14 vues

Transféré par iraqi-eng

Research on Capacity of Roundabouts in Beijing

- RA055B Ppr Kaub
- Iloilo City Regulation Ordinance 2017-128
- Saudi-Arabia-Road-Traffic-Signs.pdf
- Lecture12 and 13 - Analysis Unsignalized Intersection.ppt
- US Army: FSH%20Running%20Policy
- Drive Test
- Guide at Grade Intersections at(JKR)
- 10-5-10 Project Advisory Commitee I-91 Exit 19 Improvements
- RULES OF THE ROAD
- Survey
- Managing Stress
- TUTORIAL Unsignalised 2017
- British Road Signs
- California Driver Handbook
- Fadi.docx
- Horizontal Positioning Methods
- VP0629
- TABLE of CONTENT Technical Report
- Jual GPS Geodetic Trimble R3
- bicycle safety smithjustin

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

com

Changsha, China, August 13, 2012

Weiqi Wanga, *, Xiaokuan Yangb

Weiqi Wang a, Graduate Student, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing and 100124, China

Xiaokuan Yang b, Ph.D. Beijing University of Technology, Beijing and 100124, China

Abstract

Weaving section have b1een shown to have an effect on capacity at roundabout approaches, because at weaving

sections conflict and interference increases, resulting in a reduction of speed. The weaving section is the bottleneck of

the traffic flow. Therefore, it should be given the highest priority in the capacity analysis. The current method of

calculating the approach capacity at a roundabout mainly utilizes information about entry and exiting vehicles. Few

studies are currently conducted from view of the weaving section in capacity estimation. The purpose of this research

is to estimate the capacity of roundabout by modeling weaving gap acceptance at the weaving sections. For this

reason, a total of 21 roundabouts which are located at the downtown and the suburb of Beijing are selected to conduct

data collection. Significance analysis of speed at weaving sections has been conducted by means of the variance

analytic method. Regression models of the entry vehicles and circulating vehicles are built up. Based on gap

acceptance theory a new method is proposed to estimate the capacity of roundabouts. Furthermore, the relationship

between the left turn and through movements on the capacity of roundabouts is established. The findings from this

research demonstrate that capacity estimates with weaving section vehicles result in improved prediction of the actual

capacity of a roundabout. Furthermore, the geometrical design of roundabout is another important factor which

influence the capacity of roundabout, needs to be further explored.

2012 Published

2012 PublishedbybyElsevier

ElsevierB.V.

Ltd.Selection

Selection and peer

and/or peer-review underresponsibility

review under responsibilityofof Beijing

Beijing Jiaotong

Jiaotong

University [BJU], Systems

(BJU) and Engineering

Systems Society

Engineering of China

Society (SESC)

of China (SESC).

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: (8610) 6739-1678; Fax: (8610) 6739-2991.

E-mail address: koalaweiqi@163.com.

1877-0428 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Beijing Jiaotong University [BJU], Systems

Engineering Society of China (SESC) Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.088

158 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

1. Introduction

Roundabouts have been widely accepted and used in countries for decades. A roundabout is a form of

intersection design and control that accommodates traffic flow in one direction around a central island.

Compared to uncontrolled intersection, roundabout can reduce speed as well as number of conflict points

because of the geometrical design. The overall delay will probably be less than that for signalized

intersection. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of roundabouts as an intersection control

alternative in the city of Beijing.

The objective of this study is to estimate the capacity of roundabout by modeling weaving gap

acceptance at the weaving sections. This paper does a careful analysis of the weaving section on capacity

of roundabout. Besides, data collection has been conducted at 21 roundabouts of Beijing. Video cameras

are used to help to collect data and Autoscope device is used to do data reduction. Regression analysis has

been made to calculate the relationship between the circulating flow and the entry flow. On the basis of

the previous practice, this article obtains experiential formulas from certain reference in which capacity of

weaving segment is introduced. Hopefully, this study will provide valuable support for capacity

estimation of a roundabout.

Significant study has been done to develop methodologies to evaluate the functional performance of

roundabouts. The significance of this research is to evaluate the capacity of roundabout as an intersection

control alternative in Beijing. Roundabouts can be a good replacement for all-way stop control where

traffic volume are high, because priority is assigned to circulating traffic and yield-at-entry control allows

vehicles to enter without stopping when gaps are available. Capacity models for the weaving sections

using gap acceptance theory and regression analysis techniques are developed in this paper. Capacity is a

useful indicators used by most countries to assess roundabout performance.

2. Literature review

The roundabout concept was first introduced in early 1900s and deployed throughout Europe and

America. The first concept of gyratory operation was invented by Eugene Henard (1903), where all the

traffic would be required to circulate in one direction. The gyratory operational concept, or circus,

continued to spread and was frequently recommended for busy intersections of more than four legs.

Design was based solely on commonsense and experience at that time. The first use of the word

Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168 159

roundabout appeared in the Ministry of Transport. Knight and Beddington (1936) suggested an

adaptation to a circular central island, since better performance had been observed. In the US, the first

design guideline for a roundabout (called rotary) was published in 1942 by the American Association of

State Highway Officials (AASHO). A rotary was defined as an intersection where all traffic merges into

and emerges from a one-way road around a central island. The general concept was that large radii gave

long weaving sections, on which both high speeds and high capacities could be maintained.

Fundamentally, three methodologies can be used to assess the capacity of roundabouts. These three

methodologies are: interweave theory model, gap acceptance theory, and regression analysis theory. For

the interweave theory model, Wardrop(1973) formula is considered to be a typical representative of this

model. Based on the weaving theory, the model of capacity on weaving segment is established to reflect

the capacity of roundabouts. However, with the development of the off-side priority rule, this formula has

no theoretical foundation. Prior to the rule, conventional roundabouts performed as a weaving section

between two streams: circulating and entering flows. With the new rule, entering traffic now has to give

way to circulating traffic and enter when accepted gaps are available. The operational basis is measured

by the number of vehicles entering the roundabout. Capacity is measured in terms of the entry capacity,

rather than of weaving section capacity. Because drivers enter the roundabout only when the gap in the

circulating traffic is large enough, the capacity of the roundabout will depend primarily on the circulating

flow and the availability of gaps. For the gap acceptance theory, Tanner (1997) formula is considered to

be a typical representative of this model. Based on the gap acceptance theory, it calculates the capacity of

roundabouts by utilizing information about entry vehicles mainly. Later, there are some modified models.

Hagring (2001) analyzed the influence of mixed circulating and exiting flow on the capacity of entering

flow. Troutbeck (1992) analyzed the limited priority merging at non-signalized intersections. DENG W,

MENG Y P, GE L (2005), made a contrastive analysis for two roadways uncontrolled intersection of

capacity by motorcade analysis method. Allsop (2001) raised the definition of the reserve capacity, that is

a new calculation method of capacity of roundabout--settled proportion interweave section volume

restrict method, and then applied in non-signalized intersections (1996). Based on this method, the

capacity of roundabouts is the sum of the entry capacity in all directions. For the third model, based on

macro data, the capacity of the roundabout will depend on the circulating flow and the entry flow. Kinber

(1989) conducted a research study on using a multiple linear regression method to derive the relationship

between the circulating flow and the entry flow. The dependence of entry capacity on circulating flow is

known as the entry/circulating flow relationship, and depends on the drivers interaction and roundabout

geometry.

The Highway Capacity Manual 2000 (2000) provides some findings about the capacity of the entry

flow when buses pull in the circulating flow. The effort of weaving section is not taken into account or

simply not considered by the HCM.

In summary, based on the literature review, there has been a good deal of research on the capacity of

roundabouts utilizing information about entry and exiting vehicles. However, little research specifically

focusing on the weaving section is found in capacity estimation.

The purpose of this study is to develop a model to estimate the capacity of roundabouts by modeling

weaving gap acceptance at the weaving sections. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to set up the

relationship between the capacity of weaving section and the critical gap of circulating flow. In addition,

a regression analysis is conducted to identify if the entry flow and the circulating flow be used to describe

the relationship between the saturation flow rate at weaving section and the actual capacity of a

roundabout. Furthermore, the model is also used to prove that under the ideal conditions, the proportion

160 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

4. Methodology

The priority stream, or major stream, is defined in this study stream of movement that can pass the

roundabout without delay. This is usually assumed to be the circulating stream of movement for

roundabouts. The minor stream is the stream of movement that can only enter the conflict area if the next

major stream vehicle leaves enough gap for passing. Thus, the capacity of the roundabout depends

primarily on the circulating flow and the availability of gaps. Since the entry stream of movement

decreases if the circulating flow increases, because there are fewer gaps for vehicles entering roundabout.

Therefore, the addition of each entry capacity should not be considered equivalent to the capacity of

roundabouts.

This paper used the concepts of reserve capacity to create a new method to calculating the capacity of

roundabouts. The substance of this concept is that when the stream of vehicles at the weaving section

achieves the capacity and becomes the bottleneck of the roundabout, the sum of all flows at weaving

sections in all directions is the capacity of roundabouts. On the basis of the primary thought and

conception of reserve capacity, the following two steps have been taken in this study:

z Based on Californias Roundabout Design Guideline, roundabouts can be classified into six types with

differing applications.

z Normal Roundabout: a roundabout with a one-way circulating roadway around a curbed central island

4 m or more in diameter.

z Mini or Small Roundabout: a roundabout with a one-way circulating roadway around a flush or

slightly raised circular island less than 4 m in diameter.

z Double Roundabout: a single intersection with two normal or mini-roundabouts either contiguous or

connected by a central link road or curbed island.

z Ring Junction: a two-way circular ring road which is accessed by external spoke road by way of 3-leg

mini-roundabout or T-intersections.

z Roundabout Interchange: an interchange with one or more roundabouts. The most common types area

freeway passing over or under one large roundabout which is joined by ramps and the cross street, and

a roundabout at the ramps intersection with the cross street.

z Signalized Roundabout: A roundabout in which traffic signals regulate one or more of the entries.

This paper mainly aims at the normal roundabouts. A total of 21 roundabouts were selected in Beijing

for data collection. Still, model building calls for careful investigation into the eight of them. The selected

roundabouts should satisfy the following conditions in the selection of candidates. First, there should be

an area where a digital video camera can be mounted to tape the entire roundabout and the weaving

section. Second, the selected roundabouts should meet the demand of large and heavy traffic, but with no

congestion or any incident occurring at the roundabout. The selected roundabouts to be surveyed are

shown in Figure 2.

A gap acceptance theory is a more appropriate tool. An advantage of this method is that the gap

acceptance technique offers a logical basis for the evaluation of capacity. Secondly, it is easy to

appreciate the meaning of the parameters used and to make adjustments for unusual conditions. Moreover,

Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168 161

gap acceptance conceptually relates traffic interactions at roundabouts with the availability of gap in the

traffic streams.

The capacity of weaving section is defined as the volume that entry stream vehicle could merge into

the weaving sections per unit time and the circulating stream vehicle at the weaving sections combined.

All the investigated roundabouts have locations or spots (pedestrian overpasses or high-rise buildings

nearby) to allow the surveyors to install video camera. The distance from the installed digital video

cameras to the roundabouts ranges from 25 to 35 meters. Locations of these roundabouts are in urban

areas where there are relatively high volumes of traffic on the roads but no congestion at the roundabout.

In addition to the digital video cameras, radar gun is also used.

Generally, each site needs three people to complete task. At first, the operation and performance of

vehicles can be videotaped to researchers to learn from repeatedly. The second is responsible for velocity

measurement. Third, surveyors use the laser meter to measure geometrics of roundabouts and takes

photos. Volumes are counted in the lab using Autoscope. Normally, surveys are conducted during peak

hours. The length of each survey time lasts five or six hours each day and each site requires 2 to 3 times

of survey depending on the conditions and quality of the survey. When adverse weather conditions such

as rainstorm, the survey is postponed to another day. Based on field observations of traffic features and

on-scene survey of operating speed, a large number of fundamental data is acquired to calibrate the

model.

By using the radar guns, we can get the speed of entry flow and the speed of circulating flow.

Regression analysis has been applied to determine the relationship between them. The time interval for

analysis is 15 seconds. Taking one roundabouts for example, it is: Yingbin roundabout. The relationship

between the speed of entry flow and circulating flow are illustrated from Figure 3.

162 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

From these figures, it is evident that at weaving sections when the paths of two or more traffic streams

cross in the same general direction, conflict and interference increase rapidly. This situation results in a

reduction of speed. By conducting significance test, the difference between the speed of entry flow and

circulating flow is statistically significant. As the classic adjacent exits and entrances, weaving sections

are the bottleneck of roundabouts and the keystone and difficulty of traffic study. Therefore, it is

necessary to study the weaving sections. The method of estimating the capacity of roundabouts by

modeling weaving gap acceptance at the weaving sections in the research is proved to be feasible.

Time (s) V1 V2 V3

0 39 29 37

15 24 19 31 The roundabout of Yingbin

30 25 30 30

45 30 29 31 V1= the speed of vehicles which enter into

60 33 19 32 the circulating flow, km/h

75 15 25 30 V2= the speed of vehicles which drive out

90 20 30 36 of the circulating flow, km/h

105 21 27 29 V3= the speed of entry flow, km/h

120 23 22 44

135 26 25 45

150 30 25 38

165 19 29 39

180 15 25 35

195 25 24 34

210 29 16 29

225 24 20 30

240 25 31 30

255 20 22 29

270 15 26 40

285 19 21 45

Fig. 3. Relationship Between The Speed of The Entry Flow and The Circulating Flow at The Roundabout of Yingbin

Assumptions

z The formula analyzed the delays at an intersection of two streams in which the major stream have

priority.

z Th

The minor stream vehicle (the entry stream vehicle) enters when any available gap is greater than

(Critical gap) seconds. If the chosen gap is largee eenough, several minor streams vehicles then follow

each other through the intersection at intervals of (Follow-up time) seconds.

(1) The roundabout has a one-way circulating roadway and the headway follows shifted negative

exponential distribution.

The probability density functions of the negative exponential distribution:

P ( h ! t ) e O ( t t )

m

(1)

where

t = headway and is greater than zero, s,

tm= Minimum headway of the circulating flow in second, the general value of 1.0-1.5 seconds of

relatively well, s,

O = the average rate of flow within a period of time.

Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168 163

qe qtc / 3600 (2)

Ce qt f / 3600

1 e

where

Ce = Entering Capacity (veh/h),

q = Circulating flow (veh/h),

tc = Critical gap of the circulating flow, s,

tf = Follow-up time of the entry flow, s.

The capacity of the weaving section would then be

Cw Ce q (3)

where cw = the capacity of the weaving section, (veh/h).

(2) The relationship between the roundabout geometry and the circulating flow

The curvature radius is no doubt a major factor in the geometrical design. First, the definition of the

saturated state of roundabout is first propounded. That is, in the roundabout the headway of the traffic

flow is the critical gap, and vehicles can quickly adjust themselves to changes in headway to maintain this

condition. The saturated state of roundabout is indicated in Figure 4, the green cars are the through

movements, the red cars are the right-turn vehicles, and the pink cars are the left-turn vehicles. Then in an

ideal world, the analytical computation formula is obtained as follows:

n(Vt c L) 2SR (4)

where

n = the number of the critical gap in the circle line,

V = the speed of the circulating flow under saturated condition (km/h),

tc = Critical gap of the circulating flow, s,

L = the length of the standard car ( m),

R = the radius of the roundabout (m).

164 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

The relationship between the circulating flow and the radius of the roundabout would then be

q 3600 (5)

tc

Drawn from the formula above, the circulating flow can be described as follows:

2SR

q E (6)

Vtc L

where q= Circulating flow (veh/h), =a model parameter.

From the above indication, it is clear that in order to calculate the capacity more accurately, it proposed

an ideal state of roundaboutssaturated-to-be. In this state, the relationship between the geometric

conditions and the traffic conditions presents in (6) preliminary. A linear equation is established according

to this result. The next step is to discuss about this equation in common circumstances, and extract the

parameters by reading the videos after the field survey.

When the stream of vehicles in one of the weaving sections achieves the capacity and becomes the

bottleneck of the roundabout, the sum of vehicles in all weaving sections is the capacity of roundabouts.

When a roundabout is completely symmetrical, with exclusive right-turn lanes, it is assumed that X, Y,

Z, W are the entry stream flows, respectively. The area between the entry X and the entry Y is the

weaving section I, going clockwise, and so on.

X 13 X 14 X 32 X 42 X 43 d CW

X 21 X 24 X 13 X 43 X 14 d CW

X 31 X 32 X 14 X 24 X 21 d CW

X 42 X 43 X 31 X 21 X 32 d CW

where

Xij = the vehicle flux from i to j.

Cw = the capacity of the weaving section.

If the proportion of right turn and turn left movements in each entry is equal. The amount of traffic in

Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168 165

4CW (7)

Q X Y Z W

2 S 3L

where

S= the proportion of through movements

L= the proportion of turn left, S+L<1

Then

C w1 X 13 X 14 X 32 X 42 X 43 (8)

C w2 0

C w3 X 31 X 24 X 21 (9)

C w4 0

where

Cwi = the vehicles across the weaving section i only

C C w1 C w3 X 13 X 14 X 21 X 24 X 31 X 32 X 42 X 43

S L X Y Z W

S LQ

Assuming the roundabout is completely symmetrical, and the proportion of turn-left vehicles is equal

to that of the turn-right vehicles. When the entry vehicle is equivalent in all directions, then:

2S L (10)

CW 3 CW 1

2 S 3L

4S L (11)

C CW 1 CW 3 CW 1

2 S 3L

Drawn from the listed formula, it can be concluded from the results that the decrease of the capacity of

the roundabout is great when the proportion of the left turn vehicles increases. By the same token, it

increases as the proportion of through movement vehicles rises. Consequently, compared with the through

movement vehicles, the left turn vehicles are proved to have an important influence on the capacity of

roundabouts.

(2) The critical gap and follow-up time of roundabouts

The Highway Capacity Manual 2000 provides a certain range of critical gap and follow-up time to

estimate the approach capacity of roundabouts. The recommended range is shown in Table 1.

The upper limit 4.1 2.6

The lower limit 4.6 3.1

Based on the recommended values for critical gap and follow-up time, when the circulating flow

ranges from 100 (veh/h) to 1200 (veh/h), the capacity of the weaving section can be obtained (as shown in

Table 2), by applying equation (2). The relationship curves between the circulating flow and the entry

capacity are plotted by using the upper limit and lower limit of the critical gap and follow-up time as

shown in Fig. 6. If the left turn vehicles and right turn vehicles are in equilibrium in proportion, the

capacity of the roundabout and the weaving section under different vehicles in proportion that can be

calculated.

166 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

The entering capacity The capacity of the weaving section

Ce (veh/h) Cw (veh/h)

The circulating flow

q(veh/h) tc = 4.1 s tc = 4.6 s tc = 4.1 s tc = 4.6 s

tf = 2.6 s tf = 3.1 s tf = 2.6 s tf = 3.1 s

100 1280 1066 1380 1166

200 1184 979 1384 1179

300 1094 898 1394 1198

400 1010 823 1410 1223

500 933 754 1433 1254

600 861 690 1461 1290

700 794 632 1494 1332

800 732 578 1532 1378

900 675 528 1575 1428

1000 622 482 1622 1482

1100 573 440 1673 1540

1200 527 402 1727 1602

Fig.6.. Relationship between the circulating flow and the entering capacity

From these figures, it would seem that the entry capacity decreases if the circulating flow increases,

because when the circulating flow increases, there are fewer gaps for entering drivers. Therefore, the

capacity of roundabouts should not be measured mainly in terms of the entry capacity rather than of

weaving section capacity.

From the analysis of the weaving section on the capacity of roundabouts it is concluded that the

weaving section has significant impact on capacity of roundabouts. A total of 21 roundabouts were

Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168 167

selected to conduct data collection to help determine the quantitative impact of weaving sections on

capacity. Regression analysis has been implemented to obtain relationships between the entry flow and

the circulating flow. By drawing trend lines it was found that at weaving sections conflict and interference

increases rapidly. This situation results in a reduction of speed.

Thus it is necessary to study the weaving section and the method of estimating the capacity of

roundabouts by modeling weaving gap acceptance at the weaving sections is proved to be feasible. This

study is preliminary and leaves much to be desired. However, the results from this study can help traffic

management agencies to be aware of the impact of weaving sections on the research of roundabouts as a

whole. For this reason the further study should be focused on the following aspects.

z The validation research should be made on the model to discussing about this model in common

circumstances and extracting parameters from videos, also the interference from non-motor vehicle

should be taken into account in modeling of the capacity of the weaving section.

z The capacity formula is suggested for a single lane, and completely symmetrical roundabout. For

multilane roundabouts, it still requires further study.

z The variation of drivers behavior and roundabout geometry is important in the capacity of

roundabouts. In further studies the influence of different geometric elements, such as the number of travel

lanes in the circle, should be identified.

z More locations of roundabouts should be included in the data collection to make models more robust

References

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ( AASHTO). (1990). A Policy on

Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.

motorcade analysis method. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. Vol. 22,

No. 12, pp. 119-122.

Libraries-Imprimeries Reunies, Paris, 1903-1908. New Edition: dEquerre, Paris (1982).

Hagring, O. ( 2001). Derivation of Capacity Equation for Roundabout Entry with Mixed and Circulating

and Exiting Flows, Transportation Research Record 1776, Transportation Research Board, Washington,

D.C. , pp. 91-99.

Kimber, R.M. (1989). Gap-Acceptance and Empiricism in Capacity Prediction, Transportation Science,

Vol. 23, No. 2.

Murgatroyd, B. (1973). An Investigation into the Practical Capacity of Roundabout Weaving Sections,

The Highway Engineer, London, Industrial Newspapers, Ltd.March, pp 6-13.

Todd and Kenneth. (1991). A history of roundabouts in Britain, Transportation Quarterly Westport CT.,

Eno foundation for Transportation Inc. Vol.45, NO.1.

Tian, Z. Vandehey, M. Robinson, B. Kittelson, W. Kyte, M. Troutbeck, R. and Brilon, W. (1997).

Implementing the Maximum Likelihood Methodology to Measure Drivers Critical Gap, Proceedings of

the Third International Symposium on Intersections Without Traffic Signals, Portland, Oregon, pp.

268-73.

168 Weiqi Wang and Xiaokuan Yang / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 157 168

Troutbeck, R. J.(1992). Estimating the critical gap acceptance from traffic movements. Physical

Infrastructure centre. Research 92-5, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

TAN Jian-an.( 2001). Comparison of capacity between roundabout design and signalised junction design.

1st Swiss Transport Research Conference.

Transportation Research Board. (2000). Highway Capacity Manual 2000. National Research Council.

Washington, D.C.

Wong, S. C. (1996). On the reserve capacities of priority junctions and roundabouts. Transpn Res.-B,

Vol.30, No.6, pp.441-453.

- RA055B Ppr KaubTransféré parOso Oso
- Iloilo City Regulation Ordinance 2017-128Transféré parIloilo City Council
- Saudi-Arabia-Road-Traffic-Signs.pdfTransféré parmoonstar_dme
- Lecture12 and 13 - Analysis Unsignalized Intersection.pptTransféré parSai Kumar
- US Army: FSH%20Running%20PolicyTransféré parArmy
- Drive TestTransféré parjoseph.maquez24
- Guide at Grade Intersections at(JKR)Transféré parfarahazura
- 10-5-10 Project Advisory Commitee I-91 Exit 19 ImprovementsTransféré parOwenFD
- RULES OF THE ROADTransféré parupandown203
- SurveyTransféré parsushan
- Managing StressTransféré parAbdul Sattar
- TUTORIAL Unsignalised 2017Transféré parNur Hazirah Sadon
- British Road SignsTransféré parKen Roberts
- California Driver HandbookTransféré parspadak23
- Fadi.docxTransféré parAljun Tagaloguin Sarmiento
- Horizontal Positioning MethodsTransféré parIbnu Dwi Artanto
- VP0629Transféré parAnonymous 9eadjPSJNg
- TABLE of CONTENT Technical ReportTransféré parfarris adlin
- Jual GPS Geodetic Trimble R3Transféré pariksan
- bicycle safety smithjustinTransféré parapi-393552726
- ZZZ HaulageSafetyTransféré parSatish Pandey
- AICTE B.Planning SyllabusTransféré parsmdeshkar
- BIKETransféré parLatesha Gonzales
- 13_BirchTransféré parJuan Macedo
- GBO_007_E1_1 GSM Summary of Radio Network Planning-34Transféré parClive Mangwiro
- GPS%20Mobile%20Probes%20Fact%20SheetTransféré parhechacker1
- bicycle safety vanwagenen laurenTransféré parapi-393891500
- March 2018 XYHT Magazine Savana-Sabula Bridge ProjectTransféré parLauren Jones
- Emirates Driving Company Info (3)Transféré parzahichaar
- nullTransféré parM-NCPPC

- مشروع تخرج - تصميم بناية يدوياTransféré parWalif Dababat
- Expansive Soils ThesisTransféré pariraqi-eng
- ANSYS كتابTransféré pariraqi-eng
- المدونة العراقية للخرسانة الإنشائية-304-2011Transféré parmmalani09
- المدونة العراقية للخرسانة الإنشائية-304-2011Transféré parmmalani09
- Ibrahim a. Mirsal Auth. Soil Pollution Origin, Monitoring & RemediationTransféré pariraqi-eng
- Ibrahim a. Mirsal Auth. Soil Pollution Origin, Monitoring & RemediationTransféré pariraqi-eng
- Concrete column Design Flow ChartsTransféré parayoub bahmani k
- كورس حسن قنديلTransféré pariraqi-eng
- DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR DETERMINING THE CONTRIBUTION OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTTransféré pariraqi-eng
- A1-00(2010) Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Tee RailsTransféré pariraqi-eng
- A case study on multi lane roundabouts under congestion Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data.pdfTransféré pariraqi-eng
- A Case Study on Multi Lane Roundabouts Under Congestion Comparing Software Capacity and Delay Estimates With Field DataTransféré pariraqi-eng
- Comparison of SimTraffic and VISSIM Microscopi Traffic Simulation Tools in Modeling RoundaboutsTransféré pariraqi-eng
- C5-10 Standard Specification for Quicklime for Structural PurposesTransféré pariraqi-eng
- shotcrete.txtTransféré pariraqi-eng
- pptpresentationndttesting-150212204555-conversion-gate02.pptxTransféré pariraqi-eng
- New Text Document.txtTransféré pariraqi-eng
- Gap Accepteance Parameters for Roundabouts a Systematic ReviewTransféré pariraqi-eng

- Transport HeliportsTransféré parHao Xu
- Banksman Awareness 6723090Transféré parDeepu Ravikumar
- wypracowania angielskiTransféré parMaciej Boratyn
- communicationTransféré parSajaNth MaHe
- Cambridge Rail Coach LinksTransféré parhalosunyrtimr6
- ILS ApproachesTransféré parjujuuuuu5
- Orange Line Improvements Project presentationTransféré parMetro Los Angeles
- Helpful information for students visiting Malta.pdfTransféré parlopezjor
- Runway Incursion and Visual AidsTransféré parEndro Rastadi
- oct14 General AviationTransféré paraustintexas1234
- Id 82Transféré parMiha Ela
- Airport East HillsTransféré parMarshall Kuran
- Report on Traffic VolumeTransféré parJustin
- Airline Industry Metrics_MA_Summer 2017Transféré parYamna Hasan
- TOD CerveroTransféré parDian Putri Noviyanti
- FL Driverhandbook 17Transféré parEmerson Juncom
- VERMONT Points of InterestTransféré parthriftytravel
- Manual Proprietário Forester 2011Transféré parOdilon Nascimento
- c 3 d Stock Subassembly HelpTransféré parjohn
- New York State Route 13 / 366 Corridor Management Plan, Dryden, New York, March 2008Transféré parRandall West
- System (elevator) Employed to the BuildingTransféré parZulhairie Zubaidi
- Multimodal TradeoffTransféré parSiva Teja
- Letter Porcari Hudson River Tunnel Project 2017.12.13 (1)Transféré parGlennKesslerWP
- PET STD01 Plant and Equipment Minimum Requirements - Rev 4 Sep 15Transféré parAditya Patel
- 3. Traffic Demand and Management (TDM) Measures and Traffic ManagementTransféré parElvin Tactac
- A10-DG-DS-LiteTransféré parJason Luna
- Designing for LegibilityTransféré parFarid Kardana
- G1000-CessnaNavIII_CockpitReferenceGuide.pdfTransféré parSanjeewa Prasad
- Language for Giving DirectionsTransféré parDinar Nuraisyah Gueltomz
- F08 MT1 Speliotopoulos ExamTransféré parApril Jeong