Radio engineering, RF engineering, electromagnetic radiation, nature of electromagnetic radiation, remote sensing, radar, lidar (light detection and ranging), sonar, radio communication, radio communication system, radio transmission, fundamental limitations, electrical noise, noise terms, noise calculations, communication link calculations, microwaves, properties of microwaves, Maxwell’s equations, local and global form versions, complex formalism and phasors, material parameters and boundary conditions, electrodynamics, electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasi-statics, linear polarization, circular polarization, elliptical polarization, polarization states of plane waves, application of Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation, Poynting’s theorem and energy relations in an electromagnetic field, plane waves, plane wave solution of the wave equation, penetration of electromagnetic fields, field theoretic problems, passive microwave devices, definitions and classification of transmission lines and waveguides, transmission lines, waveguides, directional couplers, detectors, mixers, quadrature hybrid, signal flow graphs and scattering parameters, transmission line theory, smith chart, impedance matching, waveguide theory, reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, waveguides, guided waves in parallel plate metal waveguides, rectangular metal waveguides, dielectric waveguides, radio wave propagation in more or less free space, propagation mechanisms, microwave link design, path analysis, link budget, Electromagnetic radiation and radio communication, Electromagnetic radiation, Radiation models, Ray model, Wave model, electromagnetic wave, transmission, propagation, Particle model, quantum mechanics, matter waves, wave particle duality, electric field, magnetic field, travelling wave, wavelength, polarization, electric vector, isotropic medium, unpolarized wave, circularly polarized wave, linearly polarized wave, Electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy, Maxwell’s equations, propagation of electromagnetic waves, free space, waveguides, optical fibers, optical crystals, electromagnetism, electric flux density, magnetic flux density, coulombs, webers, charge density, electric current density, anisotropic material, material equations, dielectric tensor, permeability tensor, dipole polarization, electric polarization, magnetization, magnetic polarization, permittivity, permeability, nonlinear electromagnetic effects, electro-optic crystal, Remote sensing, radar, lidar, sonar, Solar radiation spectrum, Atmospheric attenuation, Atmospheric windows, Radiowave window, Visible window, Gauss’ law for electricity, Gauss’ law for magnetism, . Faraday’s Law of Induction, Ampere’s Law, wavenumber, IR, Blackbody, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, radiant energy, photon theory of light, Planck’s Law, quantum theory, Radio communication, Radio communication system, Radio engineering, Millimeter waves, : Radio spectrum, Radio transmission, VLF, LF, MF, and HF bands, Microwave transmission, VHF, Transmitters, Frequency stability, power, Antennas, Gain, beam width, sidelobe level, bandwidth, noise temperature, Radio channel, Loss, noise, fading, Receiver, Selectivity, noise, Modulation, Analog, digital, Transmitting system, direct digital synthesis (DDS), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), direct conversion transmitter, Phase-locked loop (PLL) oscillator, quartz crystal resonator, magnetrons, cell phone systems, Superheterodyne receiver, automatic gain control, LO frequency, low-noise components, Receiver sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Dynamic range, Selectivity, Noise figure, IF, BPF, Double-conversion receiver, LNA, Software radio, up-converter, power amplifier, filter, antenna, Software Defined Radio (SDR), two-way device, Transceiver, frequency division duplexing (FDD), time division duplexing (TDD), baseband and bandbase signals, Multiplexing, signal processing, Elements of a radio system, microphone, phono pickup, te

Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivs (BY-NC-ND)

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Radio engineering, RF engineering, electromagnetic radiation, nature of electromagnetic radiation, remote sensing, radar, lidar (light detection and ranging), sonar, radio communication, radio communication system, radio transmission, fundamental limitations, electrical noise, noise terms, noise calculations, communication link calculations, microwaves, properties of microwaves, Maxwell’s equations, local and global form versions, complex formalism and phasors, material parameters and boundary conditions, electrodynamics, electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasi-statics, linear polarization, circular polarization, elliptical polarization, polarization states of plane waves, application of Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation, Poynting’s theorem and energy relations in an electromagnetic field, plane waves, plane wave solution of the wave equation, penetration of electromagnetic fields, field theoretic problems, passive microwave devices, definitions and classification of transmission lines and waveguides, transmission lines, waveguides, directional couplers, detectors, mixers, quadrature hybrid, signal flow graphs and scattering parameters, transmission line theory, smith chart, impedance matching, waveguide theory, reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, waveguides, guided waves in parallel plate metal waveguides, rectangular metal waveguides, dielectric waveguides, radio wave propagation in more or less free space, propagation mechanisms, microwave link design, path analysis, link budget, Electromagnetic radiation and radio communication, Electromagnetic radiation, Radiation models, Ray model, Wave model, electromagnetic wave, transmission, propagation, Particle model, quantum mechanics, matter waves, wave particle duality, electric field, magnetic field, travelling wave, wavelength, polarization, electric vector, isotropic medium, unpolarized wave, circularly polarized wave, linearly polarized wave, Electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy, Maxwell’s equations, propagation of electromagnetic waves, free space, waveguides, optical fibers, optical crystals, electromagnetism, electric flux density, magnetic flux density, coulombs, webers, charge density, electric current density, anisotropic material, material equations, dielectric tensor, permeability tensor, dipole polarization, electric polarization, magnetization, magnetic polarization, permittivity, permeability, nonlinear electromagnetic effects, electro-optic crystal, Remote sensing, radar, lidar, sonar, Solar radiation spectrum, Atmospheric attenuation, Atmospheric windows, Radiowave window, Visible window, Gauss’ law for electricity, Gauss’ law for magnetism, . Faraday’s Law of Induction, Ampere’s Law, wavenumber, IR, Blackbody, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, radiant energy, photon theory of light, Planck’s Law, quantum theory, Radio communication, Radio communication system, Radio engineering, Millimeter waves, : Radio spectrum, Radio transmission, VLF, LF, MF, and HF bands, Microwave transmission, VHF, Transmitters, Frequency stability, power, Antennas, Gain, beam width, sidelobe level, bandwidth, noise temperature, Radio channel, Loss, noise, fading, Receiver, Selectivity, noise, Modulation, Analog, digital, Transmitting system, direct digital synthesis (DDS), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), direct conversion transmitter, Phase-locked loop (PLL) oscillator, quartz crystal resonator, magnetrons, cell phone systems, Superheterodyne receiver, automatic gain control, LO frequency, low-noise components, Receiver sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Dynamic range, Selectivity, Noise figure, IF, BPF, Double-conversion receiver, LNA, Software radio, up-converter, power amplifier, filter, antenna, Software Defined Radio (SDR), two-way device, Transceiver, frequency division duplexing (FDD), time division duplexing (TDD), baseband and bandbase signals, Multiplexing, signal processing, Elements of a radio system, microphone, phono pickup, te

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RADIO ENGINEERING

Jorma Kekalainen

Contents

Electromagnetic radiation

Radio communication

Electrical Noise

Communication link calculations

Microwaves

Maxwells equations

Application of Maxwells equations

Some passive microwave devices

Signal flow graphs and scattering parameters

Introduction to transmission line theory

Smith chart and impedance matching

Waveguide theory

Radio wave propagation in more or less free space

Microwave link design

2

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Books

Following references can be useful:

Bennett, Electrical Noise

Freeman, Telecommunication System Engineering

Freeman, Radio System Design for Telecommunications

Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking

Gardiol, Introduction to Microwaves

Goldsmith, Wireless Communications

Krauss, Bostian, Raab, Solid State Radio Engineering

Lee, Statistical Theory of Communication

Ramo, Whinnery, Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication

Electronics

Roddy, Satellite Communications

Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems

3

Electromagnetic radiation

Nature of

electromagnetic radiation

2

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Radiation models

Electromagnetic radiation is usually described in one of three

ways:

Ray model

In the classical physics light consisted of rays that could be

reflected and refracted through mirrors and prisms etc.

Although this simple description cannot explain many of the

phenomena we meet in radio and optical communications, ray

model is much-used in telecommunications.

The problem is that when we try to study rays very closely

they start behaving like waves.

In general, the ray model is good when the distances involved

in the device are much larger than the wavelength.

5

Radiation models

Wave model

In the context of telecommunications, the best

way of regarding electromagnetic radiation is

to think of it as an electromagnetic wave.

It is a fair generalization to say that

electromagnetic radiation may be looked on as

a wave in situations where we are studying

transmission or propagation.

3

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Radiation models

Particle model

In many contexts, electromagnetic radiation behaves as

though it consists of tiny particles called photons

(quanta).

Electromagnetic radiation may often be regarded as a particle

when we are studying its interactions with matter.

Note. We are used to thinking of electrons as classical

particles but quantum mechanics assigns to them wave

properties, matter waves, as it assigns to the electromagnetic

waves particle like properties. This is wave particle duality.

The fact is that rays, photons and waves are all useful

analogies that help us to understand what electromagnetic

radiation really is from different viewpoints. 7

Electromagnetic waves

In the electromagnetic wave theory, radiation beam is

represented by electromagnetic waves propagating in space.

An electromagnetic wave consists of two fields

an electric field and

a magnetic field.

Both of these fields have

a direction and

a strength (or amplitude).

These fields oscillate in time and space as the beam

propagates.

Within the electromagnetic wave the two fields are oriented at

90 to one another.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Electromagnetic waves

The fields move (by

definition at the speed of

light) in a direction at 90 to

both of them.

In three dimensions, we

could consider the electric

field to be oriented on the x-

axis, and the magnetic field

on the y-axis.

Direction of travelling

wave would then be along

the z-direction.

Travelling wave

In three dimensions, we could consider the electric field to be oriented on

the x-axis, and the magnetic field on the y-axis.

Direction of travelling wave would then be along the z-direction.

The rate of oscillation is the frequency of the wave.

The distance travelled during one period of oscillation is the wavelength.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The polarization of any vector field is defined by the

geometrical locus of the tip of the vector, as it varies during

one period.

Hence, the polarization describes the behavior of the field (the

direction and amplitude) as a function of time.

In case of electromagnetic wave the polarization of wave is

defined by means of the electric vector, as it varies during one

period.

In an isotropic medium, the direction of oscillation is always

perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

If the direction of oscillation (in the transverse plane) is

random the wave is said to be unpolarized.

11

Note: For all thermal sources in nature, the direction of vibration is random.

Polarization types

A wave is said to be elliptically polarized if the curve traced by the

end point of the electric field vector is an ellipse (in the xy-plane).

The special cases of the elliptically polarized wave are:

circularly polarized wave

Electromagnetic wave is said to be circularly polarized if the electric

field vector uniformly rotates in the xy-plane.

So, wave is circularly polarized when the tip of the electric field vector

describes a circle.

linearly polarized wave

Electromagnetic wave is said to be linearly polarized if the electric

field vector vibrates in a constant direction in the xy-plane (plane

polarized wave).

So, wave is linearly polarized when the tip of the electric field vector

moves along a straight line.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Electromagnetic spectrum

13

Electromagnetic spectrum

14

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

electromagnetic radiation

15

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Maxwells equations

Maxwells equations govern the propagation of

electromagnetic waves in various media, including

free space,

waveguides,

optical fibers, and

optical crystals.

All

electric,

magnetic,

electromagnetic, and

optical phenomena

are governed by the same fundamental laws of

electromagnetism.

17

Maxwells equations

These laws are written mathematically in terms

of the Maxwells equations:

D

B 0

B

E 0

t

D

H J

t

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Maxwells equations

In these equations, the quantities D and B are called the electric

displacement or the electric flux density vector (in coulombs per square

meter) and magnetic induction or the magnetic flux density vector (in

webers per square meter), respectively.

These two vectors (D ,B) include the effect of the electromagnetic field on

matter.

The quantities E and H are the electric field vector (in volts per meter) and

magnetic field vector (in amperes per meter), respectively.

These two field vectors (E , H) are employed to describe an

electromagnetic field or wave.

The quantities and J are the electric charge density (in coulombs per

cubic meter) and electric current density vector (in amperes per square

meter), respectively.

The electric charge and current may be considered the source of the

electromagnetic radiation, represented by the E and H vector fields.

19

Maxwells equations

These four equations completely determine the electromagnetic field and

are the fundamental equations of the theory of such fields, that is, of

electrodynamics.

Maxwells equations cannot be solved uniquely without the known

relationships between

B and H

E and D .

To obtain a unique determination of the field vectors, Maxwells equations

must be supplemented by the so-called material equations,

D E For anisotropic

material e.g.

B H

where the parameters and are are known as the dielectric tensor (or

permittivity tensor) and the permeability tensor, respectively.

20

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

When an electromagnetic field is present in matter, the electric field

can perturb the motion of electrons and produce a distribution of

charge separation.

This leads to a dipole polarization per unit volume.

D E 0 E P

where P is the electric polarization and 0 is the dielectric constant of

a vacuum.

Analogously, the magnetic field can also produce a magnetization in

materials.

B H 0 H M

where M is the magnetic polarization and 0 is the magnetic

constant of a vacuum.

21

Vacuum

22

11

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Notes

Note. The permittivity of a vacuum is constant

0=8.854 x 10-12 F/m.

The constant 0 is the permeability of a vacuum and

has a value of 0=410-7 H/m.

material parameters and reduce to scalars.

If the medium is isotropic and homogenous, material

parameters reduce to constants.

23

Material parameters

For most applications, material parameters can be assumed to

be independent of the field strengths.

However, if the fields are sufficiently strong, the dependence

of these quantities on E and H must be considered.

These strong fields produce nonlinear electromagnetic effects,

which may be harmful or useful depending on the application.

The fields can be sufficiently strong, for example, if we focus

an intense laser beam on a thin fiber or apply a strong static

electric field to an electro-optic crystal, or transmit very high

power RF beam through the atmosphere.

24

12

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

In communications, we often deal with the

propagation of electromagnetic radiation in such

regions of space where both charge density and

current density are zero.

In fact, if we set = 0 and J = 0 in Maxwells

equations, we find that nonzero solutions exist.

This means that an electromagnetic field can exist

even in the absence of any charges or currents.

Electromagnetic fields occurring in media in the

absence of charges are called electromagnetic

waves.

25

Electromagnetic radiation

Remote sensing

13

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Remote sensing

27

Remote sensing

Note various paths

Source to sensor direct?

Source to surface to sensor

Sensor can also be source

radar, lidar, sonar (i.e. active remote sensing)

Reflected and emitted components

Several components of final signal captured at sensor

Note: Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) is an object detection system which uses radio

waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects.

Lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure

the distance to, or other properties of, targets by illuminating the target with laser light and

analyzing the backscattered light.

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound

propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or

detect objects on or under the surface of the water. 28

14

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

environment using EM waves

Electromagnetic radiation is convenient for

information transfer because:

EM radiation travels at speed of light

the fastest possible speed

EM radiation travels along a straight line

EM radiation does not need medium to travel

EM radiation interacts with matter

EM radiation wavelength allows to interact with targets

of various size

EM radiation is everywhere, because every body in

the universe radiates EM energy

29

Electromagnetic environment on

Earth

Mainly determined by solar radiation and properties

of atmosphere

Solar radiation spectrum

30

15

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Atmospheric attenuation

31

Atmospheric windows

Radiowave window

Visible window

(clouds are transparent)

32

16

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Energy transport

Conduction

transfer of molecular kinetic (motion) energy due to contact

heat energy moves from T1 to T2 where T1 > T2

Convection

movement of hot material from one place to another

e.g. Hot air rises

Radiation

results whenever an electrical charge is accelerated

propagates via EM waves, through vacuum & over long distances

hence of interest for remote sensing

33

Newton, Faraday, Kelvin, Ampre)

Oscillating electric charge produces magnetic field (and

vice versa)

Can be described by four differential equations

Calculated speed of EM wave in a vacuum

34

17

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Electromagnetic wave

Travels at velocity c (3x108 ms-1, in a vacuum)

35

Wave motion

All waves characterized

by:

Wavelength, (m)

Amplitude, a (m)

v

Velocity, v (m/s)

Frequency, f (s-1 or

Hz)

Sometimes period, T

(time for one

oscillation i.e. 1/f)

36

18

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Wave motion

Velocity, frequency and wavelength related by

1

f

proportional to 1/ (constant of proportionality is wave

velocity v

v f

37

Sinusoidals

360 = 2 rad, so 1 rad = 360/2 57.3

Rad to deg. (*180/) and deg. to rad (* /180)

38

19

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Maxwells equations

Four equations relating vector

E

electric (E) and vector magnetic 0

fields (B)

B 0

0 is permittivity of free space

B

E

0 is permeability of free space t

E

B 0 J 0 0

t

1

0

c 0

2

Maxwells equations

1. Gauss law for electricity: The electric flux out of any

closed surface is proportional to the total charge E

0

enclosed within the surface

2. Gauss law for magnetism: The net magnetic flux out B 0

of any closed surface is zero (i.e. magnetic monopoles

do not exist)

field around a closed loop is equal to negative of rate of E

change of magnetic flux through area enclosed by the loop. t

of the magnetic field around a closed loop is proportional to E

B 0 J 00

t

the electric current flowing through the loop.

20

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

EM spectrum

EM Spectrum

Continuous range of EM radiation

From very short wavelengths (<10-12m)

o high energy

To very long wavelengths (cm, m, km)

o low energy

Energy is related to wavelength (and hence frequency)

41

Electromagnetic spectrum

42

21

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Units

EM wavelength is m, but various prefixes

o cm (10-2m)

o mm (10-3m)

o micron or micrometer, m (10-6m)

o Angstrom, (10-8m)

o nanometer, nm (10-9)

f is cycles/second or Hertz (Hz)

Electromagnetic spectrum

Energy 1/wavelength (1/)

shorter (higher f) higher energy

longer (lower f) lower energy

44

22

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

EM spectrum

inversely proportional to wavelength, ).

When radiation passes from one medium to another, speed of

light (c) and change, hence f stays the same.

45

Visible part

from visible blue (shorter )

to visible red (longer )

~0.4 to ~0.7m

Violet: 0.4 - 0.446 m

Blue: 0.446 - 0.500 m

Green: 0.500 - 0.578 m

Yellow: 0.578 - 0.592 m

Orange: 0.592 - 0.620 m

Red: 0.620 - 0.7 m

46

23

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Electromagnetic spectrum: IR

Longer wavelengths (sub-mm)

Lower energy than visible

Arbitrary cutoff

IR regions covers

reflective (shortwave IR SWIR)

and emissive (longwave or thermal

IR TIR)

region just longer than visible

known as near-IR NIR.

47

Longer wavelengths

RADAR

1 mm to 1 m (300GHz-

300MHz)

various bands used by

RADAR instruments

long so low energy,

hence need to use own

energy source (active

wave)

48

24

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Blackbody

All objects above absolute zero (0 K or -273 C)

radiate EM energy (due to vibration of atoms)

We can use concept of a perfect blackbody

o Absorbs and re-radiates all radiation incident upon it at

maximum possible rate per unit area (Wm-2), at each

wavelength, , for a given temperature T (in K)

49

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Total emitted radiation from a blackbody, M, in Wm-2,

described by Stefan-Boltzmann Law

M T 4

T is temperature of the object in K; and = is Stefan-

Boltzmann constant 5.6697x10-8 Wm-2K-4

So energy T4

o Tsun 6000K M,sun 73.5 MWm-2

o TEarth 300K M , Earth 460 Wm-2

50

25

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

51

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

o negligible after 4-6m

Peak of Earths radiant energy around 10 m

o negligible before ~ 4m

Total energy in each case is area under curve

52

26

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

with emissivity of (<1) can be written

= Tn

where n is a numerical index

For grey surface where is nearly independent of, n

=4.

When radiation emitted predominantly at < m , n > 4.

When radiation emitted predominantly at > m , n < 4.

53

Wien deduced from thermodynamic principles that

energy per unit wavelength E() is function of T and

f (T )

E (

5

At what m is maximum radiant energy emitted?

Comparing blackbodies at different T, note mT is

constant, k 2897mK i.e. m = k/T

o m, sun 0.48m

o m, Earth 9.66m

54

27

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Increase

(displacement) in m

as T reduces

Increasing

log space

55

Newton proposed wave theory of light (EMR)

in 1666

o Observation of light separating into spectrum

proposing photon theory of light

o Photons individual packets (quanta) of energy

o Photons possess energy and momentum

properties

o Wave-particle duality

56

28

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

EMR intimately related to atomic structure and energy.

Atom: positive (+) charged nucleus (protons +neutrons) &

negative () charged electrons bound in orbits.

o Electron orbits are fixed at certain levels, each level corresponding to

a particular electron energy.

o Change of orbit either requires energy (work done), or releases

energy

o Minimum energy required to move electron up a full energy level.

o Once shifted to higher energy state, atom is excited, and possesses

potential energy.

o Released as electron falls back to lower energy level.

57

As electron falls back, quantum of EMR (photons) emitted.

o Electron energy levels are unevenly spaced and characteristic of a

particular element (basis of spectroscopy)

Relationship between frequency of radiation (wave theory) of

emitted photon (particle theory)

E hf

E is energy of a quantum in Joules (J); h is Planck constant

(6.626x10-34Js) and f is frequency of radiation

58

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

If we remember that velocity v = f and in this case v is

actually c, speed of light then

hc

E

Energy of emitted radiation is inversely proportional to

o longer (larger) lower energy

o shorter (smaller) higher energy

Implication for remote sensing: harder to detect longer

radiation (e.g. thermal) as it has lower energy.

59

60

30

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Planck was able to explain energy spectrum of blackbody

Based on quantum theory rather than classical mechanics

2c 2 h 1

E

5 hc

e kT

1

dE()/d gives constant of Wiens Law

E() over all results in Stefan-Boltzmann relation

Blackbody energy function of , and T

61

Plancks Law

Explains/predicts shape of blackbody curve

Use to predict how much energy lies between given

o Crucial for remote sensing

62

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Chlorophyll a, b absorption spectra

Photosynthetic pigments

o Basic driver of nearly all life on

Earth!

o Source of all fossil fuel

63

Fractional energy from 0 to i.e. F0 ? Integrate Planck

function.

Note Eb (,T), emissive power of blackbody at , is function of

product T only, so....

Radiant energy from 0 to

E0 , T

F0 , T

T 4

for = 0 to =

64

32

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Q: What fraction of the total power radiated by a black body at 5770 K fall, in

the UV (0 < 0.38m)?

o Need table of integral values of F0

o So, T = 0.38m * 5770K = 2193mK l T (mmK x10 3) F 0 l (l T)

(dimensionless)

o Or 2.193x103 mK i.e. between 2 and 3 2 .067

3 .273

o Interpolate between F0 (2x103) and F0 (3x103) 4 .481

5 .634

F00.38 , T F00.38 2 x103

2.193 2

0.193

6

8

.738

.856

F00.38 3x10 F00.38 2 x10

3

3

32

10

12

.914

.945

14 .963

F00.38 , T 0.067

16 .974

18 .981

0.193 20 .986

0.273 0.067

i.e. ~11% of total solar energy lies in UV between 0 and 0.38 m

65

Problem

Show that ~38% of total energy radiated

by the sun lies in the visible region

(0.38m < 0.7m) assuming that

T (mK x103) F0(T)

solar T = 5770K (dimensionless)

2 .067

3 .273

o Hint: We already know F(0.38m), so 4 .481

calculate F(0.7m) and interpolate 5

6

.634

.738

8 .856

10 .914

12 .945

14 .963

16 .974

18 .981

20 .986

66

33

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

67

Recap

Objects can be approximated as blackbodies

o Radiant energy T4

EM spectrum from sun a continuum peaking at ~0.48m

o ~39% energy between 0.38 and 0.7 in visible region

o Integrate over all to get total radiant power emitted by blackbody per

unit area

Stefan-Boltzmann Law M = T4 (Wm-2)

o Differentiate to get Wiens law

Location of max = k/T where k 2898mK

68

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Radio communication

Radio communication

system

Hertz proved the existence of the

electromagnetic waves in Karlsruhe Institute

of Technology

waves...will have any practical application 70

35

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Electromagnetic spectrum

71

Radio engineering

Radio engineering is a technical science that deals with

the electromagnetic waves at the frequencies below the

infrared frequencies (e.g. from 30 Hz up to 3 THz)

Word radio comes from Latin: radius and/or radiare

(= to radiate)

An oscillator generates high-frequency alternating

current which is radiated as radio waves by the

antennas

Millimeter wave frequencies become more important

all the time.

lack of frequencies, higher data rate, improved technology,

new applications

near dc or zero frequency. 72

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Electromagnetic spectrum

73

Radio transmission

(a) In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves follow the

curvature of the earth.

(b) In the HF band, they bounce off the ionosphere.

VHF

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Transmitters

Frequency stability, power

Antennas

Gain, beam width, sidelobe

level, bandwidth, noise

temperature

Radio channel

Loss, noise, fading, etc.

Receiver

Selectivity, noise

Modulation

Analog, digital

75

Transmitting system

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Transmitter

Stable transmit frequency: stability 10-9 - 10-10 / day

Phase-locked loop (PLL) used to lock the frequency

Reference by using a stable quartz crystal resonator

oscillator

Modern fast way: direct digital synthesis (DDS) => waveform

created with digital-to-analog converter (DAC)

Simple direct conversion transmitter with PLL

oscillator

77

Transmitter

Low or medium power transmitters use semiconductors

Solid-state transmitters can now provide tens of kW for TV

bands

The highest power transmitters use electron tubes

Such as magnetrons in radars because high peak power is

needed

International broadcasting stations at low frequencies could

transmit even 1 MW but modern radio communication

mostly uses much less transmit power

Portable devices work typically with powers up to 1 - 2 W; short

range devices even with much less power

Transmit power is controlled as needed and best for service,

without excessive power (e.g. cell phone systems)

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Receiver

Good filters, an accurate LO frequency, low-noise components

LO can be realized similarly as in transmitters

Superheterodyne receiver uses an intermediate frequency

stage - or two at different frequencies

Received signal level may vary a lot => automatic gain

control

Demodulator extracts information from the IF signal

Typical simple radio communication receiver

79

Receiver specifications

Several parameters determine the ability of a receiver to

successfully demodulate a radio signal.

Receiver sensitivity is the minimum input voltage that

produces a specified signal-to-noise ratio at the output of

the IF section.

Dynamic range is the difference between the largest input

signal that will not become distorted and the smallest signal

that can be discerned, and is measured in dB.

Selectivity specifies a receivers ability to discriminate

against adjacent channel signals.

It is a function of the IF strips BPF.

Noise figure indicates how much the receiver degrades the

input signals signal-to-noise ratio.

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Superheterodyne receiver

81

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Double-conversion receiver

83

Direct-conversion receiver

Frequency conversion direct to baseband for data

demodulation

Attractive for realization in integrated circuits (IC)

Characteristics more limited than in complex receiver

designs

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Software radio

Progressively faster digital technology allows also

the use of software defined radio

Typical radio device components used only as antenna

and in receiver front-end and then ADC, followed by

digital processing with software

Digital technology and software-defined

operation is used also for transmitters

After software controlled parts and DAC follow radio

devices: up-converter, power amplifier, filter and

antenna

85

A software defined radio (SDR) is one that can be configured to any

radio or frequency standard through the use of software.

A software defined radio would be able to work on different broadband

networks and would be able to transfer to another network seamlessly

while traveling outside of the users home network.

A software defined radios best advantage is its great flexibility to be

programmed for emerging wireless standards.

It can be dynamically updated with new software without any changes

in hardware and infrastructure.

Software could just download interface automatically.

This is the job of the packet layer, which will split the data into small

packets.

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A conceptual definition of the software defined radio (SDR) is

presented in the following figure

87

Transceiver

Much of radio communication needs a two-way device to

both transmit and receive => transceiver combines these

Basic transceiver device problem: high power TX & low

power RX

How to get necessary isolation when connecting to

common antenna?

If a frequency division duplexing (FDD) system is used => a

duplexer filter separates TX and RX bands (which are different)

If a time division duplexing (TDD) system is used => separate

TX and RX times allow simply a switch to be used only

transmitter or receiver is connected to antenna at any time, not

both simultaneously

For example, cell phone network devices may use both systems

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Communication systems transmit information in the form of

electrical signals that represent

speech,

music,

television pictures,

data, and so forth.

The waveforms of these signals are complex and continually

changing, but the frequency spectrum of the signals is usually

limited to a specified bandwidth either by the nature of the

signal source or by filters in the transmitting equipment.

Since many of these signals occupy a frequency band that

extends downward to a few hertz (bandbase signals), they

cannot be transmitted in their original form over a common

transmission path because it would not be possible to separate

them at the receiving end.

89

Multiplexing

A separate transmission line or separate radio

path for each signal would not be feasible from

either an economic or a practical standpoint.

Hence the overall communication system must

provide a means for simultaneous transmission

of a number of signals either by shifting them

into different parts of the frequency spectrum

or by sending samples of the signals on a time-

shared basis.

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The wavelength () in meters of a radio wave is given

by c/f, in which c is the velocity of light (3 x 108

meters per second in atmosphere), and f is in hertz.

A radio antenna should have a physical size of one-

half wavelength or more for reasonable efficiency.

Hence, as the transmission frequency is increased, the

physical size and cost of the antenna are reduced and

its efficiency increases.

91

A simplified block

diagram of a radio

transmitter and

receiver illustrates

the signal

processing that

takes place in a

radio system.

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a microphone,

phono pickup,

television camera, or

other device

that transforms the desire information into an

electrical signal.

93

The signal is amplified and often passed

through a low-pass filter to limit the

bandwidth.

The RF oscillator establishes the carrier

frequency or some submultiple of it.

Since good frequency stability is required to

keep the transmitter on its assigned frequency,

the oscillator is often controlled by a quartz

crystal.

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multiplier

One or more amplifier stages increase the

power level of the signal from the oscillator to

that needed for input to the modulator.

Using frequency multiplication the final carrier

frequency can be a multiple of the oscillator

frequency.

95

5. Modulator

The modulator combines the signal and carrier

frequency components to produce one of the varieties

of modulated waves (AM, ...)

In our simplified system the output signal spectrum

lies in the vicinity of the desired RF carrier frequency.

In many transmitters a second oscillator and mixer

(similar to blocks 10 and 11) are inserted between

blocks 5 and 6 in order to shift the modulated wave to

a higher frequency range.

96

Note: The carrier may be a sinucoidal wave or a train of pulses.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

antenna

Additional amplification may be required after

modulation to bring the power level of the signal to

the desired value for input to the antenna.

The transmitting antenna converts the RF energy into

an electromagnetic wave of the desired polarization.

If a single (fixed) receiver is to be reached, the

antenna is designed to direct as much of the radiated

energy as possible toward the receiving antenna.

For broadcasting service suitable transmitting antenna

is omnidirectional.

97

8. Receiving antenna

The receiving antenna may be omnidirectional for

general service or highly directional for point-to point

communication.

The wave propagated from the transmitter induces a

small voltage in the receiving antenna.

The range of amplitudes of the induced antenna

voltage may be from tens of millivolts to less than 1

microvolt, depending upon a wide variety of

conditions.

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9. RF amplifier

The RF amplifier stage increases the signal power to

a level suitable for input to the mixer and it helps to

isolate the local oscillator from the antenna.

This stage does not have a high degree of frequency

selectivity but does serve to reject signals at

frequencies far from the desired channel.

The increase in signal power level prior to mixing is

desirable because of the noise that is inevitably

introduced in the mixer stage.

99

The local oscillator in the receiver is tuned to produce

a frequency fLO that differs from the incoming signal

frequency fRF by the intermediate frequency fIF; that

is, fLO can be equal to fRF + fIF or fRF - fIF .

The mixer is a nonlinear device that shifts the

received signal at fRF to the intermediate frequency

fIF.

Modulation on the received carrier is also

transformed to the intermediate frequency.

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12. IF amplifier

The IF amplifier increases the signal to a level

suitable for detection and provides most of the

frequency selectivity necessary to pass the desired

signal and filter out the undesired signals that are

found in the mixer output.

Because the tuned circuits in blocks 11 and 12 always

operate at a fixed frequency (fIF), they can be

designed to provide good selectivity.

Ceramic or crystal filters are often used.

101

amplifier and Output device

The detector recovers the original message signal

from the modulated IF input.

The audio or video amplifier increases the power

level of the detector output to a value suitable for

driving a loudspeaker or other output device.

The output device converts the signal information

back to its original form (sound waves, picture, etc.).

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diagram

Note: In practice, there

are so many variations

in transmitter and

receiver systems that no

single block diagram

could even be

considered typical.

103

In addition to the desired signal that is

processed by the receiver, electrical noise is

added in the transmission path, and is

generated within

the RF amplifier,

local oscillator,

mixer, and so forth.

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Radio communication

Radio transmission

Power gain

Let it be an linear time-invariant (LTI) system whose

input signal has average power Pin.

power at the output will be proportional to Pin.

Thus, the systems power gain is

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very large values of g, so well find it

convenient to express power gain in decibels

(dB) defined as

107

Since the decibel is a logarithmic unit, it converts

powers of 10 to products of 10.

For instance, g = 10e becomes gdB = e x 10 dB.

Power gain is always positive, of course, but

negative dB values occur when g < 1.0 = 100 and

hence gdB < 0 dB.

Note that 0 dB corresponds to unity gain (g = 1).

Given a value in dB, the antilogarithmic value is

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power itself may be expressed in dB if you

divide P by one watt or one milliwatt, as

follows:

109

Rewriting the definition equation of power

gain as (Pout/1 mW) = g(Pin/1 mW) and taking

the logarithm of both sides then yields the dB

equation

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Transfer function

Now consider a system described by its transfer

function H(f).

A sinusoidal input with amplitude Ax produces the

output amplitude Py

Ay = |H(f)|Ax,

and the normalized signal powers are

Px= Ax 2/2 and Py = Ay2/2= |H[f)|2Px.

If the system has the same impedance level at input

and output

Py/ Px = Pout/ Pin = |H[f)|2=g

111

|H[f)|2

In any case |H[f)|2 tells us how the power gain

varies as a function of frequency.

For a useful measure of frequency dependence

in terms of signal power we take

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Problems

(b) Show that if |H(f)|dB = -3 dB then

|H(f)|1/2.

113

Solution

(a) Verify that dBm = dBW + 30 dB.

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Solution

|H(f)|1/2.

115

Transmission loss

In addition to any signal distortion, a

transmission system also reduces the power

level or strength of the output signal.

This signal-strength reduction is expressed in

terms of transmission power loss.

Although transmission loss can be

compensated by power amplification, the ever-

present electrical noise may prevent successful

signal recovery in the case of large

transmission loss.

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Transmission loss

loss rather than gain, since Pout < Pin

We therefore prefer to work with the

transmission loss or attenuation

Hence

117

Attenuation coefficient

In the case of transmission lines, coaxial cables,

and waveguides, the output power decreases

exponentially with distance.

Well write this relation in the form

destination and is the attenuation coefficient in

dB per unit length.

Then

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Example

repeater with 64-dB gain is inserted 24 km

from the input.

The cable sections have = 2.5dB/km.

Use dB equations to find the signal power at:

(a) the repeaters input;

(b) the final output.

119

Solution

Use dB equations to find the signal power at:

(a) the repeaters input;

(b) the final output.

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Radio transmission

Signal transmission by radio wave propagation can

reduce the required number of cable repeaters, and has

the additional advantage of eliminating long cables.

Here we examine the transmission loss for line-of-

sight (LOS) propagation (illustrated in the following

Fig.) where the radio wave travels a direct path from

transmitting to receiving antenna.

This propagation mode is commonly employed for

long-distance communication at frequencies above

100 MHz.

121

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Free-space loss

The free-space loss on a line-of-sight path is due to

spherical dispersion of the radio wave.

This loss is given by

the distance (path length), and c the speed of light.

If we express l in kilometers and f in gigahertz (109 Hz)

then

123

length)

We see that LdB increases as the logarithm of the path

length.

Thus, for instance, doubling the path length increases

the loss by only 6 dB. (Prove this as homework!)

We also see that LdB increases as the logarithm of the

frequency.

Thus, for instance, doubling the frequency increases

the loss by 6 dB.

Note: Here LdB is the free-space line-of-sight attenuation and doubling the path length

can violate this free-space line-of-sight assumption. 124

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Antenna gain

focusing effect that acts like amplification in

the sense that

the transmitter and receiver.

125

The maximum transmitting or receiving gain of an antenna

with effective aperture area Ae is

The value of Ae for a horn or dish antenna approximately

equals its physical area.

More accurately, the value of Ae for a circular dish antenna

equals its physical area (DA/2)2 multiplied by the aperture

efficiency 0.5 0.70.

Large parabolic dishes may provide gains in excess of 60 dB.

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Example

Satellite relay system shows a transoceanic radio system with a satellite

relay serving as a repeater.

The satellite is about 40000 km from either ground station, and the signal

frequency is 6 GHz.

The satellite has a repeater amplifier with gamp = 80 dB, and the input

power at the ground station is Pin = 100 W .

127

Solution

Free space loss equation gives the uplink and

downlink path loss

compute Pout, by adding gains and subtracting

losses in the following tabulation:

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Solution

Note: Very small power levels are typical for satellite systems. 129

Ground reflection

Often, there are multiple

signals arriving to the

receiver due to the

reflections from the

ground, water, building

etc.

Multi-path propagation

For the horizontal polarization the

Very simple case: direct reflection coefficient is -1.

Expression r1+r2-r0 2h1h2/d

wave and one reflected

wave. =2/

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In certain situation, the phase difference between the

direct and reflected wave is 180 degrees and thus the

waves cancel each other out in the receiver.

The total electric field strength is 0.

Condition for that is

summed together constructively as is the case in the

next example.

131

Example

There is a lake between a transmitter and a receiver (distance

d).

The height of the transmitter antenna is H (H<<d).

Calculate the optimum height of the receiver antenna when the

frequency is f.

The polarization is horizontal and the lake is an ideal reflector.

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Solution

There is a lake between a transmitter and a receiver (distance d).

The height of the transmitter antenna is H (H<<d).

Calculate the optimum height of the receiver antenna when the frequency is

f.

The polarization is horizontal and the lake is an ideal reflector.

The total electric field at the antenna site is

=2/

So

133

Numerical version

There is a lake between a television transmitter

and a receiver (distance 5 km).

The height of the transmitter antenna is 50 m.

Calculate the optimum height of the receiver

antenna when the frequency is 500 MHz.

The polarization is horizontal and the lake is

an ideal reflector.

The optimum height is

h=15 m

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Multi-path propagation

The waves reflect and refract from obstacles and

they arrive to the receiver along different paths.

In the antenna the waves interfere and thus in the

receiver only one signal appear.

The phase difference between the arriving signals affect the

total received signal

When the receiver moves, (e.g. in mobile

communication), the received signal changes

significantly as a function of the distance.

Fast signal fading takes place within the distance of one

wavelength.

135

Antenna parameters

Radiation pattern (Directional pattern )

The directional dependence

of the power density radiated

or received by the antenna

Directivity D

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Antenna parameters

Radiation efficiency rad

Gain G

137

Antenna parameters

Input impedance Zant

Zant(f) = Rrad(f)+ Rloss(f) + j X(f)

When the input impedance Zant of the antenna

differs from the characteristic impedance of the

feed line Z0, part of the power is reflected

Polarization

Is defined as the direction of radiated/received

electric field vector of the antenna.

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Low-frequency antennas

f< SHF

Wire antennas, microstrip antennas

139

High-frequency antennas

0.1 mm (3 THz)

Reflectors, horns, dielectric antennas

140

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Friis formula

Received power

Note:

141

In a 58-GHz link radio, the gain of antennas is

34 dBi, the transmitter power is 5 dBm and the

sensitivity of the receiver is -73 dBm. What is

the largest distance that can be implemented

with this link radio?

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Solution

received powers

The wavelength

solved from Friis formula

143

Non-idealities

It is impossible to implement this theoretical distance in

practice, because there are many non-idealities, so the distance

is significantly shorter due to the following factors:

The attenuation in the air (moisture, rain)

For instance, at 58 GHz the attenuation of the air is significant due to

the resonance mode of oxygen molecules at 60 GHz

Obstacles (buildings, forest, hilly terrain etc.) between the

antennas

Reflections from the ground and other obstacles

Polarization mismatching

Impedance mismatching

Pointing error of the antennas

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waves

Line-of-sight propagation

Ionospheric propagation

Ground propagation (surface wave)

Reflection (refraction, diffraction)

Atmospheric scattering

145

waves

Line-of-sight propagation

The most common and

important mechanism

Scattering from the in-

homogeneity of the

atmosphere

communication far beyond

the radio horizon

Reflection from the

ionosphere

Ground wave

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147

Problem

There is a 45-km radio link from a mainland to

an island. The operation frequency is 6 GHz.

What is the required heights of the link

antennas when the first Fresnel ellipsoid is free

of obstacles?

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Problem

r0=45000m, f=6GHz, K = 4/3, R=6375km

149

Solution

Radius of the 1st Fesnel zone

because hF<<r0 ) is

and solving the equation

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Atmospheric scattering

Inhomogeneity in the atmosphere cause scattering

We can think that scatterer operates as a isotropic antenna

which radiates power uniformly in all directions, taking its

power from passing by EM wave.

attenuation effect for line-of-sight communication

is infinitesimally small in clear atmosphere and minor

in heavy rain up to 10 GHz.

151

Atmospheric scattering

Sometimes this weak

scattering effect can be

exploited.

In that case the radio wave

propagates behind an

obstacle or far beyond the

horizon where it would not

propagate otherwise.

In weather radars, the

scattering signals from

hydrometeors (raindrops,

fog, hails or snow flakes) are

measured. 152

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Summary

A radio communication system is an economic compromise

between information transfer capacity needs, available

frequency bands, propagation and equipment characteristics

(propagation attenuation, size of the antenna ).

Small propagation attenuation

Large-sized antennas

Low data rate (a small number of different frequency bands)

High frequencies (short wavelength)

Higher propagation attenuation (and shadow areas caused by terrain)

Small-sized antennas

High data rate

153

Examples

FM radio waves propagate very well because the frequency is

small (about 100 MHz), but the required antenna is large-

sized.

GSM 900 (900 MHz) operate well in rural areas where the

waves can propagate far

GSM 1800 (1800 MHz) operate better in urban areas where

the base stations are close (cell size is small) and a number of

frequency bands can be larger than at 900 MHz.

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Radio communication

Fundamental limitations

Fundamental limitations

There are two general kinds of constraints when designing a

communication system.

On the one hand are the technological problems, including

hardware availability,

economic factors,

federal regulations, and so on.

These are problems can be solved in theory, even though perfect

solutions may not be practical.

On the other hand are the fundamental physical limitations dictating

by the laws of nature.

These limitations ultimately dictate what can or cannot be

accomplished, irrespective of the technological problems.

The fundamental limitations of information transmission by

electrical means are bandwidth and noise.

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Bandwidth (B)

The concept of bandwidth applies to both signals and

systems as a measure of speed.

When a signal changes rapidly with time, its frequency

content, or spectrum, extends over a wide range and

we say that the signal has a large bandwidth.

Similarly, the ability of a system to follow signal

variations is reflected in its usable frequency response

or transmission bandwidth.

All electrical systems contain energy-storage elements,

and stored energy cannot be changed instantaneously.

Consequently, every communication system has a finite

bandwidth B that limits the rate of signal variations.

157

Communication under real-time conditions requires

sufficient transmission bandwidth to accommodate the

signal spectrum.

Otherwise, severe distortion will result.

Thus, for example, a bandwidth of several megahertz is

needed for a video signal, while the much slower variations

of a voice signal fit into BT 3 kHz.

For a digital signal with r symbols per second, the

bandwidth must be BT r/2.

In the case of information transmission without a real-time

constraint, the available transmission bandwidth determines

the maximum signal speed.

The time required to transmit a given amount of information

is therefore proportional to 1/BT.

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Noise

Noise imposes a second limitation on information

transmission.

Why is noise unavoidable?

According to kinetic theory at any temperature above

absolute zero, thermal energy causes microscopic

particles to exhibit random motion.

In electrical communication systems the random

motion of charged particles such as electrons generates

random currents or voltages called thermal noise.

There are also other types of noise, but thermal noise

appears in every communication system.

159

SNR

We measure noise relative to an information signal in

terms of the signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR or S/N).

Thermal noise power is ordinarily quite small, and S/N

can be so large that the noise goes unnoticed.

At lower values of S/N, however, noise degrades

fidelity in analog communication and produces bit

errors in digital communication.

These problems become most severe on long-distance

links when the transmission loss reduces the received

signal power down to the noise level.

Amplification at the receiver is then to no use, because

the noise will be amplified along with the signal.

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Hartley-Shannon law

Taking both limitations into account, Shannon

(1948) stated that the rate of information

transmission cannot exceed the channel capacity

C=Blog2(1 +S/N)

with the zero-error probability (pe0).

This relationship, known as the Hartley-Shannon

law, sets an upper limit on the (error-free)

performance of a communication system with a

given bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

161

Every realistic communication system is subject to some

power and bandwidth limitations.

If we exclude radio transmission with fading, careful

system design can largely eliminate all other

contaminations except unavoidable thermal noise.

The AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel

serves as a reasonable model under these conditions, and

the Hartley-Shannon law gives the maximum rate for

reliable communication.

Therefore, we here define

An ideal communication system is one that achieve

nearly error-free information transmission at a rate

approaching R=Blog(1+S/N)

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Electrical Noise

Introduction

Unwanted electric signals come from a variety of sources,

generally classified as human interference or naturally

occurring noise.

Human interference comes from other communication

systems, ignition and commutator sparking, 50 or 60 cycle

hum, and so forth; natural noise-producing phenomena

include atmospheric disturbances, extraterrestrial radiation,

and circuit noise.

By careful engineering, the effects of many unwanted

signals can be reduced or eliminated completely.

But there always remain certain inescapable random

signals, that present a fundamental limit to systems

performance.

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Noise is always present in communications systems, but under

normal operating conditions it goes unnoticed because the

signal levels are much higher than the noise levels.

A weak signal accompanied by noise can be amplified if the

associated noise level is low relative to the signal level.

However, if the noise level is close to the signal level,

amplification will be useless because any amplifier will

amplify both the incoming signal and the incoming noise as

well as adding more noise of its own.

This process is evident in any receiver when an incoming

signal fades into the noise or the external noise level rises to

the point that it drowns out the signal.

165

Transmission loss usually results in a very weak

signal at the input of a communication receiver.

Consequently, to obtain an adequate signal level

for further processing, the front end of a typical

receiver includes several stages of amplification.

High-gain amplifiers amplify any noise that

accompanies the received signal, and they also

add their own internally generated noise.

An accurate assessment of system performance

must therefore take account of the amplifier noise.

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may come from numerous sources involving

several different physical phenomena.

Here well describe major types of device

noise found in communication systems, and

well develop appropriate circuit models and

analysis methods.

167

To simplify the mathematical details, the

desired signal is assumed to be a sinusoid or a

group of sinusoids that comprise the

transmitted information.

This may be called a deterministic signal.

Noise is defined as any extraneous electrical

disturbance tending to interfere with the

normal reception of the transmitted signal.

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Random noise

Noise can consist of signals from unwanted

sources plus random fluctuations of voltages

and currents caused by physical phenomena.

There are various types of random noise

thermal noise,

shot noise, and

flicker noise

169

One of the goals of communications system design is to keep the ratio of

average (or peak) signal power to average noise power so large that the

noise has no harmful effects on system performance.

Techniques for doing this include

(1) using powerful transmitters and high-gain antennas to develop

strong signals at the receiver,

(2) designing amplifier and mixer circuits so that they introduce a

minimum amount of additional noise when processing signals, and

(3) using modulation or coding schemes that facilitate the separation of

signaIs from noise.

In the case of man made noise sources (e.g., automobile ignitions) there

exists the fourth option of suppressing the noise at its source by filtering,

bypassing, or redesign.

Attention is usually given to each of these four options, and the mix

selected is determined by such factors as cost, weight, and efficiency.

170

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Stationarity

for most electrical noise processes, thereby

allowing us to represent noise sources in the

frequency domain.

For convenience, well adopt the common

practice of working entirely with positive

frequency and one-sided frequency functions

as distinguished from the two-sided functions.

171

function

To clarify this distinction, let G(f) be the two-sided available

power spectrum of some noise source.

Since G(f) has even symmetry, the corresponding one-sided

available power density will be defined by

p f pa f 2G f , f 0

and the total available noise power is

N pa f df

0

Likewise, the one-sided mean square voltage and current densities are equal twice the

172

two-sided frequency functions for f0.

86

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

It is desirable to characterize electrical noise as accurately as possible.

A common characteristic of most types of noise, however, is its nondeterministic

nature: that is,

the exact waveform of the noise cannot be predicted.

A measure of the amount of electrical noise can be obtained by connecting a meter

across a noise source to measure the

average,

peak,

rectified-average, or

rms voltage (or current).

Relationships between these quantities are different for different types of noise, that

is, the average value may be zero whereas the others are not.

The rms voltage (or current) can be used to calculate the average noise power

delivered to a resistive load.

As will be shown, the measured value depends upon the spectrum of the noise

source and the frequency response of the measuring instrument.

173

The frequency-domain characterization of noise can

be given by means of a power spectral density curve

[the units are watts per hertz (W/Hz)].

The simplest kind of noise to work with would be one

whose spectral density is flat over the frequency

range of interest.

A common example of noise with a flat frequency

spectrum is thermal noise associated with Brownian

motion of elections in a conductor.

174

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Thermal noise

the thermal motion of electrons in conducting

mediawires, resistors, etc.

As long as communication systems are

constructed from such material, this thermal

noise will be with us.

175

Thermal noise

Available noise power of thermal noise in a 1-Hz bandwidth is

given by

p(f) = kT,

where k is Boltzmanns constant and T is the temperature of

the noise source in kelvin units.

This expression applies from direct current (dc) to high

microwave frequencies.

If the bandwidth were allowed to extend to infinity, the

available power of a thermal noise would appear to be

unlimited also.

However, results from quantum mechanics indicate that

physical thermal noise sources, although extremely wide band,

have a power spectrum that drops to zero at arbitrarily high

frequencies.

176

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Thermal noise is both the most common type of noise

encountered in radio circuits and the easiest to

analyze.

Other types of noise will be represented by equivalent

thermal noise sources.

Although the common emphasis will be on those

aspects of noise necessary to the design of

communications system that operate under average

conditions, much more can be done with the theory of

noise in terms of developing probability distributions

for system outage time, and etc.

177

networks

As the name implies, thermal noise is due to the random

motion of charge carriers in any conducting medium whose

temperature is above absolute zero.

The velocity of this motion increases with temperature in such

a way that the electrical noise power density produced is

proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to its

absolute temperature, hence the name thermal noise.

It is also called white noise because it has been shown both

theoretically and experimentally to have a uniform spectrum

up to frequencies on the order of 1013 (just as white light is

composed of all colors of the visible spectrum).

178

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

A metallic resistor may be considered a thermal noise

source that can be presented by either of the noise

equivalent circuits shown below.

179

The mean-square noise

voltage (Vn2) and current

(In2) are given by the

following expressions in

which R is the resistance, G

= 1/ R the conductance, T

the temperature of the

resistor in kelvin units, k

Boltzmanns constant

(1.38*10-23J/K), and B the

bandwidth in hertz in which

the noise is observed.

180

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

PN B

The noise power that is transmitted through a

circuit is proportional to the circuit bandwidth.

Consequently, the circuit bandwidth should

never be greater than that necessary to transmit

the desired signal if the maximum output

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is to be achieved.

181

Example

Calculate the mean-square noise voltage

produced in a 100-k resistor in a bandwidth

of 106 Hz at room temperature (T=20C = 293

K).

Vn2=4kTRB

91

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Comment

of an electronic voltmeter that had a bandwidth

of 1 MHz, no amount of gain built into the

voltmeter would enable it to measure signals

below 1 millivolt (mV) with accuracy.

183

source

184

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The previous Figure shows the frequency-domain Thvenin

circuit model of a stationary but otherwise arbitrary noise

source with noiseless internal impedance Z(f).

The function vn2(f) represents the open-circuit mean square

voltage density, defined such that

185

Converting Thevenin source to a Norton

equivalent circuit gives the source model with

current density.

This equation also expresses Ohms law in the

form needed for circuit noise analysis.

186

93

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

Suppose the source in question happens to be a

thermal resistance R at temperature T.

Then the one-sided available power density

p f kT

and setting Z(f) = R yields

4kT

vn2 f 4 RkT and in2 f

R

These constant densities correspond to white

noise, at least up to infrared frequencies.

187

calculation

A resistive network driven by a voltage source

Circuits containing more

than one resistor may be

analyzed by reducing

them to one (Thvenin)

equivalent resistance

and applying

Thevenin equivalent circuit for noise computation

Vn2=4kTRTB , RTRTh

square noise voltage..

188

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note

The noise Thvenin equivalent is different from the signal Thevenin equivalent

of the same circuit, where a signal source is driving a hypothetical noiseless

load resistor Ri (representing the input of an amplifier) through three noisy

resistors R1, R2, and R3.

Thevenin equivalent circuit for signal computation

The signal voltage at the load is found by the conventional voltage division, but

the noise voltage is found from a circuit in which the noise source is related to

the Thevenin resistance of the resistive network rather than the voltage divider

ratio.

189

Note

The process of combining the resistors in a network to obtain

an effective noise resistance is equivalent to combining the

mean-square noise voltages of the resistors themselves to

obtain the net mean-square noise voltage.

This is consistent with the statistical principle that if two or

more independent random processes are combined, the mean-

square value of the resultant is obtained by adding the mean-

square value of each process.

Thus the mean-square noise voltage of a group of resistors

connected in series is the sum of the mean-square noise

voltage across each resistor.

190

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Resistance noise occurs in almost all circuits, but

reactive elements may alter the frequency density.

In particular, let Figure be a one-port (two-terminal)

network containing only resistance, capacitance, and

inductance, and having the equivalent impedance Z(f)

= R(f) + jX(f).

191

Nyquists formula

When the resistances are in thermal equilibrium at

temperature T, Nyquists formula states that

vn2 f 4 R f kT

Hence, the mean square voltage density takes the

shape of the equivalent resistance R(f).

Nyquists equation includes the special case of an

all-resistive network whose equivalent resistance

will be independent of f.

192

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

the complete circuit in Fig. below, where the

source has been connected to a load resistance

RL at the same temperature T.

193

This load resistance, of course, generates

thermal noise with vL2(f) = 4RLkT.

Since the two noise sources are physically

independent, superposition applies and we can

calculate the mean square current densities in

each direction, namely,

194

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The average power delivered from the source to the load in

any frequency band df is RL iL2(f) df, while the load delivers

R(f)iZ2(f) df back to the source.

Now the net power transfer must be zero at every frequency

for the circuit to be in thermal equilibrium.

Therefore,

Note: Nyquists formula does not hold when the resistances are at different

temperatures or the network contains non-thermal sources. However, such cases are

easily analyzed provided that the sources are independent. Using superposition and

summing mean square values the resulting frequency density can be found. 195

Nyquist has determined the thermal noise output of a

network containing both resistive and reactive

elements.

At a port in such a circuit, the mean-square thermal

noise voltage is given by

impedance at frequency f and the integration is performed

over the bandwidth (B) of interest.

196

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

conductance of a parallel GC circuit is

represented by a current source with

In2(f )=4kTGf

over any small frequency increment f.

197

Example

The admittance of the circuit is

Y G j C

The mean-square voltage at the port is

I n2( f )

V 2

n ( f ) 2

Y

198

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

mean-square noise voltage is obtained by

4kTG

Vn2 df

0 G (2fC ) 2

2

G

R f

G (2fC ) 2

2

199

Example

To complete the calculation of Vn2, it is

convenient to change the variable of

integration to and after some manipulations

kT

Vn2

C

Note: Suprisingly, Vn2depends on C but not on R (or G), even though the noise source is

actually thermal resistance! The explanation of this paradoxical independence from R is

included to the equivalent noise bandwidth (B1/R) of GC-filter. 200

100

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

circuit,

G

3dB 2f 3dB

C

integration the result

Vn2 4kTR f 3dB

2

201

Example

By the comparison of

Vn2 4kTRB

with the previous result,

Vn2 4kTR f 3dB

2

the equivalent noise bandwidth is seen to be

equal to /2 times the half-power bandwidth.

202

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

in

4kTG

V

n

2

df

0 G 2 (2fC ) 2

yields

4kT 1

2G 0

V

n

2

2

d

C

1

G 203

Problem

Then introduce the substitution given by

G

3dB 2f 3dB

C

and change the variable of integration to

x = /3dB.

Show that the value of the definite integral that

results yields

kT

Vn2 4kTR f 3 dB

2 C 204

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The resistance measured at the terminals of an antenna is on

the order of 70 ohms (half-wave dipole) to 300 ohms (folded

dipole).

This resistance value is primarily the radiation resistance,

which accounts for power that is radiated from the antenna.

The ohmic resistance contributed by the resistance of the

antenna conductors is usually negligible in comparison with

the radiation resistance.

small fraction of a wavelength. Here the ohmic resistance may predominate,

205

A receiving antenna exhibits noise at its

terminals from two sources:

(1) the thermal noise generated in its ohmic

resistance (usually negligible), and

(2) the noise received from external sources.

(Any body with temperature greater than 0 K

radiates noise energy.)

206

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The received noise is represented as though it were

thermal noise generated in a fictitious resistance equal

to the radiation resistance, at a temperature TA that

would account for the noise actually measured.

This is called the noise temperature of the antenna.

207

Example

Suppose that a 200-ohm antenna exhibits an

rms noise voltage of 0.1 V at its terminals,

when measured in a bandwidth B = 10 kHz.

By the use of the equation

Vn2 4kTA RB

Vn2 1014

TA 90.6 K

4kRB 4 1.38 10 23 200 104

208

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

equivalent to that from a 200-ohm resistor at a

temperature of 90.6 K.

Note that other parts of a receiving system can

also be characterized by equivalent noise

temperatures in order to simplify the

computation of signal-to-noise ratio at the

output of a receiver.

209

Shot noise

The most common type of non-thermal noise in

electrical circuits is shot noise.

This phenomenon occurs whenever charged

particles cross a potential barrier as in

semiconductor junctions or vacuum tubes.

Small variations of kinetic energy among the

individual particles cause random fluctuations of

the total current.

Schottky first studied this effect in a vacuum-tube

diode operated under temperature-limited

conditions.

210

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Shot noise

Schottky found that shot noise could be

represented by a current source with

and I is the DC current.

Since this simple equation is independent of both

frequency and temperature, shot noise seems to be

non-thermal white noise.

Later investigations have shown that in2(f)

actually decreases at frequencies above f1/ ,

where denotes the average particle transit time.

211

Schottkys result also holds for the

semiconductor junction diode

components, given by the diode equation

212

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The net DC current consists of two components,

given by the diode equation

reverse saturation current.

The two current components produce statistically

independent shot noise, so the total mean square

noise current density becomes

213

model

Figure below shows the complete noise source model,

including the diodes dynamic resistance

it does not correspond to any power dissipation.

214

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Non-white noise

Transistors, vacuum tubes, resistors, and other devices exhibit a low-

frequency phenomenon known as flicker noiseoften called one-

over-f noise because the mean square density is proportional to 1/fn

with n1.

Some semiconductor devices also produce burst or popcorn noise,

whose waveform resembles the random telegraph wave.

Flicker and burst noise pose serious problems for low-frequency

applications, but they usually can be ignored at frequencies above a

few kilohertz.

At much higher frequencies, capacitive coupling and various other

effects tend to increase noise in electronic devices.

Non-white noise may or may not be significant, depending on the

device and the application.

215

Semiconductor noise

Figure illustrates the frequency variation of

semiconductor noise caused by flicker, burst,

and white noise.

216

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Because resistors and antennas are two-terminal devices, it is easy to

describe their noise characteristics in terms of a noise temperature or an

equivalent noise resistance.

The situation is more complicated for transistors and other multiterminal

circuit elements because their internally generated noise depends upon

temperature,

operating point, and

input and output terminations.

For noise calculations in transistor circuits, the transistors are conveniently

represented as black boxes with specified noise figures and the physical

causes of the transistor noise are represented by equivalent noise sources.

figures for a variety of operating conditions. 217

Electrical Noise

Noise terms

109

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

the relative amounts of noise produced in

electrical systems.

The following definitions and discussion will

provide the basis for understanding the

nomenclature and for computing the overall

effect of noise in a system.

219

In a specified bandwidth, the signal-to-noise

ratio is defined as the ratio of signal power to

noise power at a port.

PS Vs2

SNR

PN Vn2

where Vs and Vn are the rms signal and noise

voltages, respectively.

In decibels, P

SNRdB 10 log10 S

PN 220

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Minimum SNR

corrupted by the noise.

The lowest permissible value of SNR depends

upon the application.

Approximate minimum value is 10 dB at the

detector input of a receiver.

221

Noise sources

Note that as a signal passes through a cascade of

amplifier stages, the SNR continually decreases

because each stage adds additional noise.

In most systems, however, the amplified output noise

is due primarily to

(1) the noise present along with the input signal, and

(2) the noise contributed by the first two stages

(such as the RF amplifier and mixer stages in a

receiver).

222

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noise bandwidth

and shot noise) have an essentially uniform

spectral distribution so that the noise

transmitted through an amplifier is determined

by the bandwidth of the amplifier.

junctions is made up of charge carriers that are emitted randomly; the number of these

carriers fluctuates statistically from instant to instant. Shot noise has essentially a flat

223

spectral distribution and is treated in the same manner as thermal noise.

Noise bandwidth

If the amplifier had a Constant gain characteristic, with

cutoff at fc

constant gain Av up

to some frequency fc

and zero gain

thereafter, the noise

bandwidth B would Filter with voltage gain Av (f), power

clearly be equal to fc. gain proportional to Av(f)2.

224

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

limited (by the shunt capacitance or by a tuned

circuit) so that an abrupt cutoff of the

frequency response is not achieved.

Thus a more sophisticated determination of

noise bandwidth is required.

225

Filter

Consider a filter, as shown in figure, that has

voltage gain Av(f)=V2/V1.

Filter with voltage gain Av (f), power

gain proportional to |Av(f)|2.

226

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency response

square voltage, it is convenient to plot the

frequency response in terms of lAv(f)I2, as

shown by the solid line in Fig., where lAml2 is

the maximum value of this curve.

Illustration of

noise-equivalent

bandwidth B,

defined by equal

areas under the

dashed and solid

curves. 227

Filter output

If the input to this filter is white noise with mean-

square voltage v1n2/Hz, the corresponding mean-

square output voltage in a 1-hertz interval at

frequency f is

band yields

228

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noise-equivalent bandwidth

The value of the integral on the right side is the area

under the solid-line curve of |Av(f)l2 in Fig..

The dashed line shows a rectangular spectrum of the

same maximum height lAm|2 and with bandwidth B.

Illustration of

noise-equivalent

bandwidth B,

defined by equal

areas under the

dashed and solid

curves. 229

that gives equal areas under the solid- and

dashed-line curves such that

or

230

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Comment

This is the value of B that should be used in equations

earlier, and obviously it must be evaluated for the

particular system being analyzed.

The integral is not always easy to evaluate.

However, in many RF amplifiers, the bandwidth is

established by tuned RLC circuits for which the noise

bandwidth is /2 times the 3-dB bandwidth of the

circuit.

231

The available power Pa of a source is the

maximum power that can be drawn from the

source.

If the source has internal impedance Zs = R +

jX, the maximum power will be delivered to a

conjugate-matched load (ZL = R - jX).

232

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

the maximum power transfer theorem yields

and

233

The available noise power in a bandwidth of 1

Hz is

noise power from all nonzero finite resistances

is the same.

234

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplifier noise

A detailed circuit model showing all the

individual noise sources within an amplifier

would be very complicated and of little practical

value.

Consequently, alternative methods have been

devised for the analysis of noise in amplifiers.

Two particularly useful measures of amplifier

noise are the effective noise temperature and the

noise figure.

Both of these measures involve the concept of

available power gain.

235

a model for an amplifier stage, filter, or other

network.

236

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

impedance Zs.

The two-port has input impedance Z1, output

impedance Z2, and open-circuit output voltage Vo.

The load is an impedance ZL.

called H(f)

237

The available signal power from the source, as

defined previously, is

output port is

238

Note: Rs and R2 are the real parts of corresponding impedances.

119

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

defined as the ratio Pao/Pas, that is,

impedance mismatches at the input and output

ports.

239

Voltage relations

Examination of the network yields the

following relations:

Z1 Z s 1 Z1 1

Vs V1

Z1 Vs Z 1 Z s V1

Construction of Vo/Vs:

Vo 1 Z1 V Z1

Vo o H f

Vs Vs Z1 Z s V1 Z1 Z s

240

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Substitution of the expressions

into

at frequency f

241

Remark

The two-port model applies only if the network is

unilateral (no reverse transmission).

For this case it is worth emphasizing that Ga given by

the previous expression is independent of the value of

ZL.

The available gain of several cascaded unilateral

networks is equal to the product of the Ga values of

the individual networks.

Note that Ga is not the actual gain of the network the value of Ga would be obtained in

242

practice only with ideal matched conditions (Z1 = Zs*and ZL = Z2*) at both ports.

121

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

is defined as follows:

A noise source that has an available power Pa in a

small frequency interval f has an equivalent noise

temperature equal to

Te = Pa/kf.

If the noise power spectrum of the source is not

flat, Pa and Te are frequency-dependent.

Note:

243

Noise generators used for amplifier testing are

often calibrated in terms of excess noise

temperature,

source and T0=290 K is the standard reference

temperature.

244

122

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noiseless network

connected to a noiseless network with small

bandwidth f and available gain Ga(f), the

available noise power from the source is

the network is

245

If the network is noisy, it will produce additional

noise power, Pne, at the output.

With the same input noise as before, the output noise

power will be

246

123

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

noiseless network having the same available

power gain Ga(f), and account for the output

noise Pne by means of an extra noise source on

the input side.

247

adjusted to produce Pne at the output,

and

temperature of the network.

Note: This way of representing network noise is very useful in the determination of

248

overall signal-to-noise ratios of cascaded amplifiers.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

It seems to be the variety of ways in which the

relative noisiness of a device or system can be

expressed.

Fortunately, a single index called the noise figure can

be used to compare noise performance.

The noise figure (NF) of a two-port network gives a

measure of the degradation of the SNR between the

input and output ports.

Note: Watch out for several variations of the term with subtle differences that can be

249

confusing.

I/O-powers

Figure shows a noisy network with input

signal and noise powers and Psi and Pni

respectively, and corresponding output signal

and noise powers Pso and Pno.

and output of a two-port network.

250

125

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

bandwidth as

251

The value of NF is often expressed in decibels

through the relation

SNRs will be equal and NF = 1 or NFdB=0.

Practical circuits always have larger noise

figures than this.

252

126

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Equation

requires further qualification to make it more precise.

The ratio Psi/Pso is equal to 1/Ga(f), where Ga(f) is the frequency-

dependent available power gain of the network.

The variation of Ga(f) with frequency must be taken into account.

Furthermore, the input power from the signal source is a function of

temperature.

In order to obtain a standard value for NF, the source temperature must be assumed

to be 290 K.

These considerations have led to the following definitions.

253

At a selected input frequency, the spot noise

figure is the ratio of

(1) the total available noise power per unit

bandwidth at the output port to

(2) the portion produced at the input

frequency by the input termination, whose

noise temperature is 290 K.

254

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

the input port, the available power from the

standard-temperature source in a 1-Hz

bandwidth is equal to Pa(1Hz)=kT0.

Hence, the spot noise figure is given by

255

Note

In practice, the value of Pno is measured over a

small bandwidth f that is more than 1 Hz due

to the practical limitation on filter bandwidth.

The equation for NF then becomes

256

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Over wide bandwidths in which Ga(f) varies

appreciably, the average noise figure NF is

given by

to the output termination in noise bandwidth B,

and Gmax is the maximum value of |Ga(f)|.

257

Of primary interest in the evaluation of noise

performance of multistage amplifiers (such as

radio receivers) is the overall noise figure of

the system.

In general, the overall noise figure is evaluated

for a bandwidth B that is the bandwidth of the

overall system.

In a radio receiver the IF stages are narrow-band

and they determine the amount of noise that

reaches the detector.

258

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

From

(required for the standard definition of NF),

the output noise power of a single stage in a

small frequency band is

259

Substitution of the previous equation into

gives

source can be expressed in terms of the equivalent noise

temperature of the network, and vice versa.

260

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

their respective available gains, effective noise

temperatures, and noise figures.

A noise source at standard temperature is input

to the system.

261

stages

Small bandwidth f is assumed for all parts of the system.

The available output noise power of two cascaded

network is found by the use of the output noise power of a

single stage

262

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

temperature

A comparison of this relationship with the equations

temperature of the two networks in cascade

Note that the input source temperature does not appear in the expression.

Pne is a symbol for additional noise power at the output caused by noisy network. 263

temperature

Here Te1,2 is the effective input temperature

that accounts for all of the output noise

introduced by the noisy networks.

For n networks in cascade, the corresponding

expression is

264

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Introduction of the network noise figures by the use

of

in

figure

265

Conclusion

stage in a system has the predominant effect on the

overall NF, unless Ga1 is small or NF2 is large.

Therefore, the system designer should always try to

minimize the noise produced in the first stage by the

choice of low-noise transistors and the selection of

operating conditions that minimize noise.

266

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

If Ts T0=290K

By definition, the standard noise figure is the

ratio of the input SNR to the output SNR with

the input source at the standard 290 K noise

temperature.

In many practical cases, however, the input

noise temperature is not 290 K and the

standard noise temperature does not describe

accurately the SNR degradation from input to

output of a system.

267

A true measure of the SNR degradation is the

actual noise figure defined by

in which TsT0.

This value is related to the standard noise

figure evaluated for Ts=T0 by the relation

268

134

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

Calculate effective temperatures and noise figures for the

receiver front end shown in below. The antenna has a

(radiation) resistance of 70 ohms and an effective temperature

of 20 K due primarily to external radiation.

The noise contributed by the receiver local oscillator is assumed to be negligible (which

269

is not always the case).

Solution

Noise figures and gains for the RF amplifier

and mixer are given in decibels, and must be

converted to actual values for use in the

computation.

For the RF amplifier, NF1=2, and Ga1 = 10.

For the mixer, NF2 = 4.47 and Ga2 = 7.94.

270

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

By the use of

units are found to be

Te1=290 K and

Te2=1006 K.

271

Solution

Then from

(excluding the antenna) is found as

136

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

The overall noise figure can be calculated from

either

or

273

Comment

In the preceding example, the value of NF was found

to be 2.35 or 3.7 dB.

However, since the antenna temperature was 20 K,

the use of

NFact = 1 + (2.35-1)(290/20) = 20.43 or 13.1 dB.

By definition, the standard noise figure is the ratio of the input SNR to the output SNR

with the input source at the standard 290 K noise temperature. Here, however, the input

noise temperature is not 290 K and the standard noise temperature does not describe

274

accurately the SNR degradation from input to output of a system.

137

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

For calculations of NF or Te of a system

comprising one or more stages, knowledge is

required of

(1) the noise delivered from the signal source,

(2) the noise-equivalent bandwidth B,

(3) the thermal noise generated in various resistances

in the circuit, and

(4) the noise generated within the solid-state devices.

equivalent circuits. However, because there are so many variables to be taken

into account that such predictions are best made by the use of analysis

275

programs.

Electrical Noise

Noise calculations

138

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

in

4kTG

V

n

2

df

0 G 2 (2fC ) 2

yields

4kT 1

2G 0

V

n

2

2

d

C

1

G 277

Solution

d

f df

2 2

1 4kTG

Vn2

2 G (C ) 2

0 2

d

4kTG d

2 0

2G C 2

1 ( )

G

4kT d

2G 0 1 ( C ) 2

G

278

139

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

4kT d G

Vn2

2G 0 1 ( C ) 2

, 3dB , (G || C - circuit)

C

G

4kT d G

2G 1 ( ) 2

0

,x

3dB

d 3dB dx dx

C

3dB

4kT d 4kTG dx

2G 0 1 ( ) 2 2GC 0 1 x 2

3dB

4kT kT

arctan x0

2C C

0

2

279

Example

Show that

4kTG

V

n

2

df

0 G 2 (2fC ) 2

yields

1 G

Vn2 4kTR f 3dB , when f 3dB

2 2 C

280

140

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

4kTG 4kTG df

Vn2 df

0 G 2 ( 2fC ) 2 G 2 0 2fC 2

1 ( )

G

4kT df 1 2C

G 0 f

,

f 3dB

G

1 ( )2

f 3dB

4kTf 3dB dx f

G 0 1 x2

,x

f 3dB

df f 3dB dx

1

G

4kTf 3dB

arctan x 0 4kTR f 3dB

R

G 2

0

2

281

Example

According to quantum mechanics the spectral density of

thermal noise can be expressed in form

hf V2

Gnoise f hf

Hz

e kT

1

where k=1.38*10-23 J/K

h=6.62*10-34 Js

is the proportionality symbol

spectrum.

b) Determine an expression for Gnoise(0).

Note: 0/0 is not the correct answer.

282

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency [GHz]

283

Solution a)

Of course, we can approximate with series expansion of e

2

hf

hf

hf kT

e kT

1

kT 2

hf hf

, 1

kT kT

Now we get

hf

G f kT , 0 1

kT

284

142

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution a)

Lets select the standard temperature T=T0=290K and a

rough but conservative estimate

hf upper kT0

0.1 1 f upper 0.1

kT0 h

Substituting numerical values kT0 4 10 21 J

and h 6.62 10 -34 Js

f upper 1012 Hz

This upper limit is in the infrared portion of the

electromagnetic spectrum.

285

LHospitals rule

If lim M f lim N f 0

f 0 f 0

lim

f 0 N f

using LHospitals rule

Mf M f

lim N f lim N f

f 0 f 0

286

143

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Gnoise(0)

Lets denote Mf hf V2

Gnoise f

N f hf

Hz

e kT

1

d

hf

Mf M f df

lim

f 0 N f

lim

f 0 N f

lim

f 0 d

hf

e kT 1

df

h kT

lim hf

lim hf

kT

f 0 h kT f 0

e e kT

kT

Gnoise(0) kT 287

Example

Reduce the circuit

288

144

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

289

Solution

Note: Removing the voltage source means that we replace the source voltage with

short-circuit.

Note: In circuit noise analysis we simply use the thermal noise source model

vn2(f)=4kTRTh , not the signal source model based on the voltage division as in this

problem. Circuits containing more than one resistor may be analyzed by reducing them

to one (Thvenin) equivalent resistance RTh and applying vn2 (f)=4kTRTh to obtain the

mean-square noise voltage density. So the noise Thevenin equivalent of such a circuit

is then a voltage source with this mean-square voltage density in series with an ideal

(noiseless) resistor RTh. 290

145

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

In the network below R1 and R2 are thermal resistances

at different temperatures (T1T2). Let R2 = R1 = R and L

= R/(2). Obtain expressions for vn2(f) and p(f).

291

Solution

Now resistances are at different temperatures

(T1T2) Nyquists formula

vn2 f 4 R f kT

is not valid.

However, the sources are independent.

Thus, we can use superposition and sum mean square

values to find resulting frequency densities.

292

146

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

Applying superposition the total short-circuit mean square

current density is

vn21 f vn22 f

in21 f in22 f 2

2

Z1 Z2

where vn21 f 4 RkT1 and vn22 f 4 RkT2

2

R

R jfR R fR

2 2

R j 2f 2 2

Z1

2

2

Z2 R2

4k T1

in2 f T2

R 1 f 2

293

Solution

Z Th f ( R jfR) || R

R( R jfR) R1 jf

R ( R jfR) 2 jf

Z Th f

2 R1 jf

2

R2 1 f 2

2 jf

2

4 f 2

According to Ohm' s law

v f Z Th f

2

i f

2 2

4kR T1 1 f 2 T2

n n

4 f 2

294

147

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

R1 jf

Z Th f

2 jf

ReZ Th f Re

R1 jf 2 jf R 2 f 2

2 jf 2 jf 4 f 2

p f

vn2 f

k

T1 1 f 2 T2

4 ReZ Th f 2 f 2

T1 T2 T

Note : p f kT

295

Note

When the resistances are in thermal equilibrium at

temperature T, Nyquists formula states that

vn2 f 4 RTh f kT , RTh f ReZTh f

Z Th f RTh f jX Th f

Hence, the mean square voltage density takes the

shape of the equivalent resistance RTh(f).

Nyquists equation includes the special case of an all-

resistive network whose equivalent resistance will be

independent of f.

296

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note

formula is valid and then

2f2

4kTR and

4f2

vn2 f

p f kT

4 ReZ Th f

297

Example

Lets study the circuit model of a noiseless amplifier inserted

between a source and a load.

For simplicity, we have omitted any reactances that might be

associated with the source, amplifier, or load impedances.

In this analysis we use spectral density functions

298

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The amplifier is characterized by an input resistance ri,

output resistance ro, and voltage transfer function H(f).

The source generates a mean-square voltage density

vs2(f) representing noise or an information signal or

bothand the available power density from the source is

pas(f) = vs2(f)/4Rs.

The available power density at the output of the amplifier

is

299

We define the amplifiers available power gain

ga(f) as the ratio of these available power

densities, i.e.,

the available power gain when impedances are

matched to obtain maximum power transfer at

input and output.

300

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noisy amplifier

Well assume from now on that the source generates

white noise, thermal or non-thermal, with noise

temperature Ts.

Then pas(f) = kTs and the available noise power

density at the output of a noiseless amplifier will be

generated noise pint(f).

301

Since the internal noise is independent of the source noise, we

write

internal noise seen at the output.

Figure depicts the previous equation in the form of a block

diagram.

302

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

pao f df kTs g a f df pint f df

0 0 0

an expression that calls for some simplifications.

Most amplifiers in a communication system have a frequency-

selective response, with maximum power gain g and noise

equivalent bandwidth BN.

These parameters are related to ga(f) by

303

So the first term of No reduces to kTs gBN.

Next, to simplify the second term, we define the

effective noise temperature of the amplifier to be

1

Te pint f df

gkBN 0

N o kTs gBN gkBN Te gk Ts Te BN

It is diagrammatically portrayed in the following

figure.

304

152

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

represents the internal noise referred to the

input and thereby expedites calculations of

signal-to-noise ratios.

305

Block-diagram representation of a

noisy amplifier

306

153

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The figure represents a noisy amplifier with signal plus white noise

at the input.

The available signal power from the source is Ss and the signal

spectrum falls within the passband of the amplifier so the available

signal power at the output will be

So = gSs.

307

Thus, using the two previous equations, the

output signal-to-noise ratio is

S gS Ss

s

N o N o k Ts Te BN

Note that the gain g has canceled out in

numerator and denominator.

308

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note

Although the source noise does not necessarily have a defined

bandwidth, the source signal-to-noise ratio is taken by convention to

be

S def . S s

N s kTs BN

which just corresponds to the signal-to-noise ratio produced by an

ideal noiseless filter with unit gain and bandwidth BN.

309

However, reforming (S/N)o expression of the noisy

amplifier produces

S gS Ss Ss

s

N o N o k Ts Te BN 1 Te kT B

Ts s N

1 S

1 Te N s

Ts

S def . S s

where

N s kTs BN 310

155

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

SNR comments

Note that in case of a noisy amplifier

(S/N)o< (S/N)s.

We also see that the degradation of signal-to-

noise ratio due to a noisy amplifier depends upon

the value of effective noise temperature relative to

the source noise temperature.

In particular, if Te<<Ts then (S/N)o (S/N)s

Meaning that under this condition the internal

noise has little effect and the amplifier appears to

be noiseless.

311

Mismatching comments

When impedances are not matched at the input or

output all signal and noise powers will be less

than the available powers.

Nonetheless, the previous SNR calculations are

still valid because they express power ratios

measured at specific points, so the impedance

mismatch factor cancels out along with the gain.

The effective noise temperature is therefore a

significant parameter, irrespective of impedance

matching.

312

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

noise figure F, defined such that

when Ts T0

Ts=T0

No T

F 1 e

gkT0 BN T0

313

F vs. Te

Conversely

Te F 1T0

1 in which case we generally express the

value of F in decibels.

A low-noise amplifier has Te < T0 and 1 < F <

2 in which case we usually work with the

effective noise temperature.

314

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

microwave amplifiers

315

Spot noise

Equation

No T

F 1 e

gkT0 BN T0

defines the average or integrated noise figure in the sense that

No involves the integral of p0(f) over all frequency.

But sometimes we need to know how the internal noise varies

with frequency.

The spot noise figure F(f) contains this information in the form

po f

F f , when Ts T0

kTs g a f 316

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

so clever techniques have been developed for

amplifier noise measurement with a relative

power meter connected at the output.

One technique utilizes a calibrated source of

white noise, such as diode noise generator,

impedance-matched to the input of the

amplifier.

317

1 Set the noise source temperature at Ts=T0 and record the power

meter reading N1. This value corresponds to

N1 CN o Cgk T0 Te BN

where the proportionality constant C includes any impedance

mismatch factor at the output.

2 Increase the source temperature to Ts=T0+Tx such that the

power meter reading has doubled

N 2 Cgk T0 Tx Te BN 2N1

318

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Then form

N 2 Tx T0 Te

2 Te Tx T0

N1 T0 Te

The final result follows substituting Te

to noise figure expression

No T T T T

F 1 e 1 x 0 x

gkT0 BN T0 T0 T0

Example

An amplifier with g = 60 dB and BN =2 MHz has No = 40 nW

when the source noise is at room temperature.

(a) Find the effective noise temperature Te and noise figure F.

(b) Calculate the increased source temperature Ts needed for

the second step of the previous measurement procedure.

rewritten as

T T

kT kT0 4 10 21 J

T0 T0

T0 290K is the standard room temperature 320

160

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

An amplifier with g = 60 dB and BN =2 MHz has No = 40 nW

when the source noise is at room temperature.

(a) Find the effective noise temperature Te and noise figure F.

The total output noise power

N o gk T0 Te BN 106 k T0 Te 2 10 6

T0 Te

2 1012 4 10 21 40 10 9

T0

T0 Te

So 5 Te 5T0 T0 4T0

T0

Te 4T

F 1 1 0 5

T0 T0

321

Solution

An amplifier with g = 60 dB and BN =2 MHz has No = 40 nW

when the source noise is at room temperature.

(b) Calculate the increased source temperature Ts needed

for the second step of the previous measurement procedure

From a)

T

F x 5 Tx 5T0

T0

Ts =T0+Tx=6T0=6*290=1740K

322

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Lossy two-port networks are such as transmission lines and

connecting cables.

Power loss implies dissipation by internal resistance.

Consequently, the internal noise is thermal noise at the

ambient temperature Tamb and pint(f)=kTamb.

However, we cannot use the previous noisy amplifier model

presented in the following slice because lossy two-ports are

bilateral, meaning that a portion of the internal noise flows

back to the input.

323

Block-diagram representation of a

noisy amplifier

324

162

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

When impedances are matched, a bilateral lossy two-port has

constant gain g < 1 in both directions, so gpint(f) flows back to

the input while (1-g) pint(f) goes to the output.

The total available noise power in bandwidth BN at the output

thus becomes

N o gkTs BN 1 g kTamb BN

1

gk Ts L 1Tamb BN , L

g

where L is the transmission loss or attenuation.

325

Comparing our expression for No with Eq.

N o kTs gBN gkBN Te gk Ts Te BN

N o gkTs BN 1 g kTamb BN

1

gk Ts L 1Tamb BN , L

g

we obtain the effective noise temperature

Te L 1Tamb

326

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Substituting the effective noise temperature

expression

Te L 1Tamb

to the noise figure equation

No T

F 1 e

gkT0 BN T0

we obtain

Tamb

F 1 L 1

T0

Note: If a lossy two-port is at room temperature, then Tamb = T0 and F = L. 327

Here we take up the analysis of cascade-

connected systems that include amplifiers and

other noisy or lossy two-port networks.

Our objective is to develop expressions for the

overall performance of the system in terms of

the parameters of the individual stages.

328

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Examine the cascade of two noisy two-ports, where

subscripts identify the maximum power gain, noise

bandwidth, and effective noise temperature of each

stage.

invariant (LTI).

329

BN B2B1 g = g1g2

We further assume that the passband of the second stage falls

within the passband of the first stage, so B2 B1 and the

overall noise bandwidth is

BN B2.

This condition reflects the sensible strategy of designing the

last stage to mop up any remaining noise that falls outside the

signal band.

The overall power gain then equals the product

g = g1g2

since the first stage amplifies everything passed by the second

stage.

330

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

terms:

source noise amplified by both stages;

internal noise from the first stage, amplified by the

second stage; and

internal noise from the second stage.

Thus,

N o gkTs BN g 2 g1kT1 BN g 2 kT2 BN

T

gk Ts T1 2 BN

g1 331

and noise figure

The overall effective noise temperature is

T2

Te T1

g1

The overall noise figure is

T1 T F 1

F 1 2 F1 2

T0 g1T0 g1

which follows from the general relationship

Te

F 1 .

T0

332

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

General case

The foregoing analysis readily generalizes to the case of three or

more cascaded LTI two-ports.

The overall effective noise temperature and noise figure are given

by

T2 T

Te T1 3

g1 g1 g 2

F2 1 F3 1

F F1

g1 g1 g 2

Both expressions bring out the fact that the first stage plays a critical

role and must be given careful attention in system design.

333

Suppose the first stage happens to be a connecting cable or any other lossy

two-port.

From the noise viewpoint, the attenuation has a double harmful effect since

g1 = 1/L1 < 1 and

T1 L1 1Tamb Te L 1Tamb

The overall noise temperature thus becomes

T2 T

Te T1 3

g1 g1 g 2

L1T3

L1 1Tamb L1T2

g2

Note: L1 (>1) multiplies the noise temperatures of all subsequent stages. 334

167

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Suppose the first stage is a preamplifier with sufficiently large gain

g1 that the overall noise temperature reduces

T2 T

Te T1 3

g1 g1 g 2

T1 , g1

The system noise is then determined primarily by the preamplifier.

The remaining stages provide additional amplification and filtering,

amplifying the signal and noise without appreciably changing the

signal-to-noise ratio.

The design of low-noise receivers is usually based on this

preamplification principle.

335

Complete receiver

Here a complete communications receiver has been

divided into two major parts, a predetection unit

followed by a detector.

The detector processes the amplified signal plus noise

and carries out a nonlinear operation, i.e., analog

demodulation or digital regeneration.

It is the reasonable assumption that the detector

introduces negligible noise compared to the amplified

noise coming from the predetection unit.

We are concerned here with the predetection signal-to-

noise ratio denoted by (S/N)R.

Note: When the predetection unit includes a frequency converter, as in a

superheterodyne receiver, its conversion gain takes the place of available power gain. 336

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Communications receiver

(a) Communications receiver; (b) noise model of predetection unit.

BT is the transmission

bandwidth required

for the signal

337

Predection unit

The predetection portion of a receiver is a cascade of

noisy amplifiers and other functional blocks that act

as LTI two-ports under the usual small-signal

conditions.

Hence, as indicated in the previous block diagram a),

the entire predetection unit can be characterized by its

overall effective noise temperature calculated from

the general equation

T2 T

Te T1 3

g1 g1 g 2

338

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

(S/N)R

For a well-designed receiver, the predetection noise bandwidth

essentially equals the transmission bandwidth BT required for

the signal.

If the available signal power at the receiver input is SR and the

accompanying noise has temperature TR then the previously

presented SNR equation becomes

S S SR S

R gS s Ss

N R pBT k TR Te BT

N N o k Ts Te BN

o

where p k TR Te kTN

339

The sum

TN TR Te

is called the system noise temperature, and p

represents the total noise power density referred to

the input of an equivalent noiseless receiver

corresponding to the diagram below.

340

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

The signal received at a satellite ground station is

extremely weak.

Fortunately, the accompanying noise comes

primarily from cold atmospheric phenomena

and has a very low temperature.

Minimizing the receiver noise is therefore

essential.

In contrast, a receiving antenna pointed at or

below the horizon picks up blackbody radiation

from the hot earth; then TRT0 and receiver

noise will be relatively less important.

341

Example

Calculate a) the overall effective noise temperature Te

b) the system noise temperature

c) the predetection signal-to-noise ratio(S/N)R

with frequency modulation. The waveguide is part of the antenna feed structure

and introduces a small loss. Two preamplifiers are employed to mitigate the

noise of the high-gain FM receiver. 342

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution a)

Calculate a) the overall effective noise temperature Te

b) the system noise temperature

c) the predetection signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)R

T1 L1 1Tamb Te L 1Tamb

T2 T

Te T1 3

g1 g1 g 2

L1T3

L1 1Tamb L1T2

g2

1.05 170 1.05 1860

Te (1.05 1)290 1.05 9

100 100 10

14.5 9.5 1.8 2.0 27.8 K

Note: The waveguide loss accounts for half of Te, while the noise from the FM

receiver has been nearly washed out by the preamplification gain. 343

Solution b)

b) Calculate the system noise temperature

TN TR Te 30 K 27.8 K 57.8K

0.2T0

344

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

c) Predetection (S/N)R

(a) Communications receiver; (b) noise model of predetection unit.

BT is the transmission

bandwidth required

for the signal

S S SR 10 12

R 50 17 dB

N R pBT k TR Te BT 0.2 4 10 25 10

- 21 6

Note: This SNR would be too low for analog communication without the further

345

improvement caused by FM demodulation.

Example

Suppose the parametric amplifier in the figure below could be

mounted directly on the antenna, ahead of the waveguide.

Find the system noise temperature TN with and without the

FET preamplifier.

346

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

Find the system noise temperature TN with and without the

FET preamplifier.

Te 9 1.8 2.0 12.9 K

100

TN TR Te 30 12.9 42.9 K

Te 9 28.7 K

100 100

TN TR Te 30 28.7 58.7 K

347

Note: FET increases (S/N)R by 58.7/42.9=1.371.4 dB

Electrical Noise

Recap

174

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noise

Thermal noise: electron collisions with the lattice structure in

resistive materials

For a resistor, we have a noise voltage

1/f-noise at low frequencies

Quantum noise: power in quanta (sub-mm )

Noise is characterized by noise temperature or noise factor

Noise factor describes the decrease of signal-to-noise ratio

caused by the system noise

At radio frequencies, the noise mainly considered is so called

white noise noise which has flat frequency spectrum 349

Receiver noise

Characterization of receiver noise (as well as noise of other devices)

relies on some main points and parameters to be remembered

For use as a noise reference:

Available noise power of a matched load

For use as parameters of the receiver or device:

Noise factor (noise figure when in dB)

Noise temperature

Noise temperature is applicable also e.g. to antenna then it is

called antenna noise temperature

Also noise bandwidth is a useful and effective concept

Idea: All of these simplify handling noise very complex subject

otherwise

350

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Reference noise

Available noise power of a matched load

calculations but also in practice (matched resistive

terminations in device inputs)

Available noise power suitably depends on considered

bandwidth and the physical temperature of the load

Physical temperature can be measured quite accurately => a

good resistive termination is a good absolute reference for noise

when we are characterizing receivers and their sensitivity

Physical temperature is useful alone for defining noise power

density

351

For definitions and related calculations, a commonly

defined true reference is always needed

In radio engineering we use standard temperature T0 = 290

K (= exact constant!) as the assumed physical temperature

of an absolute noise reference termination

Thus we get e.g. noise factor results without any definition

dependent errors or guessing

But as a result of the choice 290 K, it is often

convenient that T0 anyway happens to be near typical

room temperature

Conclusion: T0 = 290 K is actually constant - not

variable such as any room temperature or physical

temperature can be

352

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noise factor

Noise factor (F) indicates how many times larger the output

noise power of a device is compared to a noiseless device

when both have a 290 K resistive termination in input

amplified input noise NinG => F > 1

F has to be unambiguous for a device => F is specified with

using known defined Nin = kT0B

Note: Here noise temperature has to be reference value T0 = 290 K, not some

freely chosen temperature 353

F =SNRin/SNRout

signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) in input and output

of a two-port

We get the S/N relation in the noise factor

equation introducing input signal power Sin

354

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Noise figure

F [dB] = 10 log10(F)

Typically amplifier datasheets give noise

figure specifications

Note: Some authors use these two concepts just the other way round. 355

For receiver devices (and others) we can define noise also by

using effective noise temperature

This is always calculated as in the input of the device so that

we can use a well-defined equivalent source to help in noise

calculations

Otherwise noise in a device would be a very complex matter to

handle

Definition: Effective noise temperature Te of a device =

physical temperature of a matched load connected to a similar

noiseless device to obtain output power equal to the noise

power of the device

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357

as a parameter. 358

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Noise bandwidth

function of frequency

Thats why for calculations of total noise we

need to define an effective noise bandwidth

to use with maximum gain:

Equal

areas

Note

Through this way we can use Gt,max and Bn as

simple parameters in noise power calculations

of device.

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Example

Picture shows a G-curve of a receiver low-noise amplifier

(LNA) with 13 dB of maximum gain.

Define the noise bandwidth Bn of the LNA.

G(f)

361

Noise of an attenuator

Noise temperature of a resistive attenuator

and cables have loss and thus can be

considered as attenuators adding noise =>

Attenuator noise has practical importance

especially in sensitive receivers

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Noise factor of a resistive attenuator is

we get for attenuator noise factor in this simple case:

factor and loss of an attenuator are more or less equal

in value!

363

Receiver noise

Receivers are chains of stages - some noise is added

and also amplified in them - how to calculate it all?

Noise factor and noise temperature of a chain of

stages

matched stages

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Note: If G1 is large, the first stage dominates

getting a low-noise first stage with gain

First stage noise dominance is very understandable:

this noise besides input noise - is amplified most to

the final output in a chain of amplifiers, i.e., by the

product of all gains: G1 G2 G3

In fact, it follows that the noise added by the final

stage is only a negligible part of the total noise in the

output!

365

Comparing amplifiers

When amplifiers are compared, the noise

measure counts:

small noise factor but with also low gain may not

be a desirable choice

Friis formula can always be used for final check

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Example

Lets consider a simple example of two amplifiers in

chain

How about combined noise?

First amplifier (LNA stage): T1 = 100 K, G1 = 13 dB (=>

G1 = 20)

Second amplifier (gain stage): T2 = 300 K, G2 = 26 dB

(=> G2 = 400)

367

Comment on example

We notice that of the noise added by amplifiers,

100 K/115 K 87 % is from the 1st and only 15

K/115 K 13 % from the 2nd amplifier => we

have a typical dominating first stage

If we use the amplifier chain with a 290 K input

termination, then 290 K /(115 K + 290 K) 72 %

of noise in the chain output is amplified noise

from the input termination while amplifiers

contribute 25 % and 4 %, respectively

In practice, of course, input noise depends on

application

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Background noise sources as a reference

Molecular

resonances of water

vapour and oxygen:

loss as in an

attenuator => also

noise

Background

noise of the

Big Bang

Note: The HEMT or High Electron Mobility Transistor is a form of field effect transistor,

FET, that is used to provide very high levels of performance at microwave frequencies. 369

Brightness of black surface

increases as 1/ 2 or f 2 . This is because antenna beam solid angle changes as

2 or 1/f 2 and compensates. 370

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371

Radio link

Signal-to-noise ratio is a critical parameter for a radio link

For example, frequency modulation requires SNR 10 dB

Usually also some margin is needed due to fading etc.

SNR depends on received signal power and noise power of the

receiving system

By calculating SNR we get a link budget where the effects of

different factors are easily seen

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Radio link

Received signal power Input noise power of

receiver system

So SNR is

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of dB values

parameters

375

Example

= 31.8 dB (using aperture efficiency 0.6)

max. TS = (31.8-2.4) dBK

Thus TS 870 K TR 720 K (when TA =

150 K)

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The maximum transmitting or receiving gain

of an antenna with effective aperture area Ae is

The value of Ae for a circular dish antenna

equals its physical area (DA/2)2 multiplied by

the aperture efficiency 0.5 0.70.

377

Gr/Ts is the figure of merit for a receiving

system.

Gr is the receiving antenna gain.

Ts is the system noise temperature.

System noise temperature = antenna noise

temperature + receiver noise temperature

(LNA)

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Communication link

calculations

Communication link

All communications links comprise

a transmitter,

a channel and

a receiver.

A channel might be

a radio or optical link through the atmosphere,

an optical fiber,

a coaxial cable,

a twisted pair cable, or

a telephone wire on a pole.

Links have performance attributes throughput/capacity,

error rates, bandwidth etc.

The type of channel determines the design of the

transmitter and the receiver.

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Shannons model

381

source to a destination

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383

Transmission media

There are basically two types of media, wired or

wireless.

Here, we are dealing with the wireless medium

only.

Electromagnetic waves travel through the earths

atmosphere in the following four ways:

Ground wave propagation

Ionospheric propagation

Tropospheric scattering

Line of sight

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Frequencies below 30 MHz propagate along the earths

curvature guided by the surface and are called ground waves.

This guided wave has two main components:

The direct wave, and

The reflected component

This mode is also called ducting.

385

Ionospheric propagation

Frequencies between 3 and 50 MHz are

reflected by the ionosphere and can travel

much further than ground waves.

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Tropospheric scattering

Above VHF, we see a phenomena where the signals are

scattered by the troposphere.

The scattered waves are very weak, but they can be received

and demodulated.

This mode of media behavior is called tropospheric scattering.

387

Line of sight

This is the mode for satellite communications and also for

terrestrial microwave links.

For frequencies above 3 GHz to about 10 GHz, the earths

atmosphere offers practically no degradation.

Frequencies above 10 GHz suffer from oxygen and water

vapor absorption and cause degradation.

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Link budgets

The designer hopes that the signal will complete its trip

through link chain with just enough power to be decoded at

the receiver with the desired signal quality.

With digital signals, the quality is measured by the Bit Error

Rate (BER).

If we want our signal to have a low BER, we would start it out

with higher power and then make sure that along the way it

has enough power available at every stage to maintain this

BER.

The signal can get extra power infusion along the way from

intermediate amplifiers such as microwave repeaters for

telephone links or from satellite transponders for satellite links.

389

transmission

The BER, as a measure of the signal quality, is the

most important figure of merits in all link budgets.

The BER is a function of a quantity called Eb/N0, the

bit energy per noise-density of the signal.

For a QPSK signal in an Additive White-Gaussian-

Noise (AWGN) channel, the BER is given by

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Erfc

According to the previous formula the BER of

any signal is related to its Eb/N0 by the

complementary error function

telecommunications textbooks and is available

as a built-in function in most math programs.

391

waterfall shape when plotted on a log-log

scale.

The BER is inversely related to Eb/N0.

Higher Eb/N0 means better quality or smaller

BER.

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BER of a signal

393

Instead of monitoring just the signal power we

will actually monitor a ratio of the signal power to

the noise power injected along the way.

This means that in doing link budgets, we will

keep track of not just the signal power and how it

is getting attenuated, but also where the noise is

entering into the link and how much.

This dual role makes things complicated because

there are numerous sources of noise.

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compare communication systems even when

they have differing bit rates, modulations, and

media.

Lets take a closer look at the Eb/N0.

The quantity Eb is a measure of the bit energy.

The energy is the capacity to do work and

energy expended per time is called power.

395

Bit energy

To compute Eb, we divide the average signal power by

its bit rate

energy per unit time, and the bit rate is the number of

bits per unit time.

So the division removes the units of time leaving

energy per bit.

We can also write the above equation in an alternate

amplitude-squared form with the amplitude-squared

representing the Pavg

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Noise density

In the denominator of Eb/N0, the quantity N0 is called

the noise density.

It is the total noise power in the frequency band of the

signal divided by the bandwidth of the signal.

Noise density is measured as Watts/Hz and is the

noise power in one Hz of bandwidth.

The units of N0 are Joules.

397

links

For analog signals, we use a quantity called C/N0 in the

same way as Eb/N0, where C is the signal power.

C and Eb are related by the bit rate.

So you will typically see C/N0 specified for the analog

portions (or the passband signals) of the link and Eb/N0

for the digital (or the baseband) portions.

C in the expression (C/N) is simply the carrier power in

the whole useable bandwidth, where C in the

expression (C/N0) is carrier power per unit bandwidth.

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and C/N

Previously, we know that

C = Energy per bit x bit rate

= Eb x Rb, from which we get

specify the bandwidth of the signal.

But to convert (C/N0) to (C/N), need to divide by the signal

bandwidth

N=N0B

399

A link consists of three parts.

1. Transmitter

2. Receiver

3. Transmission media

The very simplest form of a link equation is

written as

Preceived = Power of the transmitter + Gain of

the transmitting antenna + Gain

of the receiving antenna - Sum of

all losses

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Transmitter

modulates onto a higher frequency carrier,

amplifies it and broadcasts it via an antenna.

The two main items that are associated with

transmitters are

1. Flux density

2. EIRP

401

Flux density

The flux density is a measure of energy that is available

for gathering from a particular source.

It is sometimes called the Radio Power of a Source.

The flux density is defined by

transmitter power in watts.

The flux density is a measure of the amount of energy that

is received at a distance r from a transmitter of gain G and

transmit power P watts.

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A very basic transmitter consists of an amplifier and an antenna

The amplifier puts out a certain amount of power and the antenna is

said to have a particular gain that further amplifies this power.

This combination is here called the transmitter.

Usually, lossy elements such as wires connect these two components

in the preferred direction of radiation of the antenna.

These losses are included in the quoted EIRP figure for the

transmitter.

403

Power

EIRP is closely related to the flux density.

Where flux density is energy as measured a distance

away from the source, EIRP is a measure only of the

transmitted power.

For a transmitter EIRP is defined as the combination

of

EIRP = Power of transmitter x Gain of the

antenna

= Pamp x Gantenna

404

Note: EIRP is the numerator of the flux density equation.

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Note

There are two hidden assumption in EIRP.

First is that the transmitter is putting out the

maximum power that it can, and second, that

the EIRP figure is delivered at the antennas

boresight.

So if you happen to have your antenna pointed

not quite straight into the boresight of the

transmitting antenna then you will not get the

quoted EIRP.

405

Received power

EIRP and the flux density both tells us something

about a transmitter but nothing about what is

actually received.

To compute power received by a receiver at a

distance r from the source, we need to multiply

the flux density with the receiving antennas area.

The flux density is energy per unit area per unit

time.

The only useable part of this energy is what is

accepted by the receiving antenna.

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Effective area

So the power received is equal to the flux density

times the receiving area

area but strongly related to it) of any antenna is

defined by

the wavelength.

407

Power equation

Now we can write the expression for computing the received

power as

antenna, the EIRP (= GTPT) of the transmitter, the operating

frequency, and the distance between the two, then we can

calculate the received power.

We can rewrite the above in dB as

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wavelength , i.e. the number of wavelengths

in the distance, is called the Free Space Loss

(FSL).

409

Noise

This topic causes a lot of confusion, particularly when dealing

with link budgets.

As we can see, our important parameters Eb/N0, C/N, C/N0 all

have this noise term on the denominator.

All objects not at absolute zero emit electromagnetic radiation.

The band of frequencies emitted are a function of the

temperature of the object.

E.g. a light bulb emits many different frequencies.

Most of its radiation is in the range of infra-red light and

ultraviolet frequencies which we can see and feel.

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Noise

The sun puts out visible noise in the light wave

frequencies among many others that we can

not see such as X-rays and infra-red.

The noise coming to us from the galaxies is

typically in microwave frequencies.

The statistics of this noise is well described by

quantum physics.

The black body radiation problem was first

solved by Max Planck in 1901.

411

Spectral radiance

According Planck's law

hf

G f , T hf

e kT

1

where G(f,T) is the spectral radiance or the energy per unit

time (or the power) radiated per unit area of emitting surface in

the normal direction per unit solid angle per unit frequency by

a black body at temperature T; h is the Planck constant; k is the

Boltzmann constant; f is the frequency of the electromagnetic

radiation; and T is the absolute temperature of the body.

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hf vs. kT

For radio and microwave frequencies, the factor hf is quite

small relative to the factor kT in the nominal range of room

temperatures, say 290 degrees in Kelvin.

Thus the exponential function in the expression can be

approximated by the first two terms.

413

Now we get

f is small enough such that hf << kT.

Thus it seems appropriate to refer to the low-frequency noise

as thermal noise (it is proportional to the temperature) and the

high-frequency noise, from somewhere sub-optical on up, as

the quantum noise, since it is proportional to Plancks

constant h.

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Note

415

Thermal noise

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When f becomes large enough that this kT

approximation no longer holds, the frequencies

are in the generalized optical (i.e., infrared,

visual optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray, )

range.

In this frequency range, the higher order hf

terms eventually dominate the frequency-

dependent noise called quantum noise.

417

Noise definition 1

The thermal noise power in a bandwidth B is

kTB.

We can define noise density simply as the

power of the noise signal divided by its

bandwidth

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Noise definition 2

We can define noise density

where T is considered to be the system temperature,

not the ambient or room temperature.

In the radio and microwave bands, the spectral

density is taken as N0 for a one-sided spectrum, and

as N0/2 for a two-sided spectrum.

The noise power will be N0B in all cases where this

convention is applied.

419

Noise power

Lets now set these two definitions for noise

density N0 equal

Joules/Kelvin, T in Kelvins and BN in Hertz, and

PN in Watts.

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Noise bandwidth

There is no confusion when talking about bit rates but

unfortunately there are many different ways of defining

bandwidth.

The most common definition of bandwidth is the distance

from one pass-band edge to another where the edge is

defined as the 3 dB below the maximum.

What is the noise bandwidth in the equation for noise?

In simple terms, it is the noise that is allowed to enter into

the system by the receive filter.

The idea of noise bandwidth is to cover all power passed-in

by the filter.

Generally, the noise bandwidth is approximately 1.12 times

the 3 dB bandwidth of the signal.

421

G/T

G/T is a very important parameter of receivers.

The T is the thermal noise temperature of the receiver and it

impacts the ability of the receiver to see a signal in the noise.

Just as we characterize a transmitter by its EIRP, we use G/T in

a similar way to specify receivers.

In dB, G/T is the difference in the gain of the receiving

antenna gain and its noise temperature

T = Thermal noise temperature of the receiver

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Note

This handy G/T variable allows us to compare

receiving systems of all kinds.

A G/T of 15 dB is better than 10 dB.

This parameter is usually given for earth stations

as well as for satellite receivers, and does not

need to be calculated.

In doing link budgets, we will assume that it is

given.

Actually calculating the G/T or the Noise Figure

of a receiver is a topic in itself and worthy of the

own story.

423

The losses experienced by the signal fall into

these categories

Free Space Loss (FSL)

Rain

Antenna misalignment

Gaseous absorption

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For line of sight links, this loss is a function of the square of

the distance.

For a signal going from ground to the satellite, the free space

loss is largest of all other types of losses.

It can be simplified and written as

425

Rain

Signal attenuation due to rain is the second most

significant after free space loss.

It is particularly significant for higher SHF frequencies.

We have to deal with rain losses for both uplinks and

downlinks.

It also varies a great deal from location to location since

it is a function of the rain rate.

The attenuation can vary from 0.1 dB in California to

over 10 dB in Seattle.

Providing for this large attenuation in satellite links

results in over design of the system for areas which

have little rain.

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site diversity, which just means that there are two or

more receivers instead of one which may or may not be

geographically separated.

Ground diversity such as having another ground station

located a few kilometers away in a rainy region can

reduce the rain attenuation by more than half.

Other ways to accommodate for location-specific rain

attenuation is to allow higher power for the

transmitters and variable error correcting codes and

variable data rates.

427

Rain models

There many popular rain models that help us

compute the rain loss.

E.g., these are

NASA Rain Attenuation Model

CCIR Rain Attenuation Model

The result from each can vary by 1-2 dB

depending on how the regions are defined and

estimate of rain rate is made.

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Antenna misalignment

The antenna gain plays an important role in the link

calculations and we have assumed that the receiving

antenna and the transmitting antenna are oriented perfectly

so that the maximum gain of the receiving antenna is

aligned with the uplink.

The gain varies a great deal off the bore sight and as shown

in the figure below, unless we have perfect alignment, we

are going to have losses associated with this.

There are two parts to this loss.

One is at the transmitter, if its antenna is not pointed to deliver

maximum gain and

the second is at the receiving antenna is not pointed to receive

the maximum gain.

Antenna pointing is an important operation and calibrations

are performed when the system is set up.

429

Antenna misalignment

To receive maximum EIRP, both receiving and

transmitting antenna have to be aligned

perfectly

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Gaseous absorption

to the phenomena of gaseous absorption has to

be considered particularly for frequencies

above 10 GHz.

These effects are primarily due to amplitude

reduction which reduces signal power, but

water can also affect the polarization of

signals.

431

Now we write the link equation in terms of

C/N.

Carrier power (C) is the sum of the EIRP of

the transmitter, the gain of the receiver and any

associated implementation losses all expressed

in dB

C = EIRP + G Losses

So that is all the power available to the signal.

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Remember that

PN N = k T BN =N0BN

In dB form we can write

(C/N)dB = EIRP + G/T - Losses - k - BN

If we convert C/N to C/N0 form

C/N=C/(N0BN) C/N0=(C/N)BN

(C/N0)dB = EIRP + G/T - Losses - k

Note: The bandwidth has dropped out. C/N0 is then a figure that is independent

of bandwidth. However, you will hear much more often about C/N (also referred

to as SNR) that C/N0. 433

Eb/N0

digital data signals.

Conversion to Eb/N0 requires knowledge of the

symbol/bit rate and C/N the knowledge of the

bandwidth.

Summarizing these conversions in dB form

Eb/N0 = C/N0 - Rb

C/N = C/N0 - BN

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Nowadays nearly all the BER curves are given as a function

of the bit energy or Eb/N0.

However, the modem part of the communications systems

operate on the basis of symbol rates and not bit rates.

In a binary case, a symbol consists of just one bit, so the bit

rate of a binary system is equal to the symbol rate.

In a QPSK system, one symbol represents two bits, so here

the bit rate is twice symbol rate.

In 8-PSK system, one symbol stands for three bits, so now

the bit rate is three times the symbol rate.

The advantage is of these higher order modulations is that

higher bit rates can be contained in the same bandwidth as

the binary signal.

435

We can make a symbol stand for as many bits

as we want but since we find that the BER

increases faster than the bit rate, which

requires more power to overcome.

If the system is bandwidth-limited and but has

plenty of power, then these higher order

modulations make sense but e.g. for satellites

which are power limited (due to their being

weight-limited), they are not used.

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Coding gain

E.g. in bank transactions over the line to an another

bank, an error-free transmission is wanted.

Typically a data transmission at about 10-12 BER is

considered nearly error free or quasi error-free using

the official term.

To get a picture of 10-12 BER, this is equivalent to about

one error per hundred million pages of text transmitted.

A typical satellite link can provide, for a reasonable

power level, only about 10-3 BER.

This is equal to about ten errors per page.

This may be OK if this a voice signal or music but data

at this error rate is quite unacceptable.

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Nowadays error correction codes (ERC) is nearly

always used on all types of links.

There are many different varieties of ERC

suitable for all different types of link.

In all cases, the use of coding is a trade-off

between power and payload.

The bits used to convey coding cannot be used for

information, effectively reducing the useable bit

rate for a given bandwidth and power level.

439

Consider e.g. a group of 7 bits.

We assign the last bit as a parity bit.

This means that when the blocks of bits is checked at the

receiver, if the first six bits are even (equal number of 0 and 1)

then, the parity bit is set to 0, and if odd then it is set to 1.

Now we can tell if a received block is erroneous.

So by using a parity bit, we now have a way to tell if the block

has a bit error.

If the first six bit of the received block have an even number of

1s, as in the following figure, we know there has been an error

somewhere.

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This type of code is called a block code because

it deals with a group of bits at one time.

It is said to have a rate of 6/7, as the code uses 1

out of 7 bits for coding purposes and only 6 out 7

bits can be used for information.

In return for an Eb/N0 of 10 dB, it gives us an

approximate BER of 10-9 instead of the 10-5 we

would have gotten otherwise.

So in return for a loss of about 15% of the bit rate

to coding overhead, we get coarsely 5 dB

improvement in Eb/N0.

441

BER curves

Lets take a look at the

following BER curves.

The right most curve is

for an uncoded QPSK

signal, the other two for

coded links. BER

First thing we see is that

the use of valid coding

moves the BER curve to

the left.

Otherwise there would be

no point to use error Eb/N0(dB)

correcting codes.

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BER curves

These curves say that

we can get the same

BER but for a lesser

Eb/N0.

Of course, our effective BER

data rate is reduced.

But we wont worry

about the reduced data

rate, if we can live with

it.

Eb/N0(dB)

443

Example

We see that for a desired

BER of 10-5, an

uncoded QPSK signal

requires an Eb/N0 of 9.6

dB. BER

for the first code we

need only 4.4 dB and

the second code requires

Eb/N0(dB)

only 3.4 dB.

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Coding gain

Coding gain is the difference between Eb/N0 needed for

an uncoded system and Eb/N0 needed for a coded

system.

We define the coding gain as

Coding Gain = Uncoded Eb/N0 - Coded Eb/N0

for any particular BER.

The coding gain is a function of the BER level chosen.

So before the coding gain calculation we need to know

what BER level is desired for the link.

E.g., a BER of 10-5 can be chosen for voice and 10-10

10-12 for data links.

445

Coding gain

The coded BER curves

shown beside are usually

produced by testing or

simulation.

In scientific literature there

can be found BER curves for

BER

various types of codes.

In most cases this loss in

useful bit rate is accepted for

reduction in transmit power.

This is true now for all types

of links including wireless Eb/N0 (dB)

phones as well.

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Link margin

a reasonable margin for the chosen data rate,

bandwidth and EIRP and the G/T figures.

Often some adjusting and readjusting is needed

to get the desired link margin.

Margin

447

Note

Other factors such as interference from

adjacent channels and adjacent links will affect

the link budgets.

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Microwaves

definitions

Applications

Microwaves are conventionally encountered in

three kinds of applications:

1. radar, used for detection and measurements;

2. radiocommunications, for point-to-point links,

most particularly for satellite and space

communications;

3. heating, drying, cooking of many different types

of materials.

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Applications

The majority of applications of microwaves are related

to radar and communication systems.

Microwave communication systems handle a large

fraction of the worlds international and other long-haul

telephone, data, and television transmissions.

Most of the current wireless telecommunications

systems, such as terrestrial radio links, satellite

communications , wireless local and personal or body

area networks (WLAN, WPAN, WBAN), cellular

systems, and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems,

operate in the UHF EHF range, and thus rely on

microwave technology.

451

Applications

Information applications are in the field of information

acquisition and transfer.

In radar, microwaves permit acquisition of certain

information, which is contained within the echo signal from a

target.

The location and characteristics of the latter are determined by

comparing the signal received after reflection to the emitted

signal.

In communications, microwaves provide the support to the

information which is to be transmitted from very small to very

large distances.

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Applications

property of microwaves, that is in-depth

heating.

This is an energy transfer application, which

has found a number of uses in everyday life,

from the kitchen to the medical treatment of

various ailments.

453

Microwave field

The microwave field covers quite a wide range of

applications of very diverse nature.

Many different problems are found in the field.

On the fundamental level, basic theories quickly lead

to very complex mathematics.

In rather sharp contrast, many practical applications

are still based on the traditional cut and try

experimental approach or/and simulation.

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Theoretical models

The same variety is encountered in the use of models at different levels of

complexity.

The study of waveguides and cavities can be done by considering the

electrical and magnetic fields, described in terms of Maxwells

equations.

The same macroscopic model is also adequate to consider the interactions

between electromagnetic fields and an electron beam, as they occur in most

generating and amplifying vacuum tubes.

For other active components, such as the solid state sources, the use of

quantum physics is required.

The characterization and measurement of components is done in terms of

circuit theory, using the scattering matrix formalism and Kirchhoffs

laws.

455

If you consult Webster you find the word

microwave defined as a very short

electromagnetic wave.

The key word in this definition is short, which

implies length (a wavelength) is involved.

The wavelength () of an electromagnetic

wave is equal to the velocity (v) of that wave

divided by its frequency (f) or =v/f.

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magnetic wave is inversely proportional to its

frequency; that is, the higher the frequency, the

shorter the wavelength.

So what are microwaves?

In simple terms, they are radio waves of a very

high frequency.

457

Exactly where the microwave spectrum begins

is a matter of some discussion.

There are those who say it begins at 300 MHz

( = 1 m in air) and those who maintain it

starts at 1.0 GHz ( = 30 cm in air).

458

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Compromise definition

conventional components (lumped capacitors,

resistors, and coils) no longer exhibit their

proper parameters and where it becomes

practical and advantageous to build

(distributed) components in stripline and

microstrip, as well as in coaxial, form.

459

Skin effect

The origin of the microwave spectrum should be where

conventional components cease to display normal parameters.

But why would such a change occur?

One key reason is a phenomenon known as the skin effect.

At higher frequencies the energy of a wave tends to use only

the outside skin of a conductor for the transferring of energy

because larger and larger flux are set up around a conductor,

increasing its inductance.

By once the inductive reactance (XL) increases when the

frequency does, thereby offering a larger resistance to the

energy.

Thus the high frequency component searches for the path of

lowest resistance on the outer skin of the conductor.

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Skin effect

Because of this phenomenon the energy travels only on the outside

edge of the conductors; lumped components thus become very

unpredictable and impractical at microwave frequencies.

It has been observed that some capacitors actually look inductive at

high frequencies.

The capacitance set up in coils and wire-wound resistors when used

at microwave frequencies completely cancel out the intended

functions of each of these components.

Special materials, usually of a ceramic base, are used in the

production of capacitors and resistors for use at the higher

frequencies.

Coils are usually made of high impedance lines cut to a specific

length.

461

to 300 GHz is generally known as microwaves,

which thus characterize signals having between

300 million and 300 billion periods per second

(from 3 108 to 3 1011 Hz).

These limits are to some extent arbitrary: they

permit to position the microwave domain between

the waves used for conventional radio and TV

diffusion (lower ranges) and infrared rays (higher

ranges).

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A finer designation of the frequency bands divides

them into decades.

The microwave range more or less covers the

three decades called

ultra-high frequencies (UHF),

super-high frequencies (SFH), and

extra-high frequencies (EHF).

The upper ranges of electromagnetic radiation are

known as infrared, visible rays, and ultraviolets.

Microwaves are divided into still narrower bands,

corresponding to specific wave-guide sizes.

463

US MICROWAVE BAND

464

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In quantum physics, electromagnetic radiation

is considered to be a flow of photons of energy

hf, where f is the frequency and h is Plancks

constant ( 6.6310-24 Js).

A microwave photon thus has an energy

located in the range between roughly 1.2 10-6

and 1.2 10-3 eV.

465

1 eV=1e*1V=1.6*10-19 As*1V=1.6*10-19J

wavelengths

The period T of a microwave signal, defined as

the inverse of the frequency f is located

between 3 ns (nanoseconds) and 3 ps

(picoseconds).

The wavelength of a microwave signal for an

electromagnetic wave propagating across

space at the velocity of light c0 = 2.997925 ...

108 m/s is defined by = c0/f= c0T,

somewhere between 1 m and 1 mm.

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Remark

The term microwaves, used to define a range

of frequencies, denotes the smallness of the

wavelength encountered, as compared to those

utilized for conventional radio and television.

The use of the comparative prefix micro may

lead to confusions here too: one would expect

microwaves to denote wavelengths in the

micrometer range and not, as is actually the

case, in the millimeter to meter ranges.

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centimeter, and millimeter waves

decimeter waves (UHF),

centimeter waves (SHF), and

millimeter waves (EHF).

469

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Frequency allocation

Use of radio frequency bands is regulated by governments.

ITU works on standards for frequency allocation.

471

Dimensional comment

The wavelength of a microwave signal is of the same

order of magnitude as the devices used to produce it

and to transmit it.

It is not possible to assume that devices are merely

dimensionless points in space, as is done in circuit

theory approximations.

Also, the term voltage is not defined in a unique way,

since the electric field does not derive from a scalar

potential.

On the other hand, it is neither possible to assume that

devices become large with respect to wavelength, as is

the case for geometrical optics.

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Wave theory

terms of electric and magnetic fields, as

defined in Maxwells model.

Microwaves actually helped to demonstrate the

validity of this model.

The study and utilization of the microwave

domain required the development of specific

new techniques and devices.

473

Since the velocity of sound in air is of the order of 300 m/s,

roughly one million times smaller than the velocity of light,

wavelengths between 1 mm and 1 m correspond, in

acoustics, to frequencies between 300 Hz and 300 kHz.

This range contains most known acoustic sources, in

particular the human voice and music.

A similarity does therefore exist between microwaves and

acoustics, two fields in which devices have the same size as

wavelengths.

Certain methods developed for acoustical applications can

be directly transposed to microwaves and vice versa.

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Microwaves

Properties of microwaves

Bandwidth

The very wide frequency bands available at microwaves are most

favorable for radio communications.

The rate of transmission of a channel being directly proportional to

its bandwidth, a simple calculation shows that over the 300 MHz to

300 GHz frequency range, 999 times more information can be

transmitted over a specified time period than in all the lower

frequency bands taken together.

As a result, the use of microwaves permits meeting the increasing

need for communications channels.

This particular property is directly related to the signal frequency.

Following the same line of reasoning, even much larger amounts of

information could, in principle, be transmitted over the infrared and

visible spectra, using lasers and optical fiber systems.

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layers of electron plasma, which surround the

earth at altitudes ranging from 50 to 10,000

km.

These ionized layers are produced by the

impact of solar radiation, so that their

parameters (density, height) fluctuate widely

between day and night, exhibiting seasonal

variations and changes related to the solar

activity. 477

The electromagnetic propagation within the ionosphere is similar to that in

a waveguide.

Signals at frequencies lower than 10 - 40 MHz (cut-off frequency) are

partially or totally reflected.

This property is used to realize multiple reflection links at short waves.

Higher frequency signals travel across the ionosphere, but experience

distortion, which decreases with frequency.

Microwave signals, well above the ionospheric cut-off, are hardly affected

at all, at sufficiently small power levels.

For these reasons, microwaves are utilized for satellite communications and

space transmissions.

Radioastronomy deals with microwave radiation emanating from distant

stars, galaxies, and quasars.

A quasi-stellar radio source ("quasar") is a very energetic, distant, and compact

region in the center of a massive galaxy surrounding its central supermassive black

478

hole.

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atmosphere

The various atmospheric components (oxygen,

nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide) and the

many elements in suspension (water droplets,

ice crystals, dust, smoke) do not significantly

affect signals having frequencies smaller than

about 10 GHz.

Higher frequency signals experience several

unwanted effects: absorption, depolarization,

and scintillation.

479

Electromagnetic noise

The noise picked up by an antenna directed skyward, in the absence of

signal, goes through a relatively flat minimum over the 1 to 10 GHz

frequency range.

The received noise power is the product of the equivalent noise temperature

(in Kelvin) by Boltzmanns constant (kB =1.3804 10-23 J/K) and by the

receivers bandwidth.

Over the 1-10 GHz band, the noise temperature decreases below 10 Kelvin.

In practical terms, this means that it is within this frequency range that

signals of the lowest amplitude can be detected, and thus the most sensitive

receivers can be designed.

For instance, signals of extremely low levels received after transmission

across planetary space are often in the neighborhood of 3 GHz.

A further requirement for the receiver is not to produce too much noise,

which would degrade the input signal-to-noise ratio.

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Directivity of antennas

The width of the beam radiated by an antenna is directly

proportional to the ratio of the wavelength to the antennas

largest dimension.

When transmitting a signal from one point to another

(microwave link), or when determining the origin of a

reflection (radar), a narrow beamwidth is required.

It is then either necessary to have a large size antenna, which is

often not convenient for mechanical reasons, or to utilize a

signal of high frequency.

Microwaves are well suited for such applications.

481

Note

Even narrower beamwidths are obtained using

signals in the visible range (laser).

As the beam is then extremely narrow, it must

be directed quite accurately towards the

detector, and pointing problems may become

significant.

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Reflection on targets

The effective reflection area of an object depends in a

very sensitive manner on the ratio of the objects size

to the wavelength.

When the reflecting element is much smaller than the

wavelength, the reflection becomes vanishingly

small.

On the other hand, when the wavelength becomes

much smaller than the object, the effective reflection

area for a metallic element is approximately its cross

section transverse to the beam.

483

Remark

Centimeter waves thus detect objects of meter

size, but are not affected by raindrops.

The latter can, on the other hand, perturb the

detection at millimeter waves.

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material sample, it is preferentially absorbed at

particular frequencies, which are the resonant

frequencies of the material.

The resonances observed at microwaves

depend on the molecular composition of

matter.

This effect is put to good use in chemical and

physical analyses.

485

In particular, water strongly absorbs all

microwaves, a specific property which leads to

two types of applications:

1. microwave heating, utilized for the cooking of

food, the drying and thermal processing of

numerous materials, and the medical treatment of a

number of ailments by hyperthermia;

2. the detection and measurement of moisture

contained within materials.

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Non-ionizing radiation

several orders of magnitude, than the energy

belonging to a microwave photon.

This means that a photon, at microwave

frequencies, does not possess sufficient energy

to break a chemical link, for instance by

photoelectric effect.

Microwaves are thus a non-ionizing form of

radiation.

487

Note

At frequencies far above microwaves, a photon

can have enough energy to extract an electron

and produce ionization.

This happens in the visible spectrum,

ultraviolet (suntan), X and gamma rays.

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hydrogen, cesium, and rubidium exhibit

extremely stable oscillations within the

microwave range.

As a result, all atomic clocks and frequency

standards make use of microwaves.

489

Note

The set of properties listed previously makes

microwaves a privileged field for a large

number of applications, such as satellite

communications and radar, but also heating

and measurement.

Some of these applications simply could not

exist without microwaves.

For others, microwaves provide the best

compromise among various requirements to be

satisfied simultaneously.

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Microwaves

Historical landmarks

communications

The spark generators used by Hertz and

Marconi for their first radio transmissions in

1888 and 1890 were non-coherent emitters,

generating a very broad spectrum of noise

extending well into the microwave range.

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First waveguide

generator with a metal tube and noted that the

resulting radiated signal exhibited directional

properties.

This effect was at the time considered a

laboratory curiosity, and it did not lead to

practical applications.

With the advent of vacuum tubes, the further

development of radio was hence oriented

towards lower frequencies. 493

Communications experiments

The first practical experiments carried out with

the purpose of using microwaves for the

transmission of information are credited to

George Southworth, at the Bell Telephone

Laboratories, in the US during the 1920s and

1930s.

Wave propagation along copper water pipes

was investigated.

Since then, users of microwaves have often been

nicknamed plumbers.

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Development of radar

closely linked to the development of radar

during World War II.

The basic principle, already outlined by Robert

Watson-Watt around 1930, makes use of the

electromagnetic echo produced by a target.

495

Development of radar

A short signal pulse is launched, the time

between its departure and the return of a

reflected signal is measured.

To ensure an adequate detection of targets,

signals of increasingly higher frequencies were

found to be needed.

The magnetron was developed for this

purpose, being the first tube having a high

power generating capability at microwaves.

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Development of radar

The design and the industrial fabrication of radar

systems started around 1940.

Radar played a significant role during World War II,

among others in the well known Battle of Britain.

Some of the research and development work was de-

classified at the end of the war.

Particularly worth mentioning is the 25-volume set

published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

(Radiation Laboratory Series), covering all aspects of radar

design, including the foundations of microwaves.

497

Microwave generators were at first vacuum

tubes, specifically designed for use within

radar systems.

The magnetron is based on the interactions of

an electron flow within crossed electric and

magnetic fields, an effect studied since the

1920s.

It became operative at the beginning of World

War II.

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and Sigurd Varian.

Many different kinds of microwave generators

were developed later on, the most significant

ones being

the backward-wave oscillator (BWO) and

the traveling wave tube (TWT).

499

Ferrite devices

The first non-reciprocal linear passive device

appeared in 1956, a gyrator.

The many isolators and circulators developed since

then are mostly devices for protection, decoupling,

and control.

They are nowadays found in most microwave

systems.

An important property of a gyrator is that it inverts the current-voltage characteristic of

an electrical component or network.

An isolator is a two-port device that transmits microwave or radio frequency power in

one direction only.

A circulator is a passive non-reciprocal three - or four-port device, in which a microwave

or radio frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in rotation only.

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Satellite communications

The first satellite, Sputnik I, was placed in orbit on

October 4 1957.

In 1962 Telstar was launched, the first

communications satellite placed in a low earth orbit.

Three years later, in 1965, the satellite Early Bird was

placed in a geostationary orbit (remaining over a

fixed location on the equator).

Since then, successive generations of satellites are

playing an important role in communications, mostly

for international links, but also within domestic

networks.

501

Active semiconductor devices appeared on the market

in the 1960s, replacing vacuum tubes as microwave

sources for low and medium power levels.

The first device of this kind developed was the Gunn

diode, based on a physical phenomenon discovered

by J.B Gunn in 1962.

Diode generators and amplifiers were increasingly

being replaced, since the end of the 1970s, by

transistors, either bipolar or MESFETs

(MetalsemiconductorFET).

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are often superseded by more compact circuits

in microstrip, slot line, or coplanar line,

realized by means of printed circuit

techniques.

503

Maxwells equations

versions

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Maxwells equations

Maxwells equations govern the propagation of

electromagnetic waves in various media, including

free space,

waveguides,

optical fibers, and

optical crystals.

All

electric,

magnetic,

electromagnetic, and

optical phenomena

are governed by the same fundamental laws of

electromagnetism.

505

Gauss' Law (M I)

Gauss' Law says how the electric field behaves around electric charges.

Gauss' Law can be written in terms of the electric flux density (D) and the

electric charge density (v) as:

This local form equation is valid at any point in space.

Thus, if there exists electric charge somewhere, then the divergence of D at

that point is nonzero, otherwise it is equal to zero.

The divergence of the D field over any region (volume) of space is exactly

equal to the net amount of charge in that region.

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Note: Divergence ()

Divergence at a point (x,y,z) is the measure of the vector flow out of a

surface surrounding that point.

Divergence is a specific measure of how fast the vector field is changing in

the x, y, and z directions.

If a vector function A is given by:

Then the divergence of A is the sum of how fast the vector function is

changing:

507

Example

Consider the vector function A

the divergence of A at this point is 2+6*3 = 20.

We can find the divergence at any point in space because we know the

functions defining the vector A, and then calculated the derivates (the rate

of changes).

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M I (Gauss Law)

away from electric charges.

This means that positive charge acts as a source of

electric field.

Gauss' law means that negative charge acts as a

sink for electric field.

This all means electric field lines start and stop on

electric charges.

509

Gauss' magnetism law states that the divergence of

the magnetic flux density (B) is zero.

permeability , we note that the divergence of the

magnetic field is also zero.

through any volume.

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monopoles) do not exist.

This equation states that the magnetic field

tends to wrap around things - since the

divergence is zero the fields tend to form

closed loops.

511

magnetic field will generate a circulating

electric field.

This means we have two ways of generating

electric fields

from electric charges (or flowing electric charge,

current) or

from a time-varying (changing) magnetic field.

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Note: Curl ()

The curl is a measure of the rotation of a vector field.

Let us take a vector field, A(x,y,z), we can write A as:

513

Ampere's law says that a flowing electric current gives rise to

a magnetic field that circles the wire.

In addition to this, the generalized Amperes law also says that

a time-varying electric field gives rise to a magnetic field that

encircles the electric field - this is the displacement current

term (also called Maxwells addition to Amperes law).

This means there are two ways to generate a circulating

(solenoidal) magnetic field

a flowing electric current or

a changing electric field.

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Maxwell's equations can be rewritten with only E and H

present.

This means we express D, B and J using E, H and E.

We can do this by using the material equations:

515

If the local form of Maxwell's equations are true at

every point, then we can integrate them over any volume

(V) or through any surface and they will still be true.

Total charge inside the

volume V with the (closed)

boundary surface S

Elementary vector dS is ortogonal to the surface S and |dS| is the area element.

516

Elementary vector dL is parallel to the closed loop L and |dL| the length element.

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Maxwells equations

517

Note

The global form version can be derived from

the local form Maxwells equations using the

following theorems:

Divergence

theorem

Stokes

theorem

Note: These theorems are valid with an arbitrary vector field A. 518

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Example

form Gauss laws (M I and M II) using the

Divergence theorem:

A surface integral

A dS

S

519

Solution

Derive the global form version (surface integrals) from the

local form Gauss laws (M I and M II) using the Divergence

theorem (Gauss theorem):

Thus

520

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Solution

Divergence theorem (Gauss theorem):

Thus

521

Example

Derive the global form version (line integrals) from

the local form Faradays law and Amperes law (M III

and M IV) using the Stokes theorem:

522

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Solution

Stokes theorem:

523

Solution

Stokes theorem:

524

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Electromagnetic waves

Let's look at the M III and M IV equations that govern all of

electric and magnetic field propagation:

give rise to a circulating electric field.

In practice, fields do not continually grow or continually

shrink - they oscillate about an average.

So the magnetic field oscillates - which means that also the

electric field oscillates.

525

Electromagnetic waves

Ampere's law says that a time-varying electric field generates a magnetic

field that encircles the electric field.

In the same way, the electric field will be oscillating in time, the encircling

magnetic field will be oscillating in time as well.

So, a time-varying electric field generates a time-varying magnetic field

and vice versa.

This continuous coupling between these two fields produces the

propagation of electromagnetic waves.

All electromagnetic waves (radiation) radio waves, visible light, x-rays

, consist solely of propagating electromagnetic fields.

From these two basic Maxwells equations (M III, M IV) we can determine

how electromagnetic waves propagate through medium and

how they interact with materials.

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527

Maxwells equations

phasors

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eigenfunctions

In electromagnetics, we often deals with monochromatic

waves, which serves as a carrier of information in

electromagnetic communication.

The field vectors of monochromatic waves are sinusoids of

time.

More complex waveforms can always be developed over a

finite or infinite sum of sine waves.

The selection of sine waves as the basis for decomposition

results from the fact that, in linear systems the eigenfunctions

are sine waves, which move along within the system without

deformation, even though their amplitude and phase do vary

with position.

529

Phasor

Nonsidusoidal signals change shape while propagating in

dispersive systems, either through amplitude distortion or

through phase distortion.

For simplifying the algebraic manipulations, sine waves are

often represented in complex notation by means of phasors

and phasor-vectors.

To illustrate this complex formalism, we consider simple

functions

where is the angular frequency (in units of radian per second), |X|

and X are the amplitudes, and is the phase.

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Phasor

If we define the complex amplitude of x(t) by

function

531

Phasor transformation

When this happens it is always understood that we mean the

real part of x(t), which is x(t).

In linear operations the replacement of the real form x(t) by the

complex form x(t) poses no problems, when it is understood

that the final result is the real part of the complex form result.

Actually, we can reduce algebraic manipulations with phasor

transformation:

532

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Example

533

Note

x(t) is called an instantaneous value and it is

time-function

function.

However, phasor X is not time-function.

534

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Phasor-vector

representation, the actual physical vector field

X(r,t), function of space and time, is related to

the corresponding phasor-vector X(r) by the

relationship

the time and the angular frequency.

The modulus of the phasor-vector X(r) is the peak

value of the corresponding physical field.

535

Non-linear operation

In operations that involve product of

sinusoidal time-functions or monochromatic

field vectors such as powers, energies, energy

densities, we must use the real form of

functions and vectors, because generally

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Example

x(t)y(t) can be calculated in real form or using

complex time-functions or using the special

expression of phasors

complex conjugate.

537

Time-average

Occasionally in electromagnetics, we have to deal with waves

with extremely short periods (T=/c<10-12s).

Most detectors are unable to respond instantaneously at such a

rapid change, but they can find the time-averaged values.

It is often necessary to find the time average of the product of

two sinusoidal functions of the same frequency:

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Example

to phasor form.

539

Solution

Let us replace u(x,t) with a corresponding

rotating phasor u(x,t) in both equations

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Solution

phasors u(x,t) and i(x,t)

541

Solution

Lets substitute phasor partial derivates to the

original Telegraphers equations

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Note

function

543

The theoretical developments presented here

consider exclusively time-dependent

sinusoidal wave signals, represented in

complex notation by means of phasor-vectors.

More complex signal patterns can, in principle,

always be developed over a finite or infinite

sum of sinusoidal waves (Fourier series,

Fourier transform).

544

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Why sinusoidals?

The selection of sinusoidal waves as the basis for

decomposition results from the fact that, in all

systems of linear equations the eigenfunctions are

sine waves, which move along within the system

without deformation, even though their amplitude and

phase do vary with position.

In every dispersive system, nonsinusoidal signals, on

the contrary, change shape while propagating, either

through amplitude distortion or through phase

distortion.

545

The actual physical field X(r,t), function of space and

time, is related to the corresponding phasor-vector

X(r) by the relationship

the time and =2 the angular frequency

corresponding to frequency .

Note: Underlining means that a quantity is complex (phasor or phasor-vector). Bold face

italics denote vectors. The modulus of the phasor-vector X(r) is the effective value of the

corresponding physical field. 546

273

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

notation

Maxwells equations, in term of phasor-vectors in a

linear, homogeneous, possibly lossy, isotropic

medium are given by

where

547

Phasor-quantities

548

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note

of Maxwell's equations is perfectly

legitimate, because

this form tells us how the waves behave if they are

oscillating at frequency f, and

all waves can be decomposed into the sum of

simple oscillating waves.

549

Maxwells equations

boundary conditions

275

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

relative permittivity and permeability of the

medium.

The loss tangent tan = / characterizes the

attenuation of the electric field in a lossy

material.

551

In many metals and semiconductors, the current

density J is many orders of magnitude larger than the

displacement current D/t.

It is then often assumed that, in the first

approximation, , the conductor being then a

perfect electric conductor (pec).

However, for physical reasons the current density J

cannot become infinite: the above condition means

that the electric field E must vanish within a pec.

552

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

permeability becomes quite large, and is

often assumed to be infinite, as a first-order

approximation, the conductor being then a

perfect magnetic conductor (pmc).

In this instance, the induction field B cannot

become infinite, so that the magnetic field H

must vanish within a pmc.

553

Boundary conditions

On the interface separating two different materials,

none of which is a perfect electric conductor, the

tangential components of the electric and of the

magnetic field are continuous, as expressed by

directed from medium 2 towards medium 1, and

where indices 1 and 2 specify, respectively, the

medium within which the field is defined.

554

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Boundary conditions

normal components of the phasor-vectors are

automatically satisfied when equations

are met.

555

On the surface of a perfect electric conductor

(pec, =), the electric phasor-vector must

meet the condition

metallic surface (short-circuit).

556

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

(pmc, =) without surface current, the

magnetic phasor-vector must meet the

condition

microwaves, a sufficiently large permeability

to satisfy the above condition.

557

normal components

Boundary conditions on the normal components of the electric

field yield:

two materials when at least one of the two has a non-zero

conductivity .

Similarly, the magnetic field must satisfy

558

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

electric conductor

Since the electric field E must vanish inside of

a perfect electric conductor, it follows from

when 0.

559

In vacuum, and approximately in air, the electric

displacement D is related to the electric field E by the

electric constant 0

D 1 As

0 109

E 36 Vm

560

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Similarly, the magnetic constant 0 is the ratio

of the magnetic induction B by the magnetic

field H in all nonmagnetic materials

561

The velocity of light in vacuum c0 is related to

the product of those two constants by

562

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

defined as:

563

At first let us consider the Faradays law (M III) in the integral

form

of the boundary between any two materials, and returning on

the other side, an infinitesimal distance into the second

medium.

564

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

field

The line integral of electric field is

on either side of the boundary, its area is zero and therefore the

contribution from changing magnetic flux is zero so long as

rate of change of magnetic flux density is finite.

When

565

field

Consequently,

components of electric field are continuous across the

boundary surface or

566

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

field

Similarly, the generalized Amperes law in global form may be

applied to a like path with its two sides on the two sides of the

boundary as in the previous case.

The line integral of magnetic field (M IV) is

When

on either side of the boundary, its (loop) area is zero and

therefore the contribution from changing magnetic flux is zero

so long as rate of change of magnetic flux density is finite.

567

field

Thus

((Providing that J

vector is finite.))

field must be equal on the two sides of any boundary

between physically real media.

568

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Normal components

If two very small elements of area S are considered, one on either side of

the boundary between any two materials, with a surface charge density p

existing on the boundary, the application of Gauss law (M I)

569

gives

density are continuous; for a boundary with charges, they are discontinuous

by the amount of the surface charge density p.

With no magnetic charge term on the RHS of M II

flux density is continuous:

Bn1-Bn2=0 570

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

materials

571

Isotropy

Inside the great majority of materials utilized

in practical applications, phasor vectors D and

E are parallel to one another, or colinear.

The same occurs for B and H.

Such a material is then called isotropic.

The permittivity and the permeability are

both scalar quantities.

572

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Anisotropy

For a family of magnetic dielectrics called ferrites,

the phasor-vectors B and H of a microwave signal are

not parallel.

These are anisotropic materials, for which the

permeability becomes a tensor, represented by a 3

3 matrix.

11 12 13 H x

B H 21 22 23 H y

31 32 33 H z

is no longer applicable.

573

If a network does not contain non-reciprocal devices or materials* (i.e.

ferrites, or active devices), then the network is reciprocal.

of a symmetric

matrix is symmetric.

Z and Y are symmetric

tensors.

A reciprocal device is one that is made from reciprocal materials.

Example of a nonreciprocal material: ferrite

This material is very useful for making isolators and circulators.

574

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We can show that the equivalent circuits for reciprocal two-port

networks are:

Z11 Z 21 Z 22 Z 21

T-equivalent Z 21

Y21

575

D E

B

Dx xx xy xz Ex Bx xx xy xz x

D

yy yz E y B

y yx yy yz y

y yx

Dz zx zy zz Ez Bz zx zy zz z

Reciprocal: ij ji , ij ji

j 0

0

Ferrite: 0 j is not symmetric!

0 0 1

576

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

577

isotropic and linear dielectric region

578

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

vector

579

580

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

581

582

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

equation

583

Note

584

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Maxwells equations

Dynamics Quasistatics

586

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Quantity Unit/Value

587

Suppose we restrict ourselves to time-independent situations (i.e.

nothing is varying with time everything is static).

We get two sets of equations for electric and magnetic fields that are

completely independent and uncoupled:

only electric charges. only electric currents.

In electrostatics problems one In magnetostatics problems one

needs to determine electric field needs to determine magnetic field

given some charge distribution. given some current distribution.

588

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Slow changes

The restriction to completely time-independent situations is too

limiting and often unnecessary.

What if things are changing slowly in time.

Allowing for slow time variations, one often uses the equations of

electroquasistatics and magnetoquasistatics.

Equations of Electroquasistatics Equations of Magnetoquasistatics

only electric charges. only electric currents.

Once the electric field is Once the magnetic field is

determined, the magnetic field can determined, the electric field can be

be found by the last equation. found by the last equation.

589

Electromagnetic waves and signals move at the

speed c (speed of light)

Time variations are considered slow if the time

scales over which things are changing are

much longer compared to the time taken by

light to cover distances equal to the length

scales of the problem.

590

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

Lets take an amplifier chip (max. dimension=3 cm) operating

from 100 MHz to 10 GHz. Is quasistatics analysis valid ?

100 MHz operation

Time scale of the problem = 1/(100 MHz) = 10 ns

Length scale of the problem = 3 cm

Time taken by light to travel 3 cm = 0.1 ns

Since 10 ns >> 0.1 ns, quasistatics is a valid means of analysis

at 100 MHz

10 GHz operation

Time scale of the problem = 1/(10 GHz) = 0.1 ns

Length scale of the problem = 3 cm

Time taken by light to travel 3 cm = 0.1 ns

Quasistatics is not a valid means of analysis at 10 GHz 591

analysis

Electromagnetic wave frequency f and wavelength are related to the

speed of the wave c by the relation:

f=c

Let: L = length scale of the problem

T = time scale of the problem 1/f

Condition for quasitatic analysis to be valid:

T>>L/c

cT>>L

c/f >>L

>>L

Quasistatic analysis is valid if the wavelength of electromagnetic wave at

the frequency of interest is much longer than the length scales involved in

the problem.

592

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waves

Linear, circular, and

elliptical polarization

Polarization of a field

The polarization of any vector field is defined by the

geometrical locus of the tip of the vector, as it varies during

one period T.

Equation

half-axes X(r,0) and X(r,T/4), which defines the plane of the

ellipse as well as its dimension.

594

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Polarization of a field

elliptically polarized.

There are two limiting cases:

1. when the two vectors are directed parallel to

each other, or when one of the two vanishes, the

ellipse shrinks to a straight line.

The field is then linearly polarized, and the condition

is satisfied.

595

The asterisk * denotes the complex conjugate.

Polarization of a field

2. when the two vectors have the same length and

are perpendicular to each other, the ellipse

becomes a circle, and the field is circularly

polarized.

This occurs when

directions X(r,0), and X(r,T/4), respectively.

596

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Polarization of a field

An elliptical A linear

polarization polarization

A circular

polarization

597

Comment

Any field may be expressed by the sum of two

linearly polarized fields: this is actually done in

circularly polarized fields, rotating in opposite

directions.

The long half-axis of the ellipse is then the sum of the two

radii, and the short axis their difference (which vanishes for

a linear polarization).

598

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note: The x- and y-components of the E-field have the same amplitude but

599

are 90-degrees out of phase.

600

circular trajectory.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

If one takes a snapshot of a circularly polarized wave at any instant, then he

will see the picture shown below

The E-field vector does not change in magnitude but its direction twists

in space.

An observer sitting in the path of the wave will see the E-field vector rotate

in a circular trajectory at his location as the wave passes by.

plane waves

602

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waves

Right-hand circular polarization Left-hand circular polarization

The wave is right-hand circularly The wave is left-hand circularly

polarized if at any location in space polarized if at any location in space

when the thumb of the right hand when the thumb of the left hand

points in the direction of points in the direction of

propagation, the fingers curl in the propagation, the fingers curl in the

direction of rotation of the E-field direction of rotation of the E-field

vector in a plane perpendicular to vector in a plane perpendicular to

the direction of propagation. the direction of propagation.

603

604

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

605

606

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

607

A circularly polarized wave is a linear superposition of two linearly

polarized waves

circularly polarized waves

of appropriate basis states chosen from either linear or circular basis.

608

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Comment

609

Application of Maxwells

equations

Wave propagation

305

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Maxwells equations

Let us consider a region in space containing no sources so

there will be no charge and current terms in Maxwells

equations.

Arbitrary time variations of the fields will be permitted and the

medium is to be considered homogeneous, isotropic, linear,

and with zero conductivity.

So, we have equations in form

611

Separation of fields

To attempt a solution of a group of simultaneous equations, it is usually a

good plan to separate the various functions of position, such as D and B

here, to arrive at equations that give the distributions of each.

Thus, lets try to separate E and H to the own expressions.

First, taking the curl of M III, we see that

derivatives may be taken

in any order.

612

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Wave equation

Thus

medium considered.

Note: This form applies as well to the magnetic field, as may seen by a similar derivation started

613

by taking the curl of M IV.

Wave equation

From this simple special case many of the characteristics of

electromagnetic waves can be found.

Recalling that in rectangular coordinates the Laplacian of a

vector can be separated into the vector sum of the Laplacian of

the components, we have in Cartesian form

614

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

wave equation

For the case of variation in the z direction only, Laplacian

reduces to the form of the one-dimensional wave equation.

the form

corresponding derivates (F, F) and

615

The first term of the solution represents the

wave or function F1 traveling with velocity v

and unchanging form in the positive z

direction.

The second term represents the wave or

function F2 traveling with velocity v and

unchanging form in the negative z direction.

These functions F1 and F2 are called uniform

plane waves.

Note: Radio waves at some distance from the antenna and the ground are approximately of this

616

simple form with space variations in one direction only.

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Application of Maxwells

Equations

Poyntings theorem and

energy relations in an

electromagnetic field

electromagnetic fields

The simple transmission line waves can transfer energy

from one point to another.

Energy transfer may also be accomplished through more

general types of electromagnetic waves, the amount of the

energy depending on the magnitudes, distribution, and

phases of the electric and magnetic fields of the wave.

Let us take a region in which permittivity and

permeability may be functions of position but not of time.

Maxwells equations, written in terms of the total fields,

currents, and charges of a region, describe the

electromagnetic behavior of the region.

618

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Let us take a

619

equals the surface integral of (E x H) over the boundary.

620

Note: All points of the closed surface A are on the boundary surface of the volume V.

310

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

theorem)

A surface integral

A dS

S

621

Poyntings theorem

This form is valid for general media, but in the common case

of linear, isotropic, time-invariant materials, material

parameters are scalars independent of time.

Then

B H

D E

622

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

volume for a static magnetic field.

Energy density

of magnetic field

magnetic field, the first term of volume integral

represents the time rate of increase of the stored

energy in the magnetic fields of the region.

Vs

Henry Vs

A

m m Am 623

per unit volume for a static electric field.

Energy density

of electric field

volume integral represents the time rate of

increase of the stored energy in the electric

fields of the region.

As

Faraday V As

m m Vm 624

312

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

energy dissipated in heat per unit time in medium.

All the net energy term must have been supplied externally.

Thus the term on the right (surface integral) represents the

energy flow into the volume per unit time.

Changing sign, the rate of energy flow out through the

enclosing surface is

V A W J

S E H m m m 2

sm 2

where

P S A W J

m2 W

m2 s

is called Poyntings vector.

625

Poyntings vector

It is convenient to think of the Poyntings

vector

energy flow at any point in space.

V A W J

S E H m m m 2

sm 2

Note:

P S A W m 2 W J

m2 s

626

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Poyntings vector

If E and H

are phasors (complex vectors), then

627

Example

Let it be

direction of propagation

628

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Application of Maxwells

equations

Plane waves

Plane waves are good approximations to real waves in many

practical situations.

Radio waves at large distances from the transmitter, or from

diffracting objects, have negligible curvature and are well

represented by plane waves.

Much of optics utilizes the plane wave approximation.

More complicated electromagnetic wave patterns can be

considered as superposition of plane waves, so in this sense

the plane waves are basic building blocks for all wave

problems.

Even when that approach is not followed, the basic ideas of

propagation, reflection, and refraction, which are met simply

here, help the understanding of other wave problems.

630

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

dielectric (free-space)

We restrict our attention to media for which and are scalar

constants.

For a uniform plane wave, variations in two directions, say x

and y, are assumed to be zero.

Maxwells curl equation in rectangular coordinates

631

coordinates

Maxwells curl equation in rectangular coordinates reduce to

We see first from (3) and (6) that Ez and Hz must both be zero, except

possibly for constant (static) parts which are not of interest to us in the

wave solution.

That is, the electric and magnetic fields of this simple wave are both

transverse to the direction of propagation.

Note:

632

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Next, if (2) is differentiated with respect to z, (4) with respect

to t, and the two results combined, we obtain the one-

dimensional form of the wave equation in Ex

positive z direction and another traveling with the same

velocity in the negative z direction.

633

direction

For free space

positive z direction

634

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Wave impedance

have

635

Wave impedance

constant of the medium, and it will be a useful

parameter in the analysis of electromagnetic

waves.

It is also known as the intrinsic impedance of

the medium.

Thus, its dimension is ohm ().

For vacuum (free space),

636

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Application of Maxwells

equations

A plane wave solution of

the wave equation in a

conducting medium

Conductivity

In the previous section we considered a uniform plane wave

propagating in free space.

Here we consider a uniform plane wave propagation in a

conductor.

The term conductor will be applied to those materials in which

collisions determine the movement of the charges when an

electric field is applied.

Let it be (>0) the constant conductivity of the homogenous

medium.

Thus the current density resulting from movement of the

charges in conducting medium is given by Ohms law:

638

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

harmonic case

Now Maxwells curl equations can expressed in the form

eliminate magnetic field

639

A real physical field can be expressed in complex phasor

form

So

in this formula collection

are not instantaneous

values but complex

phasors.

640

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

medium

Taking divergence from (M IV) and using assumed

homogeneity of the medium (, ) and generally valid vector

identities

641

Note: The divergence of the curl of any vector is zero.

If we mark

component.

A solution of this wave equation is

are some constants.

642

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Propagation coefficient

The complex propagation coefficient can be written

be determined.

643

Attenuating waveform

Here we assume

And

644

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

attenuation coefficient () and

phase coefficient () for the

electro-magnetic wave in

lossy medium can be

presented in the following

forms a) and b).

645

Solution

646

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

647

Solution

648

324

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

Calculate the attenuation (dB/m) in the

(saltless) lake water (r=80, =10 mS/m)

and in the sea water (r=80, =5 S/m) for an

electro-magnetic wave with frequency

a) f=10 kHz

b) f=10 MHz

c) f=10 GHz

and assuming that a field strength varies

according the distance in the form

E exp(-z), where z is a distance

649

Solution

Attenuation

expressed in dB

650

325

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

651

652

326

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

653

654

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

Show that the propagation velocity (v) of the electromagnetic

wave in lossy medium can be presented in the following forms

a) and b).

655

Solution

656

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

657

Problem

electromagnetic wave

a) in the air (r = 1, 0)

b) in the lake water (r = 80, = 10 mS/m)

c) in the sea water (r = 80, = 5 S/m)

when corresponding vacuum values are

08.85410-12 As/(Vm), c02.998 108 m/s and

f=100 MHz.

658

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

659

Solution

660

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

661

Application of Maxwells

equations

Penetration of

electromagnetic fields

into a good conductor

331

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Plane conductor

of infinite depth, and with no field variations

along the width or length dimension.

This case is frequently taken as that a

conductor filling the half space z > 0 in a

rectangular coordinate system with the x-y

plane coinciding with the conductor surface.

663

Good conductor

Lets look at penetration of uniform field into good

conductor filling half-space 0<z<.

If we assume that at z=0 an electric field has value

Ex(z=0)=E0 and propagation direction is z, then we

can use previously derived plane wave equation and

its solution.

So

valid

664

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note: For all but the poorest conductors (such as earth) the displacement current term is

665

completely negligible compared with conduction current term for radio frequencies at least.

Approximation of propagation

coefficient

Lets return to the previous solution of the wave equation

where

Now

Proofing as homework!

666

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

penetration

Substituting the previous expression to Ex we get

where

Skin depth or depth of penetration

the same form differential equations as the electric field.

Thus

667

penetration

It is evident from that the magnitudes of the

fields and current density decrease

exponentially with penetration into the

conductor, and z=s has the significance of the

depth at which the magnitudes have decreased

to 1/e (about 36.8 per cent) of their values at

the surface (E0, H0, J0).

The quantity s is called depth of penetration

or skin depth.

334

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

penetration

According to

We see that s decreases, when increase

f

s1 m, f=10GHz

669

Note

Depth of penetration is smaller, the higher the

conductivity, the higher the permeability, and the higher

the frequency, since it is inversely proportional to the

square root of each of these.

The fields and current penetrate deeper than the depth

s; this s is merely the point at which they have

decreased to 1/e of their values at the surface.

The concept as stated here applies strictly to plane

conductors but it may be extended to conductors of

other shapes so long as the value of s calculated is

much smaller than any curvatures of the surfaces or

curvature of surface

s

thickness of conductor 670

335

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Comment

In spite of the infinite depth requirement, the analysis

of this case is practically important to many conductors

of finite extent, and with curved surfaces, because at

high frequencies significant fields are concentrated very

near the surface, so that radius of curvature and

conductor depth may be taken as infinite in this

comparison.

Moreover, any field variations along the length or width

dimension due to curvature, edge effects, or variations

along a wavelength are ordinarily so small compared

with the variations into the conductor that they may be

neglected.

671

Problem

The surface value of the field is E0. Determine

the magnitude of field penetrated s meters

deep into the good conductor.

672

336

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

the magnitude of field penetrated s meters

deep into the good conductor.

Let

The magnitude of the field is

0.368 E0

673

Problem

Show that the unit of s defined previously is

meter.

1

s

f

674

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem

meter. 1

s

f

Vs A

1 B m 2 Vs J m 2 A

s , ,

f H A Am E V Vm

m m

1

s m

1 Vs A

s Am Vm

675

Problem

that, for a good conductor, depth of penetration

is always a very small quantity compared with

waveIength or s<<.

676

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

1

s , for a good conductor

f

1 1 1

s2

f v 1

1 v 2

v v

2f 2 f 2 2

s 1 1

0.23 s

2 4.4

677

Problem

Show that

when

678

339

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

679

Application of Maxwells

equations

Field theoretic problems

340

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 1

Write Maxwells equations

681

Solution

Write Maxwells equations in Cartesian (xyz)

coordinates.

682

341

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

683

Solution

684

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

685

Solution

686

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Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 2

form Gauss laws (M I and M II) using the

Divergence theorem:

A surface integral

A dS

S

687

Solution

Derive the global form version (surface integrals) from the

local form Gauss laws (M I and M II) using the Divergence

theorem (Gauss theorem):

Thus

688

344

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

Divergence theorem (Gauss theorem):

Thus

689

Problem 3

Derive the global form version (line integrals) from the local

form Faradays law and Amperes law (M III and M IV) using

the Stokes theorem:

690

345

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

Stokes theorem:

691

Solution

Stokes theorem:

692

346

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 4

693

Solution

Now Maxwells equations are

Operations:

M IV and D E

M III E B H

B H

t t

694

347

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

identity

695

Problem 5

696

348

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 5

697

Solution 5

698

349

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 6

699

Solution 6

Let us derivate the solution candidate Ex-

wave equation Ex- is a solution of

the wave equation

700

350

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 7

701

Solution 7

702

351

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 7

703

Solution 7

704

352

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 7

705

Solution 7

706

353

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 8

707

Solution 8

708

354

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 8

709

Solution 8

710

355

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 9

711

Solution 9

Now

712

356

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 9

713

Solution 9

714

357

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 9

715

Problem 10

Write the local form Maxwells equation in the

following special cases:

1 for static fields

2 for sourceless fields

3 for sinusoidal fields in phasor form

716

358

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 10

717

Solution 10

718

359

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 10

719

Solution 10

720

360

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 10

721

Note

722

361

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 11

723

Solution 11

724

362

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 11

725

Note

726

363

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 12

727

Solution 12

728

364

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 13

729

Solution 13

730

365

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 13

731

Problem 14

732

366

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 14

733

Solution 14

734

367

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 14

735

Solution 14

736

368

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 14

737

Notes

738

369

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 15

739

Solution 15

740

370

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 15

741

Problem 16

742

371

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 16

743

Problem 17

744

372

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 17

745

Problem 18

746

373

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution 18

747

Note

748

374

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 19

749

Solution 19

750

375

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Problem 20

751

Solution 20

752

376

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

of transmission lines and

waveguides

propagation

The propagation characteristics of a

transmission line or a waveguide can be

determined from the study of the

electromagnetic fields within the general

structure depicted in the figure below.

Waveguide of arbitrary

cross section, uniform

along the direction of

propagation.

754

377

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waveguide

The cross section of this structure is arbitrary.

It can contain several different propagation media (air,

dielectrics, ferrites), in which case it is called inhomogeneous.

It can also contain, or be surrounded by, metallic conductors.

The direction of propagation is straightforward: the

longitudinal coordinate axis z is located along this direction.

A displacement along this axis does not modify either the

geometry, nor the material properties: these quantities are thus

independent of the longitudinal coordinate z (translation-

invariance).

The transmission line or waveguide is then called uniform.

755

The system of coordinates used to study the propagation must

be well adapted to the transverse geometry of the line.

Boundaries and interfaces should be described by simple

geometrical expressions, so that boundary conditions for the

fields can be satisfied.

In all uniform structures, the coordinate system contains the

coordinate z, defined in the previous section, and two

coordinates located in the transverse plane.

For problems exhibiting a symmetry of revolution, the

(circular) cylindrical coordinate system is the obvious choice.

A rectangular waveguide is best studied in a rectangular

reference base.

756

378

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

system

thing but just a different

notation for the unit vectors.

757

system

but just a different notation for the

unit vectors.

758

379

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

system

but just a different notation for the

unit vectors.

759

vector associated with every point is space.

760

380

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Separation

the direction of propagation.

Transverse and longitudinal dependencies of

the fields are thus independent of each other,

and the differential operator del or nabla can

be expressed by the sum of a transverse part

(index t) and a longitudinal one:

761

Rectangular coordinates

In the rectangular coordinate system, the transverse part of the

operator can be further separated, in terms of the coordinates x

and y:

be separated in this manner!

Similarly, the phasor-vectors have transverse and longitudinal

components:

762

381

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Consequence of separation

Within every system of cylindrical coordinates

(which correspond to uniform lines), Maxwells

equations are partially separable.

The general solution for the electromagnetic fields is

then the sum of several terms, each term being the

product of a function of the transverse coordinate rt

by a function of the longitudinal variable z.

The transverse and longitudinal dependencies of the

fields can then be studied independently of each

other.

763

fields: Wave equation

Applying the method of separation of variables, and

then grouping the resulting terms, a wave equation

involving the direction of propagation is obtained for

every field component in an isotropic structure

process.

Its value depends on frequency, material properties

and the particular solution considered for the fields.

764

382

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

General solution

of solution:

forward and to the backward waves, functions

Xi+ (rt) and Xi- (rt) defining their transverse

dependencies in the plane z= 0.

765

quantities

The meaning of the propagation factor

= +j :

The real part , expressed in Neper per meter

(Np/m), is called attenuation per unit length.

It represents the damping of the wave traveling along

the transmission line.

Its inverse = 1/ is the skin depth, the distance over

which the signal amplitude decreases to 1/e of its initial

value.

766

383

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

quantities

The meaning of the propagation factor

= +j :

The imaginary part , measured in radians per

meter (rad/m), is the phaseshift per unit length.

It indicates the phase variation of the wave along the

direction of propagation.

The wavelength along the line or waveguide, denoted

by g, is inversely proportional to :

767

Propagation velocities

The two propagation velocities, the phase and group

velocities, are respectively defined by the relations

phase velocity.

An observer following the envelope of a modulated

signal at the group velocity.

768

384

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Guided waves

Theoretically the simplest case is to deal with waves

that propagated in infinite size media.

For many applications it is desirable to have

electromagnetic energy be guided in much the same

way as water flow is guided by having it flow in

pipes.

Transmission lines are the simplest structures that

guide electromagnetic waves.

Transmission line would be any two arbitrary shaped

metal conductors that are long and uniform in at least

one dimension.

769

Transmission line is the preferred term to

describe transmission systems with two or

more metallic conductors electrically insulated

from one another

for instance the two-wire line and the coaxial line.

770

385

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Capacitance and inductance per unit length for each structure

771

previous transmission lines

772

386

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Capacitance and inductance per unit length for each structure

773

previous transmission lines

774

387

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Definition: Waveguide

The propagation in a waveguide is generally

ensured by successive reflections on the guide

boundaries.

These are conducting walls in the case of metallic

waveguides.

Dielectric waveguides and optical fibers

utilize the total reflection on the interface

between two dielectric materials.

775

The solution of Maxwells equations, subject

to the transverse boundary conditions in the

structure of transmission line or waveguide is

an eigenvalue problem.

A set of solutions is obtained, which are called

the modes of propagation.

They are the eigenvectors of the problem, each

one associated with an eigenvalue (propagation

factor, transverse wavenumber).

776

388

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Modes of propagation

The modes of propagation form an infinite set,

which is discrete for a closed structure

(surrounded by a metal boundary),

[to which must be added a continuous spectrum of

radiating modes when the structure is open (fields

extending to infinity)].

Each mode possesses specific propagation

properties:

attenuation and phase-shift per unit length,

propagation velocities,

cut-off frequency. 777

Multimode propagation

When propagation of a signal takes place at the same time over several

modes, the difference in the propagation velocities may produce

distortions of the signal.

To avoid this unwanted effect in radar and in communications, the shape

and the dimensions of the line are adjusted so that only one mode can

propagate at the signal frequency.

The possible existence of several propagating modes limits the available

frequency band in all transmission lines.

The length of the line or the bit rate of the signal are reduced to maintain

distortion within acceptable limits.

The presence (or absence) of a particular mode of propagation on a

transmission line depends on the excitation, i.e., on the boundary conditions

at both ends of the line (generator and load).

Note: In fiber optics, also multimode operation (thick fiber) is used in short

distance communication. 778

389

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

propagation

The presence or the absence of longitudinal

field components affects the propagation

behavior of the modes.

Four mode categories can exist, as shown

below.

779

waveguides

A large number of different structures can be used to

transmit electromagnetic signals:

1. either open (radiation can take place) or closed (fields

entirely enclosed within a conducting envelope);

2. either homogeneous (one single propagation medium

without transverse dependence of the material properties),

or inhomogeneous (several different propagating media, or

a single medium having a continuous variation of the

material properties in the transverse plane);

3. either conductorless, or possessing one or more

conductors.

780

390

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waveguides

Note: When a waveguide or a transmission line (for instance a coaxial line) is partially

781

filled with dielectric, they are respectively called loaded waveguide or loaded line.

lines

782

391

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

783

Comment

Early microwave systems relied on waveguide and coaxial lines for

transmission line media.

Waveguide has the advantage of high power-handling capability and low

loss but is bulky and expensive.

Coaxial line has very high bandwidth and is convenient for test

applications, but is a difficult medium to fabricate complex microwave

components.

Planar transmission lines provide an alternative, in the form of stripline,

microstrip, slotline, coplanar waveguide, and many other types of related

geometries.

Such transmission lines are compact, low in cost, and are capable of being

easily integrated with active devices such as diodes and transistors to form

microwave integrated circuits.

784

392

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Characteristics of some

transmission media

785

Notes

Wire pair is distance limited. The shorter the pair length, the higher the

bit rate.

LOS microwave is limited by statute (legal limitations), meaning by the

ITU Radio Regulations and the national regulatory authority.

Satellite communication faces the same legal limitations. Geostationary

orbit (GEO) satellites have long delays, which could affect interactive data

systems. Only one GEO satellite relay allowed for a voice connectivity.

The limits of fiber optics are still being explored. All terrestrial buried and

aerial cable systems are vulnerable to severing by natural disaster or by

man.

Coaxial cable is limited by amplitude-frequency response characteristics.

In nearly every instance, fiber optic cable connectivity is preferred.

786

393

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Twisted pair

(b) Category 5 UTP, 100 Mbps.

Category 6 and 7, 250 600 Mbps.

787

Coaxial cable

788

394

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Optical fiber

impinging on the air/silica boundary at different angles.

(b) Light trapped by total internal reflection.

Single mode 50 Gbps over 100 km.

789

f = c/ f = 300,000,000/1.3*10^-6 = 2.31*10^14 = 231 THz.

Bandwidth = 300,000,000*(1/1.22 1/1.37)*10^6 = 0.27*10^14 = 27000 GHz 790

395

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Fiber cables

(b) End view of a sheath with three

fibers.

791

1000 twisted pairs 1 km long weights 8 tons

vs. 2 fibers with more capacity weight 100

kg.

Fiber doesnt leak the light excellent

security.

792

396

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Coax 750 MHz bandwidth

If we assume that it is possible to code 8 bps/Hz of

bandwidth.

6 Gbps.

Fiber:

f = c/ f = |c

bandwidth f = 40 THz

To get 40 Tbps coding 1 bps/Hz of bandwidth is

needed. 793

waveguides

Recap

397

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Guiding structures

(or power) from one point to another.

Transmission lines

Fiber-optic guides

Waveguides

more or less free-space using antennas. 795

795

Can propagate a signal at any frequency (in theory).

Becomes lossy at high frequency.

Can handle low or moderate amounts of power.

Does not have signal distortion, unless there is loss.

May or may not be immune to interference.

Does not have Ez or Hz components of the fields (TEMz).

796

398

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

CAT 5 cable (twisted pair)

Coaxial cable

interference and radiation from discontinuities. 797

line the fields extend out to infinity.

+ -

The extended fields may cause

interference with nearby

objects. (This may be improved

by using twisted pair.)

Note: Having fields that extend to infinity is not the same thing as

having radiation, however. 798

399

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Transmission lines on printed-circuit boards

w

r

h

r h w

Microstrip Stripline

w w w

r h r h

799

RF waveguide properties

Is a single hollow metal pipe.

Can propagate a signal only at high frequency: > c

The width must be at least one-half of a wavelength.

Has signal distortion, even in the lossless case.

Immune to interference.

Can handle large amounts of power.

Has low loss (compared with a transmission line).

Has either Ez or Hz component of the fields (TMz or

TEz).

800

400

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Fiber-optic guide

Properties

Uses a dielectric rod

Can be made very low loss

Has minimal signal distortion

Very immune to interference

Not suitable for high power

Has both Ez and Hz

components of the fields

801

1) Single-mode fiber

Carries a single mode, as with the mode on a

transmission line or waveguide.

Requires the fiber diameter to be small relative to a

wavelength.

2) Multi-mode fiber

Has a fiber diameter that is large relative to a

wavelength.

Its operation can be described using simple ray

theory and the principle of total internal

reflection (critical angle effect).

802

401

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Optical fiber

803

Lumped circuit elements: resistors, capacitors,

inductors

neglect time delays (phase)

time delays (phase change)

length of a line is significant compared with a

wavelength.

804

402

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Passive microwave

components

Directional couplers

Components

Each individual component has a specific

purpose.

Its function may be to couple, mix, filter, isolate,

divide, add, act on a systems phase, convert RF

to DC, attenuate, or any combination of the

above.

Basic questions for component:

How does it work?

What does a data sheet or catalog say about that

component?

806

403

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Directional coupler

One of the most widely used components in microwaves is the

directional coupler.

It may be employed by itself to monitor, sample, or attenuate; or it

may be used as part of another component, such as a mixer.

The basic definition of couple, from which the word coupler is

derived, is to bring two electrical circuits into such close proximity

as to permit mutual influence.

In other words, two circuits are side-by-side so that they have an

effect on one another.

The circuits could be two pieces of waveguide, two coaxial lines,

or two copper lines in a stripline coupler.

One of the circuits is the main line of the coupler; the other circuit is

the coupled line.

807

808

404

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Directional couplers

a coaxial coupler

a stripline coupler

a waveguide coupler

809

Directional coupler

Figure helps in our explanation of the term directional.

If energy is applied to port 1 in (a), most of the energy appears

at port 2, while a fraction appears at port 3.

The actual amount at port 3 depends on the coupling value;

standard couplers are of 6, 10, 20, and 30 dB.

405

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Dual-directional coupler

One method to expand the basic directional coupler is

through the construction of a dual-directional coupler.

Just as the name implies, this procedure involves two

couplers put back-to-back.

The one great advantage of this type of coupler is that it

allows you to monitor both forward and reflected power

at the same time.

It aids in the obtaining of data from a device which

indicates the input match and, thus, its VSWR.

811

Specifications

Below are sample specifications for a directional coupler as

they could appear on a data sheet or in a catalog.

812

406

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

specifications is very important since it tells

you if you either need adapters to fit the

coupler into your system.

Note that additional adapters mean higher

overall losses in a system.

Connectors may be type N, BNC, SMA, APC-

7, or any special variety required.

813

814

407

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Coupled Line VSWR This specification

indicates what sort of match the coupled port

(port 3) offers to any external load.

A low VSWR would mean a good match and

would cause little or no problems to any

external circuit.

815

Specifications

Coupling The ratio of the power available

at the coupled port to the power at the input

port. (Port 3 to port 1).

It is the amount of attenuation of the input

power as a result of the coupling structure.

This term is expressed in dB and has standard

values of 6, 10, 20, and 30.

816

408

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

indicates how flat the coupling is over a

specified band of operation; it is expressed as a

(+) or () dB value.

If we rely heavily on a specified value of

coupling over a wide range of frequencies,

coupling deviation should be low (e.g. 1 dB).

817

Specifications

Directivity This figure indicates how

accurately you are able to measure parameters in

your system.

It is the difference between the desired and

undesired couplings.

If a coupler has low directivity, the forward and

reverse powers in the coupler interfere with one

another and cause great inaccuracies to occur.

Ports 1 and 4 in are the undesired coupling; 1 and 3 are

the desired combination.

818

409

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

frequencies for which all the other

specifications are true.

Above and below this range, none of the

specifications apply.

Most couplers are designed to operate over an

octave band (1-2 GHz, 2-4 GHz, etc.).

819

Specifications

Impedance Impedance is an RF

resistance reading which ensures that any

component with a similar impedance value

connected to the coupler will operate properly.

The most common impedance is 50 ohms,

which is considered to be a standard in most

systems.

820

410

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Input VSWR This

specification is identical to

the coupled line VSWR in

that it is an indication of

what sort of match is offered

by the input port of the

coupler;

it is usually of low-value,

1.15:1 for example.

In Figure (A) it is the match

at port 1; in (B) it is either

port 1 or 2. 821

Specifications

Insertion Loss The insertion loss indicates the power lost

in the main line of the coupler primarily through dissipation.

In coaxial coupler it is simply a loss which occurs in a conductor as

energy is passed through it;

in a stripline coupler, the copper losses of the conductors; and

in a waveguide coupler, a loss within the guide with the only

contributing factor usually the length of the guide.

In Figures (A) and (B), the insertion loss is that from either

ports 1 and 2 or 2 and 1.

In lower value couplers (3 dB or 6 dB, for example) the

coupled energy due to the coupled port also is included in the

total through-line insertion loss, thereby increasing the overall

value.

822

411

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

simply a way of referring to and identifying

the coupler.

In most cases the last two numerals indicate

the coupling value.

823

Specifications

Power Rating This specification refers to

the amount of both CW and peak power that

the coupler is capable of handling.

Any power level greater than this value may

cause arcing or a deterioration of performance.

This term is one of the most important of

which to take care if you will be operating at a

high power level.

824

412

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Reverse Power Rating This term applies only to a

3-port coupler; it is usually a lower value than that of

the forward power rating because the fourth port is

internally terminated and so, generally, can not handle

any amount of power.

This specification is also quoted as a CW and peak

power number; it is the power handling capability of

the coupler if power is applied in a reverse direction.

At port 2 instead of port 1 in Figure (A).

825

Specifications

Size the actual physical size of the coupler.

This term is of a secondary nature except when

you are required to put the coupler in a restricted

space.

Weight Weight is self-explanatory term

which only comes into play when an overall

weight restriction is placed on a system, such

as with airborne equipment.

826

413

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

827

monitor an output power.

Its directional properties ensure that only the forward

power is coupled; its property of circuit isolation

leaves the main line power undisturbed.

Figure shows the orientation of a directional coupler

when used as a power monitor.

828

414

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

is shown in figure below.

The big difference in such a setup is that a diode detector is placed at

the coupled port to provide a dc voltage proportional to any main line

power variations.

That voltage operates leveling circuitry which corrects the RF level and

eliminates differences in the output power over a certain specified

frequency band.

This technique is used widely where swept frequency measurements

are taken.

829

the directional couplers ability to handle higher CW power.

It is an actual example of a system used to check a 100 W power

amplifier.

The only components available were two-watt attenuators, five-watt

terminations, and the directional coupler.

It can be seen that a more adequate setup was created by utilizing the

couplers 200 watt capability and directivity of 25-30 dB.

None of the components used had its power rating exceeded; the

directional coupler was doing the majority of the work.

830

415

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

an essential part of another component.

In this case it is a very important part of a single

diode mixer.

The circuit is of a very basic mixer, but it shows

that by using a coupler the RF and LO signals have

a high degree of mutual isolation.

831

measurements.

In Figure it is employed to measure the return loss which then

is converted to VSWR.

Power meter # 1 reads the forward power to the device under

test; meter # 2 measures any reflected power.

By comparing these two figures a return loss is determined

and converted to the input VSWR of the particular device

under test.

832

416

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

833

Summary

Directional coupler is a component which allows

two microwave circuits to be combined into one

integrated system in one direction, while being

completely isolated from each other in the

opposite direction.

Its property of being directional, its isolation, its

low input and coupled line VSWR, and its

adaptability to being 3- or 4-port or dual-

directional make the directional coupler one of

the most widely used components in microwaves.

834

417

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Passive microwave

components

Detectors

Detector

The key to a reliable, trouble-free system is

simplicity.

One component whose operation is based on

simplicity is the microwave detector.

This concept of a simple and reliable

component is the very reason why the detector

is used so extensively in microwave systems.

836

418

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

detector is illustrated in figure below.

The heart of the detector is, of course, the

diode itself.

e.g. Schottky diodes are often used because of their

good RF characteristics, which include high

sensitivity.

837

The diode is matched to the driving circuit (usually 50

ohms) so that maximum power transfer is obtained.

In this manner maximum efficiency of the diode is

ensured since any reflections due to mismatches are

eliminated and, thus, all of the input power reaches the

diode.

The dc return, besides acting as a ground for the diode,

also has the second function of acting as an RF choke

so that no RF is shunted to ground.

A low-pass filter is placed after the diode to eliminate

all of the high frequency ripple caused by the detection

process and allow only dc to be present at the output.

838

419

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

A typical set of specifications for a microwave detector

839

Specifications

Frequency Response Frequency response

is a term used to indicate the RF performance

of the detector.

It is sometimes given in decibels per octave or

in one figure for overall performance.

Basically it is a measure of the variation in

sensitivity of the detector, expressed in dB.

840

420

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Maximum Input Power This term refers to

one of the most important considerations when

using a detector the highest level of RF power

that can be applied to its input.

It is always good practice to stay below this figure

by a reasonable margin.

The reason that there is a maximum level is that

there is a diode directly in line in the circuit;

wherever there is a semiconductor there is a

certain power level that could destroy the

detector.

841

Specifications

Polarity Polarity is either positive or

negative.

It is important to know the polarity of the

output of your detector since it will have to be

joined with some external circuit that requires

a certain polarity to operate properly.

842

421

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

A typical sensitivity curve for a microwave detector

843

Specifications

Sensitivity From the previous sensitivity curve

for a microwave detector it can be seen that one

factor affecting sensitivity is the RF power

applied to the input of the detector.

Therefore, the detector sensitivity is the dc volt-

age produced at the output for a specific power

input, usually expressed in millivolts per

microwatt CW.

Sensitivity is simply how much power you need

to produce a certain voltage.

844

422

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Detector applications

wherever there is a need to control or convert

an RF signal to a DC voltage.

E.g. for display purposes.

845

Monitoring

One of the most common applications is

monitoring an RF line.

Power is coupled off the main line;

the detector provides a DC voltage proportional

to this power.

The monitoring device gives an instant reading of

the main line power.

846

423

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

A leveled power is needed, e.g., in swept measurements.

A coupler and detector work together to sample the main

line RF;

the detector converts the RF to DC to activate the leveling

circuits.

This DC voltage causes either the RF power out of the source to

be attenuated or the attenuation to be removed in order to raise

the power level.

The result of this instantaneous pattern of action and reaction of

coupler and detector is that the RF power remains level at the

system output.

Automatic Leveling Control (ALC) in microwave systems often

employs just such a process.

847

It is impractical to attempt to view signals at

microwave frequencies directly on a conventional

oscilloscope.

Without a Network Analyzer figure below is the

answer.

A simple combination of an attenuator and a detector do the

job.

The attenuator is of great importance in the setup, it keeps

power both below a maximum power level and in the

linear range of the sensitivity curve of the detector, giving

much better results.

848

424

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Passive microwave

components

Mixers

Mixer

850

425

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

fundamental parts of a mixer an input

coupling network, the diode circuitry, and an

output filtering network.

851

The input coupling network is the circuitry

which allows the RF and LO signals to be

combined properly before being applied to the

diode portion.

This network could be a directional coupler, a

transformer, or a quadrature hybrid;

its prime feature should be that, under operating

conditions, it combines the two signals while

providing isolation between them.

852

426

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Mixing process

The diode circuitry consists of the diode(s).

This part is where the actual mixing process occurs.

When the RF and LO signals are applied to the diode

circuitry, many combinations of the two are generated.

The signals which are most prominent are each of the

originals and their sum and difference.

In other words, if the RF signal is called f1, and the LO

signal called f2, the output would have f1, f2, f1 + f2, f1 -

f2, and every other combination of fundamentals and

harmonics, (2f1, 2f2, 2(f1 + f2), etc.)

853

Output filtering

These combinations of frequencies are the reason why the final

block the output filtering network is needed in a mixer.

Usually, the upper or lower sideband (that is, f1 + f2 or f1-f2 ) is the

desired output;

everything else must be eliminated to produce the desired and

necessary clean signal.

The filtering usually is accomplished by a low-pass network which

might be as simple as a shunt capacitor or as complex as a cascade

of low-pass filters; it could be a series of trap circuits which would

eliminate only specific unwanted signals.

For certain applications, the filtering could be performed by a band-

pass or high-pass filter.

The type of filtering and device used depends, of course, upon the

individual situation.

854

427

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

single diode,

balanced, and

image rejection.

855

The advantage of the single diode mixer is its

simplicity of construction.

The disadvantages,

very narrow band device

No noise eliminating ability, which is a primary

concern of the sophisticated low-noise systems

however, far outweigh the advantages.

856

428

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Balanced mixer

Here the input network is termed a balanced coupling

network, either a 90 or 180 hybrid.

Whichever type is used, the efficiency of the coupling

network is vastly greater than that of any single diode

mixer.

The increased efficiency of the hybrids means that virtually

all of the power reaches the diodes, and there is very little

loss due to mismatches.

So a conversion loss through the mixer is reasonably low.

Also, this type of coupling network usually operates over an

octave band, another great improvement.

857

Balanced mixer

A mixing apparatus or configuration which

contains four matched diodes called a quad.

A quad makes up a balanced configuration

with two matched sections in each side, having

the effect of lowering conversion loss and

noise.

858

429

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

mixers

Balanced mixers have very good noise

characteristics and low conversion losses;

They operate over a wide band of frequencies

(both LO and RF);

They have an acceptable input VSWR on the

RF and LO ports.

859

Specifications

A typical data sheet for a balanced mixer

860

430

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

level of the IF output as compared to the level

of the RF input.

Usually expressed in dB, it can be considered

as a measure of the efficiency of the mixer;

it indicates how efficiently the two input

frequencies are combined to form the IF output.

861

Specifications

Isolation It may be any one of three

combinations of measurements referred to by this

term RF/LO, RF/IF, or LO/IF.

In each case, isolation is a measure of the

undesired frequency at an auxiliary port.

An example would be as follows the RF/LO

isolation figure, in dB, is the amount of RF power

measured at the LO port compared to that at the

RF port.

The other two isolation figures are found the same

way.

862

431

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

usually expressed in dBm, necessary to

provide proper operation of the mixer.

This power level is used to bias the diodes in a

non-linear region so that mixing action

occurs.

863

Specifications

Noise Figure Every network, whether a mixer or other

component, has a certain amount of internal noise

associated with its operation.

A comparison of this level of noise to that of the desired

signal in the network is called the signal-to-noise ratio.

There are input and output signal-to-noise ratios for each

network under consideration.

The noise figure measures the reduction of a signal-to-noise

ratio by the network under consideration (for example, the

balanced mixer).

It is a term expressed in dB which compares the input and

output signal-to-noise ratios.

864

432

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Noise Figure

865

Specifications

VSWR VSWR is an important term which

indicates the match, or return loss, of each port

under actual operating conditions.

If measurements are made under abnormal

circumstances, the figures obtained are useless.

Only when the diodes in the mixer are being

driven properly are true readings obtained.

866

433

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Mixer applications

The mixer finds many applications in microwave systems.

In a receiver front end the mixer is used to convert the high

frequency input signal to a lower frequency in order to obtain the

transmitted information.

It is much easier to operate on this lower frequency than on the input

signal as it appears at the antenna.

The same concept is used in microwave network analyzers.

The input GHz signals are converted down even to the kHz range for

easy operation and greater accuracy.

In applications of this type, it is very important to have low noise

mixers with a high degree of isolation and minimum conversion loss.

867

Mixer applications

Other utilizations are as an up-converter in a

transmitter (to increase the frequency for

transmission), as a balanced modulator (which

incorporates a 180 hybrid and reversed diodes

in a balanced mixer) and in many instances

where signal processing must be

accomplished.

868

434

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Image-rejection mixer

The image-rejection mixer gives the desired sideband (f1 + f2 or f1 - f2) with

a minimum of output filtering.

In a basic mixer the local oscillator may be above or below the RF signal in

frequency.

Here, let us suppose an LO below the RF.

When the mixer is operating there is an lF signal equal to the difference

between the two frequencies.

This operation is a proper one.

However, there is also a signal separated from the RF by the same IF

amount but it is above the RF signal and is called the image frequency

generated by the mixer.

Obviously there are occasions where this signal would create problems.

Thus, rejecting is needed.

The image- rejection mixer provides the solution.

869

Image-rejection mixer

Figure shows a block diagram of an image-

rejection mixer.

870

435

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Image-rejection mixer

The input coupling network consists of a combination of a 90

hybrid for the RF, a 0 power divider for the LO, and the input

coupling networks of the two very important balanced mixers.

The diode circuitry is that contained in the mixers; it is

identical to that previously discussed two diodes in each

mixer.

The output filtering consists of the 90 IF hybrid, a quadrature

hybrid designed to operate at the IF frequency.

One output port (No. 1) produces the upper image frequency;

the other (No. 2), creates the lower.

871

The quadrature characteristic (90 phase

relationship) of the hybrid results in only one

frequency being present at each port when the

opposite port is terminated, thus providing

rejection of the opposite image frequency.

When a clean IF signal is wanted, this ability is

of great importance.

The disadvantage of the image-rejection mixer

is its complexity.

872

436

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Passive microwave

components

Quadrature hybrid

Quadrature hybrid

Definition 1: A quadrature hybrid is a 4-port, 3

dB coupler capable of dividing an input signal

into two mutually isolated quadrature phased

outputs while maintaining isolation of the

fourth port from the input.

Definition 2: A quadrature hybrid is a

directional coupler whose two outputs are

equal in amplitude and separated from one

another by a constant 90 phase.

874

437

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

separated 90 from one another, is one of the

most important property of the quadrature

hybrid component. In Figure ports 2 and 3

would be in quadrature with an input at either

port 1 or 4.

875

hybrid

876

438

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Amplitude Balance This figure is a

comparison of the power levels of the two

output ports on the hybrid ideally there

should be no difference in amplitude between

the two outputs, but in the real world there

naturally is some variation.

It is necessary for this figure to be as low as

possible so that both circuits driven have the

same level applied to them.

877

Specifications

Insertion Loss Figure illustrates the insertion loss of

a quadrature hybrid basically the difference between

the maximum height of the coupled curve (1-2) and the

straight-through curve (1-3).

This internal loss of the device causes its output

response to deviate from an ideal 3 dB figure across the

desired band.

878

439

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Specifications

Isolation This term tells you how good a

conjugate pair is formed by the terminals.

The isolation between terminals is very

important to consider if the hybrid is going to

be used to drive two active devices, such as

transistors or diodes.

If the figure is not high enough, any imbalance

in one device affects both of them and may

eventually cause one or both to be destroyed.

A network has a conjugate pair if an input applied to one of the branches has no effect on the

879

other; that is, two branches form a conjugate pair if they are isolated from one another.

Specifications

Phase Balance The quadrature hybrid is

designed to have a 90 separation between the

output terminals.

But, because of variations within the hybrid,

the phase of the output varies with frequency.

The phase balance figure on a data sheet is a

measure of how well the two output terminals

track over the band of operation.

880

440

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Applications of quadrature

hybrids

Since they provide isolation between the RF

and LO while applying equal signals to each of

the diodes, quadrature hybrids are an integral

part of a balanced mixer.

881

Applications of quadrature

hybrids

They are ideal for a matched detector, also

because of the equal level applied to the

detector diodes.

882

441

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

RF and DC combination

means of DC biasing an RF circuit they

supply a continuous DC path while providing

isolation for RF.

883

Applications of quadrature

hybrids

A common application is combining of amplifiers.

The ability of the hybrid to provide isolated signals of

equal amplitude to a device is of great value.

The quadrature effect (90 separation) allows the split

of signals at the input and their recombination at the

output.

Combining amplifiers

884

442

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Other areas in which quadrature hybrids are used as 2-way

power dividers, time delay circuits, and modulators, and as

variations on the simple PIN switch.

Obviously, the quadrature hybrid is a component with many

applications.

When a device is needed to provide two output ports of equal

amplitude and which are isolated from one another, the hybrid

satisfies that requirement.

Its quadrature characteristics are also of great value when

division and recombination are to be accomplished with active

devices.

an intrinsic region is layered between an n-doped and a p-doped region. The PIN diode

885

can control large RF and microwave signals with comparably small DC signals.

scattering parameters

443

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Multiport networks

A general circuit can be represented by a multi-port network, where the

ports are defined as access terminals at which we can define voltages and

currents.

Note: Equal and opposite currents are

assumed on the two wires of a port.

Examples:

One-port network I1 I1

V1 V1

Two-port network

I2

I1 I2 I1

V1 V2 V1

V2

887

887

The signal flow graph is a very useful

technique for the analysis of microwave

networks in terms of transmitted and reflected

waves.

Main phases of the signal flow graph

technique use:

the construction of the flow graph itself,

the reduction, or solution, of the flow graph.

888

444

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

the flow graph

The primary components of a signal flow

graph are nodes and branches:

Nodes: Each port, i, of a microwave network has

two nodes, ai and bi.

Node ai is identified with a wave entering port i, while

node bi, is identified with a wave reflected from port i.

Branches: A branch is a directed path between an

a-node and a b-node, representing signal flow

from node a to node b.

Every branch has an associated S parameter or

reflection or transmission coefficient.

889

network

It is useful to consider the flow graph of an arbitrary two-port

network with incident and reflected waves at each port, and the

corresponding signal flow graph representation.

Definition of incident and reflected waves

890

445

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

network behavior

The flow graph gives an intuitive graphical illustration of the

network behavior.

For example, a wave of amplitude a1 incident at port 1 is split, with part

going through S11 and out port 1 as a reflected wave and part transmitted

through S21 to node b2.

At node b2, the wave goes out port 2; if a load with nonzero reflection

coefficient is connected at port 2 this wave will be at 1east partly reflected

and reenter the two-port network at node a2. Part of the wave can be

reflected back out port 2 via S22, and part can be transmitted out port 1

through S12.

Source Load

end end

891

Examples

The signal flow graph representations of a

one-port network and a voltage source

892

446

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

represented in signal flow graph form, it is not

very difficult to solve the ratio of any

combination of wave amplitudes.

This can be done using basic decomposition

rules or applying Masons rule.

893

S-parameters or scattering parameters are

reflection and transmission coefficients.

Transmission coefficients are commonly called

gains or attenuations; reflection coefficients

are directly related to VSWRs and

impedances.

S-parameters are vector quantities they

give magnitude and phase information.

894

447

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Parameter models

z parameters because they describe the

inputs and outputs of a black box.

The inputs and outputs are in terms of power

for s parameters;

for h, y and z parameters, they are voltages

and currents.

895

I/O-signals

Using the convention that a is a signal into a

port and b is a signal out, the figure below

helps to explain s parameters.

Test device

896

448

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

I/O-signals

power;

(a1)2 is the power incident at port 1 and

(b2)2 is the power leaving port 2.

The diagram shows the relationship between

the s parameters and the as and bs.

Test device

897

coefficients

For example, a signal, a1, is partially reflected at port

1; the rest of the signal is transmitted through the

device and out of port 2.

The fraction of a1 that is reflected at port 1 is s11; the

fraction of a1 that is transmitted is s21.

Similarly, the fraction of a2 that is reflected at port 2

is s22, and the fraction s12 is transmitted.

Test device

898

449

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

I/O-relations

fraction of a1 that is reflected at port 1 and the

fraction of a2 that is transmitted from port 2.

Thus, the outputs can be related to the inputs

by the equations:

b1 = s11a1 + s12a2

b2 = s21a1 + s22a2

899

R-T coefficients

From the previous equations

b1 = s11a1 + s12a2

b2 = s21a1 + s22a2

when a2=0 s11=b1/a1 and s21=b2/a1

900

450

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The setup below shows how s11 and s21 are measured.

the 50 transmission line coming out of port 2 in its

characteristic 50 impedance.

This termination ensures that none of the transmitted

signal, b2, is reflected toward the test device.

901

Measuring transmission

coefficients

Similarly, the setup for measuring s12 and s22 is:

and s21 .

902

451

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The S-parameters can be measured by

embedding the two-port network (the device-

under-test) in a transmission line whose ends

are connected to a network analyzer.

An experimental setup:

903

Figure shows more details of the connection.

The generator and load impedances are configured by

the network analyzer.

The connections can be reversed, with the generator

connected to port 2 and the load to port 1.

904

452

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The two line segments of lengths 11,12 are assumed to have characteristic

impedance equal to the reference impedance Z0.

Then, the wave variables a1, b1 and a2, b2 are recognized as normalized

versions of forward and backward traveling waves.

The network analyzer measures the waves a1, b1 and a2, b2 at the

generator and load ends of the line segments, as shown in the figure.

From these, the waves at the inputs of the two-port can be determined.

905

Comment

S-parameters are vector quantities they

give magnitude and phase information.

Most measurements of microwave components

have been measured historically only in terms

of magnitude.

Obviously because it was too difficult to

obtain both phase and magnitude information.

906

453

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Parameters

To represent multi-port networks we use:

- Y (admittance) parameters measurable at

- h (hybrid) parameters high

- ABCD parameters frequency

Measurable at high

- S (scattering) parameters

frequency

907

Summary

2-port and corresponding S-formalism

908

454

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Summary

N-port and corresponding S-matrix

909

Summary

At high frequencies, Z, Y, h & ABCD parameters are

difficult (if not impossible) to measure.

V and I are not uniquely defined.

Even if defined, V and I are very difficult

to measure.

Required open and short-circuit conditions are

often difficult to achieve.

Scattering (S) parameters are often the best

representation for multi-port networks at high

frequencies.

Instead of open and short-circuit conditions only matched

terminal is needed.

910

455

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Summary

b1 0 S11a1 0 S12a2 0

b2 0 S21a1 0 S22a2 0

Scattering parameters

b1 0 Output is

S11 matched input reflection coefficient

a1 0 a 0

2 with output matched

b1 0 Input is reverse transmission coefficient

S12 matched

a2 0 a 0 with input matched

1

S 21 with output matched

a1 0 a 0 matched

2

b 0 Input is

with input matched

S 22 2 matched

a2 0 a 0

1 911

Summary

912

456

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Introduction to transmission

line theory

Wave-guiding structures

A wave-guiding structure is one that carries a signal (or

power) from one point to another.

Transmission lines

Fiber-optic guides

RF waveguides

space using antennas. 914

457

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Transmission line

Has two conductors running parallel

Can propagate a signal at any frequency (in theory)

Becomes lossy at high frequency

Can handle low or moderate amounts of power

Does not have signal distortion, unless there is loss

More or less immune to interference

Does not have Ez or Hz components of the fields (TEMz)

915

RF waveguide Is a single hollow metal pipe

Can propagate a signal only at high frequency: >

c

The width must be at least one-half of a wavelength

Has signal distortion, even in the lossless case

Immune to interference

Can handle large amounts of power

Has low loss (compared with a transmission line)

Has either Ez or Hz component of the fields (TMz or

TEz)

Optical fiber wave guide Uses a dielectric rod

Can propagate a signal at any frequency (in theory)

Can be made very low loss

Has minimal signal distortion

Very immune to interference

Not suitable for high power

Has both Ez and Hz components of the fields 916

458

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Twisted pair

Coaxial cable

The two wires of the transmission line are twisted to reduce interference and radiation from

discontinuities. 917

Transmission lines on printed-circuit boards

w

r

h

r h w

Microstrip Stripline

w w w

r h r h

engineering. E.g., A microwave filter constructed from microstrip. 918

459

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Lumped circuit elements: resistors, capacitors,

inductors

neglect time delays (phase)

time delays (phase change)

length of a line is significant compared with a

wavelength.

919

Lumped-element model of a

transmission line

Transmission line = the length of the line > /10 (or /30,

definition issue)

A very short piece (dz << ) of a transmission line can be

modeled with a lumped-element equivalent circuit.

920

460

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Transmission line

Two conductors

C = capacitance/length [F/m]

L = inductance/length [H/m]

R = resistance/length [/m] z

G = conductance/length [ S/m]

921

i z, t

+++++++

----------

v z, t

i(z,t) Rz Lz i(z+z,t)

+ +

v(z,t) Gz Cz v(z+z,t)

- -

z

922

461

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

i(z,t) Rz Lz i(z+z,t)

+ +

v(z,t) Gz Cz v(z+z,t)

- -

z

i ( z , t )

v( z, t ) v( z z , t ) i ( z, t ) Rz Lz

t

v( z z, t )

i ( z, t ) i ( z z , t ) v( z z, t ) G z C z

t

923

Thus,

v( z z, t ) v( z, t ) i ( z , t )

Ri ( z, t ) L

z t

i ( z z , t ) i ( z , t ) v( z z , t )

Gv( z z , t ) C

z t

Now let z 0:

v i

Ri L

z t Telegraphers

Equations

i v

Gv C

z t 924

462

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

To combine these, take the derivative of the first

one with respect to z:

v

2

i i

R L

z 2

z z t Switch the

order of the

i i derivatives.

R L

z t z

v

R Gv C

t

v v

2

L G C

t t 2

925

Wave equation

v

2

v v v 2

R Gv C L G C

z 2

t t t 2

Thus, we have:

v

2

v v

2

RG v ( RC LG ) LC 0

z 2

t t

2

926

463

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Time-harmonic version

Time-harmonic waves:

v 2

v v

2

RG v ( RC LG ) LC 0

z 2

t t

2

dV

2

RG V ( RC LG ) jV LC ( )V 0 2

dz 2

927

dV

2

RG V j ( RC LG )V LC V 2

dz 2

RG j ( RC LG ) LC ( R j L)(G j C )

2

Z R j L = series impedance/length

Y G jC = parallel admittance/length

dV2

dz 2

928

464

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Solution

ZY dV 2

( )V

2

Let Then 2

dz 2

Solution: V ( z ) Ae Be z z

( R j L)(G jC )

1/2

Convention:

z z e j / 2

principal square root

j attenuatio n constant

0, 0 phase constant 929

Forward travelling wave (a wave traveling in the positive z direction):

V ( z ) V0 e z V0 e z e j z

v ( z, t ) Re V0 e z e j z e jt

Re V 0

e j e z e j z e

jt

The wave repeats when:

V0 e z cos t z 2

g

t 0

g

Thus:

V e

2

z

930

465

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Attenuating wave

2 2

The local maximum values when:

g

t 0

g

V 0

e z

931

Phase velocity

Track the velocity of a fixed point on the wave (a point of constant

phase), e.g., the crest.

vp (phase velocity)

v ( z, t ) V0 e z cos(t z )

932

466

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Phase velocity

Set: t z constant

dz

Take d/dt: 0

dt

dz

dt

In expanded form:

Hence

v v

Im ( R j L)(G jC )

p 1/ 2

p

933

Characteristic impedance Z0

I+ (z)

+

V+(z)

- z

V ( z)

Z0

I (z)

V ( z ) V0 e z V0

so Z0

I ( z ) I 0 e z I0

467

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Characteristic impedance Z0

Use Telegraphers Equation:

v i

Ri L

z t

dV

so RI j LI Note:

dz V ( z ) V0 e z

ZI I ( z ) I 0 e z

Thus V0 e z ZI 0 e z

935

Characteristic impedance Z0

1/2

V Z Z

From this we have: Z 0 0

2

ZY

I0 Y

Using

Z R j L

Y G jC

1/2

We have R j L

Z0

G j C

936

468

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

V z V0 e z V0 e z

V0 e j e z e jz V0 e j e z e jz

wave in +z

Note: direction wave in -z

direction

v z , t Re V z e jt

V0 e z cos t z

V0 e z cos t z

937

Reverse wave

I - (z)

+

V -(z)

- z

V ( z) V (z)

Z0 so Z0

I ( z) I (z)

Note: The reference directions for voltage and current are the same as for the

forward wave. 938

469

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waves

I (z)

+

V (z)

- z

General case: backward traveling waves:

V ( z ) V0 e z V0 e z

1

I ( z) V0 e z V0 e z

Z0

Note: The reference directions for voltage and current are the same for forward

and backward waves. 939

Recap

940

470

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Recap

V z V0 e z V0 e z Guided wavelength g

I z

V z V z 2

e

m

0 0

e g

Z0 Z0

1

j R j L G jC 2

Phase velocity vp

1

R j L

2

Z0 vp [m/s]

G jC

941

R 0, G 0

j ( R j L)(G j C )

1/ 2

j LC

so 0

vp

LC

1/ 2

R j L L 1

Z0 Z0 vp

G jC C LC

Note: Now Z0 and vp are independent of frequency. 942

471

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1

vp

LC

If the medium between the two conductors is homogeneous

(uniform) and is characterized by (, ), then it can be shown

that

LC

cd

wave in a dielectric medium is

Thus v p cd

The phase velocity does not depend on the frequency, and it is

always the speed of light in this kind of material. 943

Terminating impedance (load)

V z V e 0

z

V e0

z

propagating in positive z

direction at z = 0.

Amplitude of voltage wave

propagating in negative z

direction at z = 0.

Where do we assign z = 0?

z

The usual choice is at the load.

Note: The length l measures distance from the load l=-z 944

472

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Terminating impedance (load)

V z V0 e z V0 e z

V+ and V- at z=-l

Can we use z = - l as

a reference plane?

V0 V 0 V e V V 0 e

V0 V 0 V e

Hence

V z V e V e

z z

945

Terminating impedance (load)

Compare:

V z V 0 e z V 0 e z

V z V e V e

z ( ) z ( )

473

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

What is V(-l )?

Terminating impedance (load)

V z V0 e z V0 e z

What is V(-l )?

forwards (load) backwards

947

l from the load

propagating towards load at Amplitude of voltage

L = Load reflection coefficient

the load position (z = 0). wave propagating away

from load at the load

position (z = 0).

Similarly,

l

474

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Z0 ,

load at z = -l .

949

At the load (l = 0):

Z L Z0

L

Z L Z0

Recall:

Thus, Z L Z0 2

1 e

Z L Z0

Z Z 0

Z Z 2

1 L 0

e

L Z Z 0

950

475

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

transmission line

Simplifying, we have

Z L Z0 2

1 e

Z Z0 Z Z L Z0 Z L Z0 e

2

e l

Z Z0 L

0

2 l

Z L Z0 Z L Z0 e

Z Z 2

1 L 0

e e

Z L Z0

Z Z 0 e Z L Z 0 e e x e x e x e x

Z0 L

cosh x and sinh x

Z L Z0 e Z L Z 0 e

2 2

Z0 L

Z0 cosh Z L sinh cosh l

Thus, we have

Z Z0 tanh

Z Z0 L

Z0 Z L tanh

951

j j

period g/2 because tan( )

V0 j repeats when

I e 1 Le2 j

Z0

1 Le 2 j

2

Z Z 0 2 j

1 Le

g

Z jZ0 tan g / 2

Z Z0 L

Z jZ tan

0 L

e x e x ex ex

cosh x and sinh x

Note: 2

e jx e jx

2

e jx e jx

tanh tanh j j tan

cosh jx cosx and sinh jx j sin x 952

2 2

476

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

From now on in our transmission line discussion we will assume that

the transmission line is lossless.

Z0 ,

953

Matched load

Z0 ,

477

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

2 Short-circuit load: (ZL = 0)

Z0 ,

Note: 2

g Always imaginary!

/ g

g/4 transmission line

955

Example

Find the voltage at any point on the line.

Z0

956

478

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

Note:

At l = d :

Zin j d 1

V0 VTH e j 2 d

Zin ZTH 1 Le

Thus

Zin j d 1 Le j 2

V VTH e j 2 d

Z m ZTH 1 Le 957

Example

1 L e j 2 d

Zin Z d Z0 j 2 d

1 Le

958

479

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

After algebraic manipulation we have

where

Z0 j d 1 L e j 2

V VTH e j 2d

Z0 ZTH 1 S Le

959

Example

Z0

Z 0 j d 1 L e j 2

V VTH e j 2 d

Z0 ZTH 1 S Le

Note: Voltage wave that would exist if there were no reflections from the load (a

960

matched load or a semi-infinite transmission line ).

480

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Z0 ,

At a distance l from the load:

Note: V V0 e 1 Le 2

V0

I e 1 L e2

Z0

j

*

If Z0 real (low-loss transmission line) L e2 *L e2

Le2 L e2

*

pure imaginary

961

Z0 ,

Low-loss line

962

481

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Zin Z0T L

Z0T jZ L tan Zin

g 2 g Matching:

in 0 Z in Z 0

4 g 4 2

Z 02T

Z0

ZL

This requires ZL to be real.

Thus

Hence

2

Z

Z in Z 0T Z 0 Z L

0T 1/2

ZL

963

Z0 ,

1+ L

V (z)

1 V0

Vmax V0 1 L

1- L

Vmin V0 1 L z

z / 2

z0

Vmax 1 L

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio VSWR VSWR

Vmin 1 L 964

482

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Unit length

a

Coaxial cable b r ,

Parameters per unit length (C, L, G, R)

For a TEMz mode, the shape of the fields is independent of frequency, and hence

parameter calculation can be performed using electro- and magnetostatics.

2 0 r 2

C [F/m] G [S/m]

b b b

ln L 0 r ln [H/m] ln

a 2 a a

965

2 0 r

C [F/m]

b

ln

a LC 0 0 r r

0 r b

L ln [H/m]

2 a

966

483

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

L

For a lossless cable: Z0

C

2 0 r 0 r b

C [ F/m] L ln [H/m]

b 2 a

ln

a

r 1 b

Z 0 0 ln [ ]

r 2 a

0

0 376.7303 []

0

967

2

C [F/m] 0 r

b

ln

a

G C

2

G [S/m]

b

ln

a

968

484

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

G C

More generally:

G

tan The loss tangent would arise

C from conductivity effects.

tan conductivity loss and polarization loss

C (molecular friction loss).

material, over a wide range of frequencies. 969

Note

General expression for loss tangent:

e j Effective permittivity that accounts for conductivity

' j ' ' j

e ' j e ' '

' '

'' characterizes the attenuation of

tan e the electric field in a lossy

e' '

material.

970

485

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

R (resistance / unit length): R Ra Rb

1

Ra Rsa

Rs = surface resistance of metal 2 a

1

b , rb Rb Rsb

2 b

a , ra 1 1

Rsa Rsb

a a a b b

2 2

b a b

0 ra a 0 rb b

Is the skin depth, the distance over which the signal amplitude decreases to 1/e of

its surface value. 971

L

(1) Z 0lossless characteristic impedance of line (neglecting loss)

C

(2) LC 0 0 r r

G 1 1

(3) tan (4) R Rsa Rsb

C 2 a 2 b

Equations (1) and (2) can be used to find L and C if we know the material

properties and the characteristic impedance of the lossless line.

Equation (3) can be used to find G if we know the material loss tangent.

972

486

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

All four per-unit-length parameters can be found

from material parameters, Z0lossless and R.

L Z 0lossless

C / Z 0lossless

G C tan

RR

973

At high frequency, discontinuity effects can become important.

transmitted

incident

Bend

reflected

The simple transmission line model does not account for the bend.

ZTH

+- Z0 ZL

974

487

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

We want energy to travel from the generator to the load without radiation.

ZTH

+- Z0 ZL

975

theory

The coaxial cable is a perfectly shielded

system there is never any radiation at any

frequency, or under any circumstances.

r a

z b

between the two conductors.

976

488

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

theory

The twin lead is an open type of transmission

line the fields extend out to infinity.

+ -

The extended fields may cause

interference with nearby objects.

(This may be improved by using

twisted pair.)

977

Note: Having fields that extend to infinity is not the same thing as having radiation.

theory

The infinite twin lead will not radiate by itself,

regardless of how far apart the lines are.

backward

forward

to Maxwells equations on the infinite line, at any frequency.

978

489

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

A discontinuity on the twin lead will cause radiation to occur.

Incident wave

pipe

Reflected wave

Note: Radiation

effects increase Incident wave

as the frequency

increases.

h bend

To reduce radiation effects of the twin lead at discontinuities:

2) Twist the lines (twisted pair).

CAT 5 cable

(twisted pair)

980

490

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Introduction to transmission

line theory

Recap and supplement

Transmission lines

982

491

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

983

wave amplitude in terms of the

forward going wave amplitude.

984

492

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Load reflections

985

transformator

986

493

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

transformator

987

Equivalent circuit

988

494

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note: Impedance seen at the source end is inductive. The transmission line appears

989

like an inductor.

990

495

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Note: Impedance seen at the source end is capacitive. The transmission line appears

991

like a capacitor.

992

496

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Matched load

The load reflection coefficient L is zero.

There is no reflected wave generated at the load end ( i.e. V_ = 0 ).

The impedance seen at the source end is Z0 irrespective of the length of

the transmission line.

993

497

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

standing-wave behavior.

995

Equivalent circuit

Z(z=-l) of the transmission line + load as seen by the

source.

996

498

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

Reduce the transmission line circuit

transmission line as seen by the load. 997

Example

1 To find Zth short the voltage source and find the impedance

looking in from the load terminals

2 To find Vth remove the load and find the voltage at the load

terminals

998

499

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Let us study the situation where we have two unmatched transmission

lines connected together.

Now

Boundary Conditions:

(1) At z=0 the voltage on both the transmission lines must be the same.

(2) At z=0 the current on both the transmission lines must be the same.

999

Reflected wave:

1 Cast the circuit in the following equivalent form and find V-1

2 Voltage V+2 is the same as the voltage across the impedance Zo2

in the equivalent circuit

1000

500

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

discontinuities

1001

discontinuities

1002

501

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Question: How does one solve a problem like this?

1003

Example

Question: How does one solve a problem like this?

(corresponding to an infinite line).

1004

502

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Is it possible to use a transmission line to perfectly match two dissimilar

transmission lines so that there is no reflection?

length ?

Use a Quarter-wave transformer:

line inverts the normalized impedance1005

1006

503

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Smith chart

Smith chart

The Smith chart is a graphical aid that is very useful when

solving transmission line problems.

The key to its understanding is to realize that it is essentially a

polar plot of the voltage reflection coefficient ().

Let the reflection coefficient be expressed in polar form as

e j

center of the chart and the angle (-180 180 ) is

measured from the right-hand side of the horizontal diameter.

Any passively realizable (| | 1) reflection coefficient can

then be plotted as a unique point on the Smith chart.

1008

504

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1009

Normalized impedance

The real utility of the Smith chart, however, lies in the fact that

it can be used to convert from reflection coefficients to

normalized impedances (or admittances), and vice versa using

the impedance (or admittance) circles printed on the chart.

When dealing with impedances on a Smith chart, normalized

quantities are generally used, which will be denoted by

lowercase letters (z).

The normalization constant is usually the characteristic

impedance of the line (Z0).

Thus, z= Z/Z0 represents the normalized version of the

impedance Z.

1010

505

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

l from the load

propagating towards load, Amplitude of voltage L Load reflection coefficient

at the load position (z = 0). wave propagating away

from load, at the load

position (z = 0).

Similarly,

l

Impedance

calculation:

506

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

For

Re Z L 0

L 1

Proof:

RL jX L Z 0

RL jX L Z0

R Z 0 jX L

L

RL Z0 jX L

R Z 0 X L2

2

2

L L

RL Z0 X L2

2

1013

Complex plane

Im Decreasing l (toward load)

R j I

j 2

Le l

L

j L 2

L e L Increasing l (toward

L generator)

Re

L 2

Lossless line

1014

507

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1

Z Z0 ,

1

Z 1

Zn

Z0 1

Define:

Zn Rn jX n ; R j I

1 R j I

Rn jX n

1 j

R I

Next, multiply both sides by the RHS denominator term and equate real and

imaginary parts. Then solve the resulting equations for R and I in terms of Rn

and Xn. This gives two equations. 1015

1) Equation 1:

2

Rn 2 1 Equation for a circle

R I in the plane:

1 Rn 1 Rn

I

1016

508

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

2 2

1 1

R 1 I

2

2) Equation 2:

Xn Xn

I

Equation for a circle in the plane:

0 Xn 1 Xn 1

1 Xn

Xn 0

R

X n 1

0 X n 1

X n 1

1017

Smith Chart (Z-Chart) Clear-cut version

Xn = 1

Rn = 1

Xn = -1

1018

509

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Xn = 1 plane

Rn = 1

Xn = -1

1019

transmission line

coefficient as: (z) is a complex number

of magnitude never

greater than unity.

Normalized resistance

Normalized reactance

Thus

1020

510

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1021

1022

511

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1023

Smith chart

one to read values of both

the normalized resistance

Rn(z) and the normalized

reactance Xn(z) values on

the -plane.

1024

512

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

When adding elements in series use Z-chart.

1025

for impedances

We wish to determine the input impedance of a transmission line into which have

been inserted series components, and which is terminated into a mismatched load

with complex impedance.

A computation would require several successive applications:

s = distance from load ZL

One for every section of line.

513

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

In the Smith chart, the sequence of operations is

carried out graphically: every section of line produces

a rotation around the center of the chart, the rotation

angle being related to the length of the section,

divided by the wavelength.

To insert a series impedance, one simply adds its

value (normalized to the line impedance) to the one at

the line's input, obtained on the Smith chart.

When adding a reactance, one moves on a circle R =

constant; when adding a resistance, on a circle X =

constant.

1027

Example

Considering the circuit below the

procedure followed is:

1. The load terminating the line (at

right) has an impedance ZL = (2.15 -

j3)Zc.

The corresponding point A in the Smith chart

chart is located at the coordinates 2.15

- j3.

2. The line section, long of 0.087,

produces a rotation from A to B by an

angle 0.087 x 720 = 62.5 around the

chart's center, moving towards the

generator (decreasing values of z),

i.e., clockwise.

The impedance at point B read on the

chart is (0.3 - j1)Zc.

One wavelength, , corresponds to

two full turns, i.e., a 720 angle.

514

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

3. One then adds an impedance of j0.8

Zc, bringing to the point C at (0.3 -

j0.2)Zc.

The move from B to C follows a circle Smith chart

R = constant.

4. The section of line between C and D

produces a second rotation around the

chart's center, by an angle 0.174 x 720

= 125.3.

The input impedance of this section of

line at point D is (0.65 + j1)Zc.

5. To this last value is added the

impedance of the series capacitor -j

0.6Zc, yielding point E at (0.65 +

j0.4)Zc.

The displacement is done along a circle

R = constant (as between B and C).

Zc is the characteristic impedance of the line. 1029

1029

Example

6. The addition of a series resistance

between F and G leads to a move

along a circle X = constant, between

coordinates R = 1.6 Zc and R = 3 Zc.

7. Finally, the line section between G

and H produces a last rotation around

the center of the chart, by an angle 0.1

x 720 = 72 , yielding the input

impedance to the whole assembly as

(0.9 j1.15)Zc

1030

515

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

1031

using Maple

1032

516

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

1033

Example

1034

517

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

1035

Example

ZL = (0.9 j1.13) Zc

1036

518

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

When connecting components in shunt on the line (which is most often preferred at

microwaves), one wishes to use local admittances, rather than impedances.

The relationship of the local admittance, Yn, normalized to the characteristic

admittance Yc of the line, with the reflection factor, is given by:

It is the same relationship as the one for the impedance, in which is simply

replaced by .

In the Smith chart, the value of the normalized admittance Yn/Yc is obtained by

taking the image of the point Zn/Zc across the center of the chart.

This actually provides a simple graphical method to determine the inverse of a

complex number.

1037

chart for admittance

The input admittance of a transmission line,

into which a capacitor, an inductor and a

resistor have been shunt-connected between

sections of line, is to be determined in the

following circuit.

1038

519

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

The procedure followed is exactly the same as the one outlined previously for

series-connected elements in the Smith chart for impedances.

The very same sequence A-H is followed, this time for admittances in the Smith

chart.

The input admittance obtained is YH = (0.9 j1.13) Yc.

YH = (0.9 j1.13) Yc

1039

chart for shunt and series components

We may, of course, utilize the Smith chart to connect both series impedances and

shunt admittances, taking advantage of the central imaging property indicated in

connected to a load ZL

ZL = (2.5 j0.5)Zc

1040

520

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

1. The load impedance is here ZL = (2.5 j0.5)Zc so that the starting point A is

located at the coordinates 2.5 - j0.5 in the Smith chart for impedances.

2. A series capacitance is then added.

Remaining on the impedance chart, one moves along an R = constant circle, by a

distance corresponding to the reactance j2Zc; i.e., from - j0.5 to - j2.5 , reaching

point B.

ZL = (2.5 j0.)Zc

1041

1041

Example

3. The next component to be connected is a shunt susceptance.

This means that the input admittance must be determined.

This is obtained by jumping over the center of the chart, from point B to its image

B' , this time in the admittance chart.

4. The addition of a shunt susceptance -j0.6Yc is obtained by moving along a circle

of constant conductance G = constant, reaching point C' (still in the admittance

chart).

ZL = (2.5 j0.)Zc

1042

1042

521

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

5. The next component is connected in series, so that one has to return to the

impedance chart.

This is done by going to point C, symmetrically located across the center of the

chart.

6. The second series reactance -j2Zc is then added, in the same way as the first one

(moving along a circle R = constant).

ZL = (2.5 j0.)Zc

1043

1043

Example

The point D reached is, for the particular set of values selected, the center of the

chart.

The T-circuit, containing only lossless reactive components, has actually matched

the load ZL to the transmission line of characteristic impedance Zc (reflectionless

match).

ZL = (2.5 j0.)Zc

1044

522

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

ZL = (2.5 j0.5)Zc

1045

This T-circuit has matched the load ZL to

the transmission line of characteristic

impedance Zc (reflectionless match).

ZD = (1.0 + 0.0j)

ZL = (2.5 j0.5)Zc

1046

523

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Impedance matching

Impedance matching

Impedance matching is an important practical problem in

microwave engineering.

In practice, impedance matching is a part of the larger design

process for a microwave component or system.

The basic idea of impedance matching is illustrated in figure,

between a load impedance and a transmission line.

1048

524

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Matching network

The matching network is ideally lossless, to avoid

unnecessary loss of power, and is usually designed so

that the impedance seen looking into the matching

network is Z0.

Then reflections are eliminated on the transmission

line to the left of the matching network, although

there will be multiple reflections between the

matching network and the load.

1049

Impedance matching or tuning is important for the

following reasons:

Maximum power is delivered when the load is matched to

the line (assuming the generator is matched), and power

loss in the feed line is minimized.

Impedance matching of receiver components (antenna,

low-noise amplifier, etc.) improves the signal-to-noise ratio

of the system.

Impedance matching in a power distribution network (such

as an antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude

and phase errors.

1050

525

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

In many RF circuits it is extremely desirable to be able to transfer

maximum possible time-average power to a load impedance:

1051

1052

526

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

transmission line

1 Find L

1053

transmission line

Find the desired using Smith chart

1054

527

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

transmission line

Stub tuners are short stubs of transmission lines that are

used to cancel out unwanted reactances in microwave circuits. 1055

As long as the load impedance, ZL, has some nonzero

real part, a matching network can always be found.

Many choices are available, however, so factors that

may be important in the selection of a particular

matching network include the following:

ComplexityNearly always in case of engineering

solutions, the simplest design that satisfies the required

specifications is the most preferable.

A simpler matching network is usually cheaper, more reliable, and

less lossy than a more complex design.

1056

528

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

BandwidthAny type of matching network can ideally

give a perfect match (zero reflection) at a single frequency.

In many applications, however, it is desirable to match a load over a

band of frequencies.

There are several ways of doing this with, of course, a corresponding

increase in complexity.

ImplementationDepending on the type of transmission

line or waveguide being used, one type of matching network

may be preferable compared to another.

For example, tuning stubs are much easier to implement in

waveguide than multi-section quarter-wave transformers.

AdjustabilityIn some applications the matching network

may require adjustment to match a variable load impedance.

Some types of matching networks are better than others in this

regard.

1057

methods

Reactive lumped elements

(L-section networks)

Inductors and capacitors

Distributed elements

Tuning stub

Quarter-wave transformer

Resistive matching

(attenuator)

Suits only for the applications

which do not suffer from the

limited power and additional

heat => generally not

acceptable

1058

529

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Probably the simplest type of matching network is the L

section, which uses two reactive elements to match an

arbitrary load impedance to a transmission line.

There are two possible configurations for this network, as

shown in figure below.

either inductors or capacitors, depending on the load

impedance.

Thus, there are eight distinct possibilities for the matching

circuit for various load impedances.

1059

L-matching possibilities

component matching networks.

1060

530

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

If the frequency is low enough and/or the circuit size

is small enough, actual lumped-element capacitors

and inductors can be used.

This may be feasible for frequencies up to about 1

GHz or so, although modern microwave integrated

circuits may be small enough so that lumped

elements can be used at higher frequencies as well.

There is a large range of frequencies and circuit sizes

where lumped elements may not be realizable.

This is a limitation of the L section matching

technique.

1061

elements

Usually, distributed elements are suitable

above 1 GHz.

Basic methods are tuning stub and quarter-

wavelength transformer.

Distributed-component matching circuits can

be integrated on the surface of a printed circuit

board.

1062

531

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Single-stub tuning

A matching technique that uses a single open-circuited or

short-circuited length of transmission line (a stub),

connected either in parallel or in series with the transmission

feed line at a certain distance from the load, as shown in figure

below.

1063

A stub tuning circuit is convenient from a microwave

fabrication aspect, since lumped elements are not

required.

The shunt tuning stub is especially easy to fabricate in

microstrip or stripline form.

In single-stub tuning, the two adjustable parameters

are the distance (d) from the load to the stub position,

and the value of susceptance or reactance provided

by the shunt or series stub.

1064

532

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Matching conditions

For the shunt-stub case, the basic idea is to select d so

that the admittance Y, seen looking into the line at

distance d from the load is of the form Y0 + jB.

Then the stub susceptance is chosen as -jB, resulting

in a matched condition.

For the series stub case, the distance d is selected so

that the impedance Z, seen looking into the line at a

distance d from the load is of the form Z0 + jX.

Then the stub reactance is chosen as -jX, resulting in

a matched condition.

1065

circuited stub

The proper length of open or shorted transmission line can

provide any desired value of reactance or susceptance.

For a given susceptance or reactance, the difference in lengths

of an open- or short-circuited stub is /4.

For transmission line media such as microstrip or stripline,

open-circuited stubs are easier to fabricate since a via hole

through the substrate to the ground plane is not needed.

For lines like coax or waveguide short-circuited stubs are

usually preferred, because the cross- sectional area of such an

open-circuited line may be large enough (electrically) to

radiate, in which case the stub is no longer purely reactive.

1066

533

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Stub tuners

Stub tuners are short stubs of transmission lines that are used to cancel

out unwanted reactances in RF circuits.

1067

From the previous example

k=2/

1068

534

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1069

1070

535

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

tuner

It is easier to work with admittances than impedances when parallel

stubs are used since admittances in parallel can simply add.

1071

tuner

1072

536

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

tuner

We have up to now:

k=2/ 1073

tuner

Open-Circuit stub tuner on Smith chart

1074

537

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Double-stub tuning

The single-stub tuners are able to match any load impedance

(as long as it has a nonzero real part) to a transmission line, but

suffer from the disadvantage of requiring a variable length of

line between the load and the stub.

This may not be a problem for a fixed matching circuit, but

would probably pose some difficulty if an adjustable tuner

was desired.

In this case, the double-stub tuner, which uses two tuning

stubs in fixed positions, can be used.

Such tuners are often fabricated in coaxial line, with adjustable

stubs connected in parallel to the main coaxial line.

The double-stub tuner cannot match all load impedances.

1075

Double-stub tuner

The double-stub tuner circuit the load may be an arbitrary distance from the

first stub.

The stubs shown in figure are shunt stubs which are usually easier to

implement in practice than are series stubs: the latter could be used just as

well, in principle.

In either case, the stubs can be open-circuited or short-circuited.

1076

538

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Quarterwave transformer

The quarter-wave transformer is a simple circuit for

matching a real load impedance to a transmission

line.

An additional feature of the quarter-wave transformer

is that it can be extended to multi-section designs for

broader bandwidth.

If only a narrowband impedance match is required, a

single-section transformer may suffice.

1077

Quarterwave transformer

One drawback of the quarter-wave transformer is that

it can only match a real load impedance.

However, a complex load impedance can always be

transformed to a real impedance by using an

appropriate length of transmission line between the

load and the transformer, or by using an appropriate

series or shunt reactive stub.

These techniques will usually alter the frequency

dependence of the equivalent load, which often has

the effect of reducing the bandwidth of the match.

1078

539

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

0/4-transformer

The single-section quarter wave matching transformer circuit

is shown in figure .

Z1 Z 0 Z L

matching section is 0/4, but at other frequencies the length is

different, so a perfect match is no longer obtained.

1079

Example

Matching with a quarter-wave transformer:

An 8 load is matched to a 50 line through a

20 transformer.

1080

540

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Quarter-wave transformer

k=2/

1081

For example:

1082

541

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Waveguide theory

Reflection and

transmission of EM waves

at interfaces

Waves at an interface

Let us study a plane wave given by:

transmitted wave and a reflected wave.

We need to find the amplitudes of these reflected and transmitted

waves.

1084

542

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waves E-fields

Note: In the above equations, Er and Et are the unknowns that we need to find

in terms of the incident field amplitude Ei. 1085

fields

Boundary conditions:

(1) At z = 0 the E-field parallel to the interface must be continuous

This gives:

1086

543

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

fields

surface currents)-

of the medium =(/)

1087

coefficients

of writing the same results using:

1) Impedances

2) Wavevectors

3) Refractive indices

1088

544

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

interface:

1089

standing waves

Standing waves

incident and reflected waves

gives rise to standing waves

1090

545

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

currents

the surface and peaks at the metal

surface.

There must be surface currents

(recall the boundary conditions

for the magnetic field). 1091

coefficients for non-perfect metal

Reflection and

transmission coefficients

for non-perfect metal or

good conductor are

complex numbers. 1092

546

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

The wave penetrates a few skin depths into the non-perfect metal.

depths thick inside the non-perfect metal

or good conductor.

1093

E max Ei 1 E min Ei 1

Voltage Standing

VSWR

E max

1 the ratio of the magnitude

of the maximum field value

Wave Ration:

E min 1 (wherever that occurs) to

the minimum field value

(wherever that occurs). 1094

547

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

No reflection (|| = 0)

VSWR

E max

1 1

E min 1

Small reflection (|| = 0.25) VSWR=1.66

1095

transmission lines

Free space Transmission line

1096

548

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

and interfaces

1097

Three-layer structure

How do we calculate the reflection coefficient for the structure?

Note: We can use the same method solving the equivalent transmission line

problem!

1098

549

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Three-layer structure

1099

Three-layer structure

1100

550

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

coatings

1101

1102

551

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Question: How do /4 long matching layers work?

1103

What if we want to increase the reflectivity?

A periodic stack of high index-low index layers can be used as an HR

coating!

1104

552

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1105

coatings

1106

553

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

coatings

2) Choosing the difference between 1 and 2 to be large.

1107

Waveguide theory

plate metal waveguides

554

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Let us study a parallel plate waveguide (shown below).

We have studied such structures in the context of transmission lines.

Thus, we know that they can guide TEM waves (Transverse Electric

and Magnetic). in which both the electric and magnetic fields point in

direction perpendicular to the propagation direction.

But these structures can guide more than just the TEM waves that

we have considered so far.

1109

Consider a parallel plate waveguide:

1110

555

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TE (guided) modes

1111

TE modes

1112

556

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1113

1114

557

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1115

TE guided modes

A parallel plate waveguide:

1116

558

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TM guided modes

1117

TM guided modes

1118

559

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1119

relation

1120

560

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1121

Note: The TM 0 mode is just the TEM mode that we were dealing with

1122

transmission lines.

561

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Waveguide theory

Rectangular metal

waveguides

Rectangular metal waveguides are usually made of

copper and the best are gold plated.

They are commonly used to guide electromagnetic

power when dealing with high power levels (radars,

satellite and space communications, wireless/mobile

base stations, etc.)

Integrated versions are used in sub-millimeter

wavelength ultrahigh speed electronics (e.g. Gunn

oscillators, superconducting THz electronics, nonlinear

Schottky diode mixers) operating at frequencies between

300 GHz to 1000 GHz.

1124

562

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Like a parallel plate metal waveguide that is closed by metal walls on

the remaining two sides.

1125

TE guided modes

1126

563

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TE guided modes

1127

TE guided modes

1128

564

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TEmn modes

Note: The TE00 mode does not exist (i.e. it corresponds to field being

trivially zero everywhere) 1129

becomes entirely imaginary and the mode does not propagate but decays

1130

exponentially with distance.

565

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1131

TM guided modes

1132

566

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TM guided modes

1133

TM guided modes

1134

567

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

TM guided modes

Note: The TM00 , TMm0 TM0n modes do not exist (i.e. they correspond to

field being trivially zero everywhere). 1135

becomes entirely imaginary and the mode does not propagate but decays

exponentially with distance. 1136

568

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1137

adapters

Sometimes it is necessary to transfer power between a waveguide and

a coaxial cable.

1138

569

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Waveguide theory

Dielectric waveguides

Dielectric waveguide

TE-wave undergoing total internal reflection:

1140

570

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

reflection

One can have a guided wave that is bouncing between two

dielectric interfaces due to total internal reflection and moving

in the z-direction.

1141

1142

571

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

waveguides

1143

fibers

1144

572

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

wave is no longer being guided through total

internal reflection since i < c.

1145

Cut-off frequency

1146

573

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

more or less free space

Propagation mechanisms

Introduction

The majority of applications of microwaves are related

to radar and communication systems.

Microwave communication systems handle a large

fraction of the worlds international and other long-haul

telephone, data, and television transmissions.

Most of the current wireless telecommunications

systems, such as terrestrial radio links, satellite

communications , wireless local area computer

networks (WLAN), cellular systems, and global

positioning satellite (GPS) systems, operate in the UHF

EHF range, and thus rely on microwave technology.

1148

574

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

International organizations

the international organizations:

ITU (International Telecommunications Union)

and ETSI (European Telecommunication

Standards Institute), for example

Allocation the limited resources of frequency spectrum

and geostationary orbits.

Formulation of rules and procedures to avoid mutual

disturbance of services.

1149

Frequency allocation

1150

575

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Maxwells equations

The initial understanding of radio wave propagation goes back to the

work of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1864 formulated the theory

of electromagnetic propagation which predicted the existence of

radio waves.

Electromagnetic waves propagate through environments where they

are reflected, scattered, and diffracted by walls, terrain, buildings,

and other objects.

The ultimate details of this propagation can be obtained by solving

Maxwells equations with boundary conditions that express the

physical characteristics of these obstructing objects.

This requires the calculation of the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of

large and complex structures.

Since these calculations are difficult, and many times the necessary

parameters are not available, approximations have been developed

to characterize signal propagation without resorting to Maxwells

equations.

1151

The simplest model for signal propagation: free space path

loss.

A signal propagating between two points with no attenuation

(absorption) or reflection follows the free space propagation

law.

Ray tracing propagation models are used to approximate wave

propagation according to Maxwells equations, and are

accurate models when the number of multipath components is

small and the physical environment is known.

Ray tracing models depend heavily on the geometry and

dielectric properties of the region through which the signal

propagates.

Empirical models use parameters based on measurements for

both indoor and outdoor channels.

When the number of multipath components is large, or the

geometry and dielectric properties of the propagation

environment are unknown, statistical models must be used. 1152

576

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Propagation models

The most common approximations use ray-tracing techniques.

These techniques approximate the propagation of electromagnetic waves

by representing the wavefronts as rays: the model determines the reflection

and refraction effects on the wavefront but ignores the more complex

scattering phenomenon predicted by Maxwells coupled differential

equations.

The simplest ray-tracing model is the two-ray model, which quite

accurately describes signal propagation when there is one direct path

between the transmitter and receiver and one reflected path.

The reflected path typically bounces off the ground, and the two-ray model

is a good approximation for propagation along highways, rural roads, and

over water.

More complex General Ray Tracing (GRT) models are needed to describe

additional reflected, scattered, or diffracted components

Many propagation environments are not accurately enough described by

ray tracing models.

In these cases it is common to develop analytical models based on

empirical measurements.

These are called empirical models.

1153

Statistical models

Often because of complexity and variability of the radio channel it

doesn't pay to develop a deterministic channel model.

For these cases statistical models are used.

The attenuation caused by signal path obstructions such as buildings

or other objects is typically characterized statistically.

Statistical models are also used to characterize the constructive and

destructive interference for a large number of multipath components.

Statistical models are most accurate in environments with fairly

regular geometries and uniform dielectric properties.

Indoor environments tend to be less regular than outdoor

environments, since the geometric and dielectric characteristics

change dramatically depending on whether the indoor environment

is an open factory, office, flat or metal machine factory.

For these environments computer-aided modeling tools are available

to predict signal propagation characteristics.

1154

577

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Microwave propagation

In free-space, electromagnetic waves propagate in straight

lines without absorption or other adverse effects.

Free-space, however, is an idealization that is only

approximated when microwave energy propagates through

the atmosphere or in the presence of the earth.

In practice the performance of a communication, radar, or

radiometry system may be seriously affected by propagation

effects such as reflection, refraction, attenuation,

diffraction, or scattering.

It is important to realize that more or less free-space

propagation effects cannot be quantified in any exact or

rigorous sense, but can only be described in terms of their

statistics.

1155

Propagation in free space is straightforward.

Received power is proportional to 1/d in free space.

(d = distance

Receiving power additionally influenced by between sender

fading (frequency dependent) and receiver)

shadowing

reflection at large obstacles

refraction depending on the density of a medium

scattering at small obstacles

diffraction at edges

578

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

atmospheric opacity

1157

Low frequency

1158

579

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1159

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), f =30-300

Hz, =10000-1000km.

Ultra Low Frequency (ULF), f =0.3-3 kHz,

=1000-100km.

Waves do not penetrate ionosphere.

Antennas would be extremely large (yet << ).

Very low data rate.

Submarine communications, radio

communications to mines.

1160

580

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

VLF

km

Waves do not penetrate ionosphere guided

waves between the earth and the ionosphere.

Antenna height << .

Telegraph to sea vessels, time standards.

1161

LF

Low Frequency (LF), f =30-300 kHz, = 10-1

km.

Waves do not penetrate ionosphere guided

wave between the earth and the ionosphere.

Surface wave propagates beyond the horizon.

Antenna height <<.

Broadcasting service, radio communications to

boats, radio navigation (Decca, Loran).

Interference between the ionosphere wave and

the ground wave fading.

1162

581

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

(ground) wave

1163

curved surface

Sommerfelds theory or its approximations for the ground wave

propagation are valid for a flat surface and thus, can be used if the

following conditions for the distance and the antenna height are

valid

Example: Let f = 300 MHz dmax = 34 km and hmax =180 m.

Earth should be taken into account in the modeling.

The higher the frequency the higher the losses.

Thus, the best frequency regime for the ground wave propagation is

VLF-MF bands (3 kHz-3 MHz).

1164

582

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Radio wave see conducting, non-magnetic

medium (r=1)

as a good conductor if

as a good insulator if

1165

Example

Dry (bad) ground: r 4, 0.001 S/m

good insulator if f >> 4.5 MHz (VHF and higher

frequencies)

good conductor if f << 4.5 MHz (LF and lower

frequencies)

Sea water: r 80, 5 S/m

good insulator if f >> 1.1 GHz (EHF and higher

frequencies)

good conductor if f << 1.1 GHz (HF and lower

frequencies)

583

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

coefficient

Skin depth () is a distance s0= which the wave [y(s)] decreases

to 1/e of its initial (surface) value [y(0)]

y(s=)=(1/e)y(0)0.37y(0)

per unit length)

If set s= then

coefficient.

1167

MF

Medium Frequency (MF), f = 0.3-3 MHz, = 1-

0.1 km.

Ionosphere waves attenuate in daytime (D-layer

absorption).

Ionospheric refraction at night from E- and F-

layers (the range of ionospheric wave at night

1000 km)

Surface wave propagates beyond the horizon but

attenuates (range 100km).

Antenna heights < .

1168

584

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

HF

10m

Waves can penetrate the ionosphere, E- and F-

layers can cause refraction.

Antennas: monopoles, dipoles and antenna

arrays.

Very long communications can be achieved.

1169

(sky) wave

Medium (MF) and short wave (HF) communication over long distances

1170

585

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

VHF

Very High Frequency (VHF), f = 30-300 MHz = 10-1

m.

Usually no refraction of waves from the ionosphere.

Direct wave is the main propagation mechanism but

scattering from troposphere and ionosphere, and

troposphere ducting (waveguide type propagation) is

possible.

Hills attenuates waves, reflections from surfaces,

multipath propagation.

Helix and yagi antennas usable.

100 km range for FM broadcasting service.

Radio beacons, mobile communication in sea, air and land

applications.

1171

f =0.3 -3 GHz =100-10 cm.

Scattering from troposphere can provide even 300-600 km

communication links.

Direct wave is the main propagation mechanism and tropospheric

ducting (waveguide type propagation) is possible.

Hills shadow propagating waves.

Antennas are usually Yagis and parabolic reflectors (dishes).

TV broadcasts, radio navigation (GPS), air surveillance radar,

mobile communications etc.

Line-of sight communications (LOS)

Rain attenuation is negligible.

1172

586

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

f = 3-30 GHz = 10-1 cm.

Direct wave

Hydrometeors (rain and fog) attenuate waves

(>10GHz)

Horn antennas and parabolic reflectors.

Radio links, satellite communications, radars,

remote sensing, mobile communications,

WLAN, WPAN, etc.

Line - of sight communications

1173

f =30-300GHz =10-1mm.

Direct wave limited by strong attenuation to

gases, rain and mist.

Atmosphere gases absorb waves (windows).

Small parabolic reflectors, lenses.

Short line-of sight communication links,

remote sensing from satellite

Scientific and experimental use.

1174

587

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Atmospheric attenuation

1175

Propagation mechanisms

Free space and reflected wave

etc. f > 30 MHz

1176

588

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Troposphere scattering

Communication over horizon.

Using UHF and higher frequencies.

Military applications.

1177

1178

589

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

1179

Assume two antennas whose mutual distance is r and gains

along the line of sight G1 and G2

Antenna 1 transmits power P1. What is the received power, P2?

The power density, S1, at the antenna 2:

1180

590

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Since power density in terms of the electric field

is

The wave impedance (a

vacuum value is 120377)

field by the transmitter

space and in the far field.

1181

The near and far field are defined in terms of the Fraunhofer distance.

The Fraunhofer distance is the value of:

d f D

D 2

where D is the largest physical dimension of the radiator (or the diameter of

the antenna) and is the wavelength of the radio wave.

This distance provides the limit between the Fresnel and Fraunhofer region.

Additionally, a far-field region distance must satisfy the condition

The far-field distance is the distance

from the transmitting antenna to the

beginning of the Fraunhofer region, or far field.

1182

591

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

space

In the far-field, the shape of the antenna pattern is

independent of distance from the source.

The far-field is also frequently referred to as the

"radiation zone", or "free-space".

A more precise definition is given by the propagation

properties.

The radiation zone is important because far-field falls off in

amplitude by 1/r (E1/r, r>>).

This means that in the far-field the total energy per unit

area at a distance r is proportional to 1/r2.

The area of the sphere is proportional to r2, so the total

energy passing through the sphere is constant.

1183

Environment factor

The effect of real conditions for the propagated

field can be modeled by environment factor,

F, which is the ratio of free-space and true

fields, E1 and E1true, respectively:

E1true =FE1

Hence, free-space Friis formula can be

generalized to real conditions with the

environment factor

1184

592

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Design inequality

Friis formula leads to a design inequality for a radio link

Minimize the right hand side of the inequality by choosing first the

frequency f=c/ F and P2,min which is restricted by noise.

Antenna gains, G1 and G2, and transmitted power P1 state antenna

technology and costs.

The environment factor, F, depends heavily on frequency and

propagation mechanism.

The exact value is indeterminable but its average and statistics are

interesting average field and its variation.

1185

space

Propagation in free space:

An antenna radiation power P1 gives rise to electric field

1186

593

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Ray theory

In the far field the Poynting vector has only a radial

component then propagation can be modeled as flux

tubes in which power is conserved

Thin flux tubes are rays that are

straight lines in a homogeneous medium

curved lines in a nonhomogeneous medium

Note: The Poynting vector S=ExH represents the energy flux (in W/m2) of an electromagnetic

1187

field.

Ray theory

The fundamental

assumption of the ray

theory is that obstacles

shadow only those rays

that are impinging on it

without affecting the

others.

The validity of the ray

theory is the better the

greater is the frequency.

1188

594

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Atmospheric propagation

While the electromagnetic properties of air are

very close to those of a vacuum (r=1, r =1), they

are not rigorously identical.

When considering a long trajectory (path) within

the atmosphere, the variations due to the pressure

p, the temperature T, and the moisture level

have to be considered.

Electromagnetic rays do not travel in a straight

line within the atmosphere, but follow slightly

curved trajectories.

1189

Inhomogeneous atmosphere

The troposphere is very slightly inhomogeneous

caused by the gravitation which makes the gas

mixture called air thinner as height increases.

Free electrons in the ionospheric layers change the

effective permittivity as the function of height.

Inhomogeneous media bend radio waves or radio

rays.

1190

595

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Atmosphere

1191

Standard atmosphere

The relative permittivity of air at microwaves is given by an

experimental expression:

temperature in Kelvin, the partial pressure of water vapor in

millibar ( or hPa) and n the refractive index.

A large number of measurements led to the establishment of an

average profile for r as a function of height h, called the

standard atmosphere.

Note: Waves in the visible spectrum are not affected by moisture: their refractive index is given

by the equation, letting =0. 1192

596

Lecture notes Radio Engineering by Jorma Kekalainen

Atmospheric effects

The relative permittivity of the atmosphere is

close to unity.

It generally decreases (approaches unity as

altitude increases, since pressure and humidity

decrease with height faster than does temperature.

This change in permittivity with altitude causes

radio waves to bend toward the earth.

Such refraction of radio waves can sometimes be

useful, since it may extend the range of radar and

communication systems beyond the limit imposed

by the presence of the earths horizon.

Note: In a radar system, refraction effects can lead to errors when determining the elevation of

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a target close to the horizon.

troposphere

The refraction index of the troposphere

depends exponentially of the height:

Ns = 315 in the refractivity at ground level under

normal atmospheric conditions (temperature,

atmospheric pressure, the partial pressure of water

vapor)

hs=7.35km

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Refractivity

At low altitudes up to h = 1 km the linearized model is valid

for the refractivity

the refractive index (n) the wavefronts tend to bend towards

increasing direction of n.

Note: The refractivity function is spherical, but a planar model can be used as an approximation

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for low altitudes.

Standard atmosphere

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inhomogeneous medium

Consider a radio ray traveling in a planar medium whose refraction index

depends only height coordinate n = n(h) (a model for the troposphere)

Let us study the system of two homogeneous layers, having respectively

the refraction indices n, n+dn

dn

dh

d

Note: The equation for a bending radio ray can be derived assuming that the refraction index

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changes stepwise over layer boundaries.

Snells law of refraction:

n (h) sin [ (h)] = constant

be solved:

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Bending direction

medium, i.e., towards the direction of higher

refraction index n, , i.e., where n is higher.

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Consider a linearly changing n(h) for which

constant, if n1 and /2

small elevation angles!

Note: Here is assumed that radio ray propagates nearly as a direction of the Earths surface. So

we can assume n 1 and approximately zero elevation angle ( 0), which means /2. 1200

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Alternative trajectories

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If a radio wave propagates in the troposphere nearly

parallel to the surface of the ground i.e. /2,

the radius of curvature of the path is then approximately

tropospheric conditions which means

where the real Earth radius a = 6370 km.

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Affine transformation

The analysis of radio wave propagation is difficult

since both the wave and the surface are bending.

Using an affine transformation one of the paths

can be made straight.

After an affine transformation, only one curved line is

left.

This transformation must be done so that the

distance between the lines do not change.

So, the height of radio ray from the Earths

surface is the same as before the transformation.

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Affine transformation

Assume the path height h(d)<< d << a or R

Cosine law:

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Effective radius

The height of the radio path h(d),

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Effective radius

Now we can straighten the radio path by setting Re=

In standard tropospheric conditions R 4a corresponding the

effective radius of the Earth ae = Ka = (4/3)a = 8500km

This transformation replaces the refractive index of the

troposphere and its derivate to ne and dne/dh=0

How does the refractive index change in the affine

transformation?

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Example

If an antenna is at a height h, above the earth, simple

geometry gives the line-of- sight distance to the horizon

as

d 2ah

where a is the radius of the earth.

From the previous study we see that the effect of

refraction on range can be accounted for by using an

effective earth radius ae=Ka where k> 1.

A value commonly used is K = 4/3, but this is only an

average value.

Actually, bending depends on weather conditions.

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If an antenna is at a height h, above the earth, simple geometry

gives the line-of- sight distance to the horizon.

If we assume idealized free-space type straight line propagation, we

get the distance d to the geometric horizon

d a h2 a 2 a 2 2 ah h 2 a 2

2ah h 2 2ah , when h a

radio wave.

So, the distance dst to horizon in the standard troposphere is

4

d st 2 ae h 2 Kah d K d 1.15d

3

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earth) in the standard atmosphere

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Note

Prerequisites to exploit effective Earth radius

dn/dh = constant ( n(h)=constant*h+Cint)

propagation almost parallel to the surface (radio

wave path is circular)

For microwave links, the elevation angle is very small.

Operation area is small enough (radius < 100 km

from transmitter)

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Profile chart

Antenna heights and terrain heights representations are defined

with respect to the ground surface (sea level)

the design of radio mast height is difficult

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Profile chart

Knife edge diffraction causes attenuation (shadowing

effect)! Increase antenna height (h2) to avoid

shadowing.

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The middle point of the radio link

is set to the center.

The highest points from the

terrain profile between Rx and Tx

antennas should be marked to the

chart.

The radius of the Fresnel zone

should be calculated at the highest

points.

The line-of-sight path is drawn to

the chart such that the highest

points are below the Fresnel

ellipsoid.

The needed radio mast heights are

read from the chart.

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Note

Radio ray propagation in the troposphere is

relatively easy to analyze because its path is

practically circular besides in very exceptional

temperature conditions and in the case of too

steep elevation angle.

The spherical inhomogeneity of troposphere can be

approximated by a planar linear model for the

refractive index.

In the ionosphere the ray path must be analyzed

with more rigorous method using nonlinear

spherical permittivity model.

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Real atmosphere

The standard atmospheric profile is only a

statistical value, representing an average taken over a

large sample of experimental data.

In fact, the term K depends upon the latitude, varying

between 1.2 and 1.5.

When the atmosphere fluctuates, n may even locally

increase with altitude: waves are then trapped within a

channel (anomalous refraction, mirages).

Shadow regions are located next to such channels,

where it is apparently impossible to emit or to receive.

Such anomalies often take place over sea shore.

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Standard atmosphere

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Weather conditions can produce a temperature

inversion, where the temperature increases with

altitude.

This condition can sometimes lead to ducting (also

called trapping, or anomalous propagation), where a

radio wave can propagate long distances parallel to the

earths surface, via the duct created by the layer of air

along the temperature inversion.

The situation is very similar to propagation in a

dielectric waveguide.

Such ducts can range in height from 15 150 m, and

may be near the earths surface, or higher in altitude.

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Tropospheric channel

Temperature inversion causes channels, or ducts, of cool air to

form between layers of warm air, which can cause radio waves

to travel far beyond the normal line-of-