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L-probe proximity-fed short-circuited patch Meusured results and divcussiun.

s: The SWR and gain OS lhe


antennas antcnna arc shown in Fig. 2. The SWR is 5 2 iii the frequency
rangc 3.33~~4.95GH2, corrcsponding lo an itnpedinice bandwidth
of 39% centred al 4.14GHz. The L-probe incorporatcd wilh the
Y.X. G u o , K.M. Lnk and K.F. Lec patch iiitrodnccs a capacitancc suppressing same OS the inductance
introduced by lhe Red probe due to the thick substrale, and
Experimental rcsulls Cor L-pro& proximity-fed shurt-ciruiitcd another rcsoniincc i i c w the icsoiiliiice or the patch antenna can he
quarter-wavclength p t d i antennas arc pmscntcd. Clsing a hen1 crcatcd.
laycr of thickness -0.1% as a supportcd substr;itc, an impedance
bandwidth of 39"% and a gain of > 7.0dBi liiivc becn obtained.
The Tar ilckl p;ittcms are stable itcross tlic Ixesbmd. 6h1
Imroductiun: Mobile communication systems have considcrably
improved with respect to mobility, but Lhe anlenna still remains a
bulky element of thc system. Several techniques havc been pro-
posed to overcome thc si72 problem or conventional patch anten-
nas, which arc the prererred option for mobile communicalion
applications bccause they have the attractive Scatures of a low pro-
file and weight, and can be nladc to conform to mounting struc-
tures. The simplest or these methods is to incorporate high
diclcclric constant substrates and covcr layers in the design of thc
antcnna [I]. However, this techniquc requires an expensive sub-
strate, and is thcrcforc unsuitable for most applications. The use
of a short circuit [2]or a shorl pin [3] has also been proposed.
Although significant size reductions havc been achieved by using
these methods, lhe bandwidth of the proposed antclinas tends to
bc very narrow, typically < 2% Much attention has bccn focused
on improving the bandwidlh ol' short-circuited patch antennas [4, SI.
A bandwidth of 18.S0/, has heen reported through the use of a
thick Soam substrate [4]. Two stacked short-circuited patchcs were
used to obtain a bandwidth of 30% [SI. However, the slaicked
geometry increased the coniplcxity or the antenna. Rcccntly, a
broadband thick-substrate patch using a novel L-shaped probc
fccd has been demonstrated [6].The L-probe fed patch comprises
a single-layer and single-patch. Thcrcfore, il is very simple i n
strucLure and more suitable for mobile communication systems.
In this Letter, we report our experimcntal study OS a shorl-
circuited patch antenna with an Lprobc feed. The proposed
antcnna achieves an impedance bandwidlh of > 39% (standing
wave ration (SWR) 5 2). and a gain of > 7.0dlli in thc majority ol'
the broad band. The Car field patterns arc stable across the pass-
band. Compared with a U2 rcgulnr patch resoiiating at thc same
Sreqoency of the TM,, mode and wilh the same aspect ratio, the
new antenna has a Sour-fold reduction in area.

Shortedwaii

Ilg,
~ F co-polarisation
-2 l! cross-polarisation
~~~- H co-polarisation
I1 cross-polarisation
L-probe
ground Fig. 3 shows the radiation patterns at 4.14Gl-l~.For the exper-
piane
iment, the short-circnitcd patch WAS mountcd on a large ground
plane (a circular disc with diamcler = 3%) to reduce diffraction
a b off the edges. The radiation pallerns have the same characteristics
ovcr thc brolid band. It should be noted that therc is a beam
squint of -15 and 60" in the H- and E-plane, respectively, which
can be attrihuted to.the asymrnctric current distribution of tbc
patch due to the prescnce of thc sliortcd wall and the L-probe.
This was also obscrved iii [5]. From Fig. 2, il is interesting to sce
that, in the main beam direction, a gain of > 7,OdUi in the major-
ity of the broad band for the E-plane was measurcd, while a max-
Geometry: The antenna, as shown in Fig. I , bas a pntch separated ininin gain of 2.4dBi for the 13-plane was ohlained. This is
Rom the ground planc by a foam layer of diclcctric constant close bccausc thc H-plane cross-polarisation level is relativcly high,
to unity with one side of thc patch shorted. The patch is proximity while the E-plane cross-polarisation is at a low lcvcl in rront, <
fcd by an L-shaped coaxial probe, and it is excited in thc TM,,, -2SdB, which can also be found in [5]. Although the M-planc
mode. It has the following parameters: Lp = 12mm (= 0.17%, cross-polarisation level is quite liigli, it may not bc a disadvirntage
where & is the frcc-space wavelength corrcsponding Lo the centre in some applications, e.g. indoor niobile communications.
frequency, 4.14GHz, of the patch), W, = 330mm Lh = I 1.5nirn
(= 0.16&), L, = 4Smm (= 0.06&,), II = 2vmn1, R = 0.5 mm and Conclusions: We have described the comhination of an L-probe
II = 7.Smm (= 0.1%). bandwidth cnhanccment technique and the short-circuitcd size-

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 25th November 1999 Vol. 35 No. 24 2069


~

reduction techniques, in the design of a broadband quarlcr-wave- Antenna gw~metry:The basic geometry of the wideband oiniii-
- natcli
leneth . antenna. For a foam substrate thickness o f 0 . l L the directional circular patch antenna is showii in Fig. 1. There are
mulling antenna appears lo have a wider bandwidth and simpler two circular patches: the upper patch is a pirasitic patch with
slructure than those for the stacked casc. radius n, = 70mm while thc Iowcr patch is thc fccding patch with
radius a2 = 20mm. The upper patch and thc ground plane are
Ackno~vlctlwments:This proicct is summrtcd by the Competitive nude of aluminium of thickness 1 mm. For convenience in fabrica-
Earmarked Rcscarch &ani (CERGj; Hong Kong (Projcct no: lion, the lower palcli is made of a thin copper sheet. A coaxial
9040449). Thc rcscarcli of K.F. Lee is supported
.. by the University probe wilh a radius of I inin is connected to lhe centre of the cop-
of Missouri Research Board. per patch. The separation between the ground plane and upper
patch is h, = 24mni (-0,14110, where 110 is the wavclcngth at
0 1F.E 1999 14 October I999 1.8GHz) and that of the ground plane and lower patch is Ii,
l9mm.
upper circular patch

ular patch

Y.X. Guo: Also with Dcpartmcnt of Electronic Engineering, City


University of Iiong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong
Kong, Pcople's Republic of China

References
LO, T.K., MO, c.o., H W A N C ~Y, . , LAM. L.K w,, and LEE, D.: 'Miniaturc
aperture-coupled miccostrip anleniia o f vcry high pcsmittivity',
Eiececiron.L ~ I I .1, w , 3 3 , (I), PD. 9-10
PINHAS. s., atid SHTRIKMAN, s.: 'Compzirison bctwccn computed mil
inensured handwidth of quartcr-wavc microstrip radiators', IEEE
4 h
Tvrms. Antannrri I'rolmg., 1988, AP-36, ( I I ) , pp. 1615 1616
WATRRHOUSL, it.".: 'Small microslrip patch antcnna', El?crron.

jl \
~ . ~ t t199s,31,
., (8), pp. m4-605
CIIAIR. 11, LEE, K.P., and MJK, K.M.: 'Handwidth and cross-
polariration characteristics of quarler-wavc sliortcd patch
antennas', M i c r o w Opt. Technd Lcrt., 1999, 22, (2). pp. 101-103 i1.5
ZAlII, I L , KOSSIAVAS. G,, U.4UVIGNAC. I.Y., CAZAJOUS, I., and
IWWI~NIK, A,; 'Dual-rrequcncy and broad-band antennas with
stacked quiirtzr wiivelcnglh clcmcnts', IECII T w i s . A,ileiwa,r
Propug., 1999, AP-47, (4), pp. 654-660
LUK, K.M., M A K . C L . , CHOW, Y.I.,, and I.LII,K . I . . : 'Uroadband
microstrip patch antenna', Elc:itro,i Len., 1998, 34, (15), pp. 1442-
1443

Wideband circular patch antenna operated


at TM,, mode
Ka Wai C h i n , Kin Fai Tong and Kwai Man Luk
The chaiectelistics of ti circular patch micruslrip atileiiiiii wilh a
tap-loadcd monopole feed are investigated. Air is used as lhc
diclectl-icsubstrate. The distance bztwcen llie ladialing paldi and
ground p$nc is 4 , l S b . The patch is excited iii the TM,, mode.
An impcd;mcc bandwidth (SWR < 2) of50'% and a n average gain
of SdBi arc obtained.

Introduluctioii: The monopole anlenna is widely used in various Experimental i.e(iu/t.s: The standing wave ratio (SWR) and the
wireless communication systems. Howcvcr, it has the disadvan- radiation pattern of thc antcnna wcrc mcasurcd by an HP8510C
tages of a thick profilc (0.25110) and large backlobe radiation. network analyser and in ti complict range chamber wilh an
Reccntly, a circular microstrip antenna with probe feed locatcd at HP85301C anlenna measurement system, respeclively. An impcd-
thc centrc [I] has bccn investigated. Although the proposed design anm bandwidlh or 52"L8(SWR < 2) was obtained as shown in
has an omni-dircctional radiation natlern. a narrow imnedance Fig. 2. Moreover, lhe SWR values at 1.8 and 2.45GHz are close
bandwidth (-5%) is obtained. In thi; Letter; we present an.invcsti-
lo unily. The operating frequency range of the anleniia is I.&
gatioii into a wideband circular witch antcnna with an omni-dim-
2.7CHz. In Fig. 3, the gain of thc antcnna is -5dBi. The radia-
fional radiation patlem. Froin the circnlar cavity model, the
current in the circular radiating patch flows outwardly from the tion patterns of the antenna when operated at 1.8 and 2.45GHz
centre when operated ai llie TM,, mode. This results in an omni- arc shown in Figs. 4 and 5, respeclively. The antcniia has a sym-
directional H-plane pattern [2].Morcovcr, two bandwidth widen- metric E-plane patlern and has a -30dB null at 0 = 0". The mani-
ing techniques are used to enhance the bandwidth of thc antcnna: mum power levels are at aboui 8 = +30". The H-plane radialion
a thick subslratc is selected [3] and a parasitic patch is placed on of thc antcnna has omni-dircctional pattcrns at both frcqucncics.
top or the feeding patch [4]. The cross-polarisation ol'bolh planes is approximately -20dB.
2070 ELECTRONICS LETTERS 25th November 1999 Vol. 35 No. 24