Short impedance path .................................................................17
High frequency bonding connections ...........................................18
Follow product specific instructions ..................................................19
Additional solutions .....................................................................19
Measuring high frequency bearing currents ........................................19
Leave the measurements to the specialists ........................................20

Chapter 4 - References ............................................................................21

Chapter 5 - Index .....................................................................................22

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 5


6 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5
Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
Some new drive installations can have their bearings fail only
a few months after startup. Failure can be caused by high fre-
quency currents, which flow through the motor bearings.

While bearing currents have been around since the advent


of electric motors, the incidence of damage they cause has
increased during the last few years. This is because modern
variable speed drives with their fast rising voltage pulses and
high switching frequencies can cause current pulses through
the bearings whose repeated discharging can gradually erode
the bearing races.

Avoiding bearing currents


To avoid damage occurring, it is essential to provide proper
earthing paths and allow stray currents to return to the inverter
frame without passing through the bearings. The magnitude of
the currents can be reduced by using symmetrical motor cables
5
or inverter output filtering. Proper insulation of the motor bearing
construction breaks the bearing current paths.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 7


Chapter 2 - Generating bearing currents

High frequency current pulses


Bearing currents come in several different guises. However,
while modern motor design and manufacturing practices have
nearly eliminated the low frequency bearing currents induced by
the asymmetry of the motor, the rapid switching in modern AC
drive systems may generate high frequency (HF) current pulses
through the bearings. If the energy of these pulses is sufficiently
high, metal transfers from the ball and the races to the lubricant.
This is known as electrical discharge machining or EDM. The
effect of a single pulse is insignificant, but a tiny EDM pit is an
incontinuity that will collect more pulses and expand into a typi-
cal EDM crater. The switching frequency of modern AC drives is
very high and the vast number of pulses causes the erosion to
quickly accumulate. As a result, the bearing may need replacing
after only a short time in service.

High frequency bearing currents have been investigated by


ABB since 1987. The importance of system design has been
highlighted in the last few years. Each individual item involved,
such as the motor, the gearbox or the drive controller, is the
product of sophisticated manufacturing techniques and normally
carries a favourable mean time between failure (MTBF) rate. It is
when these components are combined and the installed system
is looked upon as a whole, that it becomes clear that certain
installation practices are required.

Figure 1: Bearing currents can cause bearing fluting, a rhythmic


pattern on the bearings races.

8 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Generating bearing currents

Faster switching
Current AC drive technology, incorporating insulated gate bipo-
lar transistors (IGBT), creates switching events 20 times faster
than those considered typical ten years ago. Recent years have
seen a rising number of EDM-type bearing failures in AC drive
systems relatively soon after startup, within one to six months.
The extent to which this occurs depends on the AC drive system
architecture and the installation techniques used.

How are HF bearing currents generated?


The source of bearing currents is the voltage that is induced
over the bearing. In the case of high frequency bearing currents,
this voltage can be generated in three different ways. The most
important factors that define which mechanism is prominent, are
the size of the motor and how the motor frame and shaft are
grounded. The electrical installation, meaning a suitable cable
type and proper bonding of the protective conductors and the
electrical shield, plays an important role. Du/dt of the AC drive
power stage components and the DC-link voltage level affect
the level of bearing currents.

Circulating current
5
In large motors, high frequency voltage is induced between the
ends of the motor shaft by the high frequency flux circulating
around the stator. This flux is caused by a net asymmetry of
capacitive current leaking from the winding into the stator frame
along the stator circumference. The voltage between the shaft
ends affects the bearings. If it is high enough to overcome the
impedance of the bearings oil film, a current that tries to com-
pensate the net flux in the stator starts to flow in the loop formed
by the shaft, the bearings and the stator frame. This current is a
circulating type of high frequency bearing current.

Shaft grounding current

The current leaking into the stator frame needs to flow back to
the inverter, which is the source of this current. Any route back
contains impedance, and therefore the voltage of the motor
frame increases in comparison to the source ground level. If the
motor shaft is earthed via the driven machinery, the increase of
the motor frame voltage is seen over the bearings. If the voltage
rises high enough to overcome the impedance of the drive-end
bearing oil film, part of the current may flow via the drive-end
bearing, the shaft and the driven machine back to the inverter.
This current is a shaft grounding type of high frequency bearing
current.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 9


Generating bearing currents

Capacitive discharge current

In small motors, the internal voltage division of the common


mode voltage over the internal stray capacitances of the motor
may cause shaft voltages high enough to create high frequency
bearing current pulses. This can happen if the shaft is not earthed
via the driven machinery while the motor frame is earthed in the
standard way for protection.

Common mode circuit


High frequency bearing currents are a consequence of the cur-
rent flow in the common mode circuit of the AC drive system.

A typical three-phase sinusoidal power supply is balanced and


symmetrical under normal conditions. That is, the vector sum of
the three phases always equals zero. Thus, it is normal that the
neutral is at zero volts. However, this is not the case with a PWM
switched three-phase power supply, where a dc voltage is con-
verted into three phase voltages. Even though the fundamental
frequency components of the output voltages are sy mmetrical
and balanced, it is impossible to make the sum of three output
voltages instantaneously equal to zero with two possible output
levels available. The resulting neutral point voltage is not zero.
This voltage may be defined as a common mode voltage source.
It is measurable at the zero point of any load, eg. the star point
of the motor winding.

Figure 2: This schematic shows the phase voltages of a typical three


phase PWM power supply and the average of the three, or neutral point
voltage, in a modern AC drive system. The neutral voltage is clearly
not zero and its presence can be defined as a common mode voltage
source. The voltage is proportional to the DC bus voltage, and has a
frequency equal to the inverter switching frequency.

10 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Generating bearing currents

Any time one of the three inverter outputs is changed from one
of the possible potentials to another, a current proportional
to this voltage change is forced to flow to earth via the earth
capacitances of all the components of the output circuit. The
current flows back to the source via the earth conductor and
stray capacitances of the inverter, which are external to the
three phase system. This type of current, which flows through
the system in a loop that is closed externally to the system, is
called common mode current.

Figure 3: An example of the common mode current at the inverter output. 5


The pulse is a superposition of several frequencies due to the different
natural frequencies of the parallel routes of common mode current.

Stray capacitances
A capacitance is created any time two conductive components
are separated by an insulator. For instance, the cable phase wire
has capacitance to the PE-wire separated by PVC insulation,
for example, and the motor winding turn is insulated from the
frame by enamel coating and slot insulation, and so has a value
of capacitance to the motor frame. The capacitances within a
cable and especially inside the motor are very small. A small
capacitance means high impedance for low frequencies, thus
blocking the low frequency stray currents. However, fast rising
pulses produced by modern power supplies contain frequencies
so high that even small capacitances inside the motor provide a
low impedance path for current to flow.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 11


Generating bearing currents

Figure 4: Simplified loop of the common mode current of a PWM inverter


and induction motor. The inverter power supply acts as a common mode
voltage source (Vcm). Common mode current (CMC) flows through the
common mode cable and motor inductances, Lc L m and through the stray
capacitances between the motor windings and motor frame, combined
to be Cm. From the motor frame, the current proceeds through the
factory earth circuit which has the inductance Lg. L g is also fed common
mode current from the stray cable capacitance Cc. The inverter frame is
connected to the factory earth and couples the common mode current/
earth currents through stray inverter to frame capacitances, combined
as Cin, back to the common mode voltage source.

How does the current flow through the system?


The return path of the leakage current from the motor frame
back to the inverter frame consists of the motor frame, cable
shielding or PE-conductors and possibly steel or aluminium
parts of the factory building structure. All these elements contain
inductance. The flow of common mode current through such
inductance will cause a voltage drop that raises the motor frame
potential above the source ground potential at the inverter frame.
This motor frame voltage is a portion of the inverters common
mode voltage. The common mode current will seek the path of
least impedance. If a high amount of impedance is present in
the intended paths, like the PE-connection of the motor frame,
the motor frame voltage will cause some of the common mode
current to be diverted into an unintended path, through the
building. In practical installations a number of parallel paths
exist. Most have a minor effect on the value of common mode
current or bearing currents, but may be significant in coping with
EMC-requirements.

12 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Generating bearing currents

Voltage drops
If the value of this inductance is high enough, the reactance at
the upper range of typical common mode current frequencies,
50 kHz to 1 MHz, can support voltage drops of over 100 volts
between the motor frame and the inverter frame. If, in such a
case, the motor shaft is connected through a metallic coupling
to a gearbox or other driven machinery that is solidly earthed
and near the same earth potential as the inverter frame, then it
is possible, that part of the inverter common mode current flows
via the motor bearings, the shaft and the driven machinery back
to the inverter.

Figure 5: A schematic presentation showing the circulating current


and shaft grounding current, the latter resulting from high motor frame
voltage with superior machine earthing.

If the shaft of the machinery has no direct contact to the ground


level, current may flow via the gearbox or machine bearings.
These bearings may be damaged before the motor bearings.

Figure 6: Source of circulating high frequency bearing current. Current


leakage through distributed stator capacitances gives a non-zero current
sum over the stator circumference. This leads to a net magnetising
effect and flux around the motor shaft.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 13


Generating bearing currents

Common mode transformer


The largest share of the motors stray capacitance, is formed
between the stator windings and the motor frame. This capaci-
tance is distributed around the circumference and length of the
stator. As the current leaks into the stator along the coil, the
high frequency content of the current entering the stator coil is
greater than the current leaving.

This net current produces a high frequency magnetic flux that


will circulate in the stator laminations, inducing an axial voltage
in the shaft ends. If the voltage becomes large enough, a high
frequency circulating current can flow, internal to the motor,
through the shaft and both bearings. The motor can, in this case,
be thought of as a transformer, where the common mode current
flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary and induces the
circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. This bear-
ing current is considered to be the most damaging with typical
peak values of 3 to 20 amps depending on the rated power of
the motor, du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and
DC-link voltage level.

Figure 7: The high frequency axial shaft voltage can be thought of as


the resultant of a transformer effect, in which the common mode current
flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary, and induces the circulating
current into the rotor circuit or secondary.

Another version of circulating bearing current occurs when, the


current, instead of circulating completely inside the motor, flows
via the shaft and the bearings of the gearbox or driven machinery
and in a structural element that is both external and common to
the motor and the driven machine. The origin of the current is the
same as in the current circulating inside the motor. An example of
this vagabond circulating bearing current is shown in figure 8.

14 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Generating bearing currents

Figure 8: Vagabond circulating bearing current, where the current loop


is external to the motor.

Capacitive voltage divider


Other stray capacitances are also present in the motor, such as
the capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor, or
that existing in the motors airgap between the stator iron and the
rotor. The bearings themselves may even have stray capacitance.

The existence of capacitance between the stator windings and


the rotor effectively couples the stator windings to the rotor
iron, which is also connected to the shaft and the bearings in-
ner races. Fast changes in the common mode current from the
inverter can not only result in currents in the capacitance around 5
the circumference and length of the motor, but also between the
stator windings and the rotor into the bearings.

Figure 9: Common mode loop of variable speed drive, showing stator,


rotor and bearing stray capacitances.

The current flow into the bearings can change rapidly, as this
depends on the physical state of the bearing at any one time. For
instance, the presence of stray capacitance in the bearings is only
sustained for as long as the balls of the bearings are covered in
oil or grease and are non-conducting. This capacitance, where

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 15


Generating bearing currents

the induced shaft voltage builds up, can be short-circuited if the


bearing voltage exceeds the threshold of its breakover value or
if a high spot on a ball breaks through the oil film and makes
contact with both bearing races. At very low speed, the bearings
have metallic contact since the balls have not risen on an oil film.

Generally, the bearing impedance governs the voltage level at


which the bearings start to conduct. This impedance is a non-
linear function of bearing load, temperature, speed of rotation
and lubricant used, and the impedance varies from case to case.

16 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency
bearing current damage

Three approaches
There are three approaches used to affect high frequency bear-
ing currents: a proper cabling and earthing system; breaking the
bearing current loops; and damping the high frequency common
mode current. All these aim to decrease the bearing voltage to
values that do not induce high frequency bearing current pulses
at all, or damp the value of the pulses to a level that has no ef-
fect on bearing life. For different types of high frequency bearing
currents, different measures need to be taken.

The basis of all high frequency current mastering is the proper


earthing system. Standard equipment earthing practices are
mainly designed to provide a sufficiently low impedance connec-
tion to protect people and equipment against system frequency
faults. A variable speed drive can be effectively earthed at the
high common mode current frequencies, if the installation fol-
lows three practices: 5
Multicore motor cables

Use only symmetrical multicore motor cables. The earth (pro-


tective earth, PE) connector arrangement in the motor cable
must be symmetrical to avoid bearing currents at fundamental
frequency. The symmetricity of the PE-conductor is achieved
by a conductor surrounding all the phase leads or a cable that
contains a symmetrical arrangement of three phase leads and
three earth conductors.

Figure 10: Recommended motor cable with symmetrical core


configuration.

Short impedance path

Define a short, low impedance path for common mode current


to return to the inverter. The best and easiest way to do this is to
use shielded motor cables. The shield must be continuous and
of good conducting material, ie, copper or aluminium and the
connections at both ends need to be made with 360 termination.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 17


Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Figures 11a and 11b show 360 terminations for European and
American cabling practices.

Figure 11 a: Proper 360 termination with European cabling practice.


The shield is connected with as short a pigtail as possible to the PE
terminal. To make a 360 high frequency connection between the EMC
sleeve and the cable shield, the outer insulation of the cable is stripped
away.

Figure 11 b: Proper 360 termination with American cabling practice.


An earthing bushing should be used on both ends of the motor cable to
effectively connect the earth wires to the armour or conduit.

High frequency bonding connections

Add high frequency bonding connections between the installa-


tion and known earth reference points to equalise the potential
of affected items, using braided straps of copper 50 - 100 mm
wide; flat conductors will provide a lower inductance path than
round wires. This must be made at the points where discontinu-
ity between the earth level of the inverter and that of the mo-
tor is suspected. Additionally it may be necessary to equalise
the potential between the frames of the motor and the driven
machinery to short the current path through the motor and the
driven machine bearings.

18 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Figure 12: HF bonding strap

Follow product specific instructions


Although the basic principles of installations are the same, for
different products suitable installation practices may differ. There-
fore, it is essential to carefully follow the installation instructions
given in product specific manuals.

Additional solutions 5
Breaking the bearing current loops is achieved by insulating the
bearing construction. The high frequency common mode current
can be damped by using dedicated filters. As a manufacturer of
both inverters and motors, ABB can offer the most appropriate
solution in each case as well as detailed instructions on proper
earthing and cabling practices.

Measuring high frequency bearing currents


Monitoring the bearing condition must be conducted with es-
tablished vibration measurements.

It is impossible to measure bearing currents directly from a


standard motor. But if high frequency bearing currents are
suspected, field measurements can be taken to verify the exist-
ence of suspected current loops. Measuring equipment needs
to have wide bandwidth (minimum 10 kHz to 2 MHz) capable of
detecting peak values of at least 150 to 200 A and RMS values
at least down to 10 mA. The crest factor of measured signals
is seldom less than 20. The current may flow in unusual places,
such as rotating shafts. Thus, special equipment and experienced
personnel are needed.

ABB uses a specially designed, flexible, air-cored, Rogowski-


type current sensor with dedicated accessories and has vast
experience of over one thousand measured drives in different
applications worldwide.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 19


Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

The most important measurement points are within the motor.


During measurements, the motor speed needs to be at least 10
percent of the nominal for the bearings to rise on the oil film. As
an example, basic measurements are shown in figure 13. Figure
14 shows examples of measured current waveforms. GTO (gate
turn-off thyristor) inverters were used mainly in the 1980s and
IGBT inverters are used today. Note the different scale in the
various graphs.

Figure 13: Basic measurements: A) circulating current measured with a


jumper, B) shaft grounding current.

A) Circulating current

GTO-inverter, 5 s/div, 2 A/div IGBT-inverter, 5 s/div, 2 A/div

B) Shaft grounding current

GTO-inverter, 2 s/div, 10 A/div IGBT-inverter, 5 s/div, 500 mA/div

Figure 14: Examples of current waveforms at the measuring points


shown in Figure 13.

Leave the measurements to the specialists


Since suitable commercial measurement equipment is not
available on the market and specialised experience is needed
to make the measurements and interpret the results, it is advis-
able that bearing current measurements are made by dedicated
personnel only.

20 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Chapter 4 - References

1. Grounding and Cabling of the Drive System,


ABB Industry Oy, 3AFY 61201998 R0125

2. A New Reason for Bearing Current Damage in Variable


Speed AC Drives
by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. EPE 97, 7th
European Conference on Power Electronics and Applica-
tions, 8-10 September 1997. Trondheim, Norway.

3. On the Bearing Currents in Medium Power Variable


Speed AC Drives
by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. proceedings
of the IEEE IEDMC in Milwaukee, May 1997.

4. Minimizing Electrical Bearing Currents in Adjustable


Speed Drive Systems
by Patrick Link. IEEE IAS Pulp & Paper
Conference Portland, ME, USA. June 1998.

5. Instruction on Measuring Bearing Currents with a 5


Rogowski Coil, ABB Industry Oy, 3BFA 61363602.EN.

6. Laakerivirta ja sen minimoiminen sdettyjen vaihto-


virtakyttjen moottoreissa,
I. Erkkil, Automaatio 1999, 16.9.1999, Helsinki, Finland.
(In Finnish).

7. High Frequency Bearing Currents in Low Voltage


Asynchronous Motors,
ABB Motors Oy and ABB Industry Oy, 00018323.doc.

8. Bearing Currents in AC Drives


by ABB Industry Oy and ABB Motors Oy. Set of overheads
in LN database Document Directory Intranet on ABB_
FI01_SPK08/FI01/ABB

9. The Motor Guide


GB 98-12.

See also product specific installation manuals.

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 21


Chapter 5 - Index
Symbols F
360 termination 17, 18 field measurements 19
360 terminations 18 flat conductors 18
frame 18
A
ABB 19 G
AC drive 9, 10 gearbox 8, 13, 14
armour 18 GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) invert-
axial shaft voltage 14, 15 ers 20
axial voltage 14
H
B high frequency bearing currents 9
balls 15, 16 high frequency bearing voltage 9
bearing 8, 9, 15, 16 high frequency circulating current
bearing current 9, 14, 20 14
bearing current loops 17, 19 high frequency current mastering
bearing current paths 7 17
bearing currents 7, 9, 17, 19 high frequency current pulses 8
bearing fluting 8 high frequency flux 9
bearing races 7 high switching frequencies 7
bearings 7, 8, 14, 15, 16
bearing voltage 16 I
bonding connections 18 IGBT inverters 20
braided straps 18 induced shaft voltage 16
insulated gate bipolar transistors
C (IGBT) 9
cable 17 internal voltage division 10
cable capacitance 12 inverter 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18
cable shield 18 inverter frame 7, 13
circulating current 14 inverter output filtering 7
common mode cable 12 inverter power supply 12
common mode current 11, 12, 13, inverter switching frequency 10
14, 15, 17, 19
common mode loop 15 L
common mode voltage 10, 12 low frequency bearing currents 8
conduit 18 M
crest factor 19 machine 13
current pulses 7 machinery 13, 18
D magnetic flux 14
DC bus voltage 10 mean time between failure (MTBF)
dedicated filters 19 8
drive controller 8 metallic coupling 13
driven machine 9, 18 modern drive systems 8
driven machinery 10, 13, 14 motor 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18,
19
E motor bearing 7
earthing paths 7 motor cable 17, 18
EDM 9 motor frame 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
EDM crater 8 motors 9, 10, 19
electrical discharge machining 8 motor shaft 9, 13
electrical shield 9 motor windings 12
electric motors 7

22 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5


Index

N
neutral point voltage 10
O
oil film 9, 20
P
primary 14
PWM 10, 12
R
races 8, 16
Rogowski-type current sensor 19
rotor 14, 15
rotor circuit 14
S
secondary 14
shaft 10, 14, 15
shaft ends 14
shaft voltages 10
shield 17
stator 9, 14, 15
stator frame 9, 13, 14
stator laminations 14
stator windings 14, 15
5
stray capacitance 10, 11, 12, 14, 15
stray currents 7
symmetrical motor cables 7
symmetrical multicore motor cables
17
T
three-phase sinusoidal power supply
10
three phase power supply 10
transformer 14
V
variable speed drive 15, 17
voltage drop 12, 13
voltage pulses 7
W
winding 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15

Technical guide No. 5 | Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 23


24 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems | Technical guide No. 5
Contact us

3AFE64230247 REV C EN 27.4.2011 #15648


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 6


Guide to harmonics with
AC drives
2 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6
Technical guide No. 6
Guide to harmonics with AC drives

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE64292714 REV C EN 11.5.2011

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 3


4 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General ..............................................................................................7

Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics phenomena ......................................8

Chapter 3 - Harmonic distortion sources and effects ..............................10

Chapter 4 - Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize


software ...................................................................................................11
4.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example ..................................11
4.2 Input data for motor load ............................................................11
4.3 Motor selection ...........................................................................12
4.4 Inverter selection ........................................................................12
4.5 Inverter supply unit data ..............................................................12
4.6 Network and Transformer data input ............................................13
4.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage .....................................13
4.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form ............................13
4.9 Part of the printed report .............................................................14

Chapter 5 - Standards for harmonic limits ...............................................15


5.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive 6
systems ...........................................................................................15
5.2 IEC1000-2-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ......................16
5.3 IEC1000-2-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ......................16
5.4 IEC1000-3-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .......................16
5.5 IEC1000-3-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .......................16
5.6 IEEE519, IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for
harmonic control in electrical power systems .....................................17

Chapter 6 - Evaluating harmonics ...........................................................19

Chapter 7 - How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications


in the AC drive system..... ........................................................................20
7.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics .................20
7.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects ........................21
7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier ........................................................21
7.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier ....................................22
7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier ......................................22
7.6 Using IGBT bridge ......................................................................23
7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor ................................................24

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 5


Chapter 8 - Other methods for harmonics reduction ...............................27
8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter ....................................................27
8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter .................................................27
8.3 External active filter ....................................................................28

Chapter 9 - Summary of harmonics attenuation ......................................30


9.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor .................................................30
9.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor ......................................................30
9.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer ...................................30
9.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer .....................................30
9.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers ...........................31
9.6 Active IGBT rectifier ....................................................................31

Chapter 10 - Definitions ...........................................................................32

Index .......................................................................................................34

6 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
This guide continues ABBs technical guide series, describing
harmonic distortion, its sources and effects, and also distortion
calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to
the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 7


Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics
phenomena
Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads
connected on the power distribution system. Harmonic distortion
is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems
if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits.

All power electronic converters used in different types of elec-


tronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting
harmonic currents directly into the grid. Figure 2.1 shows how
the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power
electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).

is(t) = i1(t) + ih(t)


Converter
load
u(t)
Rs Ls Point of Common
Coupling (PCC)
Mains transformer
Other
loads

Figure 2.1 Plant with converter load, mains transformer and other loads.

The line current of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated


from the direct output current by using the following formula.

, where

the total RMS current and

direct current output from the rectifier.


(valid for ideal filtered DC current)

The fundamental current is then

8 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Basics of the harmonics phenomena

In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as


clean DC current, the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse
three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50
or 60 Hz). The information given below is valid in the case when
the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor
inductance. The line current is then rectangular with 120 blocks.
The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below:

where

The rms values of the harmonic components are:

and the harmonic components are as shown in Figure 2.2.

Harmonic-
Current
(%)

6
Order of harmonic component

Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a


6-pulse rectifier.

The principle of how the harmonic components are added to


the fundamental current is shown in figure 2.3, where only the
5 th harmonic is shown.

Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 9


Chapter 3 - Harmonic distortion sources
and effects
Common non-linear loads include motor starters, variable speed
drives, computers and other electronic devices, electronic light-
ing, welding supplies and uninterrupted power supplies.

The effects of harmonics can be overheating of transformers,


cables, motors, generators and capacitors connected to the
same power supply with the devices generating the harmonics.
Electronic displays and lighting may flicker, circuit breakers can
trip, computers may fail and metering can give false readings.

If the cause of the above mentioned symptoms is not known,


then there is cause to investigate the harmonic distortion of the
electricity distribution at the plant. The effects are likely to show
up in the customers plant before they show on the utility system.
This Technical guide has been published to help customers to
understand the possible harmonic problems and make sure the
harmonic distortion levels are not excessive.

10 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Chapter 4 - Harmonic distortion calculation
by using DriveSize software
The harmonic currents cause a distortion of the line voltage. In
principle the voltage harmonics can be calculated at any point
of the network if the harmonic currents and the corresponding
source impedance are known. The circuit diagrams in figure
4.1. show the network supplying the converter and the other
essential parts of the installation. ABB DriveSize software is used
for the calculation.

4.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example


Supply
Sk = 150 MVA
U = 22 kV
Xk
Transformer:
S = 400 kVA
U1 = 22 kV
U2 = 415 V Sk Xt
z = 4,5 percent
Cable: Xk
Length = 60 m
R = 0,007 m/m
I
Motor:
P = 100 kW
IN = 200 A
6
Figure 4.1. Network supplying a frequency converter in the middle and
its equivalent diagram on the right. The data for this example is on the
left.

4.2 Input data for motor load


Motor load

Load type Const. torque/power

Overload type One overload

min base max


Speed [rpm] 0 1450 1500
Power [kW] 0 100 100
Overload [%] 100 100

Overload time [s] 60 every [s] 600

Figure 4.2. The most important motor load data for harmonics
calculation is the base power in kW.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 11


Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software

4.3 Motor selection


Selected motor data
M2BA 315 SMC 6

Selection DriveSize
Voltage [V] 415
Connection D
Frequency [Hz] 50
Power [kW] 110
Poles 6
Speed [rpm] 992
Max mech.speed [rpm] 2300
Current [A] 197
Torque [Nm] 1060
T max/Tn 3,2
Power factor 0,82
Efficiency [%] 95,6
Insulation class F

Figure 4. 3. The software makes the motor selection for the defined
load. If required there is an option to select a different motor than that
selected by the DriveSize.

4.4 Inverter selection


Selected inverter data
ACS607-0140-3

Selection User
Selection method Current (normal)
Voltage [V] 400
Drive power [kVA] 140
Pn [kW] 110
Normal Icont [A] 216
Normal Imax [A] 238
Phd [kW] 90
Heavyduty Icont [A] 178
Heavyduty Imax [A] 267
Pulse 6
Frame type R8
P&F 12Nsq [A] 260

Figure 4.4. The inverter selection is based on the previous motor


selection and here also the user has an option to select the inverter
manually.

4.5 Inverter supply unit data


Supply unit data

Pulse # 6
Lv [H] 110
Cdc [mF] 4,95
Udc [V] 560
Idc [A] 191

Figure 4.5. The supply unit data is defined by DriveSize according to the
inverter type selected.

12 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software

4.6 Network and Transformer data input


Network and Transformer data
Primary voltage [V] 22000 Secondary voltage [V] 415
Frequency [Hz] 50
Network Sk [MVA] 150 unknow

Transformer Sn [kVA] 400


Transformer Pk [kW] 3,0
Transformer Zk [%] 3,8
Supply cable type Cable Busbar
Cable quantity 3 Impedance [] 70
Cable lenght [m] 60

Figure 4.6. The network and transformer data input is given here.
For standard ABB transformers the data is shown automatically.

4.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage


THD
Current Voltage n f [Hz] Current [A] In/I1 Voltage [V]
Result 47,1% 0,2% 1 50 2,8 100,0% 21996,6
5 250 1,2 41,2% 32,9
IEEE Calc 0,2%/ 0,2%/
7 350 0,6 19,5% 21,7
IEEE Limit 15,0% 0,5%
11 550 0,2 8,6% 15,1
Data 13 650 0,2 5,6% 11,7
Primary side 17 850 0,1 4,2% 11,3
19 950 0,1 2,7% 8,1
Secondary 23 1150 0,1 2,3% 8,2
25 1250 0,0 1,4% 5,5
Show Mode
29 1450 0,0 1,2% 5,3
Table 31 1550 0,0 0,8% 3,7
Graph 35 1750 0,0 0,5% 3,0
37 1850 0,0 0,6% 3,3

Figure 4.7. The harmonics are calculated by making discrete Fourier


transformation to the simulated phase current of the incoming unit.
Different kinds of circuit models are used, one for SingleDrive with AC
6
inductors and one for diode and thyristor supply with DC inductors.
There are also models for 6, 12 and 24 pulse connections.

4.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form

50

40

30
[%]
20

10

0
350

550
650

950

1150
1250

1550

1750
1850
250

850

1450

Frequency [Hz]

Figure 4.8. The results of calculations can be shown in table form as


above or as a graph.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 13


Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software

4.9 Part of the printed report

Network check
ACS607-0140-3

Network and Transformer data Supply unit data


Normal voltage [V] 22000 (primary side) Pulse # 6
Frequency [Hz] 50 Lv [H] 110
Network Sk [MVA] 150 Cdc [mF] 4,95
Transformer Sn [kVA] 400 Udc [V] 560
Transformer Pk [kW] 3,0 Idc [A] 191
Transformer Zk [%] 3,8
Supply cable type Cable
Cable quantity 3
Cable lenght 60

Result IEEE 519 limits calc/limit


Cosfii 0,999 THD Current 47,1% THD Current 0,2%/15,0%
Tot. power factor 0,90 THD Voltage 0,2% THD Voltage 0,2%/5,0%
Unmax mot. 98%

Figure 4.9. The input data and calculated results can be printed out as a
report, which is partly shown here.

14 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Chapter 5 - Standards for harmonic limits

The most common international and national standards setting


limits on harmonics are described below. Figure 5.1 is shown
as an example for harmonic distortion limits.

5.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power


drive systems
Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test meth-
ods
The countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) have agreed
on common minimum regulatory requirements in order to ensure
the free movement of products within the EEA. The CE marking
indicates that the product works in conformity with the directives
that are valid for the product. The directives state the principles
that must be followed. Standards specify the requirements that
must be met. EN61800-3 is the EMC product standard of adjust-
able speed electrical power drive systems (PDS). Meeting the
requirements of this standard, is the minimum condition for free
trade of power electronics converters inside the EEA.

EN61800-3 states, that the manufacturer shall provide in the


documentation of the PDS, or on request, the current harmonic
level, under rated conditions, as a percentage of the rated fun-
damental current on the power port. The referenced values shall 6
be calculated for each order at least up to the 25 th. The current
THD (orders up to and including 40), and its high- frequency
component PHD (orders from 14 to 40 inclusive) shall be evalu-
ated. For these standard calculations, the PDS shall be assumed
to be connected to a PC with Rsc = 250 and with initial voltage
distortion less than 1 percent. The internal impedance of the
network shall be assumed to be a pure reactance.

In a low voltage public supply network, the limits and require-


ments of IEC1000-3-2 apply for equipment with rated current
16 A. The use of the future IEC1000-3-4 is recommended
for equipment with rated current > 16 A. If PDS is used in an
industrial installation, a reasonable economical approach, which
considers the total installation, shall be used. This approach is
based on the agreed power, which the supply can deliver at
any time. The method for calculating the harmonics of the total
installation is agreed and the limits for either the voltage distor-
tion or the total harmonic current emission are agreed on. The
compatibility limits given in IEC1000-2-4 may be used as the
limits of voltage distortion.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 15


Standards for harmonic limits

5.2 IEC1000-2-2,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 2: Environment - Section 2: Compatibility levels for low
frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public
low voltage power supply systems
This standard sets the compatibility limits for low frequency
conducted disturbances and signalling in public low voltage
power supply systems. The disturbance phenomena include
harmonics, inter-harmonics, voltage fluctuations, voltage dips
and short interruptions voltage inbalance and so on. Basically
this standard sets the design criteria for the equipment manu-
facturer, and amounts to the minimum immunity requirements
of the equipment. IEC1000-2-2 is in line with the limits set in
EN50160 for the quality of the voltage the utility owner must
provide at the customers supply-terminals.

5.3 IEC1000-2-4,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 2: Environment - Section 4: Compatibility levels in indus-
trial plants for low frequency conducted disturbances
IEC1000-2-4 is similar to IEC1000-2-2, but it gives compatibility
levels for industrial and non-public networks. It covers low-
voltage networks as well as medium voltage supplies excluding
the networks for ships, aircraft, offshore platforms and railways.

5.4 IEC1000-3-2,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 3: Limits - Section 2: Limits for harmonic current emis-
sions (equipment current < 16 A per phase)
This standard deals with the harmonic current emission limits of
individual equipment connected to public networks. The date
of implementation of this standard is January 1, 2001, but there
is extensive work going on at the moment to revise the standard
before this date. The two main reasons for the revision are the
need for the standard to cover also the voltage below 230 V and
the difficulties and contradictions in applying the categorisation
of the equipment given in the standard.

5.5 IEC1000-3-4,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
This standard has been published as a Type II Technical report.
Work is going on to convert it into a standard. It gives the har-
monic current emission limits for individual equipment having a
rated current of more than 16 A up to 75 A. It applies to public
networks having nominal voltages from 230 V single phase to
600 V three phase.

16 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Standards for harmonic limits

The standard gives three different stages for connection proce-


dures of the equipment. Meeting the individual harmonic limits
of stage 1 allows the connection of the equipment at any point
in the supply system. Stage 2 gives individual harmonic current
limits as well as THD and its weighted high frequency counterpart
PWHD. The limits are classified and tabulated by the short circuit
ratio. The third stage of connection is based on an agreement
between the user and the supply authority, based on the agreed
active power of the consumers installation. If the rated current
is above 75 A, stage 3 applies in any case.

The structure of this standard is generally seen to be good, but it


may justly be questioned whether single and three-phase equip-
ment should have different limits in stage 2. It is very probable that
the structure of the standard will remain as it is, but the version
having the status of actual standard, will contain different limits
for single and three-phase equipment.

MAXIMUM LOAD
132 kV Net 12p 6p STAGE 2 LIMITS
(600 MVA assumed) % I1
# 6.66 MW # 2.50 MW Minm VOLTAGE
**
(5.0 MW) (5.0 MW) Rsce I5 I7 I11 I13 %THD
# 2.36
66 12 10 9 6
33 kV Net Typical values
(400 MVA assumed) 120 15 12 12 8 1.69
# 4.40 MW # 1.65 MW
(3.3 MW) (3.3 MW)
175 20 14 12 8 1.25

250 30 18 13 8 1.06
11 kV Net
(100 MVA assumed) # 1.11 MW # 415 kW
(830 kW) (830 kW)
350

450
40 25 15 10

50 35 20 15
0.97

1.02
6
400 kV Net >600 60 40 25 18 <=0.91
# 760 kW # 108 kW
(26 MVA assumed) (215 kW) (215 kW)
**Contribution to existing
THD level at selected
PCC PCC

Figure 5.1 Limits on harmonics in the proposed EN61000-3-4.

5.6 IEEE519, IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for


harmonic control in electrical power systems
The philosophy of developing harmonic limits in this recom-
mended practice is to limit the harmonic injection from individual
customers so that they will not cause unacceptable voltage
distortion levels for normal system characteristics and to limit
overall harmonic distortion of the system voltage supplied by
the utility. This standard is also recognised as American National
Standard and it is widely used in the USA, especially in the mu-
nicipal public works market.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 17


Standards for harmonic limits

The standard does not give limits for individual equipment, but
for individual customers. The customers are categorised by the
ratio of available short circuit current (Isc) to their maximum
demand load current (IL) at the point of common coupling. The
total demand load current is the sum of both linear and non-linear
loads. Within an industrial plant, the PCC is clearly defined as
the point between the non-linear load and other loads.

The allowed individual harmonic currents and total harmonic dis-


tortion are tabulated by the ratio of available short circuit current
to the total demand load current (Isc/IL) at the point of common
coupling. The limits are as a percentage of IL for all odd and even
harmonics from 2 to infinity. Total harmonic distortion is called
total demand distortion and also it should be calculated up to
infinity. Many authors limit the calculation of both the individual
components and TDD to 50.

The table 10.3 of the standard is sometimes misinterpreted to


give limits for the harmonic emissions of a single apparatus by
using Rsc of the equipment instead of Isc/IL of the whole instal-
lation. The limits of the table should not be used this way, since
the ratio of the short circuit current to the total demand load
current of an installation should always be used.

18 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Chapter 6 - Evaluating harmonics

The Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems


P519A/D6 Jan 1999 introduces some general rules for evaluating
harmonic limits at an industrial facility. The procedure is shown
in the flowchart in figure 6.1.

UTILITY CUSTOMER
Choose PCC

Estimate weighted disturbing


Calculate short circuit
power (SDW) or% non-linear load
capacity (S SC, ISC)

Yes Is power
factor correction existing
or planned?

No

Yes Stage 1: No
Calculate average maximum
Is detailed evaluation
demand load current (IL)
necessary?

Calculate short circuit ratio


(SCR=(ISC /IL)

Characterise harmonic levels


No (measurements, analysis)
Stage 2:
Does facility meet
harmonic limits?
Design power factor correction
and/or harmonic control
Yes equipment
(include resonance concerns) 6
Verification measurements
and calculations (if necessary)

Figure 6.1 Evaluation of harmonic distortion.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 19


Chapter 7 - How to reduce harmonics by
structural modifications in the AC drive
system

7.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics


Harmonics reduction can be done either by structural modifi-
cations in the drive system or by using external filtering. The
structural modifications can be to strengthen the supply, to use
12 or more pulse drive, to use a controlled rectifier or to improve
the internal filtering in the drive.

Figure 7.1 shows the factors in the AC drive system which have
some influence on harmonics. The current harmonics depend on
the drive construction and the voltage harmonics are the current
harmonics multiplied by the supply impedances.

Line

Short circuit power MVA

Transformer Rated power and MVA


impedance %

Alternative

Type of rectifier 6-p, 12-p, 24-p


DIODE, THYRISTOR; INVERTER:
AC drive Reactor inductance mH

Inverter Type of inverter PWM;CSI

Rated power and kW


Motor
load %

Load

Figure 7.1 Drive system features affecting harmonics.

20 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

7.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects

The cause The effect


The larger the motor the higher the current harmonics
The higher the motor load the higher the current harmonics
The larger the DC or AC inductance the lower the current harmonics
The higher the number of pulses in the rectifier the lower the current harmonics
The larger the transformer the lower the voltage harmonics
The lower the transformer impedance the lower the voltage harmonics
The higher the short circuit capacity of supply the lower the voltage harmonics

7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier


The connections for different rectifier solutions are shown in figure
7.2. The most common rectifier circuit in 3-phase AC drives is a
6-pulse diode bridge. It consists of six uncontrollable rectifiers
or diodes and an inductor, which together with a DC-capacitor
forms a low-pass filter for smoothing the DC-current. The induc-
tor can be on the DC- or AC-side or it can be left totally out.
The 6-pulse rectifier is simple and cheap but it generates a high
amount of low order harmonics 5 th, 7 th, 11 th especially with small
smoothing inductance.

The current form is shown in figure 7.2. If the major part of the
load consists of converters with a 6-pulse rectifier, the supply 6
transformer needs to be oversized and meeting the requirements
in standards may be difficult. Often some harmonics filtering is
needed.

6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier

Current waveform Current waveform Current waveform

Figure 7.2 Harmonics in line current with different rectifier constructions.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 21


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

7.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier


The 12-pulse rectifier is formed by connecting two 6-pulse
rectifiers in parallel to feed a common DC-bus. The input to the
rectifiers is provided with one three-winding transformer. The
transformer secondaries are in 30 phase shift. The benefit with
this arrangement is that in the supply side some of the harmonics
are in opposite phase and thus eliminated. In theory the harmonic
component with the lowest frequency seen at the primary of the
transformer is the 11th.

The major drawbacks are special transformers and a higher cost


than with the 6-pulse rectifier.

The principle of the 24-pulse rectifier is also shown in figure 7.2.


It has two 12-pulse rectifiers in parallel with two three- winding
transformers having 15 phase shift. The benefit is that practically
all low frequency harmonics are eliminated but the drawback is
the high cost. In the case of a high power single drive or large
multidrive installation a 24-pulse system may be the most eco-
nomical solution with lowest harmonic distortion.
In
6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier
I1

Harmonic order

Figure 7.3 Harmonic components with different rectifiers.

7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier


A phase controlled rectifier is accomplished by replacing the
diodes in a 6-pulse rectifier with thyristors. Since a thyristor
needs a triggering pulse for transition from nonconducting to
conducting state, the phase angle at which the thyristor starts
to conduct can be delayed. By delaying the firing angle over 90o,
the DC-bus voltage goes negative. This allows regenerative flow
of power from the DC-bus back to the power supply.

22 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

Standard DC-bus and inverter configurations do not allow polar-


ity change of the DC-voltage and it is more common to connect
another thyristor bridge anti-parallel with the first one to allow
the current polarity reversal. In this configuration the first bridge
conducts in rectifying mode and the other in regenerating mode.

The current waveforms of phase controlled rectifiers are similar


to those of the 6-pulse diode rectifier, but since they draw power
with an alternating displacement power factor, the total power
factor with partial load is quite poor. The poor power factor
causes high apparent current and the absolute harmonic cur-
rents are higher than those with a diode rectifier.

In addition to these problems, phase-controlled converters cause


commutation notches in the utility voltage waveform. The angular
position of the notches varies along with the firing angle.

Supply Current Voltage Voltage Current waveform


type TDH (%) TDH (%) TDH (%)
RSC=20 RSC=100

6-pulse 30 10 2
rectifier

12-pulse 10 6 1.2
rectifier

6
IGBT supply 4 8 1.8
unit
Distortion is in% of RMS values

Figure 7.4 Distortion of different supply unit types. Values may vary
case by case.

7.6 Using IGBT bridge


Introducing a rectifier bridge, made of self commutated com-
ponents, brings several benefits and opportunities compared to
phase commutated ones. Like a phase commutated rectifier, this
hardware allows both rectification and regeneration, but it makes
it possible to control the DC- voltage level and displacement
power factor separately regardless of the power flow direction.

The main benefits are:


Safe function in case of mains supply disappearance.
High dynamics of the drive control even in the field weaken-
ing range.
Possibility to generate reactive power.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 23


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

Nearly sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic content.


Measured results for one drive is shown in figure 7.5. When
comparing with figure 7.3 we can see a clear difference. IGBT
has very low harmonics at lower frequencies, but somewhat
higher at higher frequencies.
Voltage boost capability. In case of low supply voltage the
DC voltage can be boosted to keep motor voltage higher
than supply voltage.

The main drawback is the high cost coming from the IGBT bridge
and extra filtering needed.

In Line generating unit


Line generating unit I1

3~

Harmonic order

Figure 7.5 Harmonics in line current IGBT line generating unit.

7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor


The harmonics of a voltage source AC drive can be significantly
reduced by connecting a large enough inductor in its AC input
or DC bus. The trend has been to reduce the size of converter
while the inductor size has been also reduced, or in several cases
it has been omitted totally. The effect of this can be seen from
the curve forms in figure 7.6.

Current without
inductor

Current with
inductor

Figure 7.6 The effect of the inductor on the line current.

24 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

The chart in figure 7.7 shows the effect of the size of the DC
inductor on the harmonics. For the first 25 harmonic components
the theoretical THD minimum is 29 percent. That value is prac-
tically reached when the inductance is 100 mH divided by the
motor kW or 1 mH for a 100 kW motor (415 V, 50 Hz). Practically
sensible is about 25 mH divided by motor kW, which gives a
THD of about 45 percent. This is 0.25 mH for a 100 kW motor.

5th
Harmonic current (pu)

7th
11th
13th
415 V, 50 Hz
17th
19th
23rd
25th
THD

DC Inductance/mH = this figure/motor kW

Figure 7.7 Harmonic current as function of DC inductance.

The voltage distortion with certain current distortion depends


on the short circuit ratio Rsc of the supply. The higher the ratio,
the lower the voltage distortion. This can be seen in Figure 7.8.

Load 60 A, Transformer power 50 to 315 kVA, line fault level 150 MVA 6
No inductor, 6-pulse

Small inductor,
THD of voltage (%)

6-pulse
Large inductor,
6-pulse
Large inductor,
12-pulse

Short Circuit Ratio

Figure 7.8 THD voltage vs type of AC drive and transformer size.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 25


How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system

Figure 7.9 introduces a simple nomogram for estimation of har-


monic voltages. On the graph below right select first the motor
kilowatt, then the transformer kVA and then move horizontally
to the diagonal line where you move upwards and stop at the
curve valid for your application. Then turn left to the y-axis and
read the total harmonic voltage distortion.

Input data to calculations:


Total Harminic Voltage Distortion

- Rated motor for the dfrive


No DC-Inductor, - Constant torque load
6-pulse
- Voltage 415 V
Small DC-
Inductor,6-pulse
- Drive efficiency = 97%
STOP TURN LEFT - Supply Impedance = 10%
Large DC-
Inductor, 6-pulse of transformer impedance
Large DC-
Inductor, 12-pulse
Supply
transformer
(kVA)

TURN LEFT

TURN UP

START

Motor kW

Example: 45 kW Motor is connected to a


200 kVA transformer. THD = ca. 3 percent
with a Large Inductor Drive and ca. 11
percent with a No Inductor Drive

Figure 7.9 Total harmonic distortion nomogram.

Results from laboratory tests with drive units from different


manufacturers are shown in figure 7.10. Drive A with large DC
inductor has the lowest harmonic current distortion, drives with
no inductor installed have the highest distortion.

A = Large DC- inductance


B, C = Small DC-inductance
D, E = Without DC-inductance

Figure 7.10 Harmonic current with different DC-inductances.

26 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Chapter 8 - Other methods for
harmonics reduction
Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant
when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or
as a total solution in a new plant. There are two basic methods:
passive and active filters.

8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter


The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in figure 8.1.
A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest
harmonic component where there is significant harmonic genera-
tion in the system. For systems that mostly supply an industrial
load this would probably be the fifth harmonic. Above the tuned
frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency
they may be amplified.

6
- Detuned - Single tuning frequency
- Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed
- Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified
- Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation
at the supply frequency and network itself

Figure 8.1 Tuned singel arm passive filter.

8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter


This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor
bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the
harmonic generating loads. This solution is not normally used
for new installations.

The principle of this filter is shown in figure 8.2. This filter has
several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components
which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in
the system. The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption
than the one arm system.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 27


Other methods for harmonics reduction

- Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above


- Better harmonic absorption
- Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter
- Limited by KVAr and network

Figure 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter.

The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC
drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying
the whole installation.

8.3 External active filter


A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause
additional harmonic problems. New power electronics technolo-
gies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion
with active control. These active filters, see figure 8.3, provide
compensation for harmonic components on the utility system
based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in
time.

Fundamental only idistortion


Supply
Load

icompensation

Active
filter

Current waveforms

Figure 8.3 External active filter principle diagram.

The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by non-


linear loads by generating the same harmonic components in
opposite phase as shown in figure 8.4. External active filters are
most suited to multiple small drives. They are relatively expensive
compared to other methods.

28 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Other methods for harmonics reduction

Waveforms
Clean Load Active filter
feeder current current
current
Harmonics

Figure 8.4 External active filter waveforms and harmonics.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 29


Chapter 9 - Summary of harmonics
attenuation

There are many options to attenuate harmonics either inside


the drive system or externally. They all have advantages and
disadvantages and all of them show cost implications. The best
solution will depend on the total loading, the supply to the site
and the standing distortion.

In the following tables different internal actions are compared to


the basic system without inductor. The harmonic content is given
with 100 percent load. The costs are valid for small drives. For
multidrive the 12-pulse solution is quite a lot cheaper.

9.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor


Manufacturing cost 100 percent
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 63% 54% 10% 6,1% 6,7% 4,8%

9.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor


Manufacturing cost 120%. AC or DC choke added
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 30% 12% 8,9% 5,6% 4,4% 4,1%

9.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer


Manufacturing cost 200%
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 11% 5,8% 6,2% 4,7% 1,7% 1,4%

9.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer


Manufacturing cost 210%
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 3,6% 2,6% 7,5% 5,2% 1,2% 1,3%

30 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Summary of harmonics attenuation

9.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers


Manufacturing cost 250%
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 4,0% 2,7% 1,0% 0,7% 1,4% 1,4%

9.6 Active IGBT rectifier


Manufacturing cost 250%. Not significant if electrical braking is
anyway needed.
Typical harmonic current components.

Fundamental 5th 7th 11 th 13 th 17 th 19 th


100% 2,6% 3,4% 3,0% 0,1% 2,1% 2,2%

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 31


Chapter 10 - Definitions

S: Apparent power

P: Active power

Q: Reactive power

Rsc: Short circuit ratio is defined as the short circuit power of


the supply at PCC to the nominal apparent power of the
equipment under consideration. Rsc = Ss / Sn.

1: Angular frequency of fundamental component 1 = 2**f1,


where f1 is fundamental frequency (eg. 50 Hz or 60 Hz).

n: Integer n = 2, 3, ... . Harmonic frequencies are defined


as wn = n*1.

In: RMS-value of n:th harmonic component of line current.

Zn: Impedance at frequency n*1.

%Un: Harmonic voltage component as a percentage of


fundamental (line) voltage.

THD: Total harmonic distortion in the input current is defined


as:

where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current.


The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way. Here is
an example for the 25 lowest harmonic components with the
theoretical values:

PWHD: Partial weighted harmonic distortion is defined as:

32 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Definitions

PCC: Point of common coupling is defined in this text as such


a point of utility supply which may be common to the
equipment in question and other equipment. There are
several definitions of PCC in different standards and even
more interpretations of these definitions in literature. The
definition chosen here is seen as technically most
sound.

PF: Power factor is defined as PF = P/S (power / volt-ampere)


= I 1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF equals to
DPF).

DPF: Displacement power factor is defined as cos1, where 1 is


the phase angle between the fundamental frequency
current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage
fundamental frequency component.

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 33


Index
Symbols H
12-pulse rectifier 21, 22, 23, 30 harmonic component 9, 22, 25,
24-pulse rectifier 21, 22, 31 27, 28, 32
3-winding 31 harmonic currents 8, 11, 13, 18,
5th harmonic 9 23
6-pulse rectifier 8, 9, 21, 22, 23, 30 harmonic distortion 7, 8, 10, 11,
6-pulse three phase rectifier 9 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 26,
27, 28, 32
A harmonic limit 16, 17, 18, 19
ABB 7, 11, 13 harmonics phenomena 8, 9
AC inductor 13, 24 harmonics reduction 20, 27, 28,
active filter 27, 28, 29 29
active power 17, 32 harmonic voltage 26, 32
American National Standard 17
anti-parallel 23 I
apparent power 32 IGBT bridge 23, 24
attenuation 30, 31 inductance 9, 20, 21, 25, 26
inductor 13, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30
C industrial installation 15
calculation 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, installation 11, 15, 17, 18, 22, 27,
18, 19 28
CE marking 15 inverter selection 12
circuit breaker 10 Inverter supply unit data 12
common DC-bus 22
commutation notch 23 L
compatibility limit 15, 16 laboratory test 26
computer 10 line current 8, 9, 21, 24, 32
consumers installation 17 low-pass filter 21
converter 8, 11, 15, 21, 23, 24
converter load 8 M
mains transformer 8
D manufacturing cost 30, 31
DC-capacitor 21 metering 10
DC-current 21 motor load 11, 21
displacement power factor 23, 33 motor selection 12
distortion calculation 7, 11, 12, 13, motor starter 10
14 multiple arm passive filter 27, 28
distortion nomogram 26
DriveSize 11, 12, 13, 14 N
network 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
E 27, 28
effect 7, 10, 20, 21, 24, 25 non-linear load 8, 10, 18, 19
Electromagnetic compatibility 16
electronic device 10 O
Electronic display 10 overheating 10
electronic lighting 10 P
EMC product standard 15 passive filter 27, 28
European Economic Area 15 phase commutated rectifier 23
external filtering 20 point of common coupling 18, 33
F power distribution 8
filtering 20, 21, 24, 27 power drive system 15
frequency 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, power factor 12, 14, 19, 23, 33
17, 22, 27, 28, 32, 33 power port 15
fundamental frequency 9, 32, 33 public supply 15
PWHD 17, 32

34 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6


Index

R
reactive power 23, 32
rectifier 8, 9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 30, 31
rectifying mode 23
regenerating mode 23
report 14, 16
S
short circuit power 20, 32
short circuit ratio 17, 19, 25, 32
source 7, 10, 11, 24
source impedance 11
standard 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23,
33
structural modification 20, 21, 22,
23, 24, 25, 26
supply authority 17
supply cable 13, 14
supply transformer 21
supply voltage 8, 24, 33
T
TDD 18
THD 13, 14, 15, 17, 25, 32
three-winding transformer 22
thyristor 13, 20, 22, 23
total demand distortion 18
total harmonic distortion 18, 26, 32
transformer 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20,
21, 22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31 6
tuned arm passive filter 27
V
variable speed drives 10
voltage 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33
voltage boost 23, 24

Technical guide No. 6 | Guide to harmonics with AC drives 35


36 Guide to harmonics with AC drives | Technical guide No. 6
Contact us

3AFE64292714 REV C EN 11.5.2011 #15567


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 7


Dimensioning of a drive system
2 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7
Technical guide No. 7
Dimensioning of a drive system

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE64362569 REV C EN 28.4.2011

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 3


4 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
General ..............................................................................................7

Chapter 2 - Drive system ...........................................................................8

Chapter 3 - General description of a dimensioning procedure ..................9

Chapter 4 - Induction (AC) motor.............................................................11


4.1 Fundamentals .............................................................................11
4.2 Motor current .............................................................................13
4.2.1 Constant flux range .............................................................14
4.2.2 Field weakening range .........................................................15
4.3 Motor power ..............................................................................16

Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws .........................................................17


5.1 Rotational motion .......................................................................17
5.2 Gears and moment of inertia .......................................................20

Chapter 6 - Load types ............................................................................22

Chapter 7 - Motor loadability ...................................................................25

Chapter 8 - Selecting the frequency converter and motor ......................26


8.1 Pump and fan application (Example) ............................................27 7
8.2 Constant torque application (Example) ........................................29
8.3 Constant power application (Example) ........................................31

Chapter 9 - Input transformer and rectifier ..............................................35


9.1 Rectifiers ....................................................................................35
9.2 Transformer ................................................................................36

Chapter 10 - Index ...................................................................................38

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 5


6 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7
Chapter 1 - Introduction

General
Dimensioning of a drive system is a task where all factors have
to be considered carefully. Dimensioning requires knowledge
of the whole system including electric supply, driven machine,
environmental conditions, motors and drives, etc. Time spent at
the dimensioning phase can mean considerable cost savings.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 7


Chapter 2 - Drive system

A single AC drive system consists typically of an input transformer


or an electric supply, frequency converter, an AC motor and load.
Inside the single frequency converter there is a rectifier, DC-link
and inverter unit.

Figure 2.1 A single frequency converter consists of 1) rectifier, 2) DC-link,


3) inverter unit and 4) electric supply.

In multi-drive systems a separate rectifier unit is commonly used.


Inverter units are connected directly to a common DC-link.

Figure 2.2 A drive system which has 1) a separate supply section,


2) common DC-link, 3) drive sections and 4) electric supply.

8 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 3 - General description of a
dimensioning procedure

This chapter gives the general steps for dimensioning the motor
and the frequency converter.

1) First check the initial conditions.


In order to select the correct frequency converter and motor,
check the mains supply voltage level (380 V to 690 V) and
frequency (50 Hz to 60 Hz). The mains supply networks fre-
quency doesnt limit the speed range of the application.

2) Check the process requirements.


Is there a need for starting torque? What is the speed range
used? What type of load will there be? Some of the typical
load types are described later.

3) Select the motor.


An electrical motor should be seen as a source of torque.
The motor must withstand process overloads and be able to
produce a specified amount of torque. The motors thermal
overloadability should not be exceeded. It is also necessary to
leave a margin of around 30 percent for the motors maximum
torque when considering the maximum available torque in the
dimensioning phase.

4) Select the frequency converter.


The frequency converter is selected according to the initial
conditions and the selected motor. The frequency converters 7
capability of producing the required current and power should
be checked. Advantage should be taken of the frequency
converters potential overloadability in case of a short term
cyclical load.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 9


General description of a dimensioning procedure

Dimensioning phase Network Converter Motor Load

T
1) Check the initial
conditions of the TS
fN= 50 Hz, 60 Hz Tload
network and load
UN= 380 to 690 V
n min n max

2) Choose a motor T
according to:
- Thermal loadability TS
- Speed range Tload
- Maximum needed
torque n min n max

3) Choose a frequency Imax


converter according to:
IN
- Load type
- Continous and
maximum current
- Network conditions n min n max

Figure 3.1 General description of the dimensioning procedure.

10 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 4 - Induction (AC) motor

Induction motors are widely used in industry. In this chapter


some of the basic features are described.

4.1 Fundamentals
An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy. Converting the energy is based on electromagnetic
induction. Because of the induction phenomenon the induction
motor has a slip.

The slip is often defined at the motors nominal point (frequency


( f n ), speed ( nn ), torque ( T n ), voltage ( U n ), current ( In ) and
power ( Pn )). At the nominal point the slip is nominal:

(4.1)

where ns is the synchronous speed:

(4.2)

When a motor is connected to a supply with constant voltage


and frequency it has a torque curve as follows:

Figure 4.1 Typical torque/speed curve of an induction motor when


connected to the network supply (D.O.L., Direct-On-Line). In the picture
a) is the locked rotor torque, b) is the pull-up torque, c) is the maximum
motor torque, Tmax and d) is the nominal point of the motor.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 11


Induction (AC) motor

A standard induction motors maximum torque ( T max , also


called pull-out torque and breakdown torque) is typically
2-3 times the nominal torque. The maximum torque is available
with slip smax which is greater than the nominal slip. In order
to use an induction motor efficiently the motor slip should be
in the range - smax ... s max. This can be achieved by controlling
voltage and frequency. Controlling can be done with a frequency
converter.
Torque

Speed

Figure 4.2 Torque/speed curves of an induction motor fed by a frequency


converter. Tmax is available for short term overloads below the field
weakening point. Frequency converters, however, typically limit the
maximum available torque to 70 percent of Tmax.

The frequency range below the nominal frequency is called a


constant flux range. Above the nominal frequency/ speed the
motor operates in the field weakening range. In the field weak-
ening range the motor can operate on constant power which
is why the field weakening range is sometimes also called the
constant power range.

The maximum torque of an induction motor is proportional to


the square of the magnetic flux ( Tmax ~ 2 ). This means that the
maximum torque is approximately a constant at the constant
flux range. Above the field weakening point the maximum torque
decrease is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency

( Tmax ~ ).

12 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Induction (AC) motor

Tmax

Flux

Voltage

Speed
Constant flux range Field weekening range

Figure 4.3 Maximum torque, voltage and flux as a function of the relative
speed.

4.2 Motor current


An induction motor current has two components: reactive current
( i sd ) and active current ( isq ). The reactive current component
includes the magnetizing current ( imagn ) whereas the active cur-
rent is the torque producing current component. The reactive
and active current components are perpendicular to each other.

The magnetizing current ( imagn ) remains approximately constant


in the constant flux range (below the field weakening point). In
the field weakening range the magnetizing current decrease is
proportional to speed. 7
A quite good estimate for the magnetizing current in the constant
flux range is the reactive ( isd ) current at the motor nominal point.

Figure 4.4 Stator current ( is ) consists of reactive current ( isd ) and active
current ( isq ) components which are perpendicular to each other. Stator
flux is denoted as s.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 13


Induction (AC) motor

4.2.1 Constant flux range

Below the field weakening point the current components can be


approximated as follows:

(4.3)

(4.4)

The total motor current is:

(4.5)

It can be seen that with zero motor torque the active current
component is zero. With higher torque values motor current
becomes quite proportional to the torque. A good approximation
for total motor current is:

, when 0.8 * Tn Tload 0.7 * Tmax (4.6)

Example 4.1:
A 15 kW motors nominal current is 32 A and power factor is
0.83. What is the motors approximate magnetizing current at
the nominal point? What is the total approximate current with
120 percent torque below the field weakening point.

Solution 4.1:
At the nominal point the estimate for the magnetizing current is:

The approximate formula for total motor current with 120 percent
torque gives:

The approximate formula was used because torque fulfilled the


condition 0.8 * Tn T load 0.7 * Tmax

14 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Induction (AC) motor

4.2.2 Field weakening range

Above the field weakening point the current components also


depend on speed.

(4.7)

(4.8)

Total motor current is:

(4.9)
The motor current can be approximated quite accurately within
a certain operating region. The motor current becomes propor-
tional to relative power. An approximation formula for current is:

(4.10)

Approximation can be used when:

(4.11)
and 7
(4.12)

In the field weakening range the additional current needed in


order to maintain a certain torque level is proportional to rela-
tive speed.

Example 4.2:
The motors nominal current is 71 A. How much current is needed
to maintain the 100 percent torque level at 1.2 times nominal
speed (T max = 3 * Tn).

Solution 4.2:
The current can be calculated by using the approximation for-
mula:

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 15


Induction (AC) motor

4.3 Motor power


The motors mechanical (output) power can be calculated from
speed and torque using the formula:

(4.13)

Because motor power is most often given in kilowatts


(1 kW = 1000 W) and speed in rpm revolutions per minute,

1 rpm = rad/s), the following formula can be used:

(4.14)

The motors input power can be calculated from the voltage,


current and power factor:

(4.15)

The motors efficiency is the output power divided by the input


power:

(4.16)

Example 4.3:
The motor nominal power is 15 kW and the nominal speed is
1480 rpm. What is the nominal torque of the motor?

Solution 4.3:
The motors nominal torque is calculated as follows:

Example 4.4:
What is the nominal efficiency of a 37 kW (Pn = 37 kW,
U n =380 V, In =71 A and cos( n) = 0.85) motor?

Solution 4.4:
The nominal efficiency is:

16 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws

5.1 Rotational motion


One of the basic equations of an induction motor describes the
relation between moment of inertia ( J [kgm2]), angular velocity
( [rad/s]) and torque ( T [Nm]). The equation is as follows:

(5.1)

In the above equation it is assumed that both the frequency and


the moment of inertia change. The formula is however often
given so that the moment of inertia is assumed to be constant:

(5.2)

Torque Tload represents the load of the motor. The load consists
of friction, inertia and the load itself. When the motor speed
changes, motor torque is different from Tload . Motor torque can
be considered as consisting of a dynamic and a load component:

(5.3)

If the speed and moment of inertia are constants the dynamic


component ( Tdyn ) is zero.

The dynamic torque component caused by acceleration/decel-


eration of a constant moment of inertia (motors speed is changed
7
by n [rpm] in time t [s], J is constant) is:

(5.4)

The dynamic torque component caused by a variable moment


of inertia at constant speed n[rpm] is:

(5.5)

If the moment of inertia varies and at the same time the motor is
accelerating the dynamic torque component can be calculated
using a certain discrete sampling interval. From the thermal
dimensioning point of view it is however often enough to take
into account the average moment of inertia during acceleration.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 17


Basic mechanical laws

Example 5.1:
The total moment of inertia, 3 kgm 2, is accelerated from a speed
of 500 rpm to 1000 rpm in 10 seconds. What is the total torque
needed when the constant load torque is 50 Nm?

How fast will the motor decelerate to 0 rpm speed if the motors
electric supply is switched off?

Solution 5.1:
The total moment of inertia is constant. The dynamic torque
component needed for acceleration is:

Total torque during acceleration is:

If the motors electric supply is switched off at 1000 rpm the


motor decelerates because of the constant load torque (50 Nm).
Following equation holds:

Time to decelerate from 1000 rpm to 0 rpm:

Example 5.2:
Accelerating of a fan to nominal speed is done with nominal
torque. At nominal speed torque is 87 percent. The fans mo-
ment of inertia is 1200 kgm 2 and the motors moment of inertia
is 11 kgm 2. The load characteristics of the fan Tload is shown in
figure 5.1.

Motor nominal power is 200 kW and nominal speed is 991 rpm.

18 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Basic mechanical laws

Torque

Speed

Figure 5.1 Torque characteristics of a fan. Speed and torque are shown
using relative values.

Calculate approximate starting time from zero speed to nominal


speed.

Solution 5.2:
Motor nominal torque is:

The starting time is calculated by dividing the speed range into


five sectors. In each sector (198.2 rpm) torque is assumed to be
constant. Torque for each sector is taken from the middle point
7
of the sector. This is quite acceptable because the quadratic
behaviour is approximated to be linear in the sector.

The time to accelerate the motor (fan) with nominal torque can
be calculated with formula:

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 19


Basic mechanical laws

Acceleration times for different speed sections are:

0-198.2 rpm

198.2-396.4 rpm

396.4-594.6 rpm

594.6-792.8 rpm

792.8-991 rpm

The total starting time 0-991 rpm is approximately 112 seconds.

5.2 Gears and moment of inertia


Gears are typical in drive systems. When calculating the motor
torque and speed range gears have to be taken into account.
Gears are reduced from load side to motor side with following
equations (see also figure 5.2 ):

(5.6)

(5.7)

(5.8)

Direction of energy

Figure 5.2 A gear with efficiency . Gear ratio is n1:n2.

20 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Basic mechanical laws

Also all the moments of inertia ( J [kgm 2]) within the system have
to be known. If they are not known they can be calculated which
is rather difficult to do accurately. Typically machine builders can
give the necessary data.

Example 5.3:
A cylinder is quite a common shape for a load (rollers, drums,
couplings, etc.). What is the inertia of a rotating cylinder
(mass=1600 kg, radius=0.7 m)?

Solution 5.3:
The inertia of a rotating cylinder (with mass m [kg] and radius r
[m]) is calculated as follows:

In the case of a gear, the moment of inertia to the motor shaft


has to be reduced. The following example shows how to reduce
gears and hoists. In basic engineering books other formulas are
also given.

Example 5.4:
Reduce the moment of inertia to the motor shaft of the following
hoist drive system.

Figure 5.3 A Hoist drive system used in example 5.4. 7


Solution 5.4:
The total moment of inertia consists of J1=10 kgm 2,
J2=30 kgm2, r=0.2 m and m=100 kg.
The moment of inertia J2 and mass m are behind a gearbox with
gear ratio n1:n2=2:1.

The moment of inertia J2 is reduced by multiplying with the square


of the inverse of the gear ratio. The mass m of the hoist is re-
duced by multiplying it with square of the radius r and because
it is behind the gearbox it has to be multiplied with the square
of the inverse of the gear ratio, too.

Thus the total moment of inertia of the system is:

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 21


Chapter 6 - Load types

Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world.


Knowing the load profile (speed range, torque and power) is es-
sential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter
for the application.

Some common load types are shown. There may also be com-
binations of these types.

1. Constant torque
A constant torque load type is typical when fixed volumes are
being handled. For example screw compressors, feeders and
conveyors are typical constant torque applications. Torque is
constant and the power is linearly proportional to the speed.

Figure 6.1 Typical torque and power curves in a constant torque


application.

2. Quadratic torque
Quadratic torque is the most common load type. Typical
applications are centrifugal pumps and fans. The torque is
quadratically, and the power is cubically proportional to the
speed.

Figure 6.2 Typical torque and power curves in a quadratic torque


application.

22 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Load types

3. Constant power
A constant power load is normal when material is being rolled
and the diameter changes during rolling. The power is constant
and the torque is inversely proportional to the speed.

Figure 6.3 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power


application.

4. Constant power/torque
This load type is common in the paper industry. It is a com-
bination of constant power and constant torque load types.
This load type is often a consequence of dimen-sioning the
system according to the need for certain power at high speed.

Figure 6.4 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power/ torque
application.

5. Starting/breakaway torque demand


In some applications high torque at low frequencies is needed.
This has to be considered in dimensioning. Typical applica-
tions for this load type are for example extruders and screw
pumps.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 23


Load types

Figure 6.5 Typical torque curve in an application where starting torque is


needed.

There are also several other load types. They are however hard to
describe in a general presentation. Just to mention a few, there
are different symmetrical (rollers, cranes, etc.) and unsymmetrical
loads. Symmetry/non-symmetry in torque can be for example
as a function of angle or time. These kinds of load types must
be dimensioned carefully taking into account the overloadability
margins of the motor and the frequency converter, as well as the
average torque of the motor.

24 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 7 - Motor loadability

Motor thermal loadability has to be considered when dimension-


ing a drive system. The thermal loadability defines the maximum
long term loadability of the motor.

A standard induction motor is self ventilated. Because of the self


ventilation the motor thermal loadability decreases as the motor
speed decreases. This kind of behaviour limits the continuous
available torque at low speeds.

A motor with a separate cooling can also be loaded at low


speeds. Cooling is often dimensioned so that the cooling effect
is the same as at the nominal point.

With both self and separate cooling methods torque is thermally


limited in the field weakening range.

T / Tn

Relative speed

Figure 7.1 A standard cage induction motors typical loadability in


a frequency controlled drive 1) without separate cooling and 2) with
separate cooling.

An AC motor can be overloaded for short periods of time without


overheating it. Short term overloads are mainly limited by Tmax
(check the safety margin).

Generally speaking, a frequency converters short term load-


ability is often more critical than the motors. The motor thermal
rise times are typically from 15 minutes (small motors) to several
hours (big motors) depending on the motor size. The frequency
converters thermal rise times (typically few minutes) are given
in the product manuals.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 25


Chapter 8 - Selecting the frequency
converter and motor

The motor is selected according to the basic information about


the process. Speed range, torque curves, ventilation method and
motor loadability give guidelines for motor selection. Often it is
worth comparing different motors because the selected motor
affects the size of the frequency converter.

When selecting a suitable frequency converter there are several


things to be considered. Frequency converter manufacturers
normally have certain selection tables where typical motor pow-
ers for each converter size are given.

The dimensioning current can also be calculated when the torque


characteristics is known. The corresponding current values can
be calculated from the torque profile and compared to converter
current limits. The motors nominal current gives some kind of
indication. It isnt however always the best possible dimensioning
criteria because motors might for example be derated (ambient
temperature, hazardous area, etc.).

The available supply voltage must be checked before selecting


the frequency converter. Supply voltage variations affect the
available motor shaft power. If the supply voltage is lower than
nominal the field weakening point shifts to a lower frequency
and the available maximum torque of the motor is reduced in
the field weakening range.

The maximum available torque is often limited by the frequency


converter. This has to be considered already in the motor selec-
tion phase. The frequency converter may limit the motor torque
earlier than stated in the motor manufacturers data sheet.

The maximum available torque is also affected by transform-


ers, reactors, cables, etc. in the system because they cause a
voltage drop and thus the maximum available torque may drop.
The systems power losses need to be compensated also by the
frequency converter rating.

26 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

8.1 Pump and fan application (Example)


Some stages in pump and fan application dimensioning:

Check the speed range and calculate power with highest


speed.
Check the starting torque need.
Choose the pole number of the motor. The most economic
operating frequency is often in the field weakening range.
Choose motor power so that power is available at maximum
speed. Remember the thermal loadability.
Choose the frequency converter. Use pump and fan rating. If
the pump and fan rating is not available choose the frequency
converter according to the motor current profile.

Example 8.1:
A pump has a 150 kW load at a speed of 2000 rpm. There is no
need for starting torque.

Solution 8.1:
The necessary torque at 2000 rpm is:

It seems that 2-pole or 4-pole motors are alternative choices


for this application.

Figure 8.1 Motor loadability curves in a pump and fan application.


Comparison of 1) 2-pole and 2) 4-pole motors.

1) Motor p=2
For a 2-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm according to the
loadability curve is about 95 percent. The motor nominal torque
must be at least:

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 27


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

The corresponding nominal power must then be at least:

A 250 kW (400 V, 431 A, 50 Hz, 2975 rpm and 0.87) motor is


selected. The nominal torque of the motor is:

The motor current at 2000 rpm speed (constant flux range) is


approximately:

The minimum continuous current for the frequency converter is


then 384 A.

2) motor p=4
For a 4-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm is 75 percent.
The minimum nominal torque of the motor is:

The minimum power for a 4-pole motor is:

A 160 kW motor (400 V, 305 A, 50 Hz, 1480 rpm and 0.81)


fulfills the conditions. The approximated current at a speed of
2000 rpm (66.7 Hz) is:

The exact current should be calculated if the selected frequency


converters nominal current is close to the approximated motor
current.

A 4-pole motor requires less current at the pump operation


point. Thus it is probably a more economical choice than a
2-pole motor.

28 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

8.2 Constant torque application (Example)


Some stages in dimensioning of a constant torque application:

Check the speed range.


Check the constant torque needed.
Check the possible accelerations. If accelerations are needed
check the moments of inertia.
Check the possible starting torque required.
Choose the motor so that torque is below the thermal load-
ability curve (separate/self ventilation?). Typically the nominal
speed of the motor is in the middle of the speed range used.
Choose a suitable frequency converter according to the di-
mensioning current.

Example 8.2:
An extruder has a speed range of 300-1200 rpm. The load at
1200 rpm is 48 KW. The starting torque requirement is 200 Nm.
Acceleration time from zero speed to 1200 rpm is 10 seconds.
The motor is self-ventilated and the nominal voltage is 400 V.

Solution 8.2:
The constant torque requirement is:

A suitable motor is a 4-pole or a 6-pole motor.

Figure 8.2 Motor loadability curves in a constant torque application.


comparison of 1) 4-pole and 2) 6-pole motors.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 29


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

1) Motor p=4
At 300 rpm speed the thermal loadability is 80 percent.
The estimated minimum nominal torque is:

The minimum motor nominal power is:

A suitable motor is for example a 75 kW (400 V, 146 A, 50 Hz,


1473 rpm and 0.82) motor. The motor nominal torque is:

Motor current is approximately (T/Tn 0.8):

According to the calculated motor current a suitable frequency


converter can be selected for constant torque use.

The starting torque requirement (200 Nm) is not a problem for


this motor.

If the motors moment of inertia is 0.72 kgm2 the dynamic torque


in acceleration is:

Thus the total torque during acceleration is 391 Nm which is


less than the nominal torque of the motor.

2) Motor p=6
At speeds of 300 rpm and 1200 rpm the motor loadability is 84
percent. Thus the minimum nominal torque of the 6-pole motor is:

The minimum value of the motor nominal power is:

30 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

A suitable motor could be for example a 55 kW (400 V, 110 A,


50 Hz, 984 rpm and 0.82) motor. The motor nominal torque is:

The dimensioning current can be approximated at a speed of


1200 rpm:

The nominal (continuous) current of the frequency converter


must be over 96 A.

The starting torque requirement is less than motors nominal


torque.

If the inertia of the motor is 1.2 kgm 2 the dynamic torque in ac-
celeration is:

The total torque needed during acceleration is 397 Nm which is


less than the nominal torque of the motor.

A 6-pole motor current is 19 A smaller than with a 4-pole motor.


The final frequency converter/motor selection depends on the
motor and frequency converter frame sizes and prices.

8.3 Constant power application (Example) 7


Some stages in dimensioning of a constant power application:

Check the speed range.


Calculate the power needed. Winders are typical constant
power applications.
Dimension the motor so that the field weakening range is
utilized.

Example 8.3:
A wire drawing machine is controlled by a frequency converter.
The surface speed of the reel is 12 m/s and the tension is 5700
N. The diameters of the reel are 630 mm (empty reel) and 1250
(full reel). There is a gear with gear ratio n2 :n1 =1:7.12 and the
efficiency of the gear is 0.98.

Select a suitable motor and converter for this application.

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 31


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

Solution 8.3:
The basic idea of a winder is to keep the surface speed and the
tension constant as the diameter changes.

Figure 8.3 Basic diagram of a winder.

In rectilinear motion the power is: P = Fv

In rotational motion the power is: P = T

The relation between surface speed and angular velocity is:

Torque is a product of force and radius: T = Fr

By using the above formulas the motor can be selected:

32 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

The gear must be taken into account before choosing the motor.
Speeds, torques and power have to be reduced:

1) Motor p=2
If a 2-pole motor is selected loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm
is about 88 percent and 97 percent at 2590 rpm. The minimum
nominal power of the motor is:

A 200 kW (400 V, 353 A, 50 Hz, 2975 rpm and 0.86) motor is


selected. The motor nominal torque is:

The dimensioning current is calculated according to a torque


of 511 Nm:

2) Motor p=4
If a 4-pole motor is selected it can be seen from the loadability
curve that loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 98 per-
cent and about 60 percent at 2590 rpm. The minimum nominal
power of the motor is:

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 33


Selecting the frequency converter and motor

A 90 kW (400 V, 172 A, 50 Hz, 1473 rpm and 0.83) is selected.


The motor nominal torque is:

Dimensioning in this case is done according to the motor current


at 1305 rpm. The motor current is:

With a 2-pole motor the field weakening (constant power) range


was not utilized which led to unnecessary overdimensioning.
A 4-pole motor is a better choice for this application.

34 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 9 - Input transformer and rectifier

There are several types of input rectifiers. The rectifier type might
limit the operation.

A conventional rectifier is a 6 or 12 pulse diode rectifier. Diode


rectifiers only support motoring loads where the power flow is
one way only.

In certain processes where the load can also be generating, the


energy needs to be absorbed. For short generating loads the
traditional solution has been a braking resistor where the power
generated has been transformed into heat losses. If however
the load is generating all the time, a true 4-quadrant rectifier is
needed.

Both the input transformer and the rectifier are dimensioned ac-
cording to the motor shaft power and system losses. For example
if high torque at low speed is delivered the mechanical power is
nevertheless quite low. Thus high overloads do not necessarily
mean high power from the rectifier point of view.
Torque

Line current

7
Figure 9.1 Line current in a constant torque application. Line current is
small at low speed.

9.1 Rectifiers
Rectifiers are dimensioned according to motor shaft power. A
single drives input rectifier can be selected using the approxi-
mation formula:
(9.1)

In drive systems where there is a common DC-link, there can


be motoring and generating power at the same time. Rectifier
power is then calculated approximately as follows:

(9.2)

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 35


Input transformer and rectifier

9.2 Transformer
An input transformers power can be calculated as follows:

(9.3)
In the above formulas:

P total is the total motor shaft power

k is the transformer loadability (k-factor)

1.05 stands for transformer voltage drop (impedance)

r is the rectifier efficiency

cos() is the rectifier control angle (=1.0 for diode


rectifier)

c is the AC choke (if there is one) efficiency

i is the inverter efficiency

m is the motor efficiency

Typically total shaft power is multiplied by a coefficient


1.2 - 1.35.

Example 9.1:
In a constant torque application the maximum shaft power
needed is 48 kW at a speed of 1200 rpm. A 55 kW motor and
70 kVA inverter unit was selected.

Specify the rectifier and input transformer. A 6-pulse diode sup-


ply is used (efficiency 0.985), there is a DC-choke in the DC-link,
inverter efficiency is 0.97 and motor efficiency is 0.95.

Solution 9.1:
For the rectifier the estimated power is:

The choke efficiency is included in the inverter efficiency. Be-


cause of diode supply unit cos() =1. The power of the input
transformer (k=0.95) is:

36 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7


Chapter 10 - Index
Symbols M
4-quadrant 35 maximum torque 9, 12, 26
mechanical 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
A 21, 35
acceleration 17, 18, 29, 30, 31 motor 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
AC motor 8 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24,
active current 13, 14 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
angular velocity 17, 32 34, 35, 36
C motoring 35
centrifugal pumps 22 N
constant flux range 12, 13, 28 nominal point 11, 13, 14, 25
constant power 12, 23, 31, 34
constant torque 22, 23, 29, 30, 35, 36 O
coupling 21 overloadability 9, 24
cubically 22
cyclical load 9 P
power 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18,
D 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33,
DC-link 8, 35, 36 34, 35, 36
decelerate 18 power factor 14, 16
drum 21 pull-out torque 12
pull-up torque 11
E
efficiency 16, 20, 31, 36 Q
electric supply 7, 8, 18 quadratically 22
quadratic torque 22
F
fan 18, 19, 22, 27 R
field weakening range 12, 13, 15, reactive current 13
25, 26, 27, 31 rectifier 8, 35, 36
flux range 12, 13, 14, 28 rectifier unit 8
frequency 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 22, roller 21, 24
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,
33, 34 S
friction 17 separate cooling 25
shaft power 26, 35, 36 7
G slip 11, 12
gear 20, 21, 31, 32 speed 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17,
generating 35 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36
I speed range 19, 20, 22, 27, 29,
induction 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 31
17, 25 starting torque 9, 24, 27, 29, 30,
induction motor 11, 12, 13, 17, 25 31
input transformer 8, 35, 36 supply 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 26, 36
inverter 8, 36 supply voltage 9, 26
K T
kilowatt 16 thermal loadability 25, 27, 29, 30
L torque 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
load 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35,
30, 33, 35, 36 36
load profile 22 transformer 8, 26, 35, 36
load type 9, 22, 23, 24 V
locked rotor torque 11 voltage 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 26, 29,
36

Technical guide No. 7 | Dimensioning of a drive system 37


38 Dimensioning of a drive system | Technical guide No. 7
Contact us

3AFE64362569 REV C EN 28.4.2011 #15649


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking
2 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8
Technical guide No. 8
Electrical braking

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE64362534 REV B EN 6.5.2011

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 3


4 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8
Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7


1.1 General ........................................................................................7
1.2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque ...................7

Chapter 2 - Evaluating braking power .......................................................9


2.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking .........................9
2.2 Basics of load descriptions .........................................................10
2.2.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque ..................................10
2.2.2 Evaluating brake torque and power ......................................10
2.2.3 Summary and conclusions ...................................................14

Chapter 3 - Electrical braking solution in drives ......................................15


3.1 Motor flux braking .......................................................................15
3.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor ..........................................16
3.2.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter ...........16
3.2.2 Principle of the braking chopper ..........................................17
3.3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration ....................................19
3.4 IGBT bridge configuration ...........................................................21
3.4.1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units .............21
3.4.2 IGBT based regeneration - control targets ............................21
3.4.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control ........22
3.4.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit ...............................24
3.5 Common DC ..............................................................................24

Chapter 4 - Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of


electrical braking .....................................................................................26
4.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy ............................................26
4.2 Evaluating the investment cost ....................................................26
4.3 Calculating the life cycle cost ......................................................27
8
Chapter 5 - Symbols and definitions .......................................................31

Chapter 6 - Index .....................................................................................32

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 5


6 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8
Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.1 General
This guide continues ABBs technical guide series, describ-
ing the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy
and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy. The
purpose of this guide is to give practical guidelines for different
braking solutions.

1.2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque


Drive applications can be divided into three main categories
according to speed and torque. The most common AC drive
application is a single quadrant application where speed and
torque always have the same direction, ie, the power flow (which
is speed multiplied by torque) is from inverter to process. These
applications are typically pump and fan applications having
quadratic behaviour of load torque and thus often called variable
torque applications. Some single quadrant applications such as
extruders or conveyors are constant torque applications, ie, the
load torque does not inherently change when speed changes.

The second category is two-quadrant applications where the


direction of rotation remains unchanged but the direction of
torque can change, ie, the power flow may be from drive to
motor or vice versa. The single quadrant drive may turn out to
be two quadrants for example if a fan is decelerated faster than
mechanical losses could naturally achieve. In many industries
also the requirement for emergency stopping of machinery may
require two-quadrant operation although the process itself is
single quadrant type.

The third category is fully four-quadrant applications where the


direction of speed and torque can freely change. These appli- 8
cations are typically elevators, winches and cranes, but many
machinery processes such as cutting, bending, weaving, and
engine test benches may require repetitive speed and torque
change. One can also mention single quadrant processes where
the power flow is mainly from machinery to inverter such as in
a winder or an uphill to downhill conveyor.

It is commonly understood that from the energy saving point


of view the AC motor combined with inverter is superior to
mechanical control methods such as throttling. However, less
attention is paid to the fact that many processes may inherently
include power flow from process to drive, but how this braking
energy could be utilised in the most economical way has not
been considered.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 7


Introduction

Decelerating Accelerating

Accelerating Decelerating

Figure 1.1 Drive applications map according to speed and torque.

8 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Chapter 2 - Evaluating braking power

2.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking


The evaluation of braking need starts from the mechanics. Typi-
cally, the requirement is to brake the mechanical system within
a specified time, or there are subcycles in the process where
the motor operates on the generator side at constant or slightly
varying speed.

It is important to note that devices used in electrical braking


are dimensioned according to braking power. The mechanical
braking power depends on braking torque and speed, formula
(2.1). The higher the speed the higher the power. This power is
then transferred at a certain specified voltage and current. The
higher the voltage the less current is needed for the same power,
formula (2.2). The current is the primary component defining the
cost in low voltage AC drives.

In formula (2.2) we see the term cos. This term defines how
much motor current is used for magnetising the motor. The
magnetising current does not create any torque and is therefore
ignored.

On the other hand, this motor magnetising current is not taken


from the AC supply feeding the converter, ie, the current to the
inverter is lower than the current fed to the motor. This fact means
that on the supplying side the cos is typically near 1.0. Note that
in formula (2.2) it has been assumed that no loss occurs when
DC power is converted to AC power. There are some losses in
this conversion, but in this context the losses can be ignored.

8
(2.1)

(2.2)

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 9


Evaluating braking power

2.2 Basics of load descriptions


Typically loads are categorised as constant torque or quadratic
torque type. Quadratic load torque means that the load torque
is proportional to the square of the speed. It also means that
the power is speed to the power of three. In constant torque
applications, the power is directly proportional to speed.

2.2.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque


Constant torque:

C: constant
(2.3)

(2.4)

Quadratic torque:
(2.5)

(2.6)

2.2.2 Evaluating brake torque and power

In the case of steady state operation (the angular acceleration


is zero) the motor torque has to make friction torque correspond
proportionally to the angular speed and load torque at that
specific angular speed. The braking torque and power need in
respect to time varies greatly in these two different load types.

(2.7)

Let us first consider the case where the load is constant torque
type and the drive system is not able to generate braking torque,
ie, the drive itself is single quadrant type. In order to calculate
the braking time needed one can apply the following equation.
Please note that formula (2.7) underlines that the torque needed
for inertia accelerating (or decelerating), friction and load torque
is in the opposite direction to the motor torque.

(2.8)

In practice, it is difficult to define the effect of friction exactly.


By assuming friction to be zero the time calculated is on the
safe side.

10 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Evaluating braking power

Power [10 * kW], Time [s], Torque [100 * Nm]

Cumulative time
Natural braking
power [kW] * 10
Natural braking
torque [Nm] * 100

Speed [rpm]

Figure 2.1 Cumulative braking time, braking load power and torque as a
function of speed.

(2.9)
By solving t one ends up with the formula:

(2.10)

Assuming that the load inertia is 60 kgm 2 and the load torque
is 800 Nm over the whole speed range, if the load is running at
1000 rpm and the motor torque is put to zero, the load goes to
zero speed in the time:

(2.11)
8
This applies for those applications where the load torque remains
constant when the braking starts. In the case where load torque
disappears (eg, the conveyor belt is broken) the kinetic energy
of the mechanics remains unchanged but the load torque that
would decelerate the mechanics is now not in effect. In that
case if the motor is not braking the speed will only decrease as
a result of mechanical friction.

Now consider the case with the same inertia and load torque at
1000 rpm, but where the load torque changes in a quadratic
manner. If the motor torque is forced to zero the load torque
decreases in quadratic proportion to speed. If the cumulative
braking time is presented as a function of speed, one sees that

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 11


Evaluating braking power

the natural braking time at the lower speed, eg, from 200 rpm
to 100 rpm, increases dramatically in comparison to the speed
change from 1000 rpm to 900 rpm.

Natural braking curve with quadratic load

Power [10 * kW], Time [s], Torque [100 * Nm]

Braking power
[kW] * 10
Braking torque
[Nm] * 100

Speed [rpm]

Figure 2.2 Natural braking curve for a 90 kW fan braking load power and
torque as a function of speed.

A natural braking curve can easily be drawn based on the power


and speed at the nominal point applying the formulas (2.5) and
(2.6).

Natural braking curve with quadratic load


Time [s]

Braking time

Speed [rpm]

Figure 2.3 Cumulative braking time for, eg, a 90 kW fan.

Let us now consider the case where the requirement specifies


the mechanical system to be braked in a specified time from a
specified speed.

12 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Evaluating braking power

The 90 kW fan has an inertia of 60 kgm2. The nominal operating


point for the fan is 1000 rpm. The fan is required to be stopped
within 20 seconds. The natural braking effect caused by the load
characteristics is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking.
The maximum energy of inertia can be calculated from formula
(2.12). The average braking power can be calculated by divid-
ing this braking energy by time. This value is, of course, on the
very safe side due to the fact that the fan load characteristics
are not taken into account.

(2.12)

(2.13)

When the braking chopper is dimensioned for this 16.4 kW value


and the motor braking capability at a higher speed is far more
than 16.4 kW, the drive has to include a supervision function
for maximum regeneration power. This function is available in
some drives.

If one wants to optimise the dimensioning of the brake chopper


for a specific braking time one can start by looking at figure (2.3).
The speed reduces quickly from 1000 to 500 rpm without any
additional braking. The natural braking effect is at its maximum
at the beginning of the braking. This clearly indicates that it is
not necessary to start braking the motor with the aforementioned
16 kW power in the first instance. As can be seen from figure
(2.3) the speed comes down from 1000 rpm to 500 rpm with-
out any additional braking within less than 10 seconds. At that
point of time the load torque is only 25 percent of nominal and
8
the kinetic energy conserved in the fan is also only 25 percent
of the energy at 1000 rpm. If the calculation done at 1000 rpm
is repeated at 500 rpm, it can be seen that the braking power
in order to achieve deceleration from 500 rpm to 0 rpm is appr.
8 kW. As stated in previous calculations this is also on the safe
side because the natural braking curve caused by the load
characteristics is not taken into account.

To summarise, the target for a 20 second deceleration time


from 1000 rpm down to 0 rpm is well achieved with a braking
chopper and resistor dimensioned for 8.2 kW. Setting the drive
regenerative power limit to 8.2 kW sets the level of braking power
to an appropriate level.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 13


Evaluating braking power

(2.14)

(2.15)

2.2.3 Summary and conclusions


There are two basic load types: constant and quadratic load
torque.

Constant torque application:

The load torque characteristic does not depend on the


speed. The load torque remains approximately the same over
the whole speed area.
The power increases linearly as the speed increases and
vice versa.
Typical constant torque applications: cranes and conveyors.

Quadratic torque application:

The load torque increases to speed to the power of two.


When the speed increases, the power increases to speed to
the power of three.
Typical quadratic torque applications: fans and pumps.

Braking power evaluation:

The quadratic load characteristics mean fast natural decel-


eration between 50-100 percent of nominal speeds. That
should be utilised when dimensioning the braking power
needed.
The quadratic load torque means that at low speeds the
natural deceleration is mainly due to friction.
The constant load torque characteristic is constant natural
deceleration.
The braking power is a function of torque and speed at
that specified operating point. Dimensioning the braking
chopper according to peak braking power typically leads to
overdimensioning.
The braking power is not a function of motor nominal cur-
rent (torque) or power as such.
If the load torque disappears when braking starts the natural
braking effect is small. This affects the dimensioning of the
braking chopper.

14 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Chapter 3 - Electrical braking solution in
drives

The modern AC drive consists of an input rectifier converting


AC voltage to DC voltage stored in DC capacitors. The inverter
converts the DC voltage back to AC voltage feeding the AC
motor at the desired frequency. The process power needed
flows through the rectifier, DC bus and inverter to the motor. The
amount of energy stored in DC capacitors is very small compared
with the power needed, ie, the rectifier has to constantly deliver
the power needed by the motor plus the losses in drive system.

3.1 Motor flux braking


Flux braking is a method based on motor losses. When braking
in the drive system is needed, the motor flux and thus also the
magnetising current component used in the motor are increased.
The control of flux can be easily achieved through the direct
torque control principle (for more information about DTC see
Technical guide No. 1). With DTC the inverter is directly controlled
to achieve the desired torque and flux for the motor. During flux
braking the motor is under DTC control which guarantees that
braking can be made according to the specified speed ramp.
This is very different to the DC injection braking typically used
in drives. In the DC injection method DC current is injected to
the motor so that control of the motor flux is lost during braking.
The flux braking method based on DTC enables the motor to
shift quickly from braking to motoring power when requested.

In flux braking the increased current means increased losses


inside the motor. The braking power is therefore also increased
although the braking power delivered to the frequency converter
is not increased. The increased current generates increased
losses in motor resistances. The higher the resistance value the 8
higher the braking energy dissipation inside the motor. Typically,
in low power motors (below 5 kW) the resistance value of the
motor is relatively large in respect to the nominal current of the
motor. The higher the power or the voltage of the motor the less
the resistance value of the motor in respect to motor current. In
other words, flux braking is most effective in a low power motor.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 15


Electrical braking solution in drives

Braking torque (%)

No flux braking

Rated motor power


Flux braking

Figure 3.1 Percentage of motor braking torque of rated torque as a


function of output frequency.

The main benefits of flux braking are:

No extra components are needed and no extra cost, using


DTC control method.
The motor is controlled during braking unlike in the DC injec-
tion current braking typically used in drives.

The main drawbacks of flux braking are:

Increased thermal stress on the motor if braking is repeated


over short periods.
Braking power is limited by the motor characteristics eg,
resistance value.
Flux braking is useful mainly in low power motors.

3.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor

3.2.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter


In standard drives the rectifier is typically a 6-pulse or 12-pulse
diode rectifier only able to deliver power from the AC network to
the DC bus but not vice versa. If the power flow changes as in
two or four quadrant applications, the power fed by the process
charges the DC capacitors according to formula (3.1) and the
DC bus voltage starts to rise. The capacitance C is a relatively
low value in an AC drive resulting in fast voltage rise, and the
components of a frequency converter may only withstand volt-
age up to a certain specified level.

16 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking solution in drives

(3.1)

(3.2)

In order to prevent the DC bus voltage rising excessively, two


possibilities are available: the inverter itself prevents the power
flow from process to frequency converter. This is done by limit-
ing the braking torque to keep a constant DC bus voltage level.
This operation is called overvoltage control and it is a standard
feature of most modern drives. However, this means that the
braking profile of the machinery is not done according to the
speed ramp specified by the user.

The energy storage capacity of the inverter is typically very small.


For example, for a 90 kW drive the capacitance value is typically
5 mF. If the drive is supplied by 400 V AC the DC bus has the
value of 1.35 * 400 = 565 V DC. Assuming that the capacitors can
withstand a maximum of 735 V DC, the time which 90 kW nominal
power can be fed to the DC capacitor can be calculated from:

(3.3)

This range of values applies generally for all modern low volt-
age AC drives regardless of their nominal power. In practice this
means that the overvoltage controller and its work horse torque
controller of the AC motor has to be a very fast one. Also the
activation of the regeneration or braking chopper has to be very
fast when used in drive configuration.

3.2.2 Principle of the braking chopper


8
The other possibility to limit DC bus voltage is to lead the brak-
ing energy to a resistor through a braking chopper. The braking
chopper is an electrical switch that connects DC bus voltage to
a resistor where the braking energy is converted to heat. The
braking choppers are automatically activated when the actual DC
bus voltage exceeds a specified level depending on the nominal
voltage of the inverter.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 17


Electrical braking solution in drives

UDC+ R+
V1

C1
Control R-
Circuit

UDC-

Figure 3.2 Circuit diagram example of braking chopper. UDC represents


DC bus terminals and R the resistor terminals.

The main benefits of the braking chopper and resistor solution


are:

Simple electrical construction and well-known technology.


Low fundamental investment for chopper and resistor.
The chopper works even if AC supply is lost. Braking during
main power loss may be required, eg, in elevator or other
safety related applications.

The main drawbacks of the braking chopper and resistor are:

The braking energy is wasted if the heated air can not be


utilised.
The braking chopper and resistors require additional
space.
May require extra investments in the cooling and heat
recovery system.
Braking choppers are typically dimensioned for a certain cy-
cle, eg, 100 percent power 1/10 minutes, long braking times
require more accurate dimensioning of the braking chopper.
Increased risk of fire due to hot resistor and possible dust
and chemical components in the ambient air space.
The increased DC bus voltage level during braking causes
additional voltage stress on motor insulation.

When to apply a braking chopper:

The braking cycle is needed occasionally.


The amount of braking energy with respect to motoring
energy is extremely small.
Braking operation is needed during main power loss.

18 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking solution in drives

When to consider other solutions than braking chopper and


resistor:

The braking is continuous or regularly repeated.


The total amount of braking energy is high in respect to the
motoring energy needed.
The instantaneous braking power is high, eg, several hun-
dred kW for several minutes.
The ambient air includes substantial amounts of dust or other
potentially combustible or explosive or metallic components.

3.3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration


In a frequency converter the diode rectifier bridges can be re-
placed by the two thyristor controlled rectifiers in antiphase. This
configuration allows changing the rectifier bridge according to
the power flow needed in the process.

The main components of the thyristor supply unit are two 6-pulse
thyristor bridges. The forward bridge converts 3-phase AC supply
into DC. It feeds power to the drives (inverters) via the intermedi-
ate circuit. The reverse bridge converts DC back to AC whenever
there is a need to pass the surplus motor braking power back
to the supply network.

Forward Reverse

3 Udc

8
Figure 3.3 Line diagram of anti-parallel thyristor supply unit.

Only one bridge operates at a time, the other one is blocked. The
thyristor-firing angle is constantly regulated to keep the intermedi-
ate circuit voltage at the desired level. The forward/reverse bridge
selection and intermediate circuit voltage control are based on
the measurement of the supply current, supply voltage and the
intermediate circuit voltage. The DC reactor filters the current
peaks of the intermediate circuit.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 19


Electrical braking solution in drives

The main benefits of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are:

Well-known solution.
Less investment needed than for an IGBT solution.
The DC voltage can be controlled to a lower value than
the network. In certain special applications this can be an
advantage.

The main drawbacks of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are:

The DC bus voltage is always lower than AC supply voltage


in order to maintain a commutation margin. Thus the
voltage fed to the motor remains lower than the incoming
AC. However, this can be overcome by using a step-up au-
totransformer in the supply.
If the supplying AC disappears a risk of fuse blowing exists,
due to the failure in thyristor commutation.
The cos varies with loading.
Total harmonic distortion higher than in IGBT regenerative
units.
The current distortion flows through other network impedance
and can cause undesired voltage distortion for other devices
supplied from the point where voltage distortion exists.
The braking capability is not available during main power loss.
Voltage / V, Current / A

Sinusoidal
phase voltage
Distorted
phase voltage
Line current

Time / ms

Figure 3.4. Example of anti-parallel bridge current and voltage


waveforms during braking.

20 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking solution in drives

3.4 IGBT bridge configuration

3.4.1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units


The IGBT based regeneration is based on the same principles as
power transmission within a power network. In a power network
several generators and load points are connected together. One
can assume that at the point of connection the power network is
a large synchronous generator having a fixed frequency. The input
IGBT bridge of the drive (later line converter) can be considered
as another AC voltage system connected through a choke to
the generator. The principle of power transfer between two AC
systems having voltage U and connected to each other can be
calculated from figure (3.4).

(3.4)

The formula indicates that in order to transfer power between


these two systems there has to be a phase difference in the
angle between the voltages of the two AC systems. In order to
control the power flow between the two systems the angle has
to be controlled.

Line generating unit Line generating unit

Harmonic order
8
Figure 3.5. Typical line current waveform and harmonics of an IGBT line
generating unit.

3.4.2 IGBT based regeneration - control targets


There are three general control targets in IGBT based regenera-
tion units. The first one is to keep the DC bus voltage stable
regardless of the absolute value of power flow and the direction
of power flow. This ensures that inverters feeding AC motors can
work in an optimum way regardless of the operation point thanks
to a stable DC bus voltage. The DC bus voltage is stable when
the power flow into the DC bus equals the power flow out of
the DC bus. This control of appropriate power flow is achieved
by controlling the power angle between the two AC systems.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 21


Electrical braking solution in drives

Load step

Power / kW, Voltage / 10 * V

DC Measurement
Power

Times / ms

Figure 3.6. Fast change from regenerating to motoring operation. Note how
stable the DC bus voltage is during this transition.

The second control target is to minimise the supply current need-


ed, ie, to operate at cos = 1.0. This is achieved by controlling
the output voltage of the line converter. In some applications it is
desired that the IGBT line converter also works as an inductive
or as a capacitive load.

The third control target is to minimise the harmonic content of the


supply current. The main design criteria here are the impedance
value of the choke and an appropriate control method.

3.4.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control


Direct torque control (DTC) is a way to control an AC motor fed
by an inverter. The control principal turns IGBT switches on and
off directly based on the difference between the actual AC mo-
tor torque and the users reference torque (Technical Guide No.
1). The very same principle can be applied in a line converter
controlling the power flow from power network to drive and
vice versa. The power is torque multiplied by angular frequency,
which in the network is constant, ie, controlling torque means
also control of power flow.

(3.5)

Torque_REF Direct torque and flux


ASICS
Flux_REF Hysteresis control Torque_BITS
Hysteresis Flux_BITS Optimal S1, S2, S3
Control_BITS Switching
Logic
Flux_ACT Torque_ACT
Model of power DC-Voltage
transmission
S1, S2, S3
Calculate L
actual values
Current
DC voltage control

Figure 3.7. Fundamental control diagram for DTC based IGBT


regeneration unit.

22 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking solution in drives

The DTC control method combined with IGBT technology con-


tributes to a low amount of current harmonics. For that reason
the IGBT supply unit can be used to replace single quadrant
12-pulse or 18-pulse supply configurations, which are typically
used for reducing current harmonics on the supply side. An IGBT
supply unit is therefore also a solution for those cases where
current harmonics rather than the handling of braking energy is
the issue.

The main benefits of an IGBT regeneration unit are:

Low amount of supply current harmonics in both motoring


and regeneration.
High dynamics during fast power flow changes on the
load side.
Possibility to boost the DC voltage higher than the respec-
tive incoming AC supply. This can be used to compensate
for a weak network or increase the motors maximum torque
capacity in the field weakening area.
Full compensation of system voltage drops thanks to volt-
age boost capability.
Possibility to control the power factor.
Power loss ride through operation with automatic synchro-
nisation to grid.
DC bus voltage has approximately the same value during
motoring or braking. No extra voltage stress on insulation of
motor winding during braking.
Voltage / V

Actual DC voltage
Reference DC voltage

8
Times / ms

Figure 3.8. Boosting capability of supplying voltage.

The main drawbacks of an IGBT regeneration unit are:

Higher investment cost.


The braking capability is not available during main power loss.
High frequency voltage harmonics due to high switching
frequency. These several kilohertz voltage components can
excite small capacitors used in other electrical devices. With
appropriate design and arrangement of feeding transformers
for different devices these phenomena are eliminated.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 23


Electrical braking solution in drives

When to use an IGBT regeneration unit:

The braking is continuous or repeating regularly.


The braking power is very high.
When space savings can be achieved compared to the brak-
ing resistor solution.
When network harmonics limits are critical.

3.4.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit


The supply current dimensioning of the IGBT unit is based on
power needed. Let us assume that the motoring shaft power
needed is 130 kW and braking power 100 kW. To dimension
the IGBT supply unit the maximum value of motoring or braking
power is selected, in this case 130 kW. The motor voltage is
400 V. The minimum value for the supplying network is 370 V.

In this case the voltage boost capability can be utilised; the DC


bus voltage is raised to correspond to an AC voltage of 400 V.
However, the required supply current is calculated based on the
370 level. Assuming that there are 5 percent system losses in the
motor and drive, the total power needed from the grid is 136.5
kW. The supplying current can be calculated from the formula:

(3.6)

The IGBT regeneration unit is selected based solely on the cal-


culated current value.

3.5 Common DC
When a process consists of several drives where one motor may
need braking capability when others are operating in motoring
mode, the common DC bus solution is a very effective way to
reuse the mechanical energy. A common DC bus solution drive
system consists of a separate supply rectifier converting AC to
DC, and inverters feeding AC motors connected to the com-
mon DC bus, ie, the DC bus is the channel to move braking
energy from one motor to benefit the other motors. The basic
configuration of the common DC bus arrangement can be seen
from figure (3.9).

24 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Electrical braking solution in drives

Supply section Braking sections Drive sections

Auxilliary Incoming Filter unit DSU/TSU/ Braking unit (optional)


control unit with IGBT IGBT
unit supply only Supply
unit
Common DC bus
ACU ICU FIU

Resistor
Chopper
Supply Inverter
Inverter
24 V unit

AC

Figure 3.9. The basic configuration of the common DC bus solution.

The main benefits of the common DC bus solution are:

Easy way to balance power flow between drives.


Low system losses in conversion of braking energy thanks
to common DC bus.
Even if the instantaneous braking power is higher than motor-
ing power the braking chopper and resistor do not need to
be dimensioned for full braking power.
If braking power is likely to be needed for long periods a
combination of rectifiers can be used.

The main drawbacks of the common DC bus solution with single


quadrant rectifier are:

The instantaneous motoring power has to be higher than or


equal to braking power.
The braking chopper and resistor are needed if instantaneous
braking power exceeds motoring power.
8
If the number of motors is small the additional cost of a
dedicated inverter disconnecting the device from the DC bus
raises the investment cost.

When to use common DC bus solution with single quadrant


rectifier:

The number of drives is high.


The motoring power is always higher than braking power or
only low braking power is needed by the braking chopper.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 25


Chapter 4 - Evaluating the life cycle cost of
different forms of electrical braking

It has become increasingly important to evaluate the total life


cycle cost when investing in energy saving products. The AC
drive is used for controlling speed and torque. This basic func-
tion of AC drives means savings in energy consumption in
comparison to other control methods used. In pump and fan
type applications braking is seldom needed. However, modern
AC drives are increasingly being used in applications where a
need for braking exists.

Several technical criteria are mentioned above. The following


examines the economic factors for different electrical braking
approaches.

4.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy


The direct cost of energy can be calculated based, for example, on
the price of energy and the estimated brak-ing time and power per
day. The price of energy varies from country to country, but a typical
estimated price level of 0.05 euros per kilowatt-hour can be used.
1 euro ~ 1 USD. The annual cost of energy can be calculated
from the formula:

e (4.1)

For example, a 100 kW drive is running 8000 hours per year and
braking with 50 kW average power for 5 minutes every hour, ie,
667 hours per year. The annual direct cost of braking energy is
1668 euros.

4.2 Evaluating the investment cost


The required investment objects needed for different braking
methods vary. The following investment cost components should
be evaluated.

Braking chopper:

The additional investment cost of braking chopper and


resistor plus the cost of additional space needed for those
components.
The investment cost of additional ventilation needed for the
braking chopper.

26 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking

Thyristor or IGBT based electrical braking:

The additional investment cost of thyristor or IGBT regen-


erative braking in respect to the same power drive without
electrical braking capability.

Common DC bus:

The additional investment cost of braking chopper and re-


sistor including the space needed for those components if
needed in a common DC bus solution.
The investment cost difference between common DC bus
solution and the respective single drive solution.

4.3 Calculating the life cycle cost


The life time cost calculation supports the purely economic deci-
sion in making an investment. The price level of energy as well as
the price of drives varies depending on the country, utility, size of
company, interest ratio, the time the investment is used and the
overall macroeconomic situation. The absolute values of prices
given in the following examples are solely used to illustrate the
calculation principles.

Case 1 - Occasional braking

Consider the following application case:


The continuous motoring power is 200 kW at a shaft speed of
1500 rpm. In the event of an emergency stop command the
application is required to ramp down within 10 seconds. Based
on the experience of the process an emergency stop happens
once every month. The inertia J of the drive system is 122 kgm2.
When the emergency stop is activated the load torque can be
neglected.

Calculating the braking torque needed for the motor: 8

(4.2)

The typical torque value for a 200 kW, 1500 rpm motor is about
1200 Nm. A normal AC motor instantaneously controlled by an
inverter can be run with torque at 200 percent of nominal value.
To achieve higher torque values a proportionally higher motor
current is also needed.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 27


Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking

The braking power is at its maximum at the beginning of the


braking cycle.

(4.3)

The braking chopper and resistor have to withstand instante-


nously the current for a power of 300 kW. The average braking
power is calculated below.

(4.4)

(4.5)

Cost of resistor braking:


The braking chopper needed is for a maximum braking power of
300 kW. If the drive has a power limitation function the braking
resistor can be dimensioned according to the 150.3 kW. The ad-
ditional cost of the braking chopper and resistor is 4000 euros.
The braking resistor requires 0.4 m2 additional floor space. The
cost of floor space is 500 euros/m2.

Due to the small total heating energy and emergency use of


braking, the cost of additional cooling is considered negligible.

The total additional investment cost consists of:

Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet, 4000 euros.


Floor space 0.4 m2 * 500 euros/m2, 200 euros.

The total cost of wasted energy during one braking is:

e e
(4.6)
In this case the cost of braking energy is negligible.

Cost of 4Q drive:
The additional cost of a respective investment for electrical brak-
ing with anti-parallel thyristor bridge in comparison with a drive
with braking chopper is 7000 euros. As expected, the energy
savings cannot be used as an argument to cover the additional
investment required.

28 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking

Case 2 - Crane application

Consider following application case:


Crane with hoisting power of 100 kW. The crane needs full power
on both the motoring and generating side. The longest hoist
operation time can be 3 minutes. The average on duty time over
one year for the hoist is 20 percent.

Cost of resistor braking:


The braking chopper and resistor have to be dimensioned for
continuous 100 kW braking due to the 3 minutes maximum brak-
ing time. Typically the maximum braking chopper dimensioning
is made for a braking time of 1 minute in 10 minutes.

Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet 7800 euros.

The mechanical construction of the crane allows having cabinets


with braking chopper. No extra cost due to floor space.

It is assumed that for 50 percent of the duty time the crane


operates on the generator side, ie, an average 2.4 h/day. The
total cost of wasted energy is:

e e
(4.7)
Cost of 4Q drive:
The IGBT 4Q drive is recommended for crane applications.

The additional investment cost for electrical braking with IGBT


input bridge in comparison to drive with braking chopper is
4000 euros.

The direct payback calculation indicates that an additional 4000


euros investment brings the same amount of energy savings
during the first year of use. 8
Case 3 - Centrifuge application

Consider the following application case:


Sugar Centrifuge with 6 pole motor 160 kW rating. The motor
needs full torque for a period of 30 seconds to accelerate the
charged basket to maximum speed of 1100 r/min, centrifuge
then spins liquor off the charge for 30 seconds at high speed.
Once the charge is dry motor decelerates the centrifuge as fast
as possible to allow discharge and recharging.

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 29


Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking

In a batch cycle the charge, spin and discharge times are fixed,
so the only opportunity to increase production is to increase the
rates of acceleration and deceleration. This is achieved by us-
ing an IGBT 4Q drive as the DC link voltage can be boosted for
operation in the field weakening range (1000 to 1100 r/min). This
can save around 3 seconds per cycle, therefore reducing cycle
time from 110 seconds to 107 seconds. This allows an increase
in throughput meaning that the productivity of the process is
improved. The cost premium for IGBT is 10 percent.

30 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Chapter 5 - Symbols and Definitions

AC: Alternating current or voltage

B: Friction coefficient

C: Constant or coefficient

cos: Cosine of electrical angle between the fundamental


voltage and current

DC: Direct current or voltage

DPF: Displacement power factor defined as cos1, where


1 is the phase angle between the fundamental
frequency current drawn by the equipment and the
supply voltage fundamental frequency component.

I: Current [Ampere, A]

J: Inertia [kgm2]

n: Rotation speed [revolutions per minute,rpm]

P: Power [Watt, W]

PF: Power factor defined as PF = P/S (power/voltampere)


= I1 / I s * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF is equal to DPF).

T: Torque (Newton meter, Nm)

t: Time

THD: Total harmonic distortion in the current is defined as 8

(5.1)

where I 1 is the rms value of the fundamental


frequency current. The THD in voltage may be
calculated in a similar way.

U: Voltage [V]

W: Energy [Joule, J]

: Angular speed [radian/second, 1/s]

Technical guide No. 8 | Electrical braking 31


Chapter 6 - Index
A P
AC power 9 pumps 14
B Q
braking chopper 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, quadratic torque 10, 14
19, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
braking power 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, R
15, 16, 19, 24, 25, 28 rectifier 15, 16, 19, 24, 25

C S
centrifuge 29 single quadrant 7, 10, 23, 25
common DC 24, 25, 27 T
constant torque 7, 10, 14 thyristor bridge 19, 20, 28
conveyors 7, 14 two-quadrant 7
cos 9, 20, 31
crane 29
D
DC injection braking 15
DC power 9
direct torque control 15, 22
E
energy storage 16, 17
F
fans 14
flux braking 15, 16
four-quadrant 7
friction 10, 11, 14, 31
H
harmonic distortion 20, 31
I
IGBT 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30
impedance 20, 22
inertia 10, 11, 13, 27, 31
inverter 7, 9, 15, 17, 22, 25, 27
L
line converter 21, 22
N
natural braking 12, 13, 14
O
overvoltage control 17

32 Electrical braking | Technical guide No. 8


Contact us

3AFE64362534 REV B EN 6.5.2011 #15654


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No. 9


Guide to motion control drives
2 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9
Technical guide No. 9
Guide to motion control drives

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AFE68695201 REV B EN 6.5.2011

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 3


4 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................7
1.1. Motion control versus speed control .............................................7
1.2. Decentralized or centralized control ..............................................8
1.3. Comparison between decentralized and centralized systems .........9
1.4. Main functional parts of machine ..................................................9
1.5. Machine components ................................................................10

Chapter 2 - Drive and motor combination ...............................................11


2.1. Brush-type DC ..........................................................................11
2.2. Brushless DC ...........................................................................11
2.3. Asynchronous servo ..................................................................12
2.4. Synchronous servo ...................................................................13

Chapter 3 - Synchronous technology ......................................................14


3.1. Measuring performance .............................................................14
3.2. How synchronous servo motors differ from induction motors .......15

Chapter 4 - Synchronous servo motor principle of operation ...............16


4.1. Special conditions during start up ..............................................17
4.2. Traditional speed and current control ..........................................17

Chapter 5 - Typical servo motors data.....................................................19


5.1. Torque constant.........................................................................19
5.2. Back EMF .................................................................................19
5.3. Torque curve .............................................................................19
5.4. Typical motor data .....................................................................20

Chapter 6 - Feedback devices .................................................................21


6.1. Resolver ....................................................................................21
6.2. Incremental encoders ................................................................22
6.3. SinCos encoder .........................................................................22

Chapter 7 - Motion control ......................................................................24 9


7.1. General .....................................................................................24
7.2. Motion control basic blocks .....................................................24
7.3. Motion control formulas and profiles ...........................................25
7.4. Motion profile ...........................................................................25
7.5. Position interpolator ...................................................................25

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 5


Chapter 8 - Typical motion functions .......................................................26
8.1. Positioning ................................................................................26
8.2. Absolute positioning ..................................................................26
8.3. Relative positioning ....................................................................26
8.4. Synchronization .........................................................................27
8.5. Rollover axis ..............................................................................28
8.6. Dynamic limiter ..........................................................................28
8.7. CAM disk ..................................................................................28
8.8. Homing .....................................................................................29
8.9. Cyclic corrections ......................................................................31
8.10. Encoder gear functions ............................................................32
8.11. Virtual master/axis ...................................................................33

Chapter 9 - Application examples, distributed control ............................34


9.1. Cyclic correction for material handling. .......................................34
9.2. Constant gap maintaining ..........................................................35
9.3. Cut to length .............................................................................36
9.4. Rotary knife ...............................................................................37
9.5. Cyclic correction, packing application .........................................38
9.6. Flying shear, angled ...................................................................39
9.7. Flying shear, parallel ...................................................................40
9.8. Lathe ........................................................................................41
9.9. Material filling ............................................................................42
9.10. Slitter ......................................................................................43
9.11. Picking and stacking ................................................................44
9.12. Warehouse automation ............................................................45
9.13. Winding ...................................................................................46
9.14. Wrapping ................................................................................47

Chapter 10 - Motion control *Glossary of terms ...................................48

Chapter 11 - Index ...................................................................................62

6 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Chapter 1 - Introduction

This guide aims to give users an overview of high performance


drives and motion control. Although written in a simple style to
make it relevant to most applications, readers need to have a
basic understanding of AC drive technology to benefit from this
guide.

When considering a motion control application it is important


to consider all elements in the system including drives, motors,
mechanical power transmission components, software, etc.

A high performance system has one or more of the following


characteristics:

high dynamic performance


high accuracy reference following and repeatability
high accuracy motion functions
capability to run different motor types

1.1. Motion control versus speed control


Standard variable speed drives normally control the motor by
giving a speed command. The system typically has no feedback
and speed reference is preset speeds, 0 to 10 Volts, 4 to 20 mA,
or fieldbus.

With motion control, there is always feedback of the real position.


This is compared to the reference value and the difference is cor-
rected continuously by the motion controllers profile generator.

Positioning is a good example that highlights this difference. If a


standard drive is used for positioning, the motor normally runs
at high speed, then decelerates to a lower speed and stops.
Alternatively, the drive can follow an analog signal. Either way, no
reference profile is followed, compared for errors or corrected.
This results in low accuracy.

Accuracy can be improved if the controller is a high perform- 9


ance motion controller but in this case, the dynamics and the
sample time (generally several milliseconds) of the standard drive
become limiting factors.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 7


Introduction

1.2. Decentralized or centralized control


In a system with centralized control, one unit contains all the
software and the drives just follow the reference value. There is
no intelligence within the drive.

Motion controller

Speed
reference

Figure 1.1 Simplified centralized system.

In a decentralized system, the field devices also have intelligence.


This means that the cost of the control unit is reduced, as far
less performance is required centrally.

Higher level commands


I/O

Figure 1.2 Simplified decentralized system.

8 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Introduction

1.3. Comparison between decentralized and centralized systems

Feature Decentralized Centralized Benefits of


decentralized
control
Number of control Low High Less cabling
wires lower cost
Fewer potential
faults wires
Cabinet Less components, More components Labour and material
smaller size installed cost saving
Programmable logic Control distributed All control, Cost saving in PLC
controller (PLC) additional hardware hardware
cost
Time levels Motion loop is Motion loop is Good cost/
closed in drive * closed in controller performance ratio
Drive-to-drive Fast drive-to-drive Not used Less hardware
communication communication
improves
communication

*This means that feedback is connected directly to drive. It does


not go to PLC or motion controller for calculation which might
cause delay.

More detailed information of motion control in chapter 7.

1.4. Main functional parts of machine


Machines using motion control and/or high performance drives
consist of the following, all of which have a deciding influence
on the performance of the system:

Motion control hardware: this controls the operation of the


system; it can be centralized or decentralized
Motion control software: determines the functions of the
machine by receiving input data and handling this according
9
to the instructions set out in the software code
Drive or amplifier receives commands from the motion
control software
Motor provides mechanical energy with the required speed
and torque to drive the load in the specified way
Mechanical power transmission components belts, gear-
boxes, clutches, ballscrews etc.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 9


Introduction

Follower drive Upper control Master drive


system ( PLC) Encoder option module

I/O option module


I/O extension

Motor Fieldbus
cable
Fieldbus option module
Master/follower
Encoder option module
Fibres Hard wired probe
Drive-to-drive link
for standard I/O
Motor cable

Synchronous motor encoder


Master encoder

Figure 1.3 Constant gab maintaining.

1.5. Machine components


Figure 1.3 shows a basic setup. The distance between boxes on
the conveyor belt varies and the purpose of the motion control
software is to accelerate or decelerate the belt and space the
boxes equally.

Main components:

Drives and cables (power, feedback, control)


Overriding control by PLC
Motor encoder monitoring closed loop motor control and
position information for cyclic correction
Master encoder, giving speed reference of production line
Fibre optic cable for communication between drives
Fieldbus, encoder and drive-to-drive link
Sensor giving 24 V on/off information to drive
Synchronous encoder

10 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Chapter 2 - Drive and motor combination

The drive and motor are normally supplied as a package to suit


the application. The main drive, motor types and features are
described here.

2.1. Brush-type DC
The basic principle is the same as in industrial high power DC
drives, the main difference being that there is no magnetizing
circuit. Instead, the motor carries permanent magnets on the
stator side. Rotor current and voltage is supplied by brushes
and a commutator.

Normally, it is not possible to use the supply voltage. Instead,


a transformer is used to reduce the voltage. Some drives have
a rectifier circuit, while others need an external voltage rectifier.

The electronics are relatively simple and only speed feedback is


required for the speed controller. Brush-type DC drives is one
of a small number of control platforms that actually use a tacho
as a feedback device for the speed reference.

When this type of drive and motor combination is used in mo-


tion control, a pulse encoder is quite often fitted to the motor
shaft. Pulses are sent to the motion controller for calculating
the position.

The benefit of brush-type technology is the simple and inexpen-


sive controller. The drawback is that the commutator and the
brushes are mechanical components and have limited lifetime.
Especially in applications where the motor always stops in the
same position, the commutator gets worn in one particular place,
thereby reducing its life even more.

The main players in the drives industry do not use this technol-
ogy anymore. Typically these kinds of products are based on
old analogue platform.
9
2.2. Brushless DC
The power circuit of a brushless DC servo drive is similar to that
of an AC drive. Input current is rectified and filtered in a diode
bridge with associated DC-link capacitance. The inverter unit
consists of six power devices.

However, with a brushless DC drive the output voltage is not


modulated to form sinusoidal current, unlike in an AC drive.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 11


Drive and motor combination

Instead, six possible switching combinations are used to form


a trapezoidal vector diagram. Typically, hall sensors (hall sensor
is a device that senses magnetic field are used to identify rotor
position) and a tacho generator gives feedback to the speed
controller.

Figure 2.1 Rotational voltage vectors in trapezoidal control.

In the AC drive, the motors back EMF (electro magnetic force)


tends to be sinusoidal, while brushless DC servo motors have
a trapezoidal back EMF.

The brushless DC servo control algorithm does not need as much


computing power as a sinusoidal drive. The tacho also provides
fast input to the speed controller.

However, with faster, more powerful and reasonably priced


processors, very high performance drives with sinusoidal output
has been developed.

The main problem with trapezoidal control is torque ripple, es-


pecially at low speeds. There are ways to improve the perform-
ance but it seems that this technology is disappearing from the
main marketplace.

2.3. Asynchronous servo


The amount of slip forces current to the rotor determines the
torque. This motor type has a light and small diameter rotor to
minimize inertia. This means that the inertia, which is inversely
proportional to acceleration, is lower than in induction motors,
although it is higher than in permanent magnet servo motors.

Suitable control methods are closed loop vector or DTC control.


This method gives performance equal to that of drives with asyn-
chronous servo motors. The main limiting factor is the motor.

This drive can often be referred to as a servo drive, due to the


nature of the motor or a closed loop control for standard AC
induction motors.

However, feedback from an incremental encoder, resolver or


SinCos encoder is always needed.

12 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Drive and motor combination

2.4. Synchronous servo


This type of motor is quite often called AC brushless servo. Syn-
chronous servo motors have a rotor with permanent magnets and
a stator for three phase supply. The rotor has very low inertia and
can achieve fast dynamic performance. The motor operation is
synchronous and the feedback device has to be able to deliver
continuous position and speed information to the amplifier.

In chapter 3 (page 15) the AC synchronous servo motor is ex-


plained in more detailes.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 13


Chapter 3 - Synchronous technology

The drive or amplifier delivers a sinusoidal output modulated


from the DC-link voltage (traditional modulator or an advanced
method like DTC). This makes the power circuit identical to that
of a conventional drive. Using permanent magnet motors, the
basic algorithm only needs to produce current for the torque - no
magnetizing current is needed.

Servo motors, like induction motors, are manufactured with dif-


ferent numbers of poles. Taking a 6-pole motor as an example,
the name plate states 940 rpm nominal speed (standard induc-
tion) and therefore the synchronous speed is 1000 rpm. This is
achieved at 50 Hz input frequency and at higher speeds, the
motor operates in its field weakening area. This is slightly simpli-
fied because some asynchronous servo motors are designed to
run at other than 50 Hz field weakening point.

Synchronous motors use sinusoidal wave form and constant


torque up to nominal speed but in such a way that the frequency
at nominal speed is, for example, 150 Hz for the motor at 3000
rpm nominal speed (six pole winding).

3.1. Measuring performance


The key performance indicator is the bandwidth of different
control loops.

Typical good speed control loop has bandwidth of 100 Hz and


torque loop has 800 Hz.

Increasing the frequency means that the amplifier tends to loose


its ability to respond. Normally, the bandwidth is measured up
to a level where the output is 3 db less than the reference level.
Bandwidth of a signal is a measure of how rapidly it fluctuates
with respect to time. Hence, the greater the bandwidth, the faster
the variation in the signal may be.

Figure 3.1 Amplifiers response variation as a function of frequency.

14 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


AC brushless technology

The other problem is phase delay in the amplifier circuit. As the


frequency increases, the amplifiers tend to loose the original
phase.

Figure 3.2 Amplifiers phase delay as a function of frequency.

3.2. How synchronous servo motors differ from induction motors


The main difference between synchronous servo motors and
induction motors is in the motor shaft performance. With syn-
chronous servo motors, rotor mass and diameter are minimized,
leading to low inertia which in turn means the rotor does not
need much torque to accelerate. Most of the torque produced
can be used to run the load.

Typical features of synchronous servo motors:

The motor efficiency is typically over 95 percent at full power.


The motor has high power density there is no rotor current
and thus no build-up of heat in the rotor.
The motors can run with high temperature rise, for example,
at 40 degrees ambient, temperature rise/class H=125 C
is allowed.
IP65 is the typical protection degree, compared to IP54 for
standard induction motors.
Standard AC induction motors are inexpensive. But for higher
performance, additional feedback devices are needed and
these can be costly.
Other costs include encoders, fans making asynchronous
servo motor a more attractive choice.
High torque overload capability depends on the basic motor
design and its magnetic materials. Generally, synchronous
9
servo motor motors can deliver up to 2-5 times or more
overload during short periods.
Resolver, incremental encoder with commutation channels or
various types of SinCos encoders can be used as feedback
devices. Full digital feedback systems are also available.
Recent development of drives and motion control systems,
along with lower cost magnetic materials, has increased the
market and number of applications for synchronous servo
motor rapidly.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 15


Chapter 4 - Synchronous servo motor
principle of operation

The synchronous servo motor does not have commutator or


brushes. The drive (amplifier) maintains correct current distribu-
tion at the right vector angles and the right angular speed.

The rotor of synchronous servo motor is not symmetrical but has


a magnetic polarity. The stator provides the three-phase sinusoi-
dal current. The stator current forms the composite flux vector.

U phase V phase W phase

Figure 4.1 Magnetic fields at two positions.

The flux produced by permanent magnets and the flux produced


by stator currents must be at exact opposites to maximize the
repulsive and attractive forces of the magnetic fields.

These are the forces that build up torque and cause the motor
shaft to rotate. This operation needs a feedback device that
senses angular position of the shaft at all times, enabling the
amplifier to set up sine output to the right angles.

16 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Synchronous servo motor principle of operation

4.1. Special conditions during start up


New motors can sometimes have a difference between the ac-
tual rotor position and that given by the feedback device. This
needs to be corrected, otherwise inaccurate feedback results
in the motor not being able to produce full torque and optimum
performance.

The phase error can be resolved in different ways:

Initial startup:

The drive features phasing error software which identifies


the error during the commissioning run and uses its control
algorithm to compensate for the error
Error information from the motor manufacturer is entered as
a parameter into the drive. This becomes important if a spare
motor is installed and a non-load trial run is difficult to perform
Some motor producers build in zero phase error during
manufacture this is the preferred option as it avoids the
above tasks

Start up after power down:

When powering up, the rotor position is known if the feed-


back device (such as resolvers and some SinCos encoders
with communication bus) can give absolute position within
one revolution.
However, if an incremental encoder is used, then commutation
channels are required. At start up, the motor is controlled in
the trapezoidal manner, as long as the position is identified
using the commutation signals. See also chapter 6, page 21
for feedback devices.

4.2. Traditional speed and current control


Figure 4.2 shows the basic principle of speed and current
control.

PID speed Current ref. PI current

Speed
controller to motor controller 9
reference

Inverter

Current measurement
feedback

Figure 4.2 Speed and current control loop.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 17


Synchronous servo motor principle of operation

The role of the servo drive or amplifier is to make sure that the
motor speed and torque follows the reference value. The motors
feedback gives actual speed to the speed controller. The speed
controller is typically a PID controller comparing reference and
feedback signals.

The error signal is passed to the current controller. The current


controller, typically a PI amplifier, sets up the correct current so
that the right torque is available to keep the speed at the refer-
ence level.

18 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Chapter 5 - Typical servo motors data

5.1. Torque constant


The torque constant is an important measure given to the syn-
chronous servo motor. It is expressed as Nm/A and determines
how much torque is produced per ampere.

5.2. Back EMF


The permanent magnet motor acts like generator and builds up
back EMF voltage which is related to angular speed. Back EMF
is opposite to the supply voltage and is in direct relation to the
angular speed.

Ke is voltage constant and is typically expressed in V/1000 rpm


(voltage rms value).

5.3. Torque curve

Short term overload


area
Torque (Nm)

Continous torque
Speed (rpm)

Figure 5.1 Torque curves of a synchronous servo motor.

The picture shows a typical torque curve of an synchronous servo


motor. It consists of a continuous torque curve and a short term
overload curve. Typical values given as part of the motor data are: 9
T stall which is nominal torque at zero speed
T nominal which is nominal torque at nominal speed
T peak which is maximum torque which is typically 2 to 5
times nominal torque.

Synchronous servo motors are normally selected so that the high-


est running speed is close to the nominal speed. One important
limiting factor is back EMF.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 19


Typical servo motors data

When the speed increases, the back EMF increases. This means
there is a limit where the back EMF would be equal to or higher
than the drives maximum output voltage.

Synchronous servo motors normally run at a voltage which is far


lower than the drives maximum output voltage. For example,
560 V may be used for the DC link drive and 300 V nominal for
the motor. The reason is that the motor has to be able to recover
from peak loads very quickly.

On the other hand there are technical solutions that make it


possible to run synchronous motors in field weakening area.

This means that motor needs more current to the motor wind-
ings. This is achieved by increasing the voltage and thus there
must be margin between nominal and maximum voltage. This is
also the reason why maximum torque output starts to decrease
when the speed becomes closer to nominal speed.

Synchronous servo motors do not typically have cooling fan.


Some suppliers offer cooling fans as option. It increases the
nominal and thus RMS torque, but not peak torque.

5.4. Typical motor data

This is a summary of typical nominal values and other motor


data. The reference values are for ABB Servomotors series 8C.

Type Continuous Current at Rated Rated Rated Mechanical Peak Current Motor
torque continuous torque current speed rated torque at peal current
zero torque MN IN nN power Mmax torque limit
speed I0 [Nm] [A] [revi/min] PN Imax Ilimit
M0 [A] (3) (1) (2) (3) [kW] [A] [A]
[Nm] (1) (2) (3) (3) (1)
(3)
8C1.1.30 1.3 2.1 1.2 2 3000 0.38 4.6 8.1 13.8

Type Torque B.e.m.f. between Resistance Inductance Moment of Weight Curves


constant phases at rated at at inertia of rotor m (5)
Kt0 speed terminals terminals Jm [kg]
[Nm/A] V RUV LUV [revi/min]
(1) (2) (3) [V] [W] [mH]
(1) (2) (3) (1) (3) (4)
8C1.1.30 1.05 190 20.8 47 0.9 3.1 501000

20 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Chapter 6 - Feedback devices

High performance drives often use rotational feedback devices


to give:

speed feedback to the amplifiers speed controller


position information to internal/external position control
shaft position to the amplifier
position information when acting as second encoder
absolute position after black out

6.1. Resolver
A resolver is a rotational transformer. The most common type is
a brushless resolver.

The resolver has a three coil arrangement. The reference signal,


for instance an 8 kHz sine wave, is connected to the rotating
part of the device via a transformer. This enables the coil carrying
reference to rotate at the same speed as the shaft.

Two other coils are placed in 90 degrees phase shift. The rota-
tional coil induces voltage in these coils. Output signals are fed
to the amplifier and the speed and the position of the rotor is
resolved by using these signals.

Frequently, resolver signals are converted to a pulse train for


an external motion controller. In other words there is output
that emulates encoder channels A, B and Z pulses. Read also
encoder information.

S4
Cos winding
Vc = Vr Cos ()
S2

Sin
R1 winding
9
Vr S3
Vs = Vr Sin ()
R2 S1
Rotary
transformer

Figure 6.1 The principle of a resolver.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 21


Feedback devices

6.2. Incremental encoders


Incremental encoders are widely used in various machine build-
ing applications.

The basic operation is based on a light source, a disk and a photo


cell (sensor). The disk is installed between the light source and
the sensor. The disk has a very fine mesh, enabling light to be
visible or obscured to the sensor. The sensor output is digitized
to form a square pulse when light is seen. When the disk rotates,
the sensor produces a pulse train. The frequency of the pulse
train is in relation to the speed of the axis and the receiving end
can calculate this.

There are various specifications for encoders, but for motion


control, two channels plus a zero channel is the most commonly
used. Each channel is typically differential so that the output is
A, A inversion, B, B inversion and Z, Z inversion.

X2 Pulse order in forward


Differential encoder
rotation: A-pulse first
SH
SH
A+ A+
A- A-
B+ B+
B- B-
Z+
Z-

X1
Forward rotation clockwise
0V from the shaft end
0 V
V out
Output voltage + 15 V Internal connection in the
selection with V in option module
jumper +24 V

Figure 6.2 Typical circuits and cables

6.3. SinCos encoder


The SinCos encoder operates in a similar way to the incremental
encoder. It typically has three channels, A, B and Z. While the
output from an incremental encoder is a digitized square wave,
the SinCos encoder output is a number representing the full sine
and cosine waves. The number of cycles can be, for example,
1024 full cycles, often also called increments. The receiving
circuit of the drive calculates the increments and interpolates
between these signals to improve the resolution. The interpola-
tion depends on the sample time of the drive. For example, if
the sample time is 250 us, a sample of sinus and cosine is taken
every 250 us; the lower the speed, the higher resolution can be
achieved (and visa versa). From a mathematical point of view,
the angle is arctan (sin/cos).

22 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Feedback devices

Typically, the drive hardware outputs a quadrate signal of sine/


cosine signals, so that what is seen is a pulse train input for
calculation. The rising and falling edges of both channels can be
utilized, giving four signals per cycle. This results in a number of
signals that is four times higher than the number cycles specified
in the encoder data.
SINE
commutation track

COSINE
commutation track

SINE & COSINE incremental tracks

Z-marker pulse Z-marker pulse

Figure 6.3 Output of SinCos encoder with commutation channel.

The absolute position of the rotor is also needed at start up. This
can be established by using a data link (next chapter) or by an
additional sine/cosine channel. This channel provides one full
sine and cosine cycle per revolution and makes it possible to
find the rotor position. The Z-pulse position can be checked by
ensuring that the Z pulse is high when the sine/cosine chan-
nels show zero position.

x
angle = tan -1
y

pulse 256
0,351
pulse 257 9
Figure 6.4 Interpolation within one cycle in SinCos encoder (1024 cycles
per revolution)

SinCos encoders are also available with data bus. A data bus can
give absolute position after power-down, a common requirement
in todays applications. This eliminates the need for homing rou-
tines after power-down. This makes the machine design simpler
and increases the machines production time. Data of absolute
position is also used at startup to identify the rotor position.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 23


Chapter 7 - Motion control

7.1. General
Motion control covers many different functions. This chapter
deals with basics of speed and motion and functional differences.

7.2. Motion control basic blocks


Speed controlled drives change speed mainly in steps and
the response is not very fast. Speed reference commands are
given in certain levels and the drive frequently has its own ramp
to move from one level to another. The drive does not follow a
continuously changing reference track.

In motion control, the situation is different. The motor follows a


continuously changing reference. The reference is created in a
profile generator and this profile is compared to the feedback.
P-amplifier compares signals and feeds the reference to the
speed controller.
Positioning Electronic gear and CAM disk
interpolator for synchronising
Torque
reference
Position Position Speed
reference controller controller

Master P PID
position Inverter
Speed
reference

Pulse
encoder

Figure 7.1 Motion control loop.

PID speed PI current


controller controller
Speed
reference

Current ref. Inverter


to motor
POS
position
controller
Current measurement
feedback

Figure 7.2 Position, speed and current control.

24 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control

7.3. Motion control formulas and profiles


The following formulas are the key motion parameters.
Distance () = velocity x time
= v dt (integral of velocity x time)
Velocity () = distance/time
= d/dt (rate of change of distance)
= dt (internal of acceleration x time)
Acceleration () = velocity/time
= dv/dt (rate of change of velocity)
= dt (integral of jerk x time)
Jerk () = acceleration/time
= d/dt (rate of change of acceleration)
7.4. Motion profile
The illustration shows how the position advances against a set
target. It also shows the velocity profile and the corresponding
acceleration and deceleration rates.
Target position

Return
position
Distance
units

Maximum
velocity
Velocity,
units/s

Maximum
Acceleration,

acceleration
units/s2
2

Maximum
deceleration
units/s3
Jerk,

Figure 7.3 Positioning motion profile references.

7.5. Position interpolator


The position interpolator calculates the speed from which the 9
drive can decelerate to a stop within the target distance, using
the defined deceleration reference. The calculated speed is used
to generate an optimized position reference, which guides the
drive to its target position. The illustration refered to shows how
the position interpolator generates a position reference.

The typical parameters that are set by the user are


Acceleration
Run speed
Deceleration
Target position

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 25


Chapter 8 - Typical motion functions

8.1. Positioning
Positioning is one of the most frequently used motion functions.
It is used when moving material from point A to point B along a
pre-defined track, then on to point C and so on.

Positioning can also be divided into linear and roll-over position-


ing. Roll-over positioning means position calculation within one
revolution.

Linear positioning is used for linear movement. There are two


main principles in positioning, absolute and relative positioning.

8.2. Absolute positioning

Total travel 10 revs


Speed

Home

First ref 5 revs Second ref 10 revs


Distance
P0 P1 P2
5 revs 10 revs

5 revs from position target one but 10


revs from home position

Figure 8.1 Positioning absolute.

8.3. Relative positioning

Total travel 15 revs


Speed

Home

First ref 5 revs Second ref 10 revs Distance


P0 P1 P2
5 revs 15 revs

10 revs from position target one but


15 revs from home position

Figure 8.2 Positioning relative.

26 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Typical motion functions

8.4. Synchronization
Synchronization means that a follower drive reads speed and
positional reference from an external encoder or from the other
drives. The gear ratio can normally be adjusted to suit the ap-
plication. Synchronization can be absolute or relative and works
for linear/rollover axes.

A=B
Speed
MAX POSITION SPEED
MAX POSITION DECELERATION
Master speed
Synchronized

MAX POSITION ACCELERATION

Follower speed
t

Figure 8.3 Relative synchronization.

Linear axis (Figure 8.3), relative synchronization: The follower


drive starts to accelerate and continues to increase the speed
to catch up with the speed of the master. When areas A and B
are equal, the follower has caught up.

A=B
Speed
MAX POSITION SPEED
MAX POSITION DECELERATION
Master speed
Synchronized

MAX POSITION ACCELERATION

Follower speed
t

Figure 8.4 Absolute synchronization.

Linear axis, absolute synchronization: In this case, the reference


is the total travel distance the master drive has to complete. The
9
follower drive will run at a higher speed for long enough to catch
up with the position of the master drive.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 27


Typical motion functions

8.5. Rollover axis


Rollover axis mode is such that only one revolution is calculated
and then calculation starts all over again.

Speed

MAX POSITION SPEED


MAX POSITION DECELERATION

Synchronized
MAX POSITION ACCELERATION Master speed

Follower speed t

Figure 8.5 Rollover synchronization.

The illustration shows how the follower drive catches up with


the master drives position.

8.6. Dynamic limiter


The picture shows a situation where the master speed is so
high that a synchronization error is built up between the master
and the follower drives. In this example, the error is corrected
when a stop command is given. A dynamic limiter controls the
speed of the follower until the positioning speed is reached and
the follower runs to the position it should have according to
parameter settings.
Speed A=B

Master speed STOP


Follower speed

POSITION SPEED
MAX POSITION SPEED

Master speed t

POSITION DECELERATION
Figure 8.6 Dynamic limiter controls followers speed.

8.7. CAM disk


Cam functions used to be achieved by mechanical means in the
past. Traditionally, this method incorporates a rotational, non-
symmetrical tool that forms a reference to another tool.

This type of system is not very flexible and contains mechanical


parts that loose accuracy with wear.

28 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Typical motion functions

In most cases these mechanical systems can be replaced by


electrical CAM systems. The CAM profile is created in a CAM
table where the user enters the values. Each master position
has corresponding slave position.

The cam function is very useful in for example flying shears.


CAM disk table
Master Follower Follower position (degrees)
position position
0 0
20 20
40 20
60 40
80 40
100 60
120 90
140 120
160 150
180 180
200 150
220 120
240 90
260 60
280 40
300 40
320 20
340 20
360 0 Master position (degrees)

Figure 8.7 CAM disk table values vs CAM profile.

8.8. Homing
Homing is required at start up and if position is lost due to power
loss of system. If absolute encoder is used the real position is
known as soon as power comes back. One way around is to
use auxiliary power supply (typically 24 V).

What ever the system is home position has to be determined at


start up. Following discuss applications without absolute encoder
and explains some typical homing routines.

If there is only homing limit switch, software checks the status


of switch. If switch is on the load must move towards positive
speed until switch turns off and then load is at home position.
Reverse H/W Forward H/W limit
9
limit switch switch

Homing switch

Figure 8.8 Homing started with homing switch on.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 29


Typical motion functions

Vice versa if switch is off load must drive to negative direction


until switch turns on and then back up slightly until switch turns
off again.
Reverse H/W limit Forward H/W limit
switch switch

Homing switch

Figure 8.9 Homing started with homing switch off.

The better result or say accuracy can be achieved by using zero


pulse and pre latch function. This works in the following way:

At commissioning the absolute position of zero pulse is know


or can be set up
The distance between proximity switch and zero pulse must
be within one revolution
As soon as proximity switch becomes active software starts
to seek zero pulse and stops at zero pulse or to determined
distance from it. The idea is that mechnical switch might be
inaccurate, due to mechanical stress for example and thus
gives rough positional information. Zero pulse is then very
accurate and free of drift.
Reverse H/W limit
switch
Forward H/W limit
Homing switch switch

Prelatch

Z-pulse

Home position

Figure 8.10 Homing with prelatch and zero pulse.

30 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Typical motion functions

8.9. Cyclic corrections


Cyclic corrections are used in many applications where, due drift
or material misplacement, the position needs to be corrected.
This is valid for both roll over and linear movement.

Cyclic corrections always need latch information of position. This


could come from an external sensor or Z-pulse of the encoder.

A few examples are the best way to show functionality.


MASTER
10 mm
LATCHED MAS REF
Proximity
switch

Encoder 2
DDCS

FOLLOWER

Di5 LATCHED ACT POS


EXT M1 Di1
Proximity
switch

Encoder 1

Figure 8.11 Master/follower conveyor lines

In Figure 8.11, a master/follower set-up is described. The


purpose is to make sure that cans on two conveyors have the
correct distance between each other, 10 mm in this example.

The follower needs to know the speed of master. There are two
ways to set this up:

1. Read the masters speed from the encoder. This means that
the follower has connections for two encoders. The master is
running in open loop mode. 9
2. The other solution is to use communication between drives like
fibre optical DDCS link. The master has a feedback connection
(encoder) and this information is fed via optical link to the follower.

What ever the communication method, proximity switches are


connected to the followers (programmable) digital I/O. The fol-
lower compares the distance difference seen by the sensors and
corrects the distance, in this example to be 10 mm.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 31


Typical motion functions

8.10. Encoder gear functions


Motion control applications always need feedback. This can be
connected to the motor, the load or both.

Motor Gear Load Encoder

Figure 8.12 Motor encoder gear ratio to be used.

Encoder 1 Motor Gear Load

Figure 8.13 Load encoder gear ratio to be used.

If there is no encoder on the load side, load gear ratio has to


be set up according to gear ratio, as the drive must control the
actual position of the load, using feedback from the motor.

Encoder 1 Motor Gear Load Encoder 2

Figure 8.14 Both motor and load have an own encoder.

32 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Typical motion functions

8.11. Virtual master/axis


Virtual master means that the reference values are applied to a
model of a rotational axis that runs in the software. The virtual
axis gives its speed reference to all its followers. The virtual axis
gives full noise-free speed and positional signal in applications
where two or more drives are synchronized.

Virtual axis is also very useful during system commissioning,


as parts of machines can be tested without running the whole
process.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 33


Chapter 9 - Application examples,
distributed control

This chapter briefly describes some typical motion control ap-


plications. Most of illustrations include a PLC the role of the PLC
is to handle overriding control information. The control actions
are executed in the distributed controlled drives.

9.1. Cyclic correction for material handling.

The purpose of this machine is to correct any angular error of the


material. Two drives are used in a master/follower set-up. The
master determines the main line speed. The follower receives a
speed reference. Two sensors are connected to digital inputs.
The follower calculates the error distance in number of pulses
between two sensor signals. This error is corrected by increasing
or decreasing the speed of the follower.

Depending on the application, different types of motors can be


selected. Feedback will always be required.

34 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.2. Constant gap maintaining

This conveyor has a feed belt, an adjusting belt and a receiving


belt. The boxes arrive with random spacing. The drive receives
the line speed reference from the encoder. The sensor follows
the rises and falls of the top line of the boxes. When the sensor
detects a box, it follows the top edge of the box until length of
the box is run. The dropping edge is seen by the sensor and the
distance to the next rising edge is the actual gap between boxes.
This is compared to the required gap and the software makes the
necessary correction by altering the speed of the adjusting belt.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 35


Application examples, distributed control

9.3. Cut to length

There are many methods to cut different materials to the required


length. Here, we cover the most common methods. These are
examples only; there are many other configurations.

In applications where the line is stopped to make the cut, both


axes use the positioning feature of drive. The drive that is fed
the material first runs a determined number of revolutions corre-
sponding to the required material length. When the target position
has been reached, the drive signals to the PLC that it is in the
required position. The cutting motor runs the required number
of revolutions to execute the guillotine operation. Its drive the
gives the feed motor permission to run. As in other applications,
the dynamic performance requirements of the system have to
guide the motor selection.

36 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.4. Rotary knife

A rotary knife is used to cut material into required length or cut off
unwanted material. The simplest rotary knives are synchronized
to the line speed using an electrical gear. However, in many ap-
plications, this will not give satisfactory performance.

There are a number of considerations to take into account for


rotary knife operations. Firstly, if the cutting length varies, it must
be decided whether the tool should be at standstill or rotate
continuously. Secondly, when the tool hits the material, it will in
most cases need to have the same speed as the line. Thirdly, it
is important to determine where to place the cut.

For more sophisticated applications, the knife must form a motion


profile during the cycle. When the knife is at standstill and a cut
command is given, it has to accelerate to reach the position and
then decelerate to cutting speed. After cutting, the tool should
return to the home position as fast as possible to be ready for
the next cut.

In some cases, the tool may not be able to stop but has to start
another cut on the fly. This means using two profiles that are
added together. Cam profiles with flexible parameter setting are 9
normally used in these situations.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 37


Application examples, distributed control

9.5. Cyclic correction, packing application

From a software perspective, this is same operation as example


13.1, Cyclic correction for material handling. The difference is
the physical set-up. In both examples, there is master-follower
set-up and sensors for actual position checking and software
correction. The system has two feeding conveyors. The items
on them must be arranged to the correct distance between
each other.

38 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.6. Flying shear, angled

A flying shear is a cutting machine that allows constant material


flow during cutting. It is base on right-angle trigonometry. When
the speed of the line and the speed of the saw are known, the
angle of the cut can be calculated and adjusted accordingly. In
this illustration, the angle means that blade moves in the direction
of the line when the saw operates. Saw speed control is not criti-
cal; even an uncontrolled motor can be used; however the most
practical solution would be to use a general machinery drive.

The cutting point can be indicated by a mark on the material or


through rotational measurement by encoder. Typically, synchro-
nizing or CAM functions are used.

This setup is often used in applications where the material must


be cut by a saw rather than a knife/guillotine.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 39


Application examples, distributed control

9.7. Flying shear, parallel

This is another version of the flying cut. As described earlier, the


cut point is read from a mark or an encoder. The carriage waits
for a cut command. When the command is given, the carriage
accelerates to line speed whilst synchronizing itself to the cutting
point. Typically, synchronizing or CAM functions are used and a
guillotine performs the cutting. The illustration shows a system
with two motors. Both drives run at synchronous speed using
the master/follower function. There are also systems using only
one motor.

40 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.8. Lathe

Although this illustration is very simplified, it shows the three


main motion functions of a lathe.

The line speed must be constant. This means the speed of the
spindle motors must be controlled and adjusted in relation the
changing diameter of the material. This can be controlled by a
PLC or distributed to a drive with winding software.

The two main motors run as master at master follower set up.
This is particularly critical in plywood manufacturing, where the
spindle heads are connected to the material on a screw thread.
If the motors run at different speeds, one of two screw heads
will begin to open until eventually, the log flies off.

The carriage with the blade is running in synchronous mode.


The gearing ratio is set up in relation to the material thickness.
It is very easy to set up the required thickness just by adjusting
the gear ratio parameters; these are typically converted so that
user can specify units in millimeters from the HMI. 9

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 41


Application examples, distributed control

9.9. Material filling

This application is very similar to the one described in chapter


13.3, Cut to length, although in this case, the follower drive
runs dosing unit.

This is only one of many possible configurations; there are several


other ways of filling packets and bottles.

42 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.10. Slitter

This illustration describes the cutting and winding part of a slitter,


showing the operation of the cutting tools. Each tool is individu-
ally connected to the screw. When a tool is engaged, the PLC
sends the address to the drive. The distributed control system
ensures correct positioning.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 43


Application examples, distributed control

9.11. Picking and stacking

This application uses distributed control in three shafts. The


overriding controller gives commands to each shaft to make the
material flow of the plates fluent. The plates are picked up with
the picking tool using position control. The plate, still in position
control, is moved forward to the stacking place. Finally the plate
is positioned down to build up the stack. The plates feeding
conveyor can run in continuous speed or position control mode.

44 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.12. Warehouse automation

Warehouse automation applications can be configured very


cost-effectively using distributed control. The overriding control
system is part of the full factory automation system and knows
where the pallets need to go.

In most cases, high speed and torque performance is needed


at and from zero speed. This means that closed loop control is
required.

System dynamic requirements differ between applications and


motor selection ranges from standard AC motors with feedback
to AC brushless induction or permanent magnet servo motors.

This type of systems can have large physical dimensions and mo-
tor feedback will not be sufficiently accurate for position control
in all cases. This is overcome by using a second encoder that
monitors the actual position.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 45


Application examples, distributed control

9.13. Winding

The application picture here is much simplified. The purpose is


to show the main principle of traverse control. Traverse control is
an electronic gear function where the gear ratio is set up so that
traverse linear movement is locked to the build-up of material.
The illustration does not show the limit switches that typically
control the turning point action.

Winding and unwinding are well-established applications and


there are many dedicated software packages commercially
available.

46 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Application examples, distributed control

9.14. Wrapping

The illustration shows a simple packaging application.


The electrical gear is formed between two motors.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 47


Chapter 10 - Motion control
*Glossary of terms

Acceleration
The rate of increase of velocity, usually expressed as meters per
second per second, or meters per second2 (m/s 2).

Accuracy
The measured value compared to the desired value. In motion
control, this will most often refer to a position description, defined
in terms a plus or minus deviation from the commanded value,
or in terms of a range of values around the set point.

Active front end


A front end processor which receives data from both upstream
and downstream equipment and makes changes without refer-
ence to external controls.

Actual position
The position of an axis compared to the desired position. This
can be either the final position at the end of the move or the lag
between the commanded position and the measured position
at any point during the move. The latter is commonly known as
following error.

AC servo
A motor drive that generates sinusoidal shaped motor currents.

Alarm
A warning that a parameter has moved out of acceptable or
defined limits or an indication that a component has failed or is
malfunctioning. It can either warn or advise an operator or be
in the form of an output signal that can initiate corrective action
or switch a process off.

Analog servo
Most commonly found in hydraulic and similar systems, an analog
servo uses analog control and feedback systems such as voltage
variation and changes in pressure.

Analog signal
A signal that varies in step with the parameter being measured.
Typical examples include a 0-10 volt motor control signal and a
pneumatic control pressure.

48 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

Axes of motion
The major directions along which controlled movement of a
machine part or component occurs. These axes are usually
defined as follows:
X: Linear motion in positioning direction
Y: Linear motion perpendicular to positioning direction
Z: Vertical linear motion
A: Angular motion around X (roll)
B: Angular motion around Y (pitch)
C: Angular motion around Z (yaw)

Axis
The main directions along which a tool, component or workpiece
will move.

Brushless servo
A servo drive which uses electronic commutation of the cur-
rent rather than achieving it through mechanical brushes and
a commutator.

Bus
A series of conductors acting as path to send information be-
tween control elements and components.

Centralized control
A system with the software located in one physical unit. All input
information from sensors and feedback devices are connected
to this unit and control commands are sent from it.

Circular interpolation
A process of moving a component in a circle by moving along
two axes in a series of straight lines generated by software.

Close motion loop


The reference signal is compared to the feedback signal and the
discrepancy is corrected in an amplifier circuit.

Collision detection
Describes the process of using sensors to detect a possible col-
lision between parts or components. The sensors can produce
9
alarms to stop the movement or slow it to produce a low speed
mating of the components.

Commutation
Ensuring that the correct motors phase receive the correct cur-
rents or voltages. It can be done electromechanically via the
brushes and commutator as in brush type motors, or electroni-
cally as used in brushless motors.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 49


Motion control Glossary of terms

Converter
Changing AC to DC or DC to AC, most often with a diode rectifier
or thyristor rectifier circuit. The term converter may also refer to
the process in an adjustable frequency drive. This consists of a
rectifier, a DC intermediate circuit, an inverter and a control unit.

Co-ordination
Integration two or more axes of motion to produce an otherwise
impossible motion. Sensors and other internal or external com-
mands may also be used to assist the movements.

Current controller
An electronic function which gives the proper instant current
needed by the load. The current is controllable to limit the
maximum current and reduce the danger of overloads damag-
ing the motor.

Cut to length
An algorithm that feeds material a set distance so that a proc-
ess can be performed on a correctly sized length. Feedback
systems are usually used to ensure that the selected length is
repeated accurately.

DC bus
A common communications circuit that uses a DC voltage as
reference. The term may also refer to a power distribution system
shared by several components.

Deceleration
The rate of decrease of velocity. Usually measured in units of
velocity change for each unit of time, ie, meters/sec/sec or,
meters/sec2.

Decentralized control
A control method made up of separated control elements dis-
tributed over an area or process. The individual elements are
essentially independent of each other, although they will have
some means of communicating.

Deterministic scan time


The frequency at which a programmable logic controller (PLC)
executes a program. Normally measured in milliseconds this will
include the time required to read a specific set of instructions
and return to the initial instruction.

Device level network


A common network cable that eliminates individual links between
the PLC and each device.

50 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

Diagnostic code
A code displayed on an operator interface or in a program, used
to indicate a fault condition as well as usually its position.

Digital motion control


A motion control system that uses binary code for calculating.

Digital servo
A servo motor that uses binary code for all calculations and
feed back.

Digital signal
A signal in the form of binary pulses if information, based on
voltage levels that represent the values 0 and 1.

Drive
An electronic device that controls the electric current supplied
to a motor.

Efficiency
The efficiency of a motor compares the mechanical output to
the electrical input and is a measure of how well the motor turns
the electrical energy it receives into a useful mechanical output.

Electronic cam profiles


A technique that replaces mechanical cams with electronics to
perform non-linear motion.

Electronic clutch
A method of using electronic cams or gearing functions to pro-
duce a slave profile based on a master position.

Electronic gearing
Simulating mechanical gears by electrically synchronizing one
closed loop axis to a second.

Electronic line shaft


A virtual axis which synchronizes other axes either through using
electronic gearing or camming profiles. 9
Encoder
A feedback device that translates mechanical motion into elec-
trical signals that indicate position. Incremental and absolute
encoders are used to indicate incremental or absolute changes
of position respectively.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 51


Motion control Glossary of terms

Encoder resolution
The number of electrically identified positions in a 360 degree
rotation of a shaft.

EnDat
A standard interface for serial data transfer, particularly for posi-
tion and parameters.

EMC/CE
European Directive that sets standards and limits for conducted
and radiated emissions. Drives may need line filters or other
components to conform to the directive.

Emergency stop
An emergency stop function must meet all of the following re-
quirements:
It must override all other functions and operations under all
conditions
Power to machine actuators that can cause hazard must
be interrupted as quickly as possible without creating other
hazard
Reset must not initiate a restart
The emergency stop shall be either a Category 0 or a Category
1 stop. The choice of emergency stop must be decided in
accordance with the requirements of the application

Ethernet
A very widely used open networking standard. Normally used
for office automation and operating at a communications speed
of 1.5 megabits/sec, newer versions are capable of up 100
megabits/sec.

Event
When an input parameter changes state, such as at the trigger-
ing of a limit switch or proximity sensor.

Fault
A condition a drive or control is in having attempted an illegal
process and becoming disabled.

Feedback
When a controlled machine sends a signal to inform that it has
responded to a control signal.

Feedback device
Give information of the actuators real speed and position to the
motion controller.

52 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

Feed forward
A method that compensates for known errors in a control loop.
It depends only on the command, not the measured error.

Fiber optic
A glass or plastic fiber guide that transmits light that is trans-
lated into current or used to determine the open/close state of
a current path.

Fieldbus
A local area network, as defined by ISA standard S50.02 and
which is used to connect control elements and sensors to each
other.

Flying restart
When a motor is restarted while spinning, normally done by
sampling the motor speed, encoder input, or back EMF.

Flying virtual master


The ability of a motion controller to switch from one virtual en-
coder to another instantaneously. This feature makes it possible
to use advanced synchronizing features.

Following error
The difference between the commanded position of an axis
and its actual position, a difference that varies with the speed
of the axis.

Frameless motor
A motor consisting of only the stator and rotor. This allows a
manufacturer to incorporate it into a machine directly, cutting the
need for any shafts or other mechanical transmissions.

Gantry
An overhead framework that can move in the X, Y, and/or Z axes,
carrying a variety of tools or devices to perform tasks.

G code
Software used for programming machining processes, such as 9
3-axis milling and 2-axis wire cutting.

Hard, real-time control


The ability of a controller to respond to an event immediately. PLCs are
designed for this, though PCs pose more of a problem.

Hardware limit switch


A switch that alters the electric circuit associated with the
machine or equipment and which is operated by some part or
motion of a power-driven machine or equipment.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 53


Motion control Glossary of terms

Holding brake
A friction device which sets a brake when power is removed.

Home position
A position which acts as a reference for all absolute positioning
movements. It is normally set at power-up and remains valid as
long as the control system is operational.

Homing
The act of calibrating axes by finding a unique reference position,
usually at power up.

Human-machine interface (HMI)


A console which displays data and receives commands, allowing
the operator to control the drive.

IGBT insulated-gate bipolar transistor


The IGBT is usually used in switching power supplies and in mo-
tor control applications and forms the basis of the most modern
and capable variable speed drives.

Inching
Advancing a motor in small steps through repeated closure of
a switch.

Indexer
An electronic device that allows a PLC to control the movements
of a stepping motor.

Indexing
An axis or axes moving to a pre-programmed position.

Inertia
A property of matter in which a body continues in a state of rest
or uniform motion unless acted on by an external force.

In position window
A range of acceptable positions around the commanded posi-
tion point.

Interpolation
When two or more axes move in a co-ordinated way to produce
a linear or circular motion.

Inverter
A device that converts DC power to AC power. Typically used
as a part of the frequency converter.

54 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

Jerk limitation
A feature that limits the rate of change of acceleration with the
aim of eliminating mechanical jerking during speed changes.

Jitter free synchronization


The process of matching the acceleration and deceleration of
a driven slave drive to the master drive to provide a smooth
transition.

Jog
An axis moving at a fixed velocity and acceleration/deceleration
rate, in a chosen direction, but with no specific destination.

KP
Velocity Loop Proportional Gain. Determines how much velocity
error the servo system will allow during a move. See also: Tuning

KV
Position Loop Gain. Determines how much positioning error,
or following error, will be allowed by the servo system during a
move. See also: Tuning

Length units
The linear units for programming and configuring an axis, often
defined in inches, feet, meters, or millimeters.

Linear
Where the output varies in direct proportion to the input.

Loop update times


The time required to calculate the process variable from the
following error.

Motion control
Any tool or actuator controlled by motion software. The system
can be hydraulic, pneumatic, electronic or any combination of
these. Whatever the system, the profile for movement is written
into the software code and the actuator has to follow this as ac-
curately as possible. The actual movement and the reference are 9
always compared by feedback devices and the motion controller
aims to minimize the discrepancy.

Modulo Value
The position increment at which a rotary axis position returns
to 0, ie, 360 degrees.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 55


Motion control Glossary of terms

Noise
An unwanted electrical signal, usually the result of radio frequency
or electromagnet ie, interference from devices such as AC power
lines, motors, generators, transformers and radio transmitters.

Offset
Distance between the actual zero reference point and a pro-
grammed zero reference point.

Open architecture
Hardware and/or software with standard features that numerous
vendors can incorporate into their own products, which can then
connect to each other and work together easily.

Open loop/close loop


Open loop control is where a control system has no external
references with which to govern its speed or position. A closed
loop control system is one which uses signals fed back from
external sensors in order to correct the position or velocity and
make it conform to the commanded value.

Overcurrent
A current above the rated current of the drive, applied to maintain
a set position or move to a new position.

Override
The act of forcing an axis to move during a fault condition. It
is often used to force an axis to move away from an overtravel
limit switch.

Overshoot
Where the output of a system goes beyond the desired value.

Over temperature
A warning or alarm that indicates that a motor or drive is too hot,
most often the result of too high current demand.

PC
Personal computer

Phasing
Adjusting the position of one axis with respect to others, to
correct for small registration problems, usually done while the
axes are moving.

PLC
Programmable logic controller. A computer that uses fast, repeat-
able deterministic scan times to control equipment.

56 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

PLS
Programmable limit switch. A device that converts the rotary mo-
tion of a shaft into digital signals. It is typically used to improve
positioning accuracy.

Point-to-point wiring
Wiring each drive directly to the PLC. The method cuts out the
communication delays introduced by a network.

Position error
Error caused when the difference between the actual position
and the command position is greater than a set amount.

Positioning
When a move is specified by target position, velocity and ac-
celeration. The target position can be an absolute position, or
one relative to the current position.

Position loop
Signals that generate position information based on position
feedback.

Printmark synchronization
A method of controlling speed by comparing the position of a
mark on a product with its expected position and then compen-
sating for the difference.

Profile
A graphical representation of movement, with axes of position
vs. time, velocity vs. time or torque vs. time.

Programmable limit switch


See PLS

Programming language
A stylized communication method for controlling the behavior
of a machine.

Protocol 9
A specified method of encoding information for transmission.

Pulse width frequency


The switching rate of an IGBT.

Pulse-width modulation
A switch-mode control method based on varying on/off times of
the voltage pulses applied to the transistors.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 57


Motion control Glossary of terms

Quadrature
A technique used to detect direction of motion based on sepa-
rating signal channels by 90 (electrical).

Ramp function generator


Device or mathematical model that produces a square, triangular
or sinusoidal wave output.

Rated speed
The maximum speed at which a motor can rotate.

Real master
Feedback that provides position information for a synchronized
axis.

Rectifier
A device that converts AC power into DC for use by converter
drives.

Referencing
The setting of a feedback device relative to the real world.

Regen
A motor /drive system can produce regenerative power during
deceleration, power that can be fed to other machines on the
network.

Resolver
A type of position transducer that uses magnetic coupling to
measure absolute shaft position.

Rollfeed
A function that keeps the linear speed of the feed material con-
stant as the diameter of the rotary axis changes.

Rotary
Moving in a circular way, with measurement of position based
on degrees.

Safe off
A method of ensuring that power will not travel from the drive
to the motor.

SCADA
Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition.
A system of software and hardware that controls a production
process and collects data on its efficiency.

58 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

S curve
A way of accelerating and decelerating a motor slowly to reduce
mechanical shock. Although more sophisticated than linear ac-
celeration, it does not have the performance of camming.

Sequence of operation
A series of steps that causes a machine to perform an action.

SERCOS
Serial Real-time Communications Standard. An open communi-
cations protocol for motion-control networks, with transmission
speeds over a fiber-optic cable of up to 4 megabits/sec.

Serial communications
The transmission of digital 1s and 0s in a series over a single
cable.

Servo mechanism
An automatic, closed-loop motion control system that uses
feedback to control a desired output, for example position,
velocity, or acceleration.

Servo motor
A motor that can be precisely controlled. The drive that powers
it gets accurate feedback on the motors position from a resolver
or encoder.

Shielded cable
A cable that has a metallic sleeve encasing the conductors at its
centre The metal sleeve is grounded to prevent electrical noise
affecting the signals on the cable.

SinCos
An encoder used in servo control. It outputs both digital and
high resolution analog signals.

Software limit switch


A switch based on software rather than a physical object. It
is used to turn physical outputs on and off, depending on the 9
level of a particular input, from devices such as servo motors,
resolvers or encoders.

SSI
Acronym for serial synchronous interface. A type of multi-turn
absolute encoder that sends position information as a serial
string in Gray code format.

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 59


Motion control Glossary of terms

Synchronization
When several functions of a machine follow a common control
signal.

Tachometer
An electromagnetic feedback transducer that provides an analog
voltage signal proportional to the rotational speed of a motor.

Task
A software system control that determines the execution rates
and priority levels for software modules running in a drive or PLC.

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A method of
encoding data into a series of packets for transmission over
a network, initially designed for the Internet but now often used
in production control.

Teach position
The position of an axis that is taught into the motion control
program. Once the axis is moved to the desired position, the
teach position is entered into the motion program automati-
cally by the control.

Telegram
A data packet used to communicate between controller and
device.

TeleService
A feature that allows a controller or PLC to be serviced.

TN
Velocity Loop Integral Action Time. Associated with KP. When
the measured velocity moves beyond the tolerance value set in
KP, TN determines how quickly the drive will bring the velocity
back within the specified tolerance. See also: Tuning

Torque limitation
A servo function that allows the current supplied to a servo motor
to be monitored and limited.

Tuning
Adjusting the servo drives internal characteristics to give it the
ability to control the reflected inertia and give the axis a smooth
position/velocity profile.

60 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Motion control Glossary of terms

Twisted pair
Two wires twisted together with the aim of eliminating electrical
noise.

VxWorksTM
VxWorksTM is a real-time operating systems that guarantees an
absolutely deterministic response. Its benefits include real-time
behavior, stability, operating time and an efficient memory ef-
ficiency.

Velocity
The speed at which a motor or mechanical system runs.

Velocity loop
A servo control function that adds a velocity command signal
to a speed feedback signal. The resultant signal is output as a
torque command signal.

Virtual master
An encoder signal created in software of a motion control to
allow several servo systems to be synchronized.

Warning
An error condition received from a drive or a controller, indicating
that a fault will occur if the problem is not rectified.

Wintel
Microsofts WindowsTM operating system running on Intels mi-
croprocessors, an industry standard for PCs.

Zero point of feedback


The point at which the encoder position and the physical position
of a servo motor line up.

* Glossary of terms resource list:


OMAC Motion for Packaging Working Group, Education
Subcommittee, Glossary of Motion Control Terms, August 2001.
9

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 61


Chapter 11 - Index
A I
absolute positioning 54 induction 12, 14, 15, 45
acceleration 12, 25, 55, 57, 59
AC drive technology 7 J
algorithm 12, 14, 17, 50 jerk 25
analogue 11 L
asynchronous 12, 14, 15 lathe 41
asynchronous servo motor 15 linear and roll-over positioning 26
B M
back EMF 12, 19, 20, 53 magnetizing circuit 11
brushes 11, 16, 49 magnetizing current 14
brushless 11, 49 material handling 34, 38
brushless DC 11, 12 motion control 1, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15,
C 22, 24, 34, 48, 51, 59, 60, 61
CAM functions 39, 40 motion control application 7
centralized control 8 motion controller 7, 9, 11, 21, 52,
centralized system 8 53, 55
centrally 8 motion loop 49
coils 21 O
commutator 11, 16, 49 overload 15, 19
composite flux vector 16
computing power 12 P
control system 10, 43, 45, 51, 54, packing application 38
56, 59 performance 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15,
control unit 8, 50 17, 21, 36, 37, 45, 59
cyclic correction 10 permanent magnets 11, 16
phase 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 49
D phase delay 15
DC-link capacitance 11 phasing error 17
decentralized control 9 PLC 9, 10, 34, 36, 41, 43, 50, 54,
decentralized system 8 56, 57, 60
distance 10, 25, 27, 30, 31, 34, poles 14
35, 38, 50 position 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17,
DTC control 12 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,
dynamic 7, 13, 28, 36, 45 32, 36, 37, 38, 45, 48, 51, 52, 53,
E 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
efficiency 15, 51, 58, 61 position control 21, 45
electronic 46, 49, 51, 54, 55 positioning 7, 26, 28, 36, 43, 49,
encoders 15, 17, 22, 31, 51, 59 54, 55, 57
position interpolator 25
F profile generator 7, 24
fans 15, 20 pulse encoder 11
feedback 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,
16, 17, 18, 21, 24, 31, 32, 45, 48, R
49, 51, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 reference profile 7
fieldbus 7 reference value 7, 8, 18
flux 16 resolver 12, 21, 59
flying shear 39 rotary knife 37
rotor 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 53
H rotor current 15
hardware 9, 58 rotor position 12, 17
heat 15
high performance drives 7, 9, 12
high power DC drives 11

62 Motion control | Technical guide No. 9


Index

S
sample time 7
second encoder 21, 45
sensor 12, 22, 31, 34, 35, 52
servo 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 45, 48, 49, 51, 55, 59, 60, 61
sinusoidal 11, 12, 14, 16, 48, 58
slip 12
slitter 43
speed controller 11, 12, 17, 18, 21,
24
synchronous servo motor 13, 15, 16,
19
synchronous servo motors 15
T
temperature rise 15
V
vector 12, 16
velocity 25, 48, 50, 55, 56, 57, 59,
60, 61
W
winding 14, 21, 41, 43
Z
zero pulse 30

Technical guide No. 9 | Motion control 63


Contact us

3AFE68695201 REV B EN 6.5.2011 #115652


For more information contact Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
your local ABB representative or visit:

www.abb.com/drives
www.abb.com/drivespartners
ABB drives

Technical guide No.10


Functional safety
Technical guide No. 10
Functional safety

10

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved.


Specifications subject to change without notice.
3AUA0000048753 REV D EN 30.3.2011 #15511

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 1


2 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10
Contents

About this document .................................................................................7

Part 1 Theory and background ...............................................................8


Safety and functional safety ................................................................9
Machinery Directive ............................................................................9
Changes in the new Machinery Directive ............................................11
Hierarchy of the European harmonized standards system ...................12

Part 2 New approach ............................................................................14


Two standards IEC and ISO ............................................................15
Standards for risk minimization .........................................................16
Standards for electronic safety systems .............................................16
Product-specific safety standards (type-C standards) .........................18
Specific standard for safety-related drive systems ..............................18
Standardized safety functions ...........................................................19

Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements .......................22


STEP 1: Management of functional safety ..........................................23
STEP 2: Risk assessment .................................................................24
STEP 3: Risk reduction .....................................................................26
STEP 4: Establishing safety requirements ..........................................28
STEP 5: Implementing functional safety system .................................32
STEP 6: Verifying a functional safety system ......................................33
STEP 7: Validating functional safety system .......................................37
STEP 8: Documenting functional safety system ..................................37
STEP 9: Proving compliance .............................................................38

Glossary ...................................................................................................40

Index .......................................................................................................42

10

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 3


Disclaimer
This document is an informative guide intended to assist the us-
ers, specifiers and manufacturers of machinery and the related
people in achieving a better understanding of the requirements
of the EU Machinery Directive, and the measures required to
achieve conformity with the directive and the harmonized stand-
ards under it.

This document is not intended to be used verbatim, but rather


as an informative aid.

The information and examples in this guide are for general use
only and do not offer all of the necessary details for implementing
a safety system.

ABB Oy Drives does not accept any liability for direct or indirect
injury or damage caused by the use of information found in
this document. The manufacturer of the machinery is always
responsible for the safety of the product and its suitability under
the applicable laws. ABB hereby disclaims all liabilities that may
result from this document.

4 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


About this document

This document introduces the Machinery Directive and the


standards that must be taken into account when designing a
machine, in order to ensure operational safely.

The aim of the document is to explain, in general terms, how the


process for meeting the requirements of the Machinery Directive
is carried out and CE marking is obtained. CE marking indicates
that the machinery conforms to the requirements of the Directive.

Note:
This document gives only an overview of the process for
meeting the essential requirements of the Machinery Directive.
The manufacturer of the machinery always remains ultimately
responsible for the safety and compliance of the product.

The document is divided into three parts:

Part 1 Theory and Background introduces the idea be-


hind functional safety and how to comply with the Machinery
Directive. It also presents the upcoming changes in the new
Machinery Directive and explains the hierarchy of the Euro-
pean harmonized standards system.
Part 2 New Approach presents the new Machinery Direc-
tive related standards that are replacing old standards. It also
introduces the two standard systems and lists a number of
safety relevant standards and safety functions.
Part 3 Steps to Meet Machinery Directive Requirements
introduces nine steps that help in the process of fulfilling the
essential requirements of the Machinery Directive.

10

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 5


Part 1 Theory and background

The national laws of the European Union require that machines


meet the Essential Health and Safety Requirements ( EHSR)
defined in the Machinery Directive and in the harmonized
standards under the Directive. This means that all new machinery
must fulfill the same legal requirements when supplied throughout
the EU. The same standards are also recognized in many areas
outside Europe, for example through equivalency charts, which
facilitates machinery trade and machine shipments between
countries within and even outside the EU.

Why must machinery meet these requirements? Because


conformity helps to prevent accidents and consequent injury.
Furthermore, by complying with the Machinery Directive and the
relevant harmonized standards, machine manufacturers can rest
assured they have met their obligations to design and deliver
safe machines that comply with national laws.

For manufacturers, new and improved safety strategies


are becoming a way of improving their productivity and
competitiveness in the market. The aim of conventional safety
systems has been to achieve comprehensive operational safety
and meet legal obligations. This has been done by using add-
on electrical and mechanical components, even at the cost of
productivity. Operators can, in certain circumstances, override
these systems when attempting to improve productivity, which
can lead to accidents.

With modern safety systems, the safety of the processes and the
operator can be taken into account while maintaining productivity.
One example of this is keeping the machine running but at a lower
speed to maintain safe operation. With modern safety solutions,
safety can be an integrated part of machine functionality, and
safety solutions are not just afterthoughts, added in order to
meet regulations.

Safety systems can be implemented effectively through defined


processes, to achieve specific safety performance and use
certified subsystems as building blocks for safety systems.
Meeting safety standards is expected in the industry, and
certified subsystems such as drives are becoming a must in the
marketplace. Machine safety is one of the most rapidly growing
areas of importance in industrial automation.

6 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 1 Theory and background

Safety and functional safety


The purpose of safety is to protect people and the environment
from accidents and, in this case, from machinery. Functional
safety systems do this by lowering the probability of undesired
events, so that mishaps are minimized when operating machinery.
Safety standards define safety as freedom from unacceptable
risk. What is acceptable is defined by society. Machine builders
should always use the same (the most stringent) acceptability
criteria for all market areas, regardless of regional differences.

The most effective way to eliminate risks is to design them away.


But if risk reduction by design is not possible or practical, safe-
guarding through static guards or functional safety is often the
best option. When machines are stopped quickly and safely or
operated at a reduced speed during specific times, in order to
reduce risk, higher machine productivity, uptime and less abrupt
safety system behavior can be achieved. At the same time, the
legal obligations are met and the safety of people and the envi-
ronment is ensured.

Functional safety in machinery usually means systems that


safely monitor and, when necessary, take control of the machine
applications to ensure safe operation. A safety-related system is a
system that implements the required, necessary safety functions.
Functional safety systems are designed to detect hazardous
conditions and return operation to a safe state, or to ensure that
the desired action, such as safe stopping, takes place.

Monitoring can include speed, stopping, direction of rotation,


and standstill. When the safety system is executing an active
safety function, for example monitoring a crawl speed, and the
system behavior deviates from that which is expected (for ex-
ample, the system runs too fast), the safety system detects the
deviation and actively returns machine operation to a safe state.
This can be done, for example, by stopping the machine safely
and lowering the torque of the motor shaft.

A safety system is not part of standard machine operation, but


any failure in the safety system will immediately increase the risks
related to machine operation.

Machinery Directive
The Machinery Directive, with the harmonized standards listed 10
thereunder, defines the Essential Health and Safety Requirements
( EHSR) for machinery at European Union level. The EHSR are
listed in Annex I of the Machinery Directive.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 7


Part 1 Theory and background

The idea behind the Machinery Directive is to ensure that a


machine is safe and that it is designed and constructed so that
it can be used, configured and maintained throughout all phases
of its life, causing minimal risk to people and the environment.

The EHSR state that when seeking solutions for designing and
building safe machines, machine manufacturers must apply the
following principles in the given order (also known as the 3-step
method):

1. Eliminate or minimize the hazards as much as possible


by considering safety aspects in the machine design and
construction phases.
2. Apply the necessary protection measures against hazards that
cannot be eliminated.
3. Inform users of the risks that remain despite all feasible
protection measures being taken, while specifying any
requirements for training or personal protective equipment.

Complying with the EHSR of the Machinery Directive allows


the machine manufacturer to affix the CE marking on the
machine. With CE marking the manufacturer guarantees that
the product meets all regulations on the free movement of
goods, as well as the essential requirements of the relevant
European Directives, in this case the Machinery Directive.

Note:
There might also be other directives that apply, eg, low voltage
directive and EMC directive. Only Machinery Directive require-
ments are covered in this guide.

Note:
CE marking according to the Machinery Directive is affixed
only on a complete machine, not to the components of which
it consists. Thus, the manufacturer of the product, or the rep-
resentative of the manufacturer, is responsible for CE marking,
not the manufacturer of the component that is included in the
final product.

The machine manufacturer is responsible for carrying out the


related risk analysis, following through the steps presented
in Part 3, and ensuring compliance with the requirements.
The component manufacturer is responsible for realizing the
safety performance (SIL / PL level) of the said components
safety function, when the component is appropriately used.
A component in this case could be a safety relay, or an AC drive
with integrated safety functionality.

8 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 1 Theory and background

Changes in the new Machinery Directive


A new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, replaced the old Directive
98/37/EC, from December 29, 2009 onward.

There are no dramatic changes between the old and the new,
revised Directive. The aim of the new Directive is to reinforce
the achievements of the old Machinery Directive on the free
circulation and safety of machinery and to improve its application.

Highlights of the changes in the current Machinery Directive are


compared to the previous directive as follows:

Changes in how conformity is evaluated for dangerous


machines listed in the Machinery Directives Annex IV.
Along with the new directive, the manufacturer can carry out
self-certification without a recognized test center. In order
to do this, the manufacturer must have a quality assurance
procedure that has been implemented according to the
requirements presented in the Machinery Directives Annex X.

Changes in the Essential Health and Safety Requirements


that are presented in the Machinery Directives Annex I.
The manufacturer must now carry out a risk assessment on
the EHSR.

Changes in proving the safety of different products.


The same machine regulations will apply to machinery,
exchangeable equipment, safety components etc. The
products must include CE conformity assessment, declaration
of conformity and the requisite user information.

Changes in the requirements for part or incomplete


machines.
A part or an incomplete machine is a component or a series
of components that cannot, by themselves, perform a specific
function. Such a part is attached to other parts, incomplete
machines or machines to form a machine according to the
definition in the Machinery Directive.

In addition to the manufacturer declaration, the manufacturer


must now also supply a declaration of incorporation that
defines which requirements of the directive apply to the part
or incomplete machine and have been complied with. Product
documentation must also include installation instructions. 10
Changes concerning the Low Voltage Directive.
The scope of the Low Voltage Directive is now related to
a product instead of a risk. There is also now a clearer
differentiation between the Machinery Directive and the Low
Voltage Directive.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 9


Part 1 Theory and background

Changes in hazard analysis.


The hazard analysis is replaced by mandatory risk assessment
and risk evaluation.

Changes in production control.


Series machines have now internal production controls, speci-
fied in the Machinery Directives Annex VIII.

Changes in the validity of EC Type Examination


certifications.
A recognized test center must inspect the certifications every
five (5) years. Manufacturers and test centers must retain the
relevant technical documents for 15 years.

Hierarchy of the European harmonized standards system


The European Committee for Standardization, CEN, and the
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization,
CENELEC draw up the harmonized standards. All harmonized
standards carry the prefix EN.

A list of the harmonized standards can be found on the European


Commission Internet pages, http://ec.europa.eu.

The majority of harmonized standards are referenced by one


or more Directives. To ensure that the essential requirements
of the Machinery Directive are followed, it is advisable to apply
the appropriate harmonized European standards. By designing
machines according to these standards, manufacturers can
demonstrate that they comply with the Machinery Directive and,
generally, do not require certification by a third party.

Note:
Exceptions for the machines listed in Annex IV of the Machinery
Directive must be noted.

10 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 1 Theory and background

A
BASIC
SAFETY STANDARDS

B
GROUP SAFETY STANDARDS
Concrete statements regarding basic standards

C
PRODUCT STANDARDS

Figure 1-1 Hierarchy of European harmonized standards

Type-C standards are specific to a machine or class of


machine. If there is a type-C standard for a machine, the
associated type- B and possibly also type-A standards
become secondary. When designing safety functions, type-C
standards define additional, mandatory requirements for
the machines they are intended for. However, if no type-C
standard exists for the machine, type-B and type-A standards
offer help in designing and constructing machines that meet
the requirements of the Machinery Directive.
Type-B standards deal with safety requirements that are
common to the design of most machines. These standards
give information on possible risks and how to handle them,
with the help of a risk reduction process. Type-B standards
can be divided into two groups, B1 and B2. Type-B1
standards deal with specific safety aspects and type-B2
standards handle safety-related equipment in general.
Type-B1 standards are, for example, EN 62061:2005 and
EN ISO 13849-1:2008. Type-B2 standards include standards
for defining emergency stops, such as EN ISO 13850:2008.
Type-A standards handle design principles and basic
concepts for the machine. One example of a type-A standard
is the basic safety standard EN ISO 12100-1.

Note:
It is not mandatory to apply the standards, but they offer 10
recommendations and guidance for meeting the requirements
of the Machinery Directive, which must be conformed to.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 11


Part 2 New approach

Note:
The old standard EN 954-1 has been superseded by standards
EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 in 2006. However, the EN954-1
still provides the presumption of conformity in parallel with the
new standards EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 during a transition
period, which ends on December 31, 2011 (original three year
transition period from 2006 to 2009 was extended by two years,
until the end of 2011).

12/2009 12/2011

EN 954-1 Transition period Two-year extension


Machine builders

3 years
EN ISO 13849-1
11/2006
EN 62061
2005 New Machinery
Directive 2006/42/EC

Figure 2-1 Transition period from old to new standards

Replacing the EN 954-1 standard with EN ISO 13849-1 and


EN 62061 (which is applicable only to electrical control systems)
is a shift from a deterministic approach, where cause-effect
relationships were well known, towards a probabilistic or
reliability approach in safety-related systems. The new standards
take account of the probability of failure for the entire safety
function, not only of its components. Unlike the old standard
EN 954-1, these new standards also allow the use of
programmable safety systems.

The new approach continues to use the designated architectures


(categories) concept of EN 954-1, and additionally introduces
new concepts, such as life-cycle thinking, quantification com-
ponent reliability and test quality and common cause failure
analysis.

Note:
Standard EN ISO 13849-1 has maintained the categories
introduced in EN 954-1. It provides methods for design and
verification based on the said categories. Standard EN 62061
includes similar designated architectures and methodology.

12 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 2 New approach

EN 954-1 has been a relatively simple standard that has offered


a straightforward and quick process for determining a safety
category for a machine. The process in standard EN ISO 13849-
1 is similar, but somewhat more complex because, in addition
to determining the category or architecture of the system, the
machine manufacturer must now also ensure the safety of the
machine by performing assessments and calculations. Using
certified subsystems for building safety is recommended, as
they make specifying the process quicker and require fewer
calculations.

Basic concepts and terminology:


EN ISO 12100

Risk assessment:
ISO 14121-1

Standard for creating safety system: Standard for creating safety system:
EN ISO 13849-1 EN 62061

Process for creating safety system Process for creating safety system

Safety system Safe Machine CE marking

Figure 2-2 Introducing standards

Two standards IEC and ISO


There are two alternative standards that can be followed
when implementing functional safety systems in compliance
with the Machinery Directive: The International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) standard and the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard.

Following either of the standards leads to a very similar outcome,


and their resulting safety integrity levels ( SIL) and performance
levels (PL) are, in fact, comparable. For more information, see
the comparison table in Part 3, step 6.
10
A table explaining the suitability of the two new standards for
designing systems with particular technologies can be found in
standards EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 13


Part 2 New approach

Note:
It is up to the machine manufacturer to decide which if any
safety system creation standard is to be used (EN ISO 13849-1
or EN 62061), and then they must follow the same, chosen
standard all the way from beginning to end to ensure congruity
with the said standard.
CEN standards are based on ISO standards and are basically
for mechanical equipment new standards have numbers in
the 10,000 series, while CENELEC standards are based on IEC
standards new standards have numbers in the 60,000 series.

Note:
EN ISO standards are presented in this document using the
ISO mark. However, EN IEC standards are presented without
IEC mark, according to the convention used in the harmonized
standards list.

Standards for risk minimization


Basic safety standards for risk minimization include:

EN ISO 12100-1:2003
(Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for
design) and
EN ISO 14121-1:2007
(Safety of machinery Risk assessment).

EN ISO 12100 gives designers a general framework and


guidance, providing a strategy for risk reduction (the three-step
method). EN ISO 12100-1 defines the basic terminology and
methodology used in achieving machine safety.

EN ISO 14121-1 is a new standard for risk assessment used


in the risk reduction process, which is presented in the EN
ISO 12100 standard. EN ISO 14121-1 has replaced the EN
1050:1996 standard, which expired on June 24, 2008.

Note:
All other references to these standards in this document always
apply to the above mentioned versions of the standards.

Standards for electronic safety systems


The standards for electronic safety systems are as follows:

EN ISO 13849-1:2008 (Safety of machinery Safety-related


parts of control system Part 1: General Principles for design),
EN ISO 13849-2:2008 (Safety of machinery Safety-related
parts of control system - Part 2: Validation)

14 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 2 New approach

EN 62061:2005 (Safety of machinery Functional safety of


safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable elec-
tronic control systems),
IEC 61508 ed. 2.0:2010 (Functional safety of electrical / elec-
tronic / programmable electronic safety-related systems), and
EN 60204-1:2006 (Safety of machinery Electrical equipment
of machines General requirements).

Note:
All other references to these standards in this document always
apply to the above mentioned versions of the standards.

EN ISO 13849-1 is a standard that provides instructions to


designers to make machines safe. These instructions include
recommendations for the design, integration and validation
of the systems. It can be used for the safety-related parts of
control systems and various kinds of machinery, regardless of the
technology and energy it uses. The standard also includes special
requirements for safety-related parts that have programmable
electronic systems. This standard covers the entire safety
function for all devices included (a complete safety chain, for
example sensorlogicactuator).

The standard defines how the required Performance Level (PL)


is determined and the achieved PL verified within a system. PL
describes how well a safety system is able to perform a safety
function, under foreseeable conditions. There are five possible
Performance Levels: a, b, c, d and e. Performance Level e
has the highest safety reliability, while PL a has the lowest.

EN ISO 13849-2 specifies the validation process for safety func-


tions designed according to EN ISO 13849-1.

EN 62061 is a standard for designing electrical safety systems.


It is a machine sector specific standard within the framework of
IEC 61508. EN 62061 includes recommendations for the design,
integration and validation of safety-related electrical, electronic
and programmable electronic control systems for machinery.
The entire safety chain for example sensorlogicactuator is
covered by this standard. Individual subsystems need not be
certified, as long as the entire safety function fulfills the defined
requirements. However, using certified subsystems as building
blocks is still strongly recommended, as this will potentially save
considerable effort in the design process.

Note:
10
Unlike EN ISO 13849-1, EN 62061 does not cover requirements
for non-electrical safety-related control equipment for machinery.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 15


Part 2 New approach

This standard defines how a Safety Integrity Level ( SIL) is


defined. SIL is a representation of the reliability of the safety
functions. There are four possible safety integrity levels:
1, 2, 3, and 4. SIL 4 is the highest level of safety integrity and
SIL 1 the lowest. Only levels 1-3 are used in machinery.

IEC 61508 is a basic functional safety standard. It covers the


lifecycle of systems comprised of electrical and/or electronic
and/or programmable electronic components that are used to
perform safety functions. IEC 61508 is not a harmonized standard,
but it is the main standard that outlines the requirements and
methods for designing safety related control systems with
complex hardware and software. IEC 61508 is generally used
when designing certifiable safety subsystems. Standards
EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 are based on the principles set
in IEC 61508.

EN 60204-1 offers recommendations and requirements for the


electrical equipment of machines in order to enhance safety
and usability.

Product-specific safety standards (type-C standards)


Product-specific safety standards, known as type-C standards,
handle a specific machine or class of machines and are based on
a presumption of conformity with respect to the EHSR covered
by the standard.

It should be noted that:

The requirements specified in the type-C standards generally


overrule the requirements set by the general safety standards
(EN 62061, EN ISO 13849-1, etc.).
Type-C standards may have set SIL / PL requirements for
some safety functions. At least these requirements must be
met, regardless of the results of the risk analysis.

Note:
Even if the lists of hazards possibly affecting the machine,
composed during the risk assessment, and the type-C standard
are identical, the standard may not take account of all of
the relevant EHSR. The standard must always be inspected
thoroughly to determine what hazards might have been excluded
from the list.

Specific standard for safety-related drive systems


A specific standard for safety-related drive system is:

EN 61800-5-2:2007 (Adjustable speed electrical power drive


systems - functional safety requirements).

16 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 2 New approach

Note:
All other references to this standard in this document solely apply
to the above mentioned version of the standard.

EN 61800-5-2 gives specifications and recommendations for


power drive systems used in safety-related applications. It is a
product standard that presents safety-related aspects in terms
of the framework of IEC 61508, and introduces requirements
for power drive systems when used as subsystems in safety
systems.

Standardized safety functions


Standard EN 61800-5-2 includes definitions for numerous safety
functions. A drive may offer one or more of these functions. Here
are some examples:

Safe torque-off (STO)


This function brings the machine safely into a no-torque state
and / or prevents it from starting accidentally.

Function requested
|n|

0
t

Safe stop 1 (SS1)


This function stops the motor safely, initiating the STO function
below a specified speed or after a defined time limit.

Function requested
|n|

0
t

Safe stop 2 (SS2)


This function stops the motor safely, initiating the SOS function
below a specified speed or after a defined time limit.

Safe operating stop (SOS)


This function keeps the motor in a safe standstill while holding
the motor torque. 10

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 17


Part 2 New approach

Safely-limited speed (SLS)


This function prevents the motor from exceeding the defined
speed limit.

Function requested

|n|

0
t

Safe direction (SDI)


This function prevents the motor shaft from moving in an un-
wanted direction.

Function requested
|n|

0
t

Safe brake control (SBC)


This function provides a safe output for controlling external
(mechanical) brakes.

Safe speed monitor (SSM)


This function provides a safe output indicating that the speed is
under the specified speed limit.

Function requested

|n|

Output active
0
t

See standard EN 61800-5-2 for more examples of safety func-


tions.

Emergency operations
Standard EN 60204-1 introduces two emergency operations,
emergency switching-off and emergency stop.

Emergency switching off


The emergency switching-off function disconnects power to a
system or part of it should the risk of an electric shock arise.

18 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 2 New approach

This function requires external switching components, and can


not be accomplished with drive based functions such as Safe
torque-off (STO).

Emergency stop
An emergency stop must operate in such a way that, when it is
activated, the hazardous movement of the machinery is stopped
and the machine is unable to start under any circumstances, even
after the emergency stop is released. Releasing the emergency
stop only allows the machine to be restarted.

The emergency stop can stop hazardous movement by applying


the following actions:
optimal deceleration rate until the machine stops
by using one of the two emergency stop categories, 0 or 1, or
by employing a predefined shutdown sequence.

Emergency stop category 0 means that the power to the motor


is cut off immediately. Stop category 0 is equivalent to the Safe
torque-off (STO) function, as defined by standard EN 61800-5-2.

Emergency stop category 1 means that the machine speed is


brought to a standstill through controlled deceleration and then the
power to the motor is cut off. Stop category 1 is equivalent to the
Safe Stop 1 (SS1) function, as defined by standard EN 61800-5-2.

When actuated, the emergency stop function must not create


any additional hazards or require any further involvement by the
machine operator.

Note:
The principles for the design of an emergency stop function are
introduced in standard EN ISO 13850:2008.

Prevention of Unexpected Startup


Ensuring that a machine remains stopped when persons are
present in danger area is one of the most important conditions
in safe machines.

The Safe torque-off (STO) function can be used to effectively


implement the prevention of unexpected startup functionality,
thus making stops safe by preventing the power only to the
motor, while still maintaining power to the main drive control
circuits. Prevention of unexpected startup requires for example
a lockable switch in addition to the STO function. 10
The principles and requirements of the prevention of unexpected
startup are described in the standard EN 1037:1995+A1.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 19


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive
requirements

The Machinery Directive requires machinery to be safe. However,


there is no such thing as zero risk. The objective is to minimize
the risk.

Compliance with the Machinery Directive can be achieved:

by meeting the requirements set by the harmonized


standards or
by having a machine acceptance investigation carried out by
an authorized third party.

The process for fulfilling the EHSR of the Machinery Directive


using harmonized standards can be divided into nine steps:

Step 1: Management of functional safety managing


functional safety during the lifecycle of the machine.
Step 2: Risk assessment analyzing and evaluating risks.
Step 3: Risk reduction eliminating or minimizing risks
through design and documentation.
Step 4: Establishing safety requirements defining what
is needed (functionality, safety performance) to eliminate the
risk or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Step 5: Implementing functional safety system designing and
creating safety functions.
Step 6: Verifying functional safety system ensuring that
the safety system meets the defined requirements.
Step 7: Validating functional safety system returning to
the risk assessment process and making certain that the safe-
ty system actually succeeded in reducing risks as specified.
Step 8: Documenting documenting the design, producing
user documentation.
Step 9: Compliance proving the machines compliance
with EHSR of the Machinery Directive through compliance
assessment and a technical file.

Each of these steps is explained in more detail in the following


chapters.

Updating existing machinery


The following issues must be considered when updating safety
requirements for existing machines:

20 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

For machines that already have a CE marking new


components that are added to the machine must also have
a CE marking. It must be case-specifically defined how the
new components are applied to the old system according to
the Machine Directive.
For machines that do not have a CE marking the safety level
of the machine can be maintained by replacing components
with new ones that have a CE marking. In this case, the
Declaration of Incorporation is not delivered along with the
machine. Directive 89/655/EEC and Amendment 95/63/EC
must be fulfilled.

Ultimately, it is the relevant authoritys decision as to whether


the change was extensive enough to require an update of the
safety level.

LAWS, REQUIREMENTS RISK IDENTIFICATION


SAFETY FUNCTION
steps
Risk 2-3
Machinery Specification step 4
assessment &
Directive - Functionality
evaluation, risk - Safety performance
(EHSR) IMPLEMENTATION
reduction (SIL, PLT)

Architecture,
subsystems,
safety / reliability
parameters

step 5

Functional
testing,
achieved
Compliance SIL / PL level
assessment,
technical file, step 6
documentation Does the
Documenting function fulfill the VERIFICATION
step 9 the design, risk reduction
residual risk, requirement?
COMPLIANCE
user instructions step 7
step 8
VALIDATION
DOCUMENTATION

Figure 3-1 Process flow for meeting Machinery Directive requirements

STEP 1: Management of functional safety


To achieve the required functional safety, it is necessary to
implement a project management and quality management
system that is comparable to, for example, IEC 61508 or
ISO 9001 standards. This management system can be specified
in the form of a safety plan.

Safety plan
Standard EN 62061 specifies a safety plan for the process for 10
meeting the requirements of the Machinery Directive. This plan
needs to be designed and documented for each safety system
and updated, when necessary.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 21


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Safety plan:

identifies all relevant activities,


describes the policy and strategy for fulfilling functional safety
requirements,
identifies responsibilities,
identifies or establishes procedures and resources for
documentation,
describes strategy for configuration management, and
includes plans for verification and validation.

Note:
Even though the activities listed above are not particularly
specified in EN ISO 13849-1:2008, similar activities are needed
to fully meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive.

When the safety plan (according to EN 62061) has been created,


risk assessment starts.

STEP 2: Risk assessment


The risk assessment is a process whereby risks are analyzed
and evaluated. A risk is a combination of the consequence of
harm and the probability of the harm occurring when exposed
to a hazard.

Note:
According to the new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, it is
mandatory to perform a risk assessment for a machine.

The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC requires that manufacturers


perform risk assessments and take the results into account
when designing a machine. Any risk considered as high must
be reduced to an acceptable level using design changes or by
applying appropriate safeguarding techniques.

The risk assessment process provides the machinery designer


with requirements on how to design inherently safe machinery.
It is very important to assess risks at the design phase, because
it is generally more effective than providing user instructions on
how to operate the equipment safely.

The risk assessment process according to EN ISO 12100-1 con-


sists of two parts: risk analysis and risk evaluation. Risk analysis
means identifying and estimating the risks and risk evaluation
means deciding whether the risk is acceptable or risk reduction
necessary.

22 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Risk evaluation is carried out based on the results of the risk


analysis. Decisions on the necessity of risk reduction are made
according to the risk evaluation procedure.

Note:
Risk evaluation must be carried out separately for each hazard.

Four steps of risk analysis:


1. Determine the limits and intended use of the machine.
These limits include:
limits of use
spatial limits
ambient or environmental limits
lifetime limits

2. Identify the hazards that might be generated by the machine.

3. Estimate identified risks one at a time.


Severity of the risk (potential consequences)
Probability of the risk (Frequency, Probability, Avoidance)

4. Evaluate the risk: Is risk reduction necessary?


YES: Apply risk reduction measures and return to step 2
in the risk analysis.

The 3-step method for risk reduction according to


EN ISO 12100-1 is presented in the next chapter.

NO: Risk reduction target is met and risk assessment


process ends.

Document the risk assessment process and its results for each
individual hazard.

10

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 23


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Risk assesment

1. Determine limits / intended use


of the machine

2. Identify Hazards

3. Estimate risks one at a time


s Severity & Probability

4. Evaluate the risk:


Risk low enough (yes / no)

YES NO
(see figure 3-3)
End
To risk reduction

Figure 3-2 Risk assessment and evaluation according to EN ISO 14121-1

After the risk assessment has been carried out, there are two
options, depending on the outcome of the assessment:

Option 1
If the assessment reached the conclusion that risk reduction
was not needed, the machine has reached the adequate level
of safety required by the Machinery Directive.

Note:
In order for the machine to be approved and CE marking af-
fixed, the remaining risks must be documented in the appropri-
ate operation and maintenance manuals. There is always some
residual risk.

Option 2
If the assessment revealed that the risk remains unacceptable,
the process for risk reduction is started.

STEP 3: Risk reduction


The most effective way to minimize the risks is to eliminate them
in the design phase, for example by changing the design or the
work process of the machine. If this is not possible, one way to
carry out the risk reduction process and ensure conformance
with the requirements is to apply suitable harmonized standards
under the Machinery Directive.

24 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

If the risk assessment process concludes that risk reduction is


needed, a strategy for risk minimization is created. According
to standard EN ISO 12100-1, risk reduction can be divided into
three steps (the three-step method):

3-step method
1. Inherently safe design measures creating a safer design,
changing the process, eliminating the risk by design.

2. Safeguarding and complementary protective measures


safety functions, static guarding.

3. Information on use (residual risk management):


on the machine warning signs, signals and warning
devices and
in the operating instructions.

Risk reduction

Back to risk assessment

From risk assessment

Apply risk reduction


measures

1. YES
Design Risk reduction
?
changes by design changes

NO

NO
3 - STEP METHOD

2.
Safety YES
technology Risk reduction
? Adequate
(Functional by functional safety
reduction
Safety)
(Y/N)?
NO

NO

3. YES
Processes, YES
Risk reduction
information ?
by processes & info
for use
NO

NO
10
Figure 3-3 The 3-step method for risk reduction according to EN ISO 12100-1

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 25


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Residual risk is the risk that remains when all protective measures
have been considered and implemented. Using technology, it is
not possible to achieve a state of zero risk, since some residual
risk always remains.

All residual risks must be documented in the operating


instructions.

The users part of risk reduction includes information given by


the designer (manufacturer). Risk reduction measures for the
machine user / organization are as follows:

Risk reduction measures typically taken by the organization:

introducing safe working procedures


work supervision
permit-to-work systems
Provision and use of additional safeguards
Use of personal protective equipment
Training users
Reading operating and safety instructions and acting accord-
ingly.

Designers should also seek valuable user input when defining


protective measures.

When the risk reduction has been executed, it must be examined


to ensure that the measures taken were adequate for reducing
the risk to an appropriate level. This can be done by repeating
the risk assessment process.

The following, remaining steps describe option 2 of the 3-step


method: safeguarding through a functional safety solution.

STEP 4: Establishing safety requirements


After all the risk reduction that can be undertaken through design
changes has been performed, additional safeguarding needs to
be specified. Functional safety solutions can be used against
the remaining hazards as an additional risk reduction measure.

Safety functions
A safety function is a function of a machine whose failure can
result in an immediate increase in risk. Simply put, it comprises
the measures that must be taken to reduce the likelihood of an
unwanted event occurring during exposure to a hazard. A safety
function is not part of machine operation itself. This means that
if the safety function fails, the machine can operate normally, but
the risk of injury from machine operation increases.

26 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Defining a safety function always includes two components:

required action (what must be done to reduce the risk) and


safety performance (Safety Integrity Level - SIL or
Performance Level - PL).

Note:
A safety function must be specified, verified (functionality and
safety performance) and validated separately for each identified
hazard.

Example of a safety function:


Requirement: An exposed rotating shaft may cause an injury if
one gets too close to the shaft.

Action: In order to prevent personal injury from the shaft, the mo-
tor must stop in one (1) second, when the safety gate is opened.

After the safety function that executes the action has been
defined, the required safety level is determined for it.

Safety performance / integrity


Safety integrity measures the performance of a safety function.
It presents the likelihood of the safety function being achieved,
upon request. The required safety integrity for a function is de-
termined during the risk assessment and is represented by the
achieved Safety Integrity Level (SIL) or Performance Level (PL),
depending on the standard used.

The two standards use different evaluation techniques for a


safety function, but their results are comparable. The terms and
definitions are similar for both standards.

Determining the required SIL (EN 62061)


The process for determining the required safety integrity level
(SIL) is as follows:

1. Determine the severity of the consequence of a hazardous


event.
2. Determine the point value for the frequency and duration a
person is exposed to the harm.
3. Determine the point value for the probability of the hazardous
event occurring when exposed to it.
4. Determine the point value for the possibility of preventing or
limiting the scope of the harm. 10
Example:
The parameters used in determining the point values are presented
in the following example of an SIL assignment table.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 27


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

PROBABILITY OF OCCURENCE of harm

Fr Pr Av
Frequency, duration Probability of hazardous event Avoidance
<= hour 5 Very high 5
> 1h <= day 5 Likely 4
> day <= 2 wks 4 Possible 3 Impossible 5
> 2 wks <= 1 yr 3 Rarely 2 Possible 3
> 1 yr 2 Negligible 1 Likely 1

5 + 3 + 3 = 11

A SIL2
SEVERITY of harm SIL Class safety
function
Se Class CI is required
Consequences (severity) 3-4 5-7 8-10 11-13 14-15
Death, losing and eye or arm 4 SIL2 SIL2 SIL2 SIL3 SIL3
Permanent, losing fingers 3 OM SIL1 SIL2 SIL3
Reversible, medical attention 2 OM SIL1 SIL2
Reversible, first aid 1 OM SIL1

Figure 3-4 Example of SIL assignment table

In this example, the hazard analysis is carried out for an exposed


rotating shaft.
1. Severity (Se) = 3. The consequence of the hazard is perma-
nent injury, possibly losing fingers.
2. Frequency (Fr) = 5. A person is exposed to the hazard several
times a day.
3. Probability (Pr) = 3. It is possible that the hazard will take
place.
4. Avoidance (Av) = 3. The hazard can be avoided.
5 + 3 + 3 = 11, with the determined consequence, this
equals SIL 2.

The tables used for determining the points are presented in the
standard.

After the required SIL has been defined, the implementation of


the safety system can begin.

Determining the required PL ( EN ISO 13849-1)


To determine the required PL, select one of the alternatives from
the following categories and create a path to the required PL
in the chart.

28 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

1. Determine the severity of the damage.


The severity parameters are
S1 Slight, usually reversible injury
S2 Severe, usually irreversible injury, including death

2. Determine the frequency and duration of exposure to the


hazard.
The frequency and duration parameters are
F1 Rare to often and/or short exposure
F2 Frequently to continuous and/or long exposure

3. Determine the possibility of preventing the hazard or


limiting the damage caused by the hazard.
The hazard prevention and damage limiting parameters are
P1 Possible under certain conditions
P2 Hardly possible

Example:
The resulting performance level is represented by a, b, c, d and
e in the following example of the PL risk graph.

Low risk
P1
a
F1
P2
S1
P1 b
Slight F2
START P2
HERE P1 c
F1
P2 !0,D
Rare to often
S2
Severe F2
P1
Possible
d SAFETYFUNCTION
ISREQUIRED
Freq. to cont. P2
e
Hardly possible
High risk

Figure 3-5 Example of PL risk graph

In this example, the hazard analysis is carried out for an exposed


rotating shaft.
The consequence of the hazard is a severe, irreversible injury.
Severity = S2.
A person is exposed to the hazard several times a day.
Frequency = F2.
It is possible to avoid or limit the harm caused by the hazard.
Possibility = P2.
10
The path leads to PLr value d. The tables used for determining
the points are presented in the standard. After the PLr has been
defined, the implementation of the safety system can begin.

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 29


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

STEP 5: Implementing functional safety system


When designing and constructing a safety function, the idea is
to plan and construct the safety function in order to meet the
required SIL / PL specified in the previous chapter. Using certi-
fied subsystems in functional safety systems can save the safety
system designer a lot of work. Implementing safety functions
becomes more convenient when some of the safety and reliability
calculations are already made and subsystems are certified.

Note:
If certified subsystems are not used, it may be necessary to carry
out safety calculations for each of the subsystems. Standards EN
62061 and EN ISO 13849-1 include information on the process
and calculation parameters needed.

Implementation and verification processes are iterative and run


parallel with each other. The idea is to use verification as a tool
during implementation to ensure that the defined safety level is
reached with the implemented system. For more information on
the verification processes, see the next step.

Note:
The system is only as strong as its weakest link. This means that
in order to fulfill the EHSR set by the Machinery Directive, all the
subsystems of the functional safety system must meet at least
the required SIL / PL value of the system.

There are several calculation software programs on the market


designed for verifying functional safety systems. These programs
make the whole process of creating and verifying the system
more convenient.

The general steps for implementing a functional safety system


include:

1. Defining the safety requirements in a form of SIL and PL,


according to standard EN 62061 or EN ISO 13849-1.

2. Selecting the system architecture to be used for the safety


system.
EN 62061 and EN ISO 13849-1 standards offer basic archi-
tectures with calculation formulas.

category B, 1, 2, 3 or 4, as presented in standard


EN ISO 13849-1, or
designated architecture A, B, C or D, as presented in standard
EN 62061 for the subsystems and the whole system.

For more information on designated architectures, see the


respective standards.

30 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

3. Constructing the system from safety-related subsystems


sensor/switch, input, logic, output, and actuator.

Either:
by using certified subsystems (recommended) or
by performing safety calculations for each subsystem.

The safety level of the complete system is established by


adding together the subsystem safety levels.

4. Installing the safety system.

The system needs to be installed properly to avoid common


failure possibilities due to improper wiring, environmental, or
other such factors. A safety system that is not performing
correctly due to careless installation is of little or no use, or
even poses a risk in itself.

5. Verifying the functionality of the system.

Gate limit switches Safety logic + I/O Actuator


(Safe Torque
Off, STO)

Subsystem 1 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 3

Figure 3-6 Structure of a safety function

STEP 6: Verifying a functional safety system


Verification of the functional safety system demonstrates
and ensures that the implemented safety system meets the
requirements specified for the system in the safety requirements
phase, and whether the safety function is viable.

Verification should not be carried out after the implementation


process, but together with it, so that the implementation
can indeed produce a system that will meet the specified
requirements.

In addition to verifying the SIL or PL of the system, the correct


operation of the safety system must also be verified by carrying
out functionality testing. 10

Technical guide No. 10 | Functional safety 31


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Verifying SIL of safety system (EN 62061)


To verify safety integrity levels, it must be shown that the safety
performance, in other words the reliability, of the created safety
function is equal to or greater than the required performance
target set during the risk evaluation. Using certified subsystems is
advisable, because the manufacturer has already defined values
for determining systematic safety integrity (SILCL) and random
hardware safety integrity (PFHd) for them.

To verify the SIL of a safety system where certified subsystems


are used:

1. Determine the systematic safety integrity for the system


using SIL Claim Limit (SILCL) values defined for the
subsystems.

SILCL represents the maximum SIL value the subsystem


is structurally suitable for. SILCL is used as an indicator for
determining the achieved SIL: the SILCL of the whole system
should be no higher than the SILCL for the lowest subsystem.

2. Calculate the random hardware safety integrity for the


system by using the Probability of a dangerous Failure
per Hour (PFH d ) values defined for the subsystems.
Manufacturers of certified subsystems usually provide
the PFH d values for their systems.

PFH d is the random hardware failure value that is used for


determining the SIL.

3. Use the Common Cause Failure (CCF) checklist to make


sure that all the necessary aspects of creating the safety
systems have been considered.

CCF checklist tables can be found in EN 62061 standard,


Annex F.

Calculating the points according to the list and comparing the


overall score to the values listed in the standard EN 62061
Annex F, Table F.2 results to the CCF factor (). This value is
used for estimating the probability value of PFHd.

4. Determine the achieved SIL from the table for determining


SIL.

32 Functional safety | Technical guide No. 10


Part 3 Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements

Example of verifying SIL:


Verifying the rotating shaft functional safety system:

Gate limit switches Safety logic + I/O Actuator


(Safe Torque
Off, STO)

Subsystem 1 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 3

SIL CL = 2 SIL CL = 3 SIL CL = 3


PFHd = 2,4 x 10-7 PFHd = 9,8 x 10-9 PFHd = 2,0 x 10-10

Figure 3-7 Example verification of SIL

Systematic safety integrity:


SIL CLsys (SIL CLsubsystem)lowest -> SIL Claim Limit 2

Random hardware safety integrity:


PFH d = PFHd1+PFH d2+PFHd3 = 2,5 x 10-7 < 10 -6

= the system meets SIL 2.

Table for determining SIL according to PFHd value obtained from


the whole safety system (in high demand/continuous mode):

SIL Probability of dangerous failures per hour (1/h)


SIL 1 10-6 up to < 10-5
SIL 2 10-7 up to < 10-6
SIL 3 10-8 up to < 10-7

Table 3-1 Table for determining SIL

Verifying PL of safety system (EN ISO 13849-1)


To verify the performance leve