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ORACLE TO SYBASE ASE

MIGRATION GUIDE
ORACLE TO SYBASE ASE MIGRATION GUIDE Rev.1.1

Table of Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Intended Audience ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.2 What You Should Already Know ............................................................................................................................................................. 4
1.3 About Sybase ASE ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Oracle systems targeted by this Guide .................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.5 Oracle products vs. Sybase products ....................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.6 Oracle / Sybase database versions covered ............................................................................................................................................ 5
1.7 Sybase ASE documents and references ................................................................................................................................................... 5
2 How to use this Migration Guide................................................................................................................................................ 6
2.1 Migration process outline ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Success factors .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.3 Not covered by this guide: Project aspects ............................................................................................................................................. 7
2.4 Not covered by this guide: Sybase ASE-specific tuning ...................................................................................................................... 7
3 Pre-migration complexity assessment ........................................................................................................................................ 8
3.1 Oracle checklist: datatypes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8
3.2 Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion" ................................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Oracle checklist: category "Partial Rewrite" ......................................................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Oracle checklist: category "Major Rewrite" .......................................................................................................................................... 15
4 Database Schema Migration ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
4.1 Obtaining the Oracle schema definition ............................................................................................................................................... 17
4.1.1 Using existing DDL scripts ................................................................................................................................................................ 17
4.1.2 Reverse-engineering the existing schema ........................................................................................................................................ 17
4.2 Using Sybase PowerDesigner for database schema migration ......................................................................................................... 18
4.2.1 PowerDesigner schema conversion steps ....................................................................................................................................... 18
4.3 Reverse-engineering the Oracle schema without Sybase PowerDesigner ...................................................................................... 19
4.4 Special cases in schema migration .......................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.5 Mapping the Oracle schema to Sybase ASE databases ...................................................................................................................... 20
4.6 Schema-related Oracle-Sybase terminology ......................................................................................................................................... 21
4.7 Mapping Oracle Datatypes to Sybase ASE .......................................................................................................................................... 22
4.7.1 Chained Oracle data rows .................................................................................................................................................................. 23
4.8 Search for Sybase ASE reserved words and keywords in Oracle ..................................................................................................... 24
4.9 Choosing a lock scheme for Sybase ASE tables .................................................................................................................................. 24
4.10 The Oracle DUAL Table ......................................................................................................................................................................... 24
5 Migrating server-level aspects .................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.1 Character set ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.2 Database server case sensitivity ('sort order') ....................................................................................................................................... 26
5.3 Server configuration parameters ............................................................................................................................................................. 27
5.4 Storage.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
5.5 Migrating the User Logins ....................................................................................................................................................................... 27
5.5.1 User passwords ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
5.6 Permissions ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28
6 Data Migration .............................................................................................................................................................................. 29
6.1 Unload Oracle data into ASCII files; load into ASE with "bcp" utility .......................................................................................... 30
6.1.1 Loading into ASE with "bcp" ............................................................................................................................................................ 30
6.1.2 Unloading from Oracle: FACT (3rd-party tool) ............................................................................................................................ 30
6.1.3 Unloading from Oracle: Roll-your-own PL/SQL utility to export Oracle data...................................................................... 31
6.1.4 Unloading from Oracle: use Oracle SQL Developer ................................................................................................................... 31
6.2 Use Sybase's Enterprise Connect Data Access (ECDA) Option for Oracle ................................................................................. 31
6.2.1 ECDA Example ................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
6.3 Use Sybase Replication Server Heterogeneous Edition (RSHE) for Oracle ................................................................................. 32
6.3.1 Minimal migration downtime with Replication ............................................................................................................................. 32
6.3.2 Initial materialization for the replication setup .............................................................................................................................. 32
6.3.3 Other considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33

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6.4 Use a 3rd-party ETL tool that supports both Oracle and Sybase ASE .......................................................................................... 33
6.5 Oracle datatypes requiring special attention for migration ................................................................................................................ 33
7 Migrating PL/SQL to Transact-SQL ....................................................................................................................................... 35
7.1 Locations of PL/SQL code ..................................................................................................................................................................... 35
7.2 SwisSQL assistance for PL/SQL migration to T-SQL .................................................................................................................. 35
8 Transactions and Locking, Oracle vs. Sybase ......................................................................................................................... 37
8.1 Oracle MVCC vs. Sybase locking ........................................................................................................................................................... 37
8.2 Transaction-related migration issues ...................................................................................................................................................... 37
8.3 Using ASE implicit/chained transaction mode ................................................................................................................................... 38
8.3.1 Transactional DDL .............................................................................................................................................................................. 38
8.3.2 Transaction processing in stored procedures ................................................................................................................................. 38
8.4 Using ASE explicit/unchained transaction mode ............................................................................................................................... 38
8.5 Using ASE transactional concurrency enhancements ........................................................................................................................ 38
8.6 Other transactional aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 39
9 Miscellaneous migration aspects................................................................................................................................................ 41
9.1 Cursors ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
9.2 Sequences .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
9.3 Error/Exception handling ....................................................................................................................................................................... 42
9.4 Outer join limitations ................................................................................................................................................................................ 42
9.5 Migrating JDBC/ODBC/ Applications ........................................................................................................................................... 43
9.5.1 JDBC ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
9.6 Oracle Forms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 43
10 DBA Tasks Cross-Reference ..................................................................................................................................................... 44
11 Oracle-to-Sybase Migration Cross-Reference ......................................................................................................................... 48
11.1 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Simple Conversion" ................................................................................................... 48
11.2 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Partial Rewrite" ........................................................................................................... 56
11.3 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Major Rewrite" ........................................................................................................... 63

Revision history:
Rev.1.0: September 2011: initial version
Rev.1.1: November 2011: expanded the topic on case-sensitivity; various other additions

2011 Sybase, Inc.


Sybase, Transact-SQL, Adaptive Server Enterprise and Replication Server are registered trademarks of Sybase, Inc.
Other product or brand names may be (registered) trademarks of their respective owners.

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1 INTRODUCTION
This Migration Guide aims to provide guidance and assistance with the migration process from an Oracle database to
Sybase ASE (Adaptive Server Enterprise). By "migration" we mean the process of changing a client-server application
currently using the Oracle database as its RDBMS, such that it uses the Sybase ASE database instead.
This Migration Guide has as its primary focus to migrate functionality from Oracle to Sybase ASE. Performance-related
aspects of Sybase ASE are not covered (also see section 2.4).

1.1 Intended Audience


This Migration Guide is intended for anyone involved in migrating an Oracle database to Sybase Adaptive Server
Enterprise (ASE).

1.2 What You Should Already Know


The reader is expected to be familiar with relational database concepts, and with Oracle in particular. In addition,
introductory knowledge of the Sybase ASE RDBMS is required.
For a database migration to be successful, there should be a detailed understanding of the current Oracle-based system,
including its high- and low-level architecture, as well as the interaction between the client application and the Oracle
database.

1.3 About Sybase ASE


Sybase ASE is the database that powers Wall Street. ASE has been delivering rock-solid reliability and top-level
performance for the past 25 years. Sybase ASE has a lower total cost of ownership than Oracle, and delivers better
performance on the same hardware. Sybase ASE is ready to be the database in any application that runs on Oracle today.

1.4 Oracle systems targeted by this Guide


This Migration Guide can be used for migrations of any type of Oracle-based system. While it does not focus on a
specific type of application, workload or system design, the majority of Oracle-based migration candidate systems are
expected to be transactional systems.
This Migration Guide specifically does not aim at migrating SAP Business Suite installations currently running on
Oracle, to run on Sybase ASE instead. Since such migrations are covered by product and service offerings by SAP,
interested customers should contact SAP directly.

1.5 Oracle products vs. Sybase products


Both Oracle and Sybase provide a range of database-related products. The following list illustrates how the main high-
level Oracle products compared to Sybase products. While this list is deliberately kept brief, it provides some basic
guidance on how Oracle and Sybase can be aligned.
The focus of this Migration Guide is on migration from Oracle Database Server to Sybase ASE. These are usually
expected to be OLTP-oriented systems, though this is not required.
Oracle Sybase
Oracle Database Server Sybase ASE (Adaptive Server Enterprise)
Oracle OLAP and DW Sybase IQ
Oracle RAC Sybase ASE Cluster Edition
Oracle Times Ten Sybase ASE In-Memory Database
Oracle Streams Sybase Replication Server

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1.6 Oracle / Sybase database versions covered


This document pertains to Oracle versions 9i, 10g and 11g.
The migration target is assumed to be Sybase ASE version 15.7 (or later). Migration to earlier ASE versions is not
recommended and not covered by this Migration Guide.
If not otherwise specified all references to "ASE" or "Adaptive Server" are considered references to "Sybase Adaptive
Server Enterprise".

1.7 Sybase ASE documents and references


For more detailed information about Sybase ASE , see http://www.sybase.com/ase for general documents and
whitepapers.
For ASE documentation and product manuals, see http://infocenter.sybase.com . Specifically, the following ASE
documents are relevant:
Transact SQL User's Guide
Reference Manual
System Administration Guide
Utility Guide
Performance and Tuning Guide

In addition, Sybase provides technical training for ASE. For details on courses and availability, see
http://www.sybase.com/education.

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2 HOW TO USE THIS MIGRATION GUIDE


The focus of this Migration Guide is on the database-specific technical aspects of an Oracle to Sybase database
migration project. In particular, it aims to help identify and assess the complexity of the migration when scoping out a
migration project, so as to avoid overlooking or underestimating potentially difficult aspects of the system to be
migrated. In addition, it helps establish a migration approach by providing and suggesting technical options for various
aspects of the migration process.

2.1 Migration process outline


This Migration Guide recommends a phased approach towards migrating from Oracle to Sybase ASE. The following
phases can be identified, in order of importance and priority:
1. Before starting the actual migration project, assess the complexity of the migration using the checklist in
chapter 3. This activity involves identifying specific Oracle features used in the current system which may not
have a direct Sybase equivalent.
It is strongly recommended to pay sufficient attention to this activity, as this helps to avoid
overlooking or underestimating the most difficult parts of a migration.

2. Migrating the database schema is the necessary first step of an actual migration (described in chapter 4).
This Migration Guide recommends using Sybase PowerDesigner to reverse-engineer the Oracle schema and
convert it to the Sybase ASE equivalent.

3. Migrating server-level aspects such as users (described in chapter 5).

4. Migrating the data itself (described in chapter 6). The approach chosen to perform the data migration is usually
driven by the maximum tolerable downtime allowed for the application.
It is recommended to consider using 3rd-party tools for extracting data from Oracle. If minimal application
downtime is crucial, consider Sybase Replication Server to reduce this downtime to minutes rather than hours.

5. Migrating Oracle PL/SQL code to Sybase Transact-SQL (also see chapter 7). This needs to be performed both
for SQL located in the database (i.e. stored procedures, triggers, SQL functions) as well as for SQL code in
client applications. This step tends to be the most complex part of a migration.
It is recommended to evaluate the use of SwisSQL (a 3rd-party product; see section 7.2) to assist with PL/SQL
migration.
To assist with this migration step, chapter 11 contains cross-reference between Oracle features and their Sybase
ASE equivalent, in the three categories "Simple conversion possible", "Partial rewrite required" and "Major
rewrite required". This cross-reference is an extended version of the Oracle checklist in chapter 3.

6. Migration of vendor-specific infrastructural components, such as JDBC drivers (see section 9.5).

7. Convert the maintenance, administration and monitoring tasks. Since these aspects are highly specific for each
database brand, "migration" would be a misnomer.
Chapter 10 contains a cross-reference of some common DBA aspects. This is however not sufficient for
performing a migration, and specific DBA skills, both for Oracle and Sybase, will be required.

8. The primary focus of this Migration Guide is to help achieve functional equivalence of the Oracle system after
being migrated to Sybase ASE.
As a next step, Sybase ASE-specific optimization and tuning will likely be required in order to achieve desired
performance levels. Sybase ASE-specific tuning is not covered by this Migration Guide; see section 2.4.

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2.2 Success factors


Database migrations can be complex, and costly migration failures need to be avoided. The following success factors
apply to any Oracle-to-Sybase database migration project:
Domain knowledge of the business application(s), system and environment. It is essential to have a full and
complete understanding of all applications that access the Oracle database being migrated. This includes the
client applications that connect to the Oracle database directly, but also applications that indirectly access the
database, for example through an application server.
For all these applications, it needs to be understood which data the application accesses in the database, and
how it modifies such data. Any SQL code submitted to the database by the application must be identified, as
well as how such SQL code can be changed.
Availability of sufficient Oracle expertise to analyze all aspects of the database is an absolute requirement. A
key activity is to identify which specific Oracle features are used (as per the checklists in chapter 3), especially
those which do not have a direct Sybase equivalent.
Full access to all Oracle PL/SQL code being used, both in the database and in all client applications.
As a minimum, sufficient understanding of Sybase ASE in order to create a functionally working migrated
database system. At a later stage in the migration project, more specialized Sybase expertise will likely be
needed for Sybase ASE-specific performance tuning and optimization. Having such expertise available at an
early stage may be helpful.
A comprehensive testing process and production-like environment for validating the migration approach and
the affected software applications against the migrated Sybase database. For best results, it is highly
recommended to use a copy of production data (as close as possible) as well as hardware which is similar in size
to production.

2.3 Not covered by this guide: Project aspects


This Migration Guide does not prescribe or suggest how to organize a migration project in terms of preparation, setting
up testing procedures, validating the migrated components, etc. These aspects of a migration project are left to
requirements, standards, best practices and preferences of the organization undertaking the emigration effort.
Please note that the absence of specific recommendations for testing and validation of migrated components does not
mean that such activities should not be performed. On the contrary, these activities are essential, and it is recommended
to follow generally accepted best practices with respect to software testing and validation.

2.4 Not covered by this guide: Sybase ASE-specific tuning


The primary purpose of this Migration Guide is to assist in creating a functionally equivalent Sybase ASE-based system
compared with the original Oracle-based system. The purpose of this Migration Guide is not to provide guidance for
arriving at an optimally tuned Sybase ASE system; while Sybase ASE-specific tuning will likely be necessary as part of a
migration project, this Migration Guide deliberately makes no attempt to cover such tuning aspects.
Since ASE-specific tuning is considered to be mostly unrelated to any Oracle-specific aspects or considerations, the
reader is referred to the Sybase ASE documentation for background and recommendations about Sybase ASE tuning.,
specifically the System Administration Guide and the Performance and Tuning manuals.

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3 PRE-MIGRATION COMPLEXITY ASSESSMENT


For a database migration project, it is crucial to have an accurate assessment of the complexity of the migration ahead of
time. Here, "complexity" refers to how Oracle-specific features can be mapped to the feature set of Sybase ASE.
Before starting the actual migration effort, the current Oracle system should be closely inspected and a list should be
drawn up of all types of Oracle-specific features being used, and how many times these occur.
For each feature used, it should be determined in which of the following three categories it falls:
Simple conversion possible
An Oracle feature or statement can be mapped and converted directly to a (nearly) identical Sybase ASE
feature, requiring no syntax changes or only simple, local syntax changes only.
Examples: most datatype mappings (Oracle VARCHAR2 Sybase VARCHAR); simple SELECT statements
Partial rewrite required
An Oracle feature or statement can be mapped to a partly equivalent Sybase ASE feature, requiring potentially
significant syntax changes and possibly partial rewriting of algorithms.
Example: Oracle sequences Sybase ASE identity columns
Major rewrite required
An Oracle feature or statement has no directly equivalent Sybase ASE feature, requiring rewriting or
redesigning of algorithms or parts of applications.
Example: Oracle Flashback; Oracle row-level triggers.
Categorizing the Oracle features used by the system being migrated helps to identify the areas where most migration
complexity is likely to occur. Before deciding to start the migration project, there should be a clear view of the number
of occurrences of the features in the categories "Partial rewrite required" and "Major rewrite required" above, and of the
effort to migrate these, especially those in the Major rewrite required" category.
To assist with this complexity assessment, below are three checklists, corresponding to the categories above, listing a
range of Oracle features. Note that additional Oracle features may occur in your system that are not in these checklists;
these should be taken into account just as well.
The checklists below list the Oracle features only very briefly. Chapter 11 contains extended versions of these checklists
with the corresponding Sybase ASE equivalent for each Oracle feature.

3.1 Oracle checklist: datatypes


Verify the datatypes used in the current Oracle application; see section 4.7.
Also see:
section 4.7.1 for considerations that apply when migrating data rows whose length exceed an Oracle disk block;
section 6.5 for considerations that apply when migrating particular datatypes.

3.2 Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion"


#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion"

Connecting to an Oracle schema

The Oracle slash is contained at the end of some of the procedures examined.

Semicolon (as a statement delimiter in PL/SQL)

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion"

The Oracle DUAL table

SET SAVEPOINT savepoint-name

Variable/Parameter declarations; naming syntax

Assign default value in variable declaration

Multiple declarations with a single DECLARE keyword

Declarations without DECLARE keyword in declaration section of stored procedures/functions

Variable assignment

Transferring table data into a variable

Constants

%TYPE denotes the datatype of a column in an existing table

Dynamic SQL (Execute-immediate)

Loops with LOOP/END LOOP

FOR loops

CURSOR loops

Oracle Outer join syntax

SET TRANSACTION READ WRITE

ALTER TABLE mytable TRUNCATE PARTITION partition_name

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE (or FUNCTION)

ALTER PROCEDURE (or FUNCTION)

CREATE PROCEDURE IS

Stored procedure execution with named parameters (param => value)

Stored procedure execution with positional parameters (:var)

Stored procedure execution

SQL Function declaration with DETERMINISTIC keyword

Execution of a SQL Function

DECLARE CURSOR cursor-name IS

Oracle cursors

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion"

Cursor Attribute %ISOPEN

Cursor Attributes %FOUND, %NOTFOUND

Cursor Attribute %ROWCOUNT

AFTER triggers (on statement level)

SQL%ROWCOUNT

BOOLEAN datatype (for PL/SQL variables only)

MERGE statement

Partitioned tables with composite partitioning

Performance-optimized native PL/SQL datatypes (for PL/SQL variables only)

BINARY_INTEGER
BINARY_DOUBLE
BINARY_FLOAT

IF-THEN-ELSE

Multiple statements in an IF-THEN-ELSE branch

Conditional test based on EXISTS subquery

String concatenation operator: ||

userenv('sessionid')

MOD(X,Y)

CEIL()

TRUNC(number)

SUBSTR()

SUBSTR() function with two parameters

LENGTH()

CHR()

TO_CHAR(expression)

TO_CHAR(expression, datepart)

TO_CHAR(expression, format-string)

TO_NUMBER(expression)

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Simple Conversion"

Date/time functions and calculations

SYSDATE, SYSTIMESTAMP

TRUNC(date/time [,unit])

LAST_DAY()

NVL() function

Inconsistent use of upper/lowercase for identifiers (Oracle is case-insenstive for identifiers)

Identifiers that are Sybase ASE reserved words (see section 4.8)

INSTR() function with two parameters

Derived tables (also known as "inline views") without correlation name

ALTER TABLE SPLIT PARTITION


ALTER TABLE MERGE PARTITIONS

Oracle hints

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3.3 Oracle checklist: category "Partial Rewrite"


For the Oracle features listed below, migration to partly equivalent Sybase ASE features is possible, although potentially
significant syntax changes and possibly partial rewriting of algorithms may be required.

#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Partial Rewrite"

Database links

External tables

Sequences

Table-valued User-defined SQL Functions

Pipelined Table Functions

Synonyms

Comments on database objects

Bitmap indexes

Temporary tables

IS TABLE OF, AS VARRAY(n)OF

Nested tables

Object tables

%ROWTYPE

Define a PL/SQL record type by enumerating the fields with IS RECORD OF or TYPEIS
RECORD

Non-integer RETURN value in stored procedure

User-defined Packages

Overloaded stored procedures

PL/SQL Exception handling; defining exception handlers

SQLCODE, SQLERRM

RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR

Column Encryption

LOB locators

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Partial Rewrite"

Data compression

DBMS_* package calls

Retrieving data to the client in stored procedures using


DBMS_OUTPUT package

SQL*Loader (sqlldr)

Global variables (in a PL/SQL package)

INTERSECT construct

MINUS construct

Specific SQL clauses


AS OF CROSS IGNORE
AS OF TIMESTAMP CUBE ITERATE
CONNECT BY FOR NATURAL
DIMENSION KEEP NULLS
DIMENSION BY MAIN NULLS FIRST
EXCLUDE MODEL NULLS LAST
GROUPING SETS NAV ROLLUP
INCLUDE NOCYCLE SIBLINGS
MEASURES NOWAIT SINGLE
RETURN ALL ROWS ON REFERENCE
RETURN UPDATED ROWS ONLY LOCKED
PARTITION BY RULES START WITH
REFERENCE SAMPLE UNIQUE
SYSTIMESTAMP SEED UNPIVOT
SKIP WAIT

INITCAP( string-expression )

INSTR() function with three or four parameters

NVL2() function

DECODE() function

Primary key and foreign key with different datatypes, different precision/scale (for numeric
datatypes) or different length (for character datatypes)

Cluster (as created with CREATE CLUSTER)

SQL functions where the last statement is not RETURN

Derived tables (also known as "inline views") using "with" syntax

UNIONs in cursors

PRAGMA directives

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Partial Rewrite"

ON DELETE CASCADE constraints

XMLTYPE
XML functions extract(), existsnode(), xmlexists(), etc

ROWID

ROWNUM

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3.4 Oracle checklist: category "Major Rewrite"


For the Oracle features listed below, no direct equivalent is available in Sybase ASE. Consequently, rewriting or
redesigning algorithms or parts of applications will be required.

#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Major Rewrite"

Oracle MVCC (Multi-Version Concurrency Control; "writers dont block readers, readers don't
block writers")
Relevant aspects:
Applications or queries relying on non-blocking MVCC
Long-running transactions
DDL in transactions
SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY
SQL*Plus autocommit/commit-on-exit

SQL*Plus

BEFORE triggers

Triggers on row level (BEFORE and AFTER)

Multiple triggers for a DML type on a table

Materialized Views

REF CURSOR

Windowing queries (SELECTOVER() )

SQL function OUT/IN OUT parameters

Non-deterministic SQL Functions (functions whose result may be independent of the function
input parameters)

SQL Aggregate Functions

BFILE datatype

Oracle Streams; Oracle Data Guard

Oracle RAC for high-availability

Oracle Flashback

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#cases found Oracle checklist: category "Major Rewrite"

Oracle SQL Plan Management

AWR (Automatic Workload Repository)

Oracle Advanced Queuing

Packages for PL/SQL web access


OWA_CUSTOM, OWA_CX, OWA_OPT_LOCK, OWA_SEC, OWA_TEXT, OWA_UTIL

Oracle Forms

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4 DATABASE SCHEMA MIGRATION


The first step in migrating an Oracle database to Sybase ASE is to migrate the database schema. Here, "database
schema" refers to the physical data model. In other words, to the definition of the database structure, specifically of the
tables, columns, indexes, views, datatypes, etc., typically expressed in SQL DDL (Data Definition Language), for
example as e.g. 'create table' statements.
There is some potential for terminology clash around the term "schema":
As a generic database concept, "schema" is the definition of the database structure as described above,
regardless of which database user owns the object(s).
In Oracle, a "schema" is an central concept. It is a collection of database objects (tables, views, stored
procedures, triggers, etc) owned by a particular user. A decision will need to be made as to how to map an
Oracle schema to an ASE schema; see section 4.5 for details.
In Sybase ASE, a "schema" is usually understood to refer to the generic concept of database schema.
NB: For completeness, ASE also has a command create schema authorization which creates a number of
tables and views plus associated permission settings as a transactional unit. This command is however rarely
used in ASE and it is not used or discussed further in this Migration Guide.
For clarity, this Migration Guide will use "Oracle schema" when referring to the Oracle-specific interpretation of
"schema". In all other cases, "schema" refers to the generic concept of "database schema" as above.

Please note: none of the methods describes in this chapter converts Oracle's PL/SQL code into Sybase's Transact-
SQL, which is needed when converting stored procedures, triggers and SQL functions. A different tool, named
SwisSQL, has such capabilities; see elsewhere in this Migration Guide for more information.

4.1 Obtaining the Oracle schema definition


When migrating the database schema from Oracle to ASE, we first need to obtain the Oracle schema, and then convert
this to a format and syntax that can be used in Sybase ASE.
In principle there are two methods to obtain the Oracle schema:
Use existing DDL scripts from which the Oracle schema was created in the past; typically, in well-organized
environments, such scripts are kept in a source code repository under version control.
Reverse-engineer the Oracle schema from the actual Oracle database.

4.1.1 Using existing DDL scripts


If not using a tool to reverse engineer and migrate the schema, then using existing DDL scripts would be the ideal
starting point, since no further work is required to obtain the Oracle schema. However, the question is whether it can be
guaranteed that such scripts are up-to-date and identical to the actual Oracle database. It is not uncommon to see that
changes to the database schema have been made without updating the DDL scripts in the repository. Clearly, basing
oneself on incorrect DDL scripts will cause problems later in the migration process.
When existing Oracle DDL scripts are available, the next step is to convert the datatypes to Sybase ASE. Section 4.7
describes the mapping from Oracle datatypes to Sybase ASE. In addition, some aspects of the Oracle schema require
special attention; see section 4.4.

4.1.2 Reverse-engineering the existing schema


The alternative to using existing scripts is to reverse-engineer the Oracle schema from the actual Oracle database. This is
more work, and may require special tools, but it has the advantage that the generated DDL is correct.
When existing scripts cannot be used or relied upon, this Migration Guide recommends using Sybase PowerDesigner for
reverse-engineering and migrating the database schema. Since PowerDesigner can reverse-engineer all tables, indexes,

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etc, and automatically convert the Oracle datatypes into their ASE equivalent, this is the fastest and most efficient
schema migration method available.
Section 4.2 describes how to use PowerDesigner for this purpose.
Section 4.3 describes a possible approach to reverse-engineer the schema without PowerDesigner.

4.2 Using Sybase PowerDesigner for database schema migration


Sybase PowerDesigner is arguably the most advanced data modeling tool in the market. It is a stand-alone tool, running
on Windows. PowerDesigner supports over 30 database types, including Oracle and Sybase ASE.
For more information on PowerDesigner, see http://www.sybase.com/powerdesigner .
With PowerDesigner it is relatively straightforward to reverse-engineer most of the Oracle schema and convert it to
Sybase ASE. The central concept used by PowerDesigner is the PowerDesigner Physical Data Model (PDM). This is a
database-independent model which can be converted to the SQL DDL dialect of each supported database.

4.2.1 PowerDesigner schema conversion steps


This section shows how to use PowerDesigner to convert the database schema from Oracle to Sybase ASE.
First, the following needs to be installed for using Power Designer:
Sybase PowerDesigner, the latest version available, but at least version 15.0.
Oracle ODBC driver

Steps to reverse engineer the schema (for tables/indexes/views/constraints):


1. Start PowerDesigner
2. Choose File>Reverse Engineer>Database to open the new Physical Data Model dialog Box.
3. Select the Oracle database from the list and click on OK
4. When the Database Reverse Engineering dialog box opens, click the Using an ODBC data source radio button
5. Click the Connect to an ODBC Data Source tool to open the Connect to an ODBC Data Source dialog box.
6. Select the Machine data source radio button and select Oracle data source from the list.
7. Type a user ID and a password, and then click Connect. To return to the Database Reverse Engineering dialog
box.
8. Click OK to open the ODBC Reverse Engineering dialog box. This box allows you to specify a selection of
objects to reverse engineer. Only tables and triggers are selected by default.
9. Click OK to begin the process of reverse engineering. When the process is complete, a confirmation message is
given in the Output window
10. Choose the installed ODBC driver and connect
11. Select all and create the PDM (Physical Data Model)
12. Save the PDM with File>Save As (use the Sybase ASE database name as name of file)

Now that the schema has been extracted from Oracle into a PDM, change the target DBMS to Sybase ASE:
1. Choose Database>Change Current DBMS
2. Select a target DBMS as Sybase AS Enterprise 15.0 from the dropdown list box.

Now generate the Sybase ASE-compatible DDL from the PowerDesigner PDM; this will automatically convert the
datatypes to the Sybase ASE's datatypes:
1. Choose Database>Generate Database to open the Database Generation dialog box
2. Type a destination directory and a filename for the script file in the Directory and File Name boxes.
3. Select the Script generation radio button.

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4. The output window shows the progress of the generation process, and indicates the syntax for running the
script. At the end of script generation, a Result box appears. It lists the file path of the generated script file.
Click Edit to open the script in a text editor or Close to close the Result box.
5. Check all warnings and errors, if needed make changes and generate the script again

Some aspects of schema migration cannot be handled by PowerDesigner and will have to be handled manually. These
are described in section 4.4.

Finally, run the completed DDL script in Sybase ASE and check for any errors.

4.3 Reverse-engineering the Oracle schema without Sybase PowerDesigner


Without using Sybase PowerDesigner, reverse-engineering the schema can be done in a number of ways:
Use the Oracle SQL*Plus DESC command on all database objects, and process the output so that they are
valid DDL statements. This is likely to require significant manual script coding.
Use the Oracle DBMS_METADATA package to extract DDL for the Oracle objects. This involves SQL
statements such as the following (for Oracle table 'MY_TABLE', in schema/user 'SALESAPP'). Note that
these are only examples, this is not a complete list of all statement required to perform full reverse-engineering:
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE', 'MY_TABLE', 'SALESAPP') FROM DUAL;
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DEPENDENT_DDL('INDEX', 'MY_TABLE', 'SALESAPP') FROM
DUAL;
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_GRANTED_DDL('OBJECT_GRANT', 'SALESAPP') FROM DUAL;

Use Oracle SQL Developer (a free Java-based tool, downloadable from oracle.com). This uses the
DBMS_METADATA package (see previous bullet).
Use TOAD (a low-cost tool, commonly used in many Oracle environments) to extract the object definitions,
and then manually convert the Oracle datatypes into their ASE equivalent. This could be cumbersome when
large numbers of tables are involved.
Once the Oracle schema has been reverse-engineered, the Oracle DDL needs to be converted to Sybase ASE syntax,
including conversion from the Oracle datatypes to Sybase ASE datatypes. Section 4.7 describes the mapping from
Oracle datatypes to Sybase ASE.
In addition, some aspects of the Oracle schema require special attention; see section 4.4.

4.4 Special cases in schema migration


The following schema aspects require special attention:
Oracle allows more columns per table than Sybase ASE (the limit depends on the ASE server's page size and
on the table's lock scheme). If the limit in Sybase ASE is exceeded, an error will be raised when trying to create
the table. If this occurs, either the ASE server's page size will need to be increased, or the table needs to be
split vertically into multiple tables and all queries referencing the table likely have to be modified accordingly
If the length of a column exceeds the maximum allowed length in Sybase ASE (the limit depends on the ASE
server's pagesize and on the table's lock scheme), such columns will have to be split into multiple columns and
placed in additional tables. All queries referencing the column likely have to be modified accordingly.
PowerDesigner converts the Oracle BFILE datatype to the Sybase ASE image datatype. Since BFILE is a
datatype used to store a locator (link) to an external binary file stored outside of the database, this is not
functionally equivalent so application changes may be required. If a different ASE datatype is required, for
example, to hold the name of an externally stored file, change it manually.

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PowerDesigner 15.x cannot automatically convert the Oracle timestamp datatype to bigdatetime in
ASE, so this needs to be done manually. PowerDesigner 16.0 (release expected in August 2011) does not have
this limitation and will perform the conversion automatically.
PowerDesigner 15.x cannot reverse-engineer Oracle users or security details (permissions). PowerDesigner 16.0
(release expected in August 2011) does not have this limitation and is capable of handling these aspects.
Since the SQL reserved words are different between Oracle and Sybase ASE, before attempting a database
schema migration, all Oracle objects need to be checked against the Sybase ASE reserved words. Any Oracle
identifiers that are also Sybase ASE reserved words, need to be changed first. For a complete list of reserved
words in Sybase ASE, see Adaptive Server Enterprise->Reference Manual: Building Blocks->Reserved Words.
Also see section 4.8 for queries that can be used to search for the occurrence of keywords in the Oracle
database.
The mapping of Oracle user-defined datatypes to ASE can be difficult and may require extensive manual
intervention. The key to user-defined datatype migration is to fully understand the underlying base datatype.
Note that user-defined datatypes can be nested. For Oracle, user-defined datatypes is an add-on option to the
database and is not widely used.

4.5 Mapping the Oracle schema to Sybase ASE databases


Sybase ASE does not have an identical interpretation of the concept of "schema" as the "Oracle schema". When
migrating an Oracle schema to Sybase ASE, there are two basic options to map the Oracle schema to Sybase ASE.
For the sake of example, let's assume there are two Oracle users john and bill who own an Oracle schema, and each
schema has a table named salesdetails.
The options are:
Perhaps the most straightforward way to migrate, is to map each Oracle schema to a separate ASE database,
where each database is owned ('dbo') by the corresponding user. This would result in two ASE databases
named john_db and bill_db (different names may of course be chosen), owned by ASE logins john and
bill respectively; each database has table named salesdetails, owned by the dbo database user (the full
table name would be dbo.salesdetails).
However, this results in as many ASE databases as there are users owning an Oracle schema, of which there
might be many. While an ASE server can hold up to 32786 databases, it is highly impractical from a DBA
perspective to have more than 20-50 databases.
Map all Oracle schemas to a single ASE database with a multi-tenancy model. This means that the ASE
database user (which is linked to the ASE server login, which is the equivalent of an Oracle user) is used within
the database to identify each object's owner. This will result in a more manageable ASE system since there will
be less ASE databases.
In this case, the example would result in a single ASE database, let's say sales_db, in which ASE logins john
and bill have been added as database users. Under each user, a salesdetails table is created, which will
have the full name john.salesdetails and bill.salesdetails.
Either option is possible; technically ASE does not favor one over the other, but the multi-tenancy model fits best with
ASE's methods for backup and restore.
It should be noted that multi-tenancy models are sometimes incorrectly seen as security weaknesses since it would be
easier for user bill to access john's tables, since they are located in the same ASE database. This is however not justified:
if standard best practices around ASE security are followed, then security can be fully guaranteed.
One consideration around multi-tenancy databases is that a backup of a database contains the data from all users in that
database. If this is undesirable, for example because each user wants to have a backup copy of his own database, then
the first option above (separate ASE databases for each user) should be followed instead.

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Lastly, it may also be the case that there is only one Oracle schema. In that case, there is no need to qualify the ASE
tables with the owner name since they will all be owned by the dbo user.

4.6 Schema-related Oracle-Sybase terminology


Following is the high-level terminology mapping of Oracle concepts to Sybase concepts. This table is not intended to be
used for direct migration purposes, but only as high-level terminology guidance.

Oracle Sybase ASE


Database Database Server
Schema Database and objects owned by the same user.
Tablespace Aspects of ASE database and/or database device and/or
segment
(system/sysaux tablespaceASE master database;
temporary tablespaceASE tempdb database;
user-defined tablespacedatabase device and/or segment)
Segment A database object that has space allocated (table, index,
materialized view)
Undo/rollback tablespace Transaction log
Online redo logs Transaction log
User User, Login (see section 5.5)
Role Role
Table Table
Temporary table Temporary table

View View
Materialized View No direct equivalent
Cluster No direct equivalent
Index Non-unique index

Index-organized table Table with clustered index


Column-level check constraint Column-level check constraint
Column default Column default
Unique key Unique key or identity property for a column
Primary key Primary key
Foreign key Foreign key

Constraints Constraints
PL/SQL Procedure Transact-SQL stored procedure
PL/SQL Function T-SQL user-defined SQL function (SQL UDF)

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Oracle Sybase ASE


Triggers Triggers
Package No direct equivalent
Sequences Partly covered by the identity property for a column or
dedicated key value table
Snapshot No direct equivalent

Database links, External tables Proxy Tables and Remote Servers

Procedure Stored procedure

Synonym Similar functionality with views for table and view


synonyms. All other synonym references must be replaced
with fully qualified object strings.

4.7 Mapping Oracle Datatypes to Sybase ASE


The table below describes how Oracle datatypes can be mapped to Sybase ASE datatypes. In most cases the mapping of
datatypes is straightforward.
For the Oracle datatypes CHAR, VARCHAR2 and RAW, the ASE server page size determines whether or not the
mapping can take place; the technical background is that ASE requires a row, and therefore every column, to fit on an
ASE database page. By default, ASE uses a 2KB server page size, but 4KB, 8KB and 16KB are also possible.
The maximum allowed column length for a column for each ASE server page size depends on various factors such as
whether the column is fixed- or variable length and the ASE table's lock scheme. To display full details, run the
command dbcc serverlimits in ASE.
Oracle Description Sybase ASE Comments / When to use
NUMBER(x) Oracle NUMBER(x) datatypes BIGINT length of NUMBER datatype > 10
with 0 decimals can be converted
into an equivalent Sybase ASE
datatypes.
INTEGER length of NUMBER datatype between
6 and 10 and data values <= 2 billion
SMALLINT length of NUMBER datatype is
between 4 and 5 and data values <=
32767
TINYINT length of NUMBER datatype between
2 and 3 and data values <= 255
BIT length of NUMBER datatype = 1
NUMBER(x,y) alternatively to the mapping path NUMERIC(x,y) translates the Oracle NUMBER
above, these Sybase ASE datatype one-to-one.
DECIMAL(x,y)
datatypes can be used.
MONEY MONEY and SMALLMONEY store
SMALLMONEY monetary data.; 4 digits of precision to
the right of the decimal point, and 16 /
6 digits to the left for MONEY /
SMALLMONEY respectively.

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Oracle Description Sybase ASE Comments / When to use


FLOAT maximum FLOAT precision in DOUBLE precision of actual values > 15
Oracle is approx. 38
FLOAT precision of actual values <= 15
CHAR(x) maximum CHAR size in Oracle CHAR(x) if ASE page size is 4kb or greater; and if
is 2000 bytes ASE page size is 2kb and x <= 1958
TEXT if none of the above conditions apply
VARCHAR2(x) maximum VARCHAR2 size in VARCHAR(x) if ASE page size is 8kb or greater; if
Oracle is 4000 bytes (for ASE page size is 4kb and x <= 3988; if
columns) ASE page size is 2kb and x <= 1948
TEXT if none of the above conditions apply
DATE date/ time precision in Oracle is DATETIME Sybase ASEs DATETIME has a
up to one second. precision of 1/300th of a second.
TIMESTAMP precision of Oracles BIGDATETIME Sybase ASEs BIGDATETIME has a
[WITH [LOCAL] TIMESTAMP is 1/100000000th precision of 1 microsecond. ASE does
TIME ZONE] of a second not support time zones.

ROWID a pseudo column in Oracle, does NUMERIC Also see ROWID on page 62
not represent a true datatype IDENTITY
CLOB Oracles max. storage capacity for TEXT Sybase ASE can hold a max. of 2GB
CLOB is 128TB per column; IQ can hold up to 2PB
NCLOB Oracles max. storage capacity for UNITEXT Sybase ASE can hold a max. of 2GB
NCLOB is 128TB per column; IQ can hold up to 2PB
BLOB Oracles max. storage capacity for IMAGE Sybase ASE can hold a max. of 2GB
BLOB is 128TB per column; IQ can hold up to 2PB
LONG Oracles max. storage capacity for TEXT
LONG is 2GB
RAW(x) the RAW datatype in Oracle has a BINARY(x) if ASE page size is 4kb or greater; and if
max precision of 2000 bytes ASE page size is 2kb and x <= 1954
VARBINARY(x)
IMAGE if none of the above conditions apply
LONG RAW Oracles max. storage capacity for IMAGE
LONG RAW is 2GB
CHAR(1) if this is a packed bit column BIT
maintained by a PL/SQL
function set / unset / retrieve /
query on them.
BFILE BFILE stores a locator (link) to a no direct equivalent
binary file outside of the database

4.7.1 Chained Oracle data rows


Oracle allows long data rows to exceed the size of a disk block. This is known as 'chained rows'. It is possible that such
chained data rows, if they exist in the Oracle database, are too long to be stored in Sybase ASE, which requires that a

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data rows fits on a data page (which is 2KB, 4KB, 8KB or 16KB; use dbcc serverlimits to find the net max row
length allowed in ASE). Also, for tables with more than 255 columns, the rows will always be chained.
It is important to identify tables that have chained rows before starting the migration. To find how many chained rows
occur in a table, run this Oracle query:
SELECT owner, table_name, chain_cnt
FROM dba_tables WHERE chain_cnt > 0

If chained rows are found, the Oracle command ANALYZE TABLE table-name LIST CHAINED ROWS
INTO chained-row-table can be used to identify the actual chained rows.
If chained rows are found, it may be needed to modify the data model to ensure that rows are short enough to fit on an
ASE page.

4.8 Search for Sybase ASE reserved words and keywords in Oracle
Before you can migrate an Oracle schema or Oracle stored procedure, function or trigger, there needs to be a check for
reserved words (keywords) that we already identified as either problematic or non-migratable.
The following code will scan any object within the Oracle database for certain keywords and returns the name and
owner of the object as well as the object type:
SELECT owner, name, type
FROM dba_source WHERE instr(UPPER(text), UPPER('<keyword>')) > 0

Sometimes it is important to retrieve the exact code and line number of the occurrence within a stored procedure,
function or trigger. Note that this query could potentially return a lot of data:
SELECT owner, name, type, line, text
FROM dba_source WHERE instr(UPPER(text), UPPER('<keyword>')) > 0

The queries above should be run for all Sybase ASE reserved words and keywords. For a complete list of reserved words
in Sybase ASE, see Adaptive Server Enterprise->Reference Manual: Building Blocks->Reserved Words.

4.9 Choosing a lock scheme for Sybase ASE tables


ASE offers a choice of three lock schemes for each database table: allpages, datapages or datarows.
allpages is the oldest lock scheme, as well as the out-of-the-box ASE default. It is slightly more efficient for some
types of operations. The datapages, and especially datarows, lock schemes provide fundamentally better
concurrency characteristics. The concurrency benefits are likely to be relevant when migrating from Oracle to Sybase
ASE due to the difference in transaction handling (as described in chapter 8).
It is recommended to configure datapages or datarows as the default lock scheme in Sybase ASE. datapages is
more efficient, but datarows provides better concurrency (datarows locking is also known as row-level locking).
Changing between datarows and datapages for an existing table is instantaneous. In contrast, large tables with the
allpages lock scheme may require long downtimes to if their lock schemes need to be changed to datarows or
datapages since this requires a full conversion of the table and all its indexes.

4.10 The Oracle DUAL Table


In Oracle, a SELECT statement must always be executed against a table, even when retrieving system information, such
as the current date/time. For this purpose, Oracle created the DUAL table. Retrieving the system date via SQL looks
like this in Oracle:
SELECT sysdate FROM DUAL

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Sybase ASE supports SELECT statements that do not have a FROM clause. The same query in Sybase ASE would look
like this:
SELECT getdate()

To avoid rewriting existing SELECTs that use the DUAL table, it is possible to create a table named DUAL in ASE,
which must always contain one and only row:

create table DUAL (dummy_col char(1) unique check (dummy_col='X'))


insert DUAL values ('X')
go

If Sybase ASE is created case-sensitive (see section 5.2), you may need to create additional tables named dual, Dual,
etc, depending on how disciplined the Oracle developers were in using a consistent spelling for the DUAL table.
Alternatively, consider editing the Oracle PL/SQL source code to use only "DUAL", or to remove all references to
DUAL completely.

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5 MIGRATING SERVER-LEVEL ASPECTS


The architecture of the database server, and the way it is configured and managed, are quite different between Oracle
and Sybase ASE. This chapter lists some migration aspects that require attention, but without claim for completeness.
The reader is urged to consult the Sybase documentation, specifically the "System Administration Guide", for full details.

5.1 Character set


When creating a new Sybase ASE server, the character set to be used by the ASE server must be chosen. It is
recommended to use the same character for ASE, as is being used for the Oracle database.
While the character set in ASE can be changed at a later point in time, it is strongly recommended to avoid this, and to
pick the right character set before migrating any Oracle aspects to ASE.

5.2 Database server case sensitivity ('sort order')


A difference between Oracle and Sybase ASE is that Oracle is not case-sensitive, whereas Sybase ASE is case-sensitive
by default. ASE can be configured to be case-insensitive, by installing a case-insensitive 'sort order'.
Moreover, there is also a difference in the scope of case-insensitivity between Oracle and ASE:
In a case-insensitive ASE server, case-insensitivity applies to both identifiers and to data comparisons; SQL
keywords are always case-insensitive in ASE.
In Oracle, case-insensitivity applies only to identifiers (table names, column names, etc), but, by default, not to
data comparisons; it is likely that existing Oracle systems use this default.
As a result, the following two queries will retrieve different data in a case-insensitive Oracle system, but retrieve the same
data in a case-insensitive Sybase ASE:
select * from Employees where Name = 'Johnson'
select * from Employees where Name = 'JOHNSON'

Also, existing Oracle SQL code refers to the table TEST in different ways - the following all refer to the same table.
Inconsistent use of upper- and lower-case spelling for identifiers is not uncommon to occur in practical Oracle systems:
select * from TEST
select * from Test
select * from test
When using a case-insensitive sort order for Sybase ASE, such SQL statements do not need to be changed. When using
the default case-sensitive ASE sort order, all references to a table must use the exact same upper/lowercase spelling, or
"table not found" errors will result.

Whether the ASE server should be case-sensitive or case-insensitive is a decision to be made. For ASE, there is no
overriding technical advantage to either option.
In practice, the decision probably depends on whether query results may be affected by using a case-insensitive ASE
server. If this is the case, then the default case-sensitive ASE configuration should be used, and any Oracle SQL
statements referring to identifiers in mixed-case spelling (i.e. TEST and Test) should be changed to use one consistent
spelling for the identifiers.

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5.3 Server configuration parameters


In Oracle, the configuration parameters for the server and database are stored in the initialization file ( init.ora) or
server parameter file (spfile). These parameters cover a diverse set of resources, such as memory, processes, network,
disk, I/O, connections, files, character set, and so on.
It is unlikely that Oracle configuration parameters can be mapped directly to corresponding configuration parameters for
Sybase ASE. It may however be useful to be aware of Oracle-specific configuration settings since in some cases some
kind of Sybase ASE equivalent could be required.
The non-default values of the Oracle parameters can be obtained using one of the following options:
Convert the server parameter file (spfile) to an initialization parameter file as follows:
CREATE pfile FROM spfile
Query the database by executing the following statement:
SELECT name, value FROM sys.v$spparameter
WHERE isspecified = 'TRUE'

5.4 Storage
Most Oracle installations enlist the help of Oracles Automated Storage Manager (ASM). Sybase ASE does not have the
equivalent of ASM. Storage must be managed through T-SQL commands, Sybase Control Center , or via Sybase Central
(the Sybase database admin GUI tool).
Generally speaking, Sybase ASE recommends the following high-level guidelines for storage:
For user databases, use raw devices or filesystem devices with directio=true. Never use filesystem devices with
dsync=false for user databases; filesystem devices with dsync=true can be used but carry a potentially
significant performance penalty
For temporary databases, filesystem devices with dsync=false are generally recommended.
For the underlying storage layer, RAID 0+1 or RAID 1+0 is recommended. Avoid RAID 5 for write-intensive
purposes such as the ASE transaction log, unless the storage solution provides a non-volatile write cache to
buffer the writes.
To achieve maximum disk I/O bandwidth, read- and write-intensive data should preferably be spread over as
many physical spindles as possible.
Many additional considerations with respect to storage configuration apply. Please refer to the Sybase ASE "System
Administration Guide" for details.

5.5 Migrating the User Logins


There are some differences in terminology between Oracle and Sybase ASE around the concept of a "user".
In Oracle, on instance level: a user is used for authentication, and can also be a schema owner (and thus own
database objects, and have permissions on database objects)

In Sybase ASE, on server level: a login is used for authentication, but does not own any objects or have
object access permission.
A special ASE login is sa - this is the 'super user' in Sybase ASE, comparable to the SYS account in Oracle.
This user has access permissions on all database objects and should be restricted to the DBA. For security
reasons, applications should never use the sa login to connect to the ASE server.

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In Sybase ASE, on database level: a user, which maps to a login, can own database objects and have
permissions on database objects.
When migrating from Oracle to Sybase ASE, the most likely scenario is to migrate all Oracle application users to an
identically named Sybase ASE login. For each ASE login, a corresponding database user (typically with the same name as
the login) is then created to allow that login to access an ASE user database. A login can be given access to multiple ASE
databases by creating a corresponding database user in each ASE database.
Alternatively, the guest database user can be created in each ASE user database. However, related security implications
should be carefully assessed first.
The resulting structure of ASE logins and database users depends on decisions about how an Oracle schema is migrated
to ASE (see section 4.5).

5.5.1 User passwords


Each Oracle user has a password. In ASE, a login has a password. If the Oracle user passwords are known, they can be
set identically in ASE; otherwise, new passwords must be set for the ASE logins. ASE login passwords cannot be set to
blanks.

5.6 Permissions
It is recommended to use PowerDesigner 16 to reverse-engineer the permissions for accessing (objects in) the Oracle
database. If PowerDesigner 16 cannot be used, the permissions will likely have to be converted manually to the Sybase
ASE equivalent.

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6 DATA MIGRATION
This section describes the methods for migrating data from Oracle to Sybase ASE. It is assumed that the schema has
already been migrated.
The main complicating factor is that Oracle provides no tools to unload a table to a flat file in a format that can be read
by non-Oracle tools.
Data migration can be performed in a number of ways. Therefore, when choosing an approach, various factors need to
be considered, including:
- the complexity of the chosen solution
- the volume of data being migrated
- the available system downtime to perform the data migration during cutover
- the need to become familiar with new software or tools for the purpose of migrating the data
- additional software license costs

In essence, the following options are available for data migration:


Unload Oracle data into ASCII-formatted flat files, and load these files into ASE with the Sybase
"bcp" utility.
If Oracle data can be exported into an ASCII-formatted flat file, then ASE's high-speed loading tool "bcp" can
load it into ASE. Since Oracle does not provide a way to achieve this, the user must either use a 3 rd-party tool
for this purpose, or create his own PL/SQL utility to essentially spool the data from the database into a flat file.
Considerations: This option is often seen as attractive due to the transparency of the migration process: all
steps are clearly visible and can be individually developed and tested. Developing your own PL/SQL tool to
unload Oracle data is simple, but will perform slowly, thus making it unsuitable for anything but relatively small
data volumes. Using a 3rd-party tool adds software license costs.
Use Sybase's Enterprise Connect Data Access (ECDA) Option for Oracle.
ECDA is a connectivity product by Sybase that enables direct connections from an ASE database into an
Oracle database, making it possible to transfer Oracle data directly into ASE. ECDA hooks into the ASE
mechanism of "proxy tables".
Considerations: This option can be used when the data volume is such that the data can be transferred in the
available migration window. It is unlikely to be suitable for very large data volumes. An advantage is that
ECDA takes care of mapping Oracle datatypes to ASE datatypes, and that the migration can be fully
performed through SQL.
Using this option requires purchasing Sybase's ECDA product.
Use Sybase Replication Server Heterogeneous Edition (RSHE) for Oracle
Sybase Replication Server captures database transactions in Oracle and applies these to ASE, thus keeping the
ASE database continuously up-to-date. In addition, Replication Server can also initially copy the full contents
of the Oracle tables into ASE, in order to initialize the data replication ("materialization of the replication
system").
Considerations: Using transactional replication is the only data migration solution where activity on the Oracle
database can continue while the data migration is in progress. This means that the migration downtime, during
which applications are not available because they must switch from the Oracle database to the ASE database, is
independent of the data volume being migrated; this downtime could potentially be very short (e.g. minutes
rather than hours).
Using this option requires purchasing Sybase's Replication Server product, as well as learning how to use
Replication Server.
Letting Replication Server perform the initial data copy from Oracle to ASE may not be realistic for large data
volumes. In this case, the initial materialization of the replication system might be better performed with one of
the other options mentioned here.
Use a 3rd-party ETL tool that supports both Oracle and Sybase ASE.

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Considerations: This option is most attractive if the ETL tool is already in use so that no additional software
needs to be purchased for the migration alone.
an be used when the data volume is such that the data can be transferred in the available migration window. It
can be used for very large data volumes, but a sizeable migration window may be required.

6.1 Unload Oracle data into ASCII files; load into ASE with "bcp" utility
ASE's high-speed data loading utility "bcp" is capable of loading almost any type of appropriately formatted ASCII data
file into ASE. However, since Oracle does not provide any tools to export Oracle data into an ASCII-formatted file, the
user must either use a 3rd-party tool for this purpose, or create his own PL/SQL utility to essentially spool the data from
the database into a flat file. FACT is an example of such a 3-rd party tool.

6.1.1 Loading into ASE with "bcp"


This is an example of loading data from an ASCII file into an ASE table (named mydb..mytable) with bcp:
bcp mydb..mytable in mytable.txt Ulogin Ppassword Sserver c
In practical situations, bcp should also specify which row- and column delimiters are used (bcp -r and -t options) since
the defaults (CR and tab) could also occur in the actual data file (which is ASCII, after all). When unloading data into flat
ASCII files, proper delimiters should be chosen.
Bcp-in performance is best when all indexes on the tables being loaded, are dropped first. Of course, , depending on the
size and number of indexes and the width of the base tables, recreating them afterwards could take a long time on large
tables, so this may not be realistic for all cases.
It is usually best to use a large network packet size with bcp (the A option; also requires configuring the network packet
size on the ASE server).
For large tables, it may be advisable to use the bcp b option to break the load into multiple database transactions. This
is typically combined with enabling the "trunc log on checkpt" database option in ASE to avoid the transaction log
filling up.
To load only part of a data file, or to load columns in a different order than in the file, a so-called "bcp format file" may
be used. For more information on format files, as well as on bcp in general, see the Utility Guide in the ASE
documentation set (http://tinyurl.com/6883kx4).
It is highly recommended to perform multiple bcp operations in parallel (one for each table being loaded). The optimal
number of concurrent bcp operations will be determined by the hardware capabilities. If there is only one (or few) large
tables that need to be loaded, these can still be loaded using in multiple BCP operations by adding partitioning the table
using round robin partitioning and specifying the start and last rows of the data file being loaded into a particular
partition number of the table.
Lastly, note that, on Unix/Linux, bcp can read from a "named pipe" (created with the "mkfifo" command). If the utility
that extracts the data into a file can write to a named pipe as well, then a lot of time can potentially be saved as follows:
1. Create a named pipe with the Unix/Linux "mkfifo" command
2. Extract the data from Oracle, writing it to the named pipe.
3. Without waiting for the data extraction to complete, start bcp to load the data from the same named pipe. Bcp
will read data from the named pipe once it is delivered by the extraction utility, and immediately insert it into
ASE.
Instead of first extracting the data and then loading it, the time to transfer the data is now reduced to the longer of
(extracting the data, loading the data). This can represent significant time gain.
For more information on bcp and named pipes, please refer to http://tinyurl.com/5urcfrt .

6.1.2 Unloading from Oracle: FACT (3rd-party tool)


FACT ("Fast Extract") is a 3rd-party high speed Oracle data export tool that allows ASCII flat file creation, also in
parallel mode. These files can be used as input for the Sybase ASE utility bcp.

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For more information about FACT, see http://www.iri.com/products/FACT.

6.1.3 Unloading from Oracle: Roll-your-own PL/SQL utility to export Oracle data
If you want to unload data from Oracle tables into ASCII flat files using only Oracle features, you must create your own
PL/SQL utility that essentially spools the data from the database into a flat file. This uses the DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line
command in PL/SQL. Here's an example of exporting two columns of table emp using "~" as a column delimiter and
CR as a row delimiter. The output from this PL/SQL code should be captured in a flat file:

DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT ename, sal FROM emp;


BEGIN
FOR emp_rec IN emp_cur
LOOP
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (emp_rec.ename || '~' || TO_CHAR (emp_rec.sal) );
END LOOP;
END;
/

The downside is that this method is likely to be very slow, making it unsuitable for anything but relatively small data
volumes. In addition, care must be taken to correctly format/convert each column datatype management.

6.1.4 Unloading from Oracle: use Oracle SQL Developer


Oracle SQL Developer is a free Java-based tool, downloadable from oracle.com. This can be used to create a logical
export of the data, whereby a SQL INSERT statement is created for every row.
The downside is that this method is likely to be relatively slow in exporting as well as importing the extracted data, since
this is all done on a single-row basis. This may make it unsuitable for large data volumes.

6.2 Use Sybase's Enterprise Connect Data Access (ECDA) Option for Oracle
ECDA is a connectivity product by Sybase that acts as a gateway between Oracle and Sybase ASE. With ECDA, direct
connections can be made from an ASE database into an Oracle database, making it possible to transfer Oracle data
directly into ASE using only SQL.
The ECDA functionality is exposed as an ASE "proxy table", which maps to the actual Oracle table. By selecting from
the proxy table, data is retrieved from the Oracle table and can be inserted directly into an ASE table. Also, it is possible
to do things like joining Oracle tables (though their proxy table) with tables in Sybase ASE.
The main advantage of using ECDA is that takes care automatically of the datatype conversions from Oracle to Sybase
ASE when the data is retrieved. It also offers the flexibility and control of using the SQL language to access to proxy
tables.
ECDA involves starting a separate process outside the ASE server.

6.2.1 ECDA Example


This is a basic example of how ECDA would work.
1. Assuming ECDA is installed and started, define the remote Oracle server in ASE:
sp_addserver ORACLEDC, direct_connect, ORACLEDC
This allows the Oracle server to be accessed as "ORACLEDC".
2. In the Oracle database there is the following table:
example_ora_table
(id_num int,
name varchar(30),
phone varchar(20) null,
birthdate date null)
3. In the Sybase ASE database, create the following proxy table:

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create existing table example_proxy_table


(id_num int,
name varchar(30),
phone varchar(20) null,
birthdate smalldatetime null)
external table
at ORACLEDC.oradb..example_ora_table
4. Now you can access the table example_proxy_table with SQL as if the table is local to the Sybase ASE
database.
This copies all rows from the Oracle table into the ASE table example_sybase_table:
insert example_sybase_table
select * from example_ora_table

6.3 Use Sybase Replication Server Heterogeneous Edition (RSHE) for Oracle
Sybase Replication Server is often used by Sybase customers to facilitate migrations between databases. The main
attraction is that the required downtime for curring over from the "old" to the "new" database can in principle be very
short as far as the database side of things is concerned.

6.3.1 Minimal migration downtime with Replication


Replication Server captures database transactions in Oracle by reading the Oracle redo logs, and then applies these
transactions to ASE, thus keeping the ASE database continuously up-to-date. In addition, Replication Server can also
initially copy the full contents of the Oracle tables into ASE, in order to initialize the data replication ("materialization of
the replication system"). When large tables are involved, a main decision to be made is whether this initial materialization
needs to be performed through Replication Server or through an external unload-and-load mechanism.
When using Replication Server for data migration, the objective is to reach a state where the ASE database is completely
in synch with the Oracle database, at which point the applications can switch from the Oracle database to the ASE
database (after the cutover, the replication setup can be removed). The system downtime needs to be only as long as this
application cutover takes, which would typically rather be minutes rather than hours.
It is essential to observe that replication is application-transparent: applications can keep working normally on the Oracle
database until the moment of cutover comes (obviously, the applications themselves likely require modifications to run
on an ASE database instead of Oracle, but that is outside the scope of this topic of data migration).
Other data migration solutions than transactional replication will require significantly more downtime. This is because
Replication Server provides a mechanism to incrementally upload data changes from Oracle to ASE allowing
applications continue to work normally. In contrast, most other migration methods essentially take a copy of an entire
table which usually requires applications to be shut down or in read-only mode since it can be very difficult to reconcile
any data changes to the copied afterwards. For those other migration methods, the required system downtime is
therefore roughly identical to the time required to copy the data out of Oracle and into Sybase.

6.3.2 Initial materialization for the replication setup


Replication Server can automatically copy the full contents of the Oracle tables into ASE, in order to initialize the data
replication ("materialization of the replication system"). However, for very large tables, this may take unacceptably long.
An alternative approach may therefore be to take an initial copy from these large tables through other means, like one of
the other options described in this section on data migration (for example, unload into an ASCII flat file and load into
ASE with bcp). With Replication Server, changes made to the table afterwards will be synch'd afterwards. The high-level
approach would be as follows:
1. Set up table replication for all Oracle tables to ASE tables, but do not auto-materialize the large tables.
Optionally, enable "autocorrection" for the large tables (depending on your understanding of the type of data
changes that may be made; see the Replication Server documentation for details).

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2. Suspend the DSI connection by Replication Server to the ASE database. Any future changes to the Oracle
tables will be picked up by Replication Server and are accumulated in Replication Server's "stable queues". At a
later point, these changes will be applied to ASE.
3. For the large tables, take a copy and load this into ASE (using your preferred method).
4. Once the loading of the large tables into ASE is complete, resume the connection from Replication Server to
the ASE database. This will push out the changes that were accumulated in Replication Server's "stable
queues", and apply these to the ASE tables.
5. Once all accumulated changes are pushed out to ASE, the ASE database should be in the same state as the
Oracle database and the applications can switch over to complete the migration.
When the tables are not too large to perform automatic materialization, or when it is acceptable that such materialization
takes a long time (since the Oracle applications keep functioning normally anyway), then the above steps can be replaced
by simple setting up table replication from Oracle to ASE using automatic materialization.

6.3.3 Other considerations


Using this option requires purchasing Sybase's Replication Server Heterogeneous Edition (RSHE) for Oracle, as well as
learning how to use Replication Server. Letting Replication Server perform the initial data copy from Oracle to ASE
may not be realistic for large data volumes. In this case, the initial materialization of the replication system might be
better performed with one of the other options mentioned here.
Before using Sybase Replication Server to replicate out of an Oracle database, verify whether this complies with the
available Oracle licenses. If a full Oracle license is used, there should be no restrictions; if a more restricted Oracle
license is used (like a run-time only license), this might legally prohibit use of Replication Server and additional Oracle
licensing might be needed. This is a matter outside the scope of Sybase, and should be addressed with Oracle.
Oracle GoldenGate can also provide transactional replication between Oracle and Sybase ASE. If the customer already
has this product available, in principle this can also be used as part of a migration, in similar ways as described above for
Sybase Replication Server.

6.4 Use a 3rd-party ETL tool that supports both Oracle and Sybase ASE
If an ETL tool is already in use which supports both Oracle and Sybase, it may be attractive to use it to perform the data
migration. Typically this would require system downtime for the duration of transferring the data from Oracle to Sybase,
unless the ETL tool is capable of sorting out any changes to the data that are made during the transfer process.

Please make sure that you adhere to any license restrictions and clear the use of this tool to move data from Oracle to
Sybase ASE with this vendor.

6.5 Oracle datatypes requiring special attention for migration


The following Oracle datatypes require special attention when migrating the data.

Oracle TIMESTAMP Sybase BIGDATETIME


Oracles TIMESTAMP datatype has a granularity of 1/100000000th of a second. This exceeds the precision of
Sybases BIGDATETIME datatype which has a granularity of 1 microsecond. When migrating data with bcp,
TIMESTAMP data may need to be edited to remove the last 3 digits to avoid bcp throwing an error.

Oracle BLOB/CLOB/NCLOB Sybase IMAGE/TEXT /UNITEXT


Oracle stores large binary objects in the BLOB datatype and large character objects in the CLOB datatype. Both
datatypes can store up to 128TB (4GB * database block size) of data, as of Oracle 11g. When migrating, data from
Oracles BLOB datatype should be mapped to Sybase IMAGE datatype and CLOB to the TEXT datatype. The

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maximum size for an individual column value of the IMAGE or TEXT datatype in Sybase ASE is 2GB. If the
actual Oracle data values are larger than this maximum, ASE is unable to store these values. In this case, Sybase IQ
might be a solution since it supports a maximum varying between 512TB to 2PB per column value.

Oracle BFILE
The Oracle BFILE datatype is used to store a locator (link) to an external binary file stored outside of the database.
Sybase ASE has no direct functional equivalent, so application changes may be required.

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7 MIGRATING PL/SQL TO TRANSACT-SQL


PL/SQL is Oracle's implementation of the SQL language. Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Sybase ASE's SQL dialect.
Both SQL versions are mostly ANSI-92 entry-level compliant, but both vendors have implemented extensive non-
ANSI-compliant vendor-specific enhancements and extensions.
In many cases both dialects will still have equivalent functionality in their vendor-specific extensions, but syntax changes
or varying amounts of code changes may be required when migrating from PL/SQL to T-SQL. In cases where T-SQL
does not have a direct equivalent of a particular PL/SQL construct, larger amounts of code rewrite or even application
rewrite could be required.
While the incompatibilities between Oracle and Sybase are quite limited when it comes to schema migration and data
migration, there is much more potential for migration complexity between the two SQL dialect. Consequently, migrating
PL/SQL to T-SQL is probably the most involved part of any Oracle to Sybase migration, and will typically require
manual conversion/migration activity.
A key factor for a successful migration or, for that matter, for avoiding a failed migration- is a realistic assessment of
the SQL-related complexities to be migrated before starting the migration project. Chapter 3 provides checklists for this
purpose.
To assist with the actual migration of PL/SQL to T-SQL, chapter 11 contains a cross-reference between Oracle features
and their Sybase ASE equivalents, in three categories of complexity. This cross-reference is an extended version of the
Oracle checklist in chapter 3 but provides more detail and provides specific suggestions on how to migrate a specific
Oracle feature to ASE.

7.1 Locations of PL/SQL code


PL/SQL code can be found in the following locations:
Stored procedures (in the database server)
Triggers (in the database server)
SQL functions (in the database server)
SQL queries (submitted to the database server by client applications, for example as anonymous PL/SQL
blocks)

PL/SQL objects in the database server can be reverse-engineered, or, if present and up-to-date, repository scripts that
were used to create these PL/SQL objects can be taken as a starting point.
PL/SQL code located in client applications needs to be identified in a different way, for example source code inspection

When it comes to using existing scripts or reverse-engineering the PL/SQL objects from the database server, the same
considerations apply as with respect to the database schema; see the pros and cons discussed in section 4.1.
Sybase PowerDesigner may also be used to reverse-engineer PL/SQL objects (see section 4.2); however PowerDesigner
does not perform any conversion to T-SQL (for this, evaluate a tool like SwisSQL, see below).

Since the majority of PL/SQL is typically located in stored procedures and triggers, "migrating PL/SQL" is often
equated to "migrating stored procedures and triggers". While that definition is not formally correct (there are other
places where PL/SQL occurs, as shown above), it does reflect the area where most migration issues are typically
encountered.

7.2 SwisSQL assistance for PL/SQL migration to T-SQL


Tools for migrating from PL/SQL to T-SQL would be a welcome help when undertaking Oracle to ASE migrations.
However, it is unlikely that any automated tool will be capable of perfectly migrating all of the PL/SQL code in any real-
life Oracle system to ASE's T-SQL. Yet, it may well be possible that a substantial percentage can be handled by a tool,
but a certain amount of manual conversion/migration should be expected.

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SwisSQL (a 3rd-part tool) is one of the few tools that provides assistance with automatic migration of Oracle PL/SQL
code to Sybase T-SQL. For more information, see http://www.swissql.com/products/oracle-to-sybase .
This Migration Guide recommends evaluating SwisSQL for the purpose of PL/SQL migration.
According to www.swissql.com, the following aspects are supported:
Procedures, Functions, Views and Packages from PL/SQL to Transact-SQL. Supports both Named and
Anonymous PL/SQL blocks.
Variables, Cursors defined in Package Specification and Package Body.
Procedure calls made inside another procedure.
PL/SQL built-in and user-defined Datatypes To Transact SQL.
PL/SQL built-in Functions into corresponding Transact SQL Procedures.
Built-in packages like DBMS_OUTPUT & DBMS_SQL.
Cursor Declaration, OPEN, FETCH and CLOSE Statements, Cursor Variables and Implicit Cursors.
REF Cursor variables into Transact-SQL.
%ROWCOUNT, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND and %ISOPEN cursor attributes.
Sequence Objects.
PL/SQL Label.
Scalar and Record Anchor variables.
User Defined Exceptions.
PL/SQL IN OUT parameters.
Native Dynamic SQL Statements(NDS).
Collection type.
Transaction features - COMMIT, ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT.
Conditional and control statements.
A mechanism to configure datatype mapping to be used during migration through a configuration file.

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8 TRANSACTIONS AND LOCKING, ORACLE VS. SYBASE


The topic of transaction handling, transaction isolation and locking is probably where the most profound differences
between Oracle and Sybase ASE occur. For this reason a separate chapter is dedicated to this topic.

8.1 Oracle MVCC vs. Sybase locking


The purpose of transactions in the database is to take the database from one consistent state to the next. Database
transactions, both in Oracle and Sybase ASE, guarantee all of the ANSI-defined ACID characteristics. ACID is an
acronym for:
Atomic: Either all of the modifications in the transaction are applied or none is applied.
Consistent: A transaction takes the database from one consistent state to the next, observing referential
integrity constraints.
Isolated: The effects of a user's transaction are not visible to other users until the transaction is committed.
Durable: Once the transaction is successfully committed, it is permanent.

Oracle's implementation of the "Isolation" aspect of transactions is different from Sybase ASE's. Oracle uses MVCC
(multi-version concurrency control) where an open transaction creates a new version of the data it is modifying, such
that other sessions reading the same data will read the unmodified version, and thus are not blocked ("writers dont
block readers and readers don't block writers"). In contrast, Sybase ASE maintains only a single version of the data, and
uses blocking locks to implement transaction isolation.
Oracle also uses locking in addition to MVCC, but Oracle's locking concept is rather different from ASE's.

8.2 Transaction-related migration issues


The different approaches towards transaction isolation by Oracle and Sybase ASE may bring up the following issues
when migrating from Oracle to ASE:

Oracle applications and queries may rely, knowingly or unknowingly, on Oracle MVCC's "writers don't block
readers and readers don't block writers" behavior. When migrating such queries unchanged to Sybase ASE,
concurrency problems (blocking) may result. In addition, since MVCC has the effect that the result of an
Oracle query is essentially defined at the moment then the query starts, different results could potentially be
returned.

Long-running transactions: these are fine, and indeed common, in Oracle where MVCC allows transactions to
remain open for longer times with fewer adverse effects (though naturally, this also has its limits; for example
writers still block writers). With Sybase ASE designed specifically for high-performance OLTP, transactions
should be kept as short as possible in ASE for best concurrency and performance. Long transactions in ASE
can quickly lead to issues around concurrency (blocking) and resource consumption which also affects
unrelated transactions by other users (transaction log full).

Oracle uses implicit transactions (also called "chained transactions"). This means a transaction is started
automatically whenever a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement is executed. By default Sybase
ASE uses explicit transactions ("unchained"), though it also supports the ANSI-compliant implicit/chained
mode as well. When migrating to ASE, it may be needed to run some transactions in chained mode which
could involve making changes to the way some transactions are handled, notably changing the transaction
mode at session or client level, or by adding explicit BEGIN TRANSACTION statements (which Oracle does
not support nor require).

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For a successful migration to Sybase ASE, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the behavior of the Oracle
application on the above aspects, and of the assumptions behind the design of queries and transaction handling in the
Oracle application.

8.3 Using ASE implicit/chained transaction mode


The most straightforward migration option with respect to Oracle's implicit/chained transaction mode is to retain the
transactional structure of the Oracle application, and operate Sybase ASE in chained transaction mode.
In Sybase ASE, implicit/chained transaction mode can be achieved by:
Running the T-SQL command SET CHAINED ON before starting a transaction. This statement can also be
executed in an ASE login trigger.
Setting the OpenClient connection attribute CS_OPT_CHAINXACTS to true (default=false) in the client
application before connecting to the ASE server (With the isql utility, this attribute is set by specifying the -Y
command-line flag).
Since some operations in Sybase ASE may not work in chained mode, for example administration procedures such as
sp_configure, always enabling chained mode for all connections may not be practical (although ASE 15.7 allows
various system sp_* procedures to run in chained mode). It is recommended to only enable chained mode for those
connections or stored procedures that really require it. For connections by the DBA (typically, the 'sa' user), the
default unchained mode should always be used instead.

8.3.1 Transactional DDL


When running Sybase ASE in chained mode, it is possible that, with a straightforward migration from Oracle, DDL
statements are executed inside a transaction. By default, this will cause an error in Sybase ASE. To allow DDL
statements in a transaction in ASE, run: sp_dboption database_name,'ddl in tran', true . Note that this is not
possible for some types of DDL.

In addition, Oracle issues an implicit COMMIT after each DDL statement. In ASE, an explicit COMMIT statement
should be inserted after each DDL statement that runs in a transaction to avoid concurrency issues. Alternatively,
chained mode should temporarily be turned off at session level when DDL is executed.

8.3.2 Transaction processing in stored procedures


If transaction processing is performed inside stored procedures, and the transaction mode (chained/unchained) matters,
Sybase ASE optionally allows enforcing that a stored procedure is executed only in chained or unchained mode (or
either mode). This can be achieved with sp_procxmode:
sp_procxmode proc_name, { 'chained' |'unchained' | 'anymode' }

8.4 Using ASE explicit/unchained transaction mode


If it appears that running ASE in implicit/chained transaction mode leads to too many concurrency issues, consider
using the default ASE explicit/unchained mode instead for all transaction or only for selected transactions.
When using unchained transaction mode, a BEGIN TRAN[SACTION] statement needs to be added to all transactions
that will run in unchained mode (this statement is not required in chained mode where transactions start implicitly). To
determine the best location to add BEGIN TRANSACTION requires detailed understanding of the transaction in
question. In general it is recommended to keep transaction in ASE as short as possible.

8.5 Using ASE transactional concurrency enhancements


Oracle's MVCC feature tends to be seen, especially by Oracle itself, as a vastly superior and irreplaceable transaction
handling model, compared with other database brands.

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In reality, much of the concurrency benefits of MVCC can be achieved in Sybase ASE by using ASE-specific features.
What is true is that concurrency issues caused by sub-optimal transaction/query design will be less immediately visible in
Oracle than in ASE; consequently, discipline in transaction programming is more important in Sybase ASE than in
Oracle since sloppy transaction handling backfires quicker in Sybase ASE than in Oracle.

When migrating from Oracle, it is recommended to consider the use of the following ASE features:
Choose the datapages or datarows lock scheme for database tables. These lock schemes provide better
concurrency than the default of allpages which is likely to be relevant when migrating from Oracle to ASE (also
see section 4.9). When using datarows locking, uncommitted inserts do not block readers; in addition, "pseudo-
column-level locking" behavior will automatically apply in certain scenarios (see the ASE Performance and Tuning
manual, volume "Locking and Concurrency Control" for details).
Consider using the readpast feature in queries. When reading data, this lets the query skip over locks that would
otherwise have blocked the read operation. For example:
select * from mytable readpast where mykey = 123
When using readpast, the data page (with datapages lock scheme) or data row (with datarows) being locked
and skipped over, will not be read. In many cases however, this may be acceptable because the nature or timing of
the query is such that the data being looked for is known not to be accessed by other users anyway. Or the skipped
data is known not to have any impact on the query result anyway.
Consider using the ANSI transaction isolation level 0 (ANSI READ UNCOMMITTED) in SELECT queries. While
reading, this lets the SELECT query read data that is currently locked, and potentially being updated, by another
user's transaction. On the default ANSI transaction isolation level 1 ( READ COMMITTED), the SELECT query
would be blocked instead.
When using ANSI isolation level 0, it is important to be aware of the implications and potential downsides, such as
requirements for unique indexing, the risk of isolation level 0 select queries being aborted in certain scenarios (see
the see the ASE Performance & Tuning manual, volume "Locking and Concurrency Control" for details).
Also, since isolation level 0 does not provide true transaction isolation, there is the risk of reading data that is
currently being updated and which may be updated again, or rolled back, after being read. However, this may be
acceptable because the uncommitted data being read is known not to have any impact on the query result anyway.
When using transaction isolation level 0, it is strongly recommended not to set this as the default isolation level for a
session, but to add the clause AT ISOLATION READ UNCOMMITTED or AT ISOLATION 0 only to those SELECT
statements where isolation level 0 is required.

8.6 Other transactional aspects


Savepoints: Sybase ASE supports savepoints in the same way as Oracle though with slightly different syntax.

By default, Oracle operates on transaction isolation level 1 (READ COMMITTED), which is the same as Sybase
ASE. Oracle also supports transaction level 3 (SERIALIZABLE). Sybase ASE supports both isolation levels as well.
(Note that Oracle does not support isolation levels 0 and 2).

SQL*Plus commit behavior:


o Oracle's SQL*Plus always commits when exiting normally. Sybase's isql client does not commit when it
exits, and consequently the effect would be that any open transaction is rolled back which is the opposite
of Oracle's SQL*Plus behavior.
o Oracle's SQL*Plus can be configured to autocommit after every statement with SET AUTOCOMMIT ON;
by default, this is disabled.
Sybase's isql client does not support autocommit; to achieve the same effect, explicit COMMIT
statements should be inserted.

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Oracle supports the syntax SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY, which makes the data read during the transaction
transactional data read-only, thus achieving the almost the same effect as transaction isolation level 3
(SERIALIZABLE).
In Sybase ASE, this should be changed to using transaction isolation level 3 (SERIALIZABLE). This can be achieved
with either of the following syntax:
o SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL 3
o SELECT AT ISOLATION LEVEL 3

Instead of ISOLATION LEVEL 3, ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE can also be used.


Oracle also supports the syntax SET TRANSACTION READ WRITE; this can be removed when migrating to Sybase
ASE since it is the default transactional behavior.
Deadlocks: Oracle sometimes pictures other database brands that do not support MVCC, as a source of 'deadlocks',
perhaps aiming to use this somewhat scary-sounding terminology as an argument against their competitors.
Indeed, deadlocks are rare in an Oracle environment, although it should be noted (consult any computer science
textbook on concurrent computing) that the possibility of deadlocks can never be excluded in a multi-user
environment which includes Oracle databases.
When following some elementary best practices, deadlocks typically do not occur at all, or very rarely at worst, in
Sybase ASE. The main guideline to avoid deadlocks is that when different transactions each access multiple tables,
they should always do so in the same order. In addition, using the ASE datarows lock scheme will help to reduce
the chance of deadlocks occurring. Finally, in the rare occasion that deadlocks do occur, it is recommended to
implement deadlock retry logic into the application where possible.
In summary, deadlocks need not be a major point of concern when migrating from Oracle to Sybase ASE.

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9 MISCELLANEOUS MIGRATION ASPECTS


9.1 Cursors
A main difference between Oracle and Sybase ASE is on how the systems handle query results. In Sybase ASE, result
sets are handles using set processing, meaning that in a stored procedure result sets are typically stored in temporary
tables and then further refined, whereas Oracle is based on cursor processing navigating through result sets. The
underlying reason is that Oracle maintains the versioning of its transactions and guarantees data integrity through
cursors. By using insensitive cursors in Sybase ASE, the same effect for the cursor result set is closest Oracles cursor
implementation.
Both Oracle and Sybase ASE support cursors, with some mostly small- differences in syntax and semantics.
Oracle PL/SQL is implemented with an implicit cursor deallocation process. When you close an Oracle cursor, it gets
automatically deallocated. Sybase ASE requires an explicit deallocate cursor statement to do so.

"REF CURSOR" is an Oracle datatype. Parameters and variables can be created with this datatype (called "cursor
variables"). A cursor variable acts as a pointer to a result set, and can be associated with different queries at run-time and
passed around between stored procedures, functions etc. Thus a cursor variable can be opened in one stored procedure,
and the results fetched in another stored procedure, whereby the cursor variable is passed between both procedures.
Since ASE does not have the REF CURSOR concept, PL/SQL using REF CURSOR needs to be rewritten, for example
by rewriting all stored procedures involved, or by putting query results in (temporary) tables and let the different stored
procedures access these.

9.2 Sequences
Sybase ASE does not have a full equivalent of Oracle Sequences, but in some cases ( startwith 1 incremented by
1, not sharing the sequence values between tables) this can be replaced with minimal changes by using an ASE
identity column.
In other cases the sequence functionality must be emulated with a key counter table and a stored procedure:

Oracle code:
CREATE SEQUENCE test_seq
MINVALUE 1
STARTWITH 1
INCREMENTED by 1
CACHE 20;

INSERT INTO m_table VALUES (test_seq.nextval,);

Equivalent Sybase Code:


-- create table
CREATE TABLE my_seq (seq int)
go

-- initialize the sequence


INSERT INTO my_seq select 0
go

-- create stored procedure to increment and return the value


- note that this can also be done with an OUTPUT parameter
CREATE PROCEDURE get_seq (@incr int)
AS
UPDATE my_seq SET seq = seq + @incr
SELECT @seq = seq FROM my_seq
RETURN @seq

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go

-- execute the procedure to get the next sequence number


DECLARE @seq int
EXEC @seq = get_seq 1
INSERT INTO m_table VALUES (@seq,)
go

Another approach is to replace the sequence functionality with a static Java function which is visible across all processes
(i.e. loaded by the system ClassLoader). This is not discussed further in this Guide.

9.3 Error/Exception handling


In Oracle, each SQL statement is automatically checked for errors before proceeding with the next statement. If an error
occurs, control immediately jumps to an exception handler if one exists. PL/SQL supports the creation of custom
exception handlers to deal with different types of errors. Sybase ASE passes the control from one SQL statement to
another without checking for errors. This means that in Sybase ASE, error checks must be performed after every SQL
statement.
The Oracle built-in procedure RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR notifies the client of the server error condition and
returns immediately to the calling routine. Oracle places an implicit SAVEPOINT at the beginning of a procedure. The
built-in RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR procedure rolls back to this SAVEPOINT or to the last committed
transaction within the procedure. Control is then returned to the calling routine.
Sybase ASEs equivalent to Oracles RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR is called RAISERROR. Unlike Oracle,
RAISERROR does not return the controls to the calling routine.
The first step in the conversion is to replace all RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR calls with RAISERROR calls,
followed immediately with a RETURN statement to emulate the Oracle exception handling.
The second step is to handle the implicit SAVEPOINTs that Oracle creates at the beginning of each procedure. If the
transaction is within one procedure this is relatively simple. But if the code uses nested stored procedures this becomes
more complex and may require additional flow-control logic.

9.4 Outer join limitations


Sybase ASE does not allow another join relationship on a table that already has an outer join (see example #1 below). In
addition, for a query with an outer join and a qualification on a column from the inner table of the outer join, the results
may be different than expected (example #2). Ideally, the database design should be de-normalized to remove the need
for these relationships. It is generally recommended to use the ANSI outer join syntax in Sybase ASE rather than the T-
SQL style syntax (*=. =*).
Oracle Sybase ASE
Example #1: Example #1:
SELECT DISTINCT a.id, b.name, c.desc SELECT a.id, b.name, c.desc
FROM a, b, c FROM a, b, c
WHERE a.id = b.id (+) WHERE a.id = b.id
and b.id2 = c.id2 (+) ( or b.id = c.id2 ) and b.id2 *= c.id2
and a.code = 1 and a.code = 1
ORDER BY b.name UNION
SELECT a.id, '', ''
FROM a
WHERE a.code = 1
and ( NOT EXISTS ( SELECT 'X'
FROM b
WHERE a.id = b.id ))
ORDER BY 2
Example #2: Example #2:
SELECT a.id, b.name SELECT a.id, b.name
FROM a, b FROM a, b
WHERE a.id = b.id (+) WHERE a.id *= b.id
AND b.name LIKE 'Bill%' AND b.name LIKE 'Bill%'

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9.5 Migrating JDBC/ODBC/ Applications


The data and any SQL code that are stored in the database (e.g., stored procedures and triggers) are migrated with the
steps in Section 5. This section describes the following different types of client database applications that need to be
migrated from Oracle to Sybase ASE.
Embedded SQL application
ODBC client application
JDBC client application
Database-specific library application
C Applications
Oracle forms
In all cases, conversion of one type of application to any of the other types of applications is possible. For example,
instead of converting your Oracle Embedded SQL application to a Sybase Embedded SQL application, you can convert
your Oracle Embedded SQL application to a JDBC client application.

9.5.1 JDBC
Migrating JDBC connections from Oracle to Sybase requires understanding how Oracle manages JDBC drivers vs.
Sybase ASE. This will determine your approach on how to migrate JDBC.
Oracle provides the following JDBC drivers:
Thin driver: a pure Java driver used on the client-side, without an Oracle client installation. It can be used with
both applets and applications.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) driver: used on the client-side with an Oracle client installation. It can be used only
with applications.
Oracle recommends the use of its Thin JDBC driver in all and any cases when connections are made through TCP/IP.
Sybase ASE provides its own JDBC driver, named jConnect.

9.6 Oracle Forms


Oracle Forms, a component of the Oracle Developer Suite, is Oracle's approach to design and build enterprise
applications quickly and efficiently. Oracle Forms-based applications can retrieve and manipulate data in Oracle
databases. Applications developed with Oracle Forms are unlikely to run well, or run at all, against Sybase ASE.
Sybase PowerBuilder is an enterprise development tool that allows you to build many types of applications and
components. It is one of a group of Sybase products that together provide the tools to develop client/server, multi-tier,
and Internet applications.
Oracle Forms applications can be rewritten using PowerBuilder. Most of the functionality provided by Oracle forms can
be also be created by using PowerBuilder with Sybase ASE.
Migration of Oracle Forms application to PowerBuilder application is not straightforward. The "form" is the basis of
user interface (UI) in Oracle Forms while the "datawindow" is the basis of UI in PowerBuilder. Both are graphical in
nature and are used to present data and accept user input. Both can contain elements graphical and non-graphical in
nature.
For more information on PowerBuilder, see http://www.sybase.com/powerbuilder .

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10 DBA TASKS CROSS-REFERENCE


This chapter seeks to provide some starting points with respect to mapping DBA tasks and concepts in Oracle to their
equivalent in ASE. However, the tools and methods used for database administration and monitoring are very different
as these are highly specific to each database brand. This makes it impossible to provide more than a loose mapping.
For a successful migration, availability of sufficient DBA skills will be important.

Description Oracle Sybase ASE

Home Directory $ORACLE_HOME $SYBASE

Default Database/Instance $ORACLE_SID $DSQUERY

Command-line tool for SQL SQL*Plus in isql in $SYBASE/OCS-


$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus 15_0/bin/isql

Import/export data imp / exp command or impdp For data import and export:
/expdp command for data pump
bcp command located in
located in $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$SYBASE/OCS-15_0/bin
Oracle imports and exports the data
For the definition import and
and the DDL definitions, plus all other
export:
objects like type definitions, indexes,
procedure and views. defncopy command in
$SYBASE/OCS-15_0/bin
Data exported with exp can only be
imported with imp. To reverse engineering the DDL to
be recreated in another
environment:
ddlgen command in
$SYBASE/ASEP/bin

SQL*Loader is Oracles high-speed


Loading data from external files bcp command located in
loader. It loads data into Oracle very
fast, but it cannot unloading Oracle $SYBASE/OCS-15_0/bin
database data into files. (bcp can also unload data into
files)

Create a new database dbca command in Sybase Central or SQL command


$ORACLE_HOME/bin create database

Create new network connection netca command in dsedit in $SYBASE/OCS-


$ORACLE_HOME/bin 15_0/bin

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Description Oracle Sybase ASE

Setup new Oracle Enterprise emca command in Sybase Central in combination with
Manager (OEM) server $ORACLE_HOME/bin Sybase Control Center is equivalent
to OEM.
Setup Sybase Central: installed
automatically when Sybase ASE is
installed. Installs as part of the
client installation.
Setup Sybase Control Center:
Install the software with the
supplied Sybase Installer.

Load data into the database SQL*LOADER in bcp command located in


$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlldr $SYBASE/OCS-15_0/bin
using bcp in

Start database server Manual: startserver command in


Start SQL*Plus as sysdba $SYBASE/ASE-
15_0/install
SQL> STARTUP
startserver f
Starts the instance, , mounts the
RUN_$DSQUERY
database and opens the database.
The RUN_$DSQUERY file is the
Script:
spfile equivalent.
dbstart command in
$ORACLE_HOME/bin
Both commands are using the spfiles
located in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs in
the following order:
1. spfile$ORACLE_SID.ora
2. spfile.ora
3. init$ORACLE_SID.ora

Start backup server N/A startserver command in


$SYBASE/ASE-
15_0/install
startserver f
RUN_$DSQUERY_BS
The RUN_$DSQUERY_BS file
contains the startup parameters.

Start monitor server emctl command in startserver command in


$ORACLE_HOME/bin $SYBASE/ASE-
15_0/install
emctl start dbconsole
startserver f
RUN_$DSQUERY_MS
The RUN_$DSQUERY_MS file
contains the startup parameters.

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Description Oracle Sybase ASE

Show running processes Unix: showserver command in


ps aef | grep $SYBASE/ASE-
$ORACLE_SID 15_0/install
Windows:
pslist d oracle

Stop database server Login to SQL*Plus and execute: Login via isql and execute the
command:
SQL>shutdown
shutdown
For normal shut down
go
SQL>shutdown immediate;
Without parameters the server will
For immediate shut down wait for all transactions to finish.
Adding with nowait will terminate
SQL>shutdown abort; all sessions and shut down the
For emergency shut down server immediately.

Stop backup server Oracle does not have a concept of a Login via isql into the Sybase ASE
Backup Server. database server and execute the
command:
shutdown
Backup_Server_name
go
By default this waits for all current
backups to finish. Adding with
nowait will terminate all sessions
and shut down the backup server
immediately.

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Description Oracle Sybase ASE

Oracle has the following ways of Sybase ASE always performs a hot
Database Backup
performing a database backup: backup; this requires hardly any
configuration. This is the same
imp / exp commands: this can
functionality as Oracles Archive
import/export the entire database
Log backup, but no archive file
(including all data), individual
cleanup is necessary.
schemas or a single table.
The command dump database
Data Pump: new import / export backs up an entire database (full
feature since Oracle 10g. The basic dump); dump transaction
functionality is identical to the old only backs up the transaction log
imp and exp commands, but since the previous dump
Data Pump is faster. (incremental backup).
RMAN: The Oracle Recovery The command load database
Manager (RMAN), command-line restores a full backup; load
as well as Enterprise Manager- transaction loads an
based, is the Oracle-preferred incremental backup following loads
method of efficiently backing up of earlier backups.
and restoring an Oracle database.
Various backup options exist, For these dump/load commands,
some of which require the Oracle Backup Server must be running.
database to be shut down first.

Oracle dynamic performance views MDA tables


Information about system
performance

Oracle static data dictionary views System tables (catalogs) and system
Information about schema
stored procedures (sp_*)

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11 ORACLE-TO-SYBASE MIGRATION CROSS-REFERENCE


This chapter provides specific suggestions on how to migrate a Oracle feature to Sybase ASE. This cross-reference is an
extended version of the Oracle checklist in chapter 3. Much of this type of conversion can in principle be done using a
text editor with search-and-replace commands, or with tools like 'sed'.

11.1 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Simple Conversion"


Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

Connecting to an Oracle schema Connecting to a Sybase database; also see section 4.5

CONNECT user_name/password USE database_name


SET ROLE

The Oracle slash is contained at the end of some of Equivalent to the ISQL go command at the end of a
the procedures examined. batch of SQL statements
/ go

The semicolon is a statement delimiter in PL/SQL No statement delimiters; remove Oracle delimiter
; semicolons

The Oracle DUAL table Should be removed completely from queries in Sybase
ASE; but if it occurs many times in Oracle queries, it
SELECT sysdate FROM DUAL may also be created as a dummy table in ASE; see
section 4.10

SET SAVEPOINT savepoint-name SAVE TRAN[SACTION] savepoint-name

Variable/Parameter declarations; naming syntax In Sybase ASE, variable/parameter names must start
with the character @. In ASE, the maximum length is
30 bytes; in Oracle, longer names are allowed.
DECLARE count NUMBER
DECLARE @count INT

Assign default value in variable declaration Explicitly assign value after variable declaration

DECLARE blood_type char(2) := 'O'; DECLARE @blood_type CHAR(2)


SET @blood_type = 'O'

Declarations with a single DECLARE keyword When declaring multiple variables with one
DECLARE keyword, the variables must be comma-
DECLARE separated ASE. Cursors must be declared separately
V1 NUMBER(10,0); with DECLARECURSOR
V2 CHAR(20);
DECLARE
CURSOR mycursor IS
@v1 int,
SELECT * FROM mytable;
@v2 char(20)

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

Declarations without DECLARE keyword in declaration DECLARE keyword is required in Sybase ASE.
section of stored procedures/functions Cursors must be declared separately with
DECLARECURSOR
CREATE PROCEDURE p
AS CREATE PROCEDURE p
V1 NUMBER(10,0); AS
V2 CHAR(20); BEGIN
CURSOR mycursor IS DECLARE
SELECT * FROM mytable; @v1 int,
BEGIN @v2 char(20)
statements
END; DECLARE mycurs CURSOR AS
SELECT * FROM mytable
statements
END
go

Variable assignment
SET @myvar = expression
myvar := expression; SELECT @myvar = expression

Transferring table data into a variable Directly select into the variable

SELECT my_col INTO my_variable SELECT @my_variable = my_col FROM


FROM my_table WHERE id = 123; my_table WHERE id = 123

Constants Redefine as variables and check scope of usage (local


or global).

%TYPE denotes the datatype of a column in an existing Explicitly declare the variable with the column's actual
table datatype

DECLARE count my_table.id%TYPE

Dynamic SQL Use Sybase ASE execute-immediate

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'sql'; SET @cmd = 'sql'


EXECUTE (@cmd)
or:
EXECUTE ('sql')

Loops with LOOP/END LOOP: Convert to WHILE-loops. Oracle's EXIT and


CONTINUE corresponds to ASE's BREAK and
LOOP CONTINUE though ASE cannot have a condition
statements; associated with these statements.
EXIT [WHEN condition]; /*exit loop*/
statements; WHILE 1=1
/* back to top for next iteration: */ BEGIN
CONTINUE [WHEN condition]; sql
statements; conditional exit
END LOOP; END

Or:

WHILE <condition>
BEGIN
statements
END

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

FOR loops Convert to WHILE; use variables to implement FOR


FOR i IN 1..5 DECLARE @i int, @i_start int, @i_end
LOOP int
statements SET @i_start = 1, @i_end = 5
END LOOP; SET @i = @i_start
WHILE @i <= @i_end
BEGIN
statements
SELECT @i = @i + 1
END

CURSOR loops Convert to an ASE cursor

DECLARE CURSOR c IS select-statement;

LOOP myvariable IN c
statements
END LOOP;

GOTO statement and labels Change label syntax from <<labelname>> to


labelname:
IF var1 = -1 THEN
GOTO ErrorLabel; IF @var1 = -1
END IF; GOTO ErrorLabel
var2 := -1; SELECT @var2 = -1
<<ErrorLabel>> ErrorLabel:
var2 := -99; SELECT @var2 = -99

Oracle Outer join syntax Translates to Sybase ASE T-SQL outer join syntax or
to ANSI outer join syntax (preferred). Some
restrictions apply in Sybase, see section 9.4.
// right outer join SELECT * FROM t1, t2
SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.col1 =* t2.col2 (T-SQL
WHERE t1.col1 = t2.col2(+) syntax)

SELECT * FROM t1 RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN t2


ON t1.col1 = t2.col2 (ANSI syntax)
// left outer join
SELECT * FROM t1, t2 SELECT * FROM t1, t2
WHERE t1.col1(+) = t2.col2 WHERE t1.col1 *= t2.col2 (T-SQL
syntax)

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT [OUTER] JOIN t2


ON t1.col1 = t2.col2 (ANSI syntax)

SET TRANSACTION READ WRITE Remove in Sybase ASE; see chapter 8

ALTER TABLE mytable TRUNCATE PARTITION Replace by TRUNCATE TABLE mytable


partition_name PARTITION partition_name

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE (or Replace by DROP PROCEDURE (or FUNCTION)


FUNCTION) followed by CREATE PROCEDURE (or
FUNCTION)

ALTER PROCEDURE (or FUNCTION) Replace by DROP PROCEDURE (or FUNCTION)


followed by CREATE PROCEDURE (or
FUNCTION)

CREATE PROCEDURE IS Change to CREATE PROCEDURE AS

Stored procedure OUT/IN OUT parameters Sybase ASE supports input and input+output
parameters, but no output-only parameters. In
addition, the output keyword must be specified when
CREATE PROCEDURE p calling the procedure
(a IN number, b OUT number, c IN OUT number)
IS
CREATE PROCEDURE p
@a int, @b int output, @c int output
AS

EXEC p @var1, @var2 output, @var3 output

Stored procedure execution with named parameters Convert to ASE syntax with named parameters:
(param => value)
EXEC @result = proc_name @param1 = @my_var,
result := proc_name(param1 => my_var, param2 @param2 = 123
=> 123);

Stored procedure execution with positional parameters Convert to ASE syntax with named parameters:
(:var)
declare @a int,
VAR a NUMBER; @b int,
VAR b NUMBER; @c int,
VAR c NUMBER; @return_status

EXEC proc_name (:a, :b, :c) EXEC @return_status = proc_name @a, @b, @c

Procedure execution In ASE, the EXEC[UTE] keyword is mandatory


In Oracle, the EXEC[UTE] keyword is not used (except when the procedure is the first statement in
the batch)
CREATE PROCEDURE p1
AS CREATE PROCEDURE p1
BEGIN AS
statements BEGIN
END; statements
END
CREATE PROCEDURE p2 go
AS
BEGIN CREATE PROCEDURE p2
p1; AS
END; BEGIN
EXECUTE p1
END
go

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

SQL Function declaration with DETERMINISTIC In Sybase ASE, remove DETERMINISTIC


keyword

CREATE FUNCTION f_func (p NUMBER)


RETURN NUMBER
DETERMINISTIC
IS

Execution of a SQL Function In Sybase ASE, the name of the executed SQL function
must always be preceded by the owner's name
select myfunc(123);
select dbo.myfunc(123)
select jsmith.yourfunc(456)

DECLARE CURSOR cursor-name IS Change to DECLARE cursor-name INSENSITIVE


CURSOR AS
ASE's insensitive cursor is closest to Oracle's cursor
implementation

Oracle cursors Oracle cursors are automatically deallocated when


closed.
ASE cursors must be deallocated explicitly with
DEALLOCATE CURSOR cursor-name. This should
be added after every cursor CLOSE.

Cursor Attribute %ISOPEN No equivalent in ASE, remove .

Cursor Attributes %FOUND, %NOTFOUND Convert to using @@sqlstatus

Cursor Attribute %ROWCOUNT Convert to using @@rowcount

AFTER triggers (on statement level) Similar to Sybase ASE triggers

SQL%ROWCOUNT Replace by @@rowcount


Indicates the number of rows affected by the most DECLARE @rc INT, @err INT
recently executed PL/SQL statement SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE id = 1234
SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE id = 1234; SELECT @rc = @@rowcount, @err = @@error
IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN IF @rc = 0
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No rows print 'No rows found.'
found.');
END IF;

BOOLEAN datatype (for PL/SQL variables only) Convert to variables of type BIT (allows only 0 and 1;
NULL = 0) or TINYINT NULL. Decide on a
Allowed values are TRUE, FALSE and NULL. standard encoding like 0=false; 1=true.
Instead of using the numeric literals 0 and 1 in tests
and assignments, two variables named @true and
@false could be defined (and set to 1 and 0), so as to
use these names instead.

MERGE statement Migrate to ASE 15.7, which supports MERGE

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

Partitioned tables with composite partitioning ASE supports partitioned tables, but no composite
partitioning. Remove the SUBPARTITION clause.
CREATE TABLE mytable
(...columns...)
PARTITION BY RANGE(ptn_key_col)
SUBPARTITION BY HASH(subptn_key_col)
[...]

Performance-optimized native PL/SQL datatypes (for Convert to INTEGER, DOUBLE, FLOAT datatypes
PL/SQL variables only)

BINARY_INTEGER
BINARY_DOUBLE
BINARY_FLOAT

IF-THEN-ELSE In Sybase ASE, there is no THEN or END IF, so


remove them
IF expression
THEN IF expression
statement; statement
ELSE ELSE
statement; statement
END IF;

Multiple statements in an IF-THEN-ELSE branch In Sybase ASE, there can be only a single statement
expression in each branch; multiple statements must
IF expression be grouped in a BEGIN- END block.
THEN
statement; IF expression
statement; BEGIN
ELSE statement
statement; statement
statement; END
END IF; ELSE
BEGIN
statement
statement
END

Conditional test based on EXISTS subquery Can be kept identical in ASE, but this can also be
simplified greatly in ASE:
DECLARE
v_x NUMBER(10,0); DECLARE @x int
v_temp NUMBER(1, 0) := 0; SET @x = 0
IF EXISTS ( subquery )
SELECT 1 INTO v_temp SET @x = -1
FROM DUAL END
WHERE EXISTS ( subquery );

IF v_temp = 1 THEN
v_x := -1;

String concatenation operator: || Sybase ASE supports + as the string concatenation


operator; it also supports || though this is formally
undocumented.

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

userenv('sessionid') Equivalent to session-specific global variable @@spid


(since @@spid values are re-used, the
sysprocesses.kpid value can also be used to create a
better uniqueness)

MOD(X,Y) X % Y

CEIL() CEILING()

TRUNC(number) CONVERT(INT,..)

SUBSTR() SUBSTRING()

SUBSTR() function with two parameters Rewrite with the length of the expression as the 3rd
parameter

SELECT substr('John', 2) returns 'ohn' SELECT substring ('John', 2, len('John'))

LENGTH() CHAR_LENGTH() or LEN() or DATALENGTH()

CHR() CHAR()

TO_CHAR(expression) CONVERT(VARCHAR(n), expression)

TO_CHAR(expression, datepart) Convert to use the ASE datepart() function


TO_CHAR(sysdate, 'dd') CONVERT(VARCHAR,datepart(dd,getdate()))

TO_CHAR(expression, format-string) Implement the formatting explicitly with ASE


functions
TO_CHAR(some-number, '999D99')
TO_CHAR(some-number, '999') CONVERT(VARCHAR,ROUND(some-number,2))
CONVERT(VARCHAR,CONVERT(INT,some-
number))

TO_NUMBER(expression) CONVERT([BIG|SMALL|TINY]INT,
expression)
CONVERT(NUMERIC(n,m), expression)

Date/time functions and calculations Rewrite with ASE date/time functions like
DATEADD(), DATEDIFF(), DATEPART(),
DATENAME()

SELECT add_months( xyz ,3 ) FROM dual SELECT DATEADD(month, 3, xyz)

SELECT nr_days := DateEnd - DateStart SELECT @nr_days = datediff(dd, DateStart,


DateEnd)

SYSDATE, SYSTIMESTAMP Replace by GETDATE()

TRUNC(date/time [,unit]) Replace by CONVERT() with the date/time


formatting styles

LAST_DAY() Last day of a month function based on a date value;


rewrite using ASE SQL functions

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("simple conversion")

NVL() function Replace by ISNULL() function


NVL(a,b) ISNULL(a,b)

Inconsistent use of upper/lowercase for identifiers Either use a case-insensitive sort order in ASE, or use
(Oracle is case-insensitive for identifiers) consistent upper/lowercase spelling for identifiers (see
section 5.2)

Identifiers that are Sybase ASE reserved words (see Change such identifiers so that they are not a reserved
section 4.8) word.

INSTR() function with two parameters Replace by charindex()

SELECT INSTR('abcabc', 'ab') SELECT CHARINDEX('abcabc', 'ab')

Derived tables (also known as "inline views") without ASE always requires a correlation name for a derived
correlation name table

select a select a
from (select b as a, d as b from mytab) from (select b as a, d as b from mytab)
where b > 0 [as] somename
where b > 0

ALTER TABLE SPLIT PARTITION ASE supports partitioned tables, but does not yet
ALTER TABLE MERGE PARTITIONS support split/merge partition. Remove these
statements.

Oracle hints; indicated by a special comment directly Remove all Oracle hints
following the SELECT:

SELECT /*+ INDEX (C) */


NAME
FROM CUSTOMERS C
WHERE ZIPCODE = 54321

Hint keywords:
ALL_ROWS CURSOR_SHARING_EXACT NOAPPEND
APPEND DRIVING_SITE NOCACHE
CACHE DYNAMIC_SAMPLING NOPARALLEL
CLUSTER MODEL_MIN_ANALYSIS NOREWRITE
FACT NATIVE_FULL_OUTER_JOIN OPT_PARAM
FIRST_ROWS NO_NATIVE_FULL_OUTER_JOIN ORDERED
FULL NO_PARALLEL PARALLEL
HASH NO_PARALLEL_INDEX PARALLEL_INDEX
INDEX NO_PUSH_PRED PQ_DISTRIBUTE
INDEX_ASC NO_PUSH_SUBQ PUSH_PRED
INDEX_DESC NO_PX_JOIN_FILTER PUSH_SUBQ
INDEX_FFS NO_QUERY_TRANSFORMATION PX_JOIN_FILTER
INDEX_JOIN NO_RESULT_CACHE QB_NAME
INDEX_SS NO_REWRITE RESULT_CACHE
LEADING NO_STAR_TRANSFORMATION INDEX_COMBINE
MERGE NO_UNNEST INDEX_SS_ASC
MONITOR NO_USE_HASH INDEX_SS_DESC
NO_EXPAND NO_USE_MERGE NO_INDEX_FFS
NO_FACT NO_USE_NL NO_INDEX_SS
NO_INDEX NO_XML_QUERY_REWRITE NO_MERGE
REWRITE NO_XMLINDEX_REWRITE NO_MONITOR
UNNEST STAR_TRANSFORMATION USE_HASH
USE_CONCAT USE_NL_WITH_INDEX USE_MERGE
NOPARALLEL_INDEX USE_NL

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11.2 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Partial Rewrite"


For the Oracle features listed below, migration to partly equivalent Sybase ASE features is possible, although potentially
significant syntax changes and possibly partial rewriting of algorithms may be required.

Oracle Sybase ASE ("partial rewrite")

Database links Equivalent to ASE proxy tables, mapping to a remote


table
CREATE DATABASE LINK SALES.PROD
[ CONNECT TO CURRENT_USER ] using create proxy_table sales_proxy
'SALES'; at SALES.salesdb..salesdata

SELECT * FROM salesdata@SALES; select * from your_proxy

External tables Equivalent to ASE proxy tables, mapping to an O/S


file
create table my_external_tab
( ...columns...) create proxy_table my_external_tab
organization external ( ...columns...)
( default directory external_data_dir external file at '...pathname...'
access parameters column delimiter ','
( records delimited by newline
fields terminated by ','
location ('...pathname...') )

Sequences In some cases, this can be replaced by using ASE


Generate unique numbers, for example for primary identity columns. In other cases, the sequence
keys functionality must be emulated with a key counter
table and a stored procedure. See section 9.2.

Table-valued User-defined SQL Functions ASE only supports scalar User-defined SQL
functions. Rewrite with temporary tables.

Pipelined Table Functions ( a special case of Table- Rewrite with cursors or with an ASE proxy table
valued User-defined SQL Functions) mapping to a stored procedure (though the
performance of Oracle Pipelined Table Functions can
probably not be achieved)

Synonyms For synonyms for tables or views, replace by an ASE


view; for table/view synonyms at dblinks, replace by
an ASE proxy table.
For synonyms for stored procedures or functions,
replace by a wrapper stored procedure/function; for
stored procedure synonyms at dblinks, replace by a
remote procedure call.
For other synonyms, application changes are required.

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("partial rewrite")

Comments on database objects No direct equivalent. An method for storing object


comments in ASE is described
COMMENT ON TABLE mytab IS "This is my table"; in http://www.sybase.com/detail?id=607

Bitmap indexes ASE does not support bitmap indexes. Remove


BITMAP and create a regular index.
CREATE BITMAP INDEX my_ix ON mytable() Sybase IQ supports bitmapped indexes.

Temporary tables Replace by ASE temporary tables whose names start


with the # character:

CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE temptab CREATE TABLE #temptab []


[] [ON COMMIT PRESERVE ROWS] SELECT * INTO #temptab FROM my_table

Note that there are differences in scope between an


Oracle temporary table and a Sybase #temporary
table: an Oracle temporary table is visible by all users
(though a user can only see his own data rows in the
table) whereas a Sybase #temp table is visible only to
the session that created it. In addition, an Oracle
temporary table is a permanent table that must be
dropped explicitly (only the data in the Oracle
temporary table is automatically deleted); a Sybase
#temp table is automatically dropped at the end of the
procedure or session that created it.

IS TABLE OF or AS VARRAY(n)OF Rewrite algorithm with a temporary table and use


define a PL/SQL "table" (= non-database table, array). FETCH or SELECT to process rows. Alternatively,
convert the table to a Java object with different data
elements, which can be stored in a table column.

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("partial rewrite")

Nested tables Change to use a separate table for the nested table in
Allow a column to be defined as a table, that can hold the column, with a primary key-foreign key
N rows (=N column values) relationship.

CREATE TYPE address_t AS OBJECT (


street VARCHAR2(30),
city VARCHAR2(20),
state CHAR(2),
zip CHAR(10) );
country CHAR(30),
/
CREATE TYPE address_tab IS TABLE OF
address_t;
/
CREATE TABLE customers (
custid NUMBER,
address address_tab )
NESTED TABLE address STORE AS
customer_addresses;

INSERT INTO customers VALUES (654,


address_tab(address_t('148 Oak Drive',
'Dallas', 'TX', '75240'),
address_t('561 Virginia
Road', 'Concord', 'MA', '01742'))

Object tables Either replace with regular tables and columns, or use
a Java class to define a column as a complex datatype
CREATE TYPE person_type AS OBJECT ( containing different fields.
name VARCHAR2(30), address
VARCHAR2(100));

CREATE TABLE person_obj_table OF


person_type;

%ROWTYPE declares a PL/SQL record with the Declare each field as an individual variable and modify
same columns as a particular table all references accordingly. Alternatively, convert the
record to a Java object with different data elements,
DECLARE cust customer%ROWTYPE which can be stored in a table column.

Define a PL/SQL record type by enumerating the Declare each field as an individual variable and modify
fields with IS RECORD OF or TYPEIS RECORD all references accordingly. Alternatively, convert the
record to a Java object with is treated as an array.

Non-integer RETURN value in stored procedure Sybase ASE stored procedures can only return an
integer value.
Oracle stored procedures can return a scalar value of When a different datatypes is returned, rewrite by
any datatype. using an output parameter or rewrite with a SQL
function

User-defined Packages Translate packages to the individual objects that the


package consists of (stored procedures, data types,
etc.)

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Overloaded stored procedures Translate to a single stored procedures or split into


(multiple procedures with identical names but different separate stored procedures
parameter datatypes or different number of parameters)

PL/SQL Exception handling; defining exception Rewrite and perform checks on @@error and
handlers @@rowcount after every SQL statement.

EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN


-- handles 'division by zero' error
[]
EXCEPTION WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS
-- handle case that > 1 row affected
[]
EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND
-- handle case that no rows affected
[]
EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX
-- handle case for duplicate index key
[]
(etc other conditions exist

SQLCODE, SQLERRM Replace SQLCODE by @@error. ASE has no


equivalent of SQLERRM
Indicates the error status and error message text of the
most recently executed PL/SQL statement; used with DECLARE @rc INT, @err INT
the exception handling section
SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE id = 1234
EXCEPTION SELECT @rc = @@rowcount, @err = @@error
WHEN OTHERS THEN IF @err = 0
error_code := SQLCODE; BEGIN
error_msg := substr(SQLERRM, 1, 200); INSERT INTO
audit_table(err_no,err_msg)
INSERT INTO VALUES (@err, '');
audit_table(err_no,err_msg) END
VALUES (error_code, error_msg);
END;

RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR Recode with Sybase ASE functions such as


RAISERROR or PRINT immediately followed by a
In stored procedures, this also rolls back until the RETURN in stored procedures
implicit savepoint at the start of the procedure (or after
the last committed transaction in the procedure)

Column Encryption Rewrite with ASE column encryption

LOB locators Migrate to ASE 15.7, which supports LOB Locators

Data compression Migrate to ASE 15.7, which supports data


compression

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("partial rewrite")

DBMS_* package calls Recode with Sybase ASE features

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE PRINT

Retrieving data to the client in stored procedures using Replace by direct SELECT statement in the stored
DBMS_OUTPUT package procedure

SQL*Loader (sqlldr) Rewrite using the Sybase bcp utility.


Oracles high-speed data loader utility (only loading, no
unloading).

Global variables (in a PL/SQL package) Global variables are not supported; either pass all
variables around as parameters, or store such values in
a table and read/update that table as needed.
Alternatively, Java static classes can be used.

INTERSECT construct Rewrite as a join

SELECT a FROM tab1 WHERE b > 10 SELECT tab1.a FROM tab1, tab2
INTERSECT WHERE tab1.a = tab2.c
SELECT c FROM tab2 WHERE d = 0 AND tab1.b > 10 AND tab2.d = 0

MINUS construct Rewrite with NOT IN (single column) or NOT


EXISTS (multiple columns)
SELECT a,b,c FROM tab1 WHERE
MINUS SELECT a,b,c FROM tab1
SELECT d,e,f FROM tab2 WHERE WHERE NOT EXISTS
(SELECT * from tab2
WHERE tab2.d = tab1.a
AND tab2.e = tab1.b
AND tab2.f = tab1.c)

Specific SQL clauses Replace by corresponding Sybase ASE functionality, if


AS OF CROSS IGNORE available. Otherwise, rewriting the SQL is required.
AS OF TIMESTAMP CUBE ITERATE
CONNECT BY FOR NATURAL
DIMENSION KEEP NULLS
DIMENSION BY MAIN NULLS FIRST
EXCLUDE MODEL NULLS LAST
GROUPING SETS NAV ROLLUP
INCLUDE NOCYCLE SIBLINGS
MEASURES NOWAIT SINGLE
RETURN ALL ROWS ON REFERENCE
RETURN UPDATED ONLY LOCKED
ROWS RULES START WITH
PARTITION BY SAMPLE UNIQUE
REFERENCE SEED UNPIVOT
SYSTIMESTAMP SKIP WAIT

Capitalize first letter of all words in a string Rewrite with stored procedures or SQL functions
INITCAP( string-expression )

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("partial rewrite")

INSTR() function with three or four parameters Create a SQL function to perform the advanced
(3=start position, 4=nth occurrence) searches.
Note that charindex() accepts a 3rd paramter in
SELECT INSTR('abcabc', 'ab', 2) ASE 15.7, but this cannot have a negative value (for
SELECT INSTR('abcabcabc', 'ab', 2, 2)
backward search) as is allowed in Oracle

NVL2() function Convert to a CASE expression

SELECT NVL2(salary,salary*2,0) FROM SELECT CASE WHEN salary = NULL THEN 0


ELSE salary * 2 END FROM

DECODE() function Convert to a CASE expression


Used to evaluate with if-else type logic

SELECT SELECT
DECODE(T1.C1, 'ABC', case T1.C1
T1.C2, when 'ABC' then T2.C2 else T3.C3
T1.C3) as P_ID end as P_ID
FROM T1 FROM T1

Primary key and foreign key with different datatypes, Unlike Oracle, ASE requires that a foreign key and
different precision/scale (for numeric datatypes) or primary key have identical datatypes. Modify the
different length (for character datatypes) datatypes accordingly.

Cluster (as created with CREATE CLUSTER) Change the data model to use individual tables;
consider using views to avoid making changes to
existing SQL code

VARCHAR2 variables longer than 16384 bytes The maximum length of string variables is 16384
bytes; rewrite code using longer string variables with
LOB variables or LOB locators in ASE 15.7
DECLARE msg VARCHAR2(32767)
(for columns, VARCHAR2 cannot be longer than 4000
bytes)

SQL functions where the last statement is not ASE requires that a SQL function has RETURN as its
RETURN last statement. This may require some re-coding of the
flow control.

Derived tables (also known as "inline views") using Rewrite with ASE derived table syntax
"with" syntax

with x as (select b as a, d as b from mytab)


select a from x where b > 0

UNIONs in cursors A cursor with a UNION cannot be updatable in ASE;


such code may need to be rewritten.

PRAGMA directives Rewrite with ASE syntax/functionality.

ON DELETE CASCADE constraints Rewrite with ASE triggers

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XMLTYPE Rewrite with TEXT, IMAGE or VARCHAR


XML functions extract(), existsnode(), xmlexists(), etc datatatypes and with ASE functions xmlextract(),
xmltable(), etc.

ROWID A similar effect can be achieved by add an identity


column to each table, and name the column
An Oracle table always contains a ROWID column
"ROWID".
with a unique identifier for each row, even if no
primary key was defined for the table. There can be only one identity column per table. If
there is already an identity column for the primary
key, for example to replace an Oracle sequence, add a
virtual computed column named "ROWID", equal to
the identify column. This method can also be used
when existing Oracle code uses a different spelling,
like "rowid":
CREATE TABLE mytab
(ROWID NUMERIC IDENTITY, rowid AS
ROWID,
other columns)

ROWNUM When the objective is to select the top N rows, this


can be achieved with select top N from
For each row returned by a query, the ROWNUM
pseudocolumn returns a number indicating the order of When more complex selections are done (e.g. only get
the row in the result set. This can be used in queries, rows 10-20) , the an identity column (which should
for example to select only a subset of the result set. probably be named "ROWNUM") can be added to
the result set with the identity() function, which
assigns a sequence number to every row in the result
SELECT * FROM emp set. This column can then be used in queries. Note
WHERE state = 'CA' that this requires one extra query step:
AND ROWNUM > 9 AND ROWNUM < 21
ORDER BY last_name; SELECT *, ROWNUM=identity(int)
INTO #t FROM emp
WHERE state = 'CA'
ORDER BY last_name
SELECT <all columns except ROWNUM>
FROM #t
WHERE ROWNUM > 9 AND ROWNUM < 21

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11.3 Oracle-to-Sybase ASE migration: category "Major Rewrite"


For the Oracle features listed below, no direct equivalent is available in Sybase ASE. Consequently, rewriting or
redesigning algorithms or parts of applications will be required.

Oracle Sybase ASE ("major rewrite")

Oracle MVCC (Multi-Version Concurrency Control; No direct equivalent of MVCC. Some aspects may be
"writers dont block readers, readers don't block addressed by using DATAROWS locking, using the
writers") READPAST option., or running SELECT queries at
Relevant aspects: isolation level 0 (READ UNCOMMITTED).
For other cases, the application may need to be
Applications or queries relying on non-
modified, for example by keeping transactions as short
blocking MVCC
as possible.
Long-running transactions See section 8 for details.
DDL in transactions
SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY
SQL*Plus autocommit/commit-on-exit

SQL*Plus The Sybase ASE counterpart for SQL*Plus is the


isql utility. SQL*Plus allows for more complex
configuration settings and SQL*Plus-specific (i.e.
non-PL/SQL) client-side commands inside
SQL*Plus. Existing SQL*Plus-based functionality
must be rewritten for ASE.

BEFORE triggers No direct equivalent. Some aspects of the


functionality (like domain integrity) may be covered by
rules or CHECK constraints at the table definition level;
however an Oracle BEFORE trigger can perform far
more complex processing than can be handled by
rules or constraints. If this functionality cannot be
implemented with Sybase ASE "after" triggers, the
application may need to be changed to apply the
functionality in a different way.

Triggers on row level (BEFORE and AFTER) No direct equivalent; see BEFORE triggers above.

Multiple triggers for a DML type on a table No direct equivalent; if the functionality cannot be
consolidated in a single ASE trigger, the application
may need to be changed to apply the functionality in a
different way.

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Oracle Sybase ASE ("major rewrite")

Materialized Views No direct equivalent. Insofar Oracle uses materialized


views for one-way replication via dblink connections
and updateable materialized views for two-way
replication.
Sybase Replication Server may be used to implement
such replication needs outside Sybase ASE.

REF CURSOR No direct equivalent. In ASE, REF CURSORs need


to be rewritten, for example by rewriting all stored
procedures involved, or by putting query results in
(temporary) tables and let the different stored
procedures access these. Also see section 9.1.

Windowing queries (SELECTOVER() ) No equivalent in Sybase ASE. Rewrite with classic


SELECT name, salary, ASE features, possibly requiring breaking up a query
NTILE(4) OVER (ORDER BY salary DESC) in multiple steps. Alternatively. Use Sybase IQ which
AS quartile does support windowing queries as well as many
FROM emp analytic functions.
WHERE dept_id = 123;

SQL function OUT/IN OUT parameters Sybase ASE supports only input parameters for SQL
functions. If output parameters are used, rewrite with
stored procedures

Non-deterministic SQL Functions (functions whose Sybase ASE supports only deterministic SQL
result may be independent of the function input functions. DML, DDL, procedure calls, execute-
parameters) immediate, certain function calls and utility
commands are not allowed in a SQL function.
If these occur in an Oracle SQL Function, rewrite
with ASE stored procedures

SQL Aggregate Functions No direct equivalent. Rewrite using available ASE


features.
CREATE FUNCTION f_aggr (p NUMBER)
RETURN NUMBER
AGGREGATE USING object-type;

BFILE datatype No direct equivalent


A BFILE column stores a locator (link) to a binary file
outside of the database

Oracle Streams; Oracle Data Guard Use Sybase Replication Server.

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Oracle RAC for high-availability Use Sybase ASE Cluster Edition

Oracle Flashback No direct equivalent. Some aspects may be covered by


using the ASE "auditing" feature, by using ASE
"archive databases", and by using the until_time
option when loading a transaction log dump.
For other cases, old data values can be retained by
means of triggers.

Oracle flashback-related pseudocolumns See "Oracle Flashback" above


ORA_ROWSCN, VERSION_XID,
VERSION_STARTSCN, VERSION_ENDSCN,
VERSION_STARTTIME, VERSION_ENDTIME,
VERSION_OPERATION

Oracle SQL Plan Management Some aspects are covered by abstract query plan
association ('abstract plan load') as well as by the
Stores and maintains query plans to support the query
QPTune utility. However, ASE does not support
optimizer to make better decisions: every time a query
automatic evaluation of newly generated plans versus
gets executed, the query optimizer compares the
captured past plans.
current query plan with the stored query plan and
chooses the better plan automatically.
(for DBA/tuning purposes, not affecting application
query syntax)

AWR (Automatic Workload Repository) Query metrics are captured in ASE's


Stores every query with corresponding performance sysquerymetrics with the 'metrics capture'
indicators and metrics in a repository, allowing feature, or through the MDA tables.
identifying the top poorly performing queries ASE does not support automatic actions based on
automatically (for which query plans managed by captured data
Oracle SQL Plan Management will be used when the
query are being executed again)
(for DBA/tuning purposes, not affecting application
query syntax)

Oracle Advanced Queuing Similar concept as ASE's Real-Time Messaging


Service (RTMS), which allows direct interfacing from
SQL with message bus products like Tibco and MQ
Series.

Packages for PL/SQL web access No equivalent. Custom implementation in ASE


required.
OWA_CUSTOM, OWA_CX, OWA_OPT_LOCK,
OWA_SEC, OWA_TEXT, OWA_UTIL

Oracle Forms Rewrite with Sybase PowerBuilder. See section 9.2.

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CONTACT INFORMATION

For Europe, Middle East,


or Africa inquiries:
+(31) 34 658 2999

For Asia-Pacific inquiries:


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For Latin America inquiries:


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Copyright 2011 Sybase, Inc. All rights reserved. Unpublished rights reserved under U.S.
copyright laws. Sybase, and the Sybase logo are trademarks of Sybase, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. indicates registration in the
United States. Specifications are subject to change without notice.

Oracle-to-Sybase Migration Cross-Reference 66