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# Good morning fellow teachers, and to the school heads of different

schools, Good morning also mam Socorro Garcia, our schools district
supervisor. What we are about to present this morning or lesson that we
are going to present is intend for the Grade 4.

## Good morning children, do you have an assignment? Pls. pass it

forward. At the count of 5 all papers must be here in front so that we
can start now. Ok all papers are here.

Now, before we start our lesson proper, let us have some activity first. I
have some few questions for you to be answer. Class this is going to be
fun because we are going to play a game using our gadgets, using your
cellphones if you have. We are going to play the using the kahoot and
what is this kahoot class, kahoot is a tool for technology, and one of the
uses of kahoot is to administer quizzes.

So shall we start? Ok. Listen very carefully and follow my lead. first
thing that you are going to do is go to your browser, in your browser
type the word kahoot.it. pag nakapasok na kau you will be asked for a
pin so just wait for the pin that will be displayed there. There is the pin,
write the pin in your cp, it says there game pin. Just write the pin and
click the ENTER, after entering the pin class you will be asked for your
ok, go.

Read and analyze the questions carefully; you will be given 20 sec only
for you to answer. Class, the questions will be shown in my
presentation. What you are going to see in your cp are just the answers
from those questions.

All matter can move from one state to another. It may require
extreme temperatures or extreme pressures, but it can be
done. Sometimes a substance doesn't want to change states.
You have to use all of your tricks when that happens. To create
a solid, you might have to decrease the temperature by a
huge amount and then add pressure. For
example, oxygen (O2) will solidify at -361.8 degrees Fahrenheit
(-218.8 degrees Celsius) at standard pressure. However, it will
freeze at warmer temperatures when the pressure is
increased.

## Some of you know about liquid nitrogen (N2). It is nitrogen

from the atmosphere in a liquid form and it has to be super
cold to stay a liquid. What if you wanted to turn it into a solid
but couldn't make it cold enough to solidify? You could increase
the pressure in a sealed chamber. Eventually you would reach
a point where the liquid became a solid. If you have liquid
water (H2O) at room temperature and you wanted water vapor
(gas), you could use a combination of high temperatures or low

Points of Change
Phase changes happen when you reach certain special points.
Sometimes a liquid wants to become a solid. Scientists use
something called a freezing point or melting point to
measure the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid.
There are physical effects that can change the melting
point. Pressure is one of those effects. When the pressure
surrounding a substance increases, the freezing point and other
special points also go up. It is easier to keep things solid when
they are under greater pressure.

## Generally, solids are more dense than liquids because their

molecules are closer together. The freezing process compacts
the molecules into a smaller space.
There are always exceptions in science. Water is special on
many levels. It has more space between its molecules when it
is frozen. The molecules organize in a specific arrangement
that takes up more space than when they are all loosey-goosey
in the liquid state. Because the same number of molecules take
up more space, solid water is less dense than liquid water.
There are many other types of molecular organizations in solid
water than we can talk about here.

## CHEMISTRY TERM PHASE CHANGE

Fusion/Melting Solid to Liquid
Freezing Liquid to Solid
Vaporization/Boiling Liquid to Gas
Condensation Gas to Liquid
Sublimation Solid to Gas
Deposition Gas to Solid

## Imagine that you are a solid. You're a cube of ice sitting on a

counter. You dream of becoming liquid water. You need
some energy. Heat is probably the easiest energy you can use
to change your physical state. The atoms in a liquid have more
energy than the atoms in a solid.

## There is a special temperature for every substance called

the melting point. When a solid reaches the temperature of
its melting point, it can become a liquid. For water, the
temperature needs to be a little over zero degrees Celsius (0oC)
for you to melt.

## If you were salt, sugar, or rock, your melting point is higher

than that of water. How do you know that fact? If their melting
points were lower, they would also be liquids when the
temperature is above zero degrees Celsius. The reverse of the
melting process is called freezing. Liquid water freezes and
becomes solid ice when the molecules lose energy.

## Solid to Gas and Back to Solid

You know about solids melting and becoming liquids.
Some of you may have also seen a solid become a gas.
It's a process called sublimation. The easiest example of
sublimation might be dry ice. Dry ice is solid carbon
dioxide (CO2). Amazingly, when you leave dry ice out in a
room, it just turns into a gas. Have you ever heard of
liquid carbon dioxide? It can be made, but not in normal
situations. Coal is another example of a compound that
will not melt at normal atmospheric pressures. It will
sublimate at very high temperatures.

## Can you go from a gas to a solid?

Sure. Deposition occurs when a gas becomes a solid
without going through the liquid state of matter. Those of
you who live near the equator may not have seen it, but
closer to the poles we see frost on winter mornings.
Those little frost crystals on plants build up when water
vapor from the air becomes a solid on the leaves of
plants.