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Microscopes functions, parts, various types.

Submitted by: Al-Amir H. Ladja

Level 2 B.S. Nursing

Submitted to: sir. Fahd shuck

Clinical instructor

1.EYE PIECE Contains a magnifying lens that focus the
image from the objective into your eye.

2.OBSERVATION TUBE Supports the eyepiece.

3.NECK or ARM For supporting the observation tube that

holds the eye piece. As well as nosepiece and
objective lens
5.COURSE ADJUST for focusing under low magnification.

7.LIGHT ADJUST Illuminates the specimen for viewing.

8.IRIS DIAPHRAGM Regulates the amount of light and contrast.

9.CONDENSER LENS Collects and focuses light on the material.

10.STAGE Supports specimen in correct location to


11.OBJECTIVE LENS Lenses which are close to the sample, in most

of the cases there are 3-5 objective lenses in
range between 4X-100X.
12.NOSE PIECE For switching the objective lens.

13.BASE Mechanisms that keeps all parts together.

14.TURRET Rotating part where the objective objective

lens are installed.
15.FOCUS KNOBS Two of them, for course and fine adjustment

16.ILLUMINATOR Light source for a microscope.

Various types of microscopes and their

Name of the microscopes Description
1.simple microscope These microscopes use visible light (or UV
light in case of flourescence microscopy) to
make an image. The light is refracted with
optical lenses.
2.compound microscope These microscopes are composed of two lens
system, an objective and an ocular (eye piece).
The maximum useful of magnification of a
compound microscope is about 1000x.
3.stereo microscope These microscopes magnify up to about
maximum 100x and supply a 3-dimensional
view of the specimen. They are useful for
observing opaque objects.
4.confocal laser scanning microscopes These device are reserve for research
organizations. They are able to scan a sample
also in depth. A computer is then able to
assemble the data to make a 3D image.
5.X-ray microscopes Microscopes that uses a beam of x-rays to
create an image. Due to the small wavelength,
the image resolution is higher than in optical
microscopes. The maximum useful
magnification is therefore also higher and is
between the optical microscopes and electron
microscopes. One of the advantage of x-ray
microscopes over electron microscopes is, that
it is possible to observe living cells.
6.scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) These devices use focused sound waves to
generate an image. It is used in materials
science to detect small cracks or tensions in
materials. SAMs can also be used in biology
where they help to uncover tensions, stress and
elasticity inside biological structure.
7.scanning helium ion microscope (SHIM or As the name suggests, these devices use a
HeIM) beam of helium ions to generate an image.
There are several advantages to electron
microscopes, one being that a simple is left
mostly intact (due to the low energy
requirements) and that it provides a high

8.neutron microscope It has a high resolution and may offer better

contrast than other forms of microscopes.
9.electron microscope Magnify up to 2 million times. This is possible
because the wavelength of the high energy
electrons is very small.
10.transmission electron microscopy (TEM) In this case the electron beam is passed tough
the sample. The result is a two dimensional
11.scanning electron microscope (SEM) The electron beam is projected on the sample.
The electrons do not go through the sample but
bounce off. This way it is possible to visualize
the surface structure of the specimen. The
image appears 3 dimensional.
12.scanning probe microscope Possible to visualize individual atoms with
these microscopes. The image of the atom is
computer generated, however. A small tip
measures the surface structure of the sample by
rastering over the surface. If an atom projects
out of the surface, then a higher electrical
current will flow through the tip. The amount
of current is proportional to the height of the
structure. A computer will the assemble the
position data of the tip and the current to
generate an image.