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Etymologically, the term POLICE, was derived from the Greek word POLITEIA meaning government of
the city.

The term POLITIEA originates from another Greek word POLIS which means CITY-STATE or
a system of organized civil enforcement to preserve life, liberty, property, food sources, community health
and the enforcement of laws.

The Roman first used the term POLITIA to refer to the condition of the state or government. Then
the French used the term POLICE to refer to a governmental department charged with the regulation and
control of the affairs of a community, now, chiefly, the department established to maintain order, enforce the
law, and prevent and detect crime.

This refers to an association or group of individuals with a common goal and functions into a
productive relationship.
Defined as the consciously coordinated social entity, with a relatively identifiable boundary, that
functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or sets of goals and objectives.

Police Organization
A structured group of personnel specifically trained in the administration of public safety.
Members of the police organization are trained with the aim of achieving effectively and efficiently its
goals and objectives.

it is the act of managing and organizing all levels of an organization which includes the
establishment of the organizations goals and objectives.

Police Administration
This refers to the cooperative human efforts to achieve the purposes of Criminal Justice System.
It is also refers to the study of processes and conditions of law enforcement as the pillar of the
Criminal Justice System.

Law Enforcement Agency

Pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws.
The collective term for professionals who are dedicated to upholding and enforcing the laws and
statutes that are currently in force in a given jurisdiction.

Theories of Police Service

1) Home Rule Theory

Policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of their
functions upon the express needs of the people .
Policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and security.

2) Continental Theory
Policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities.
The people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with the
police organization.

Concepts of Police Service

a. Old Concept
Police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery.
This philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the increasing
number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than trying to prevent them
from committing crimes .

b. Modern Concept
Regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of crime
Police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes .
Broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the welfare of the
individual as well as that of the community in general.

Functions in a Police Organization Organic Units in a Police Organization

1. Primary or Line Functions I. Operational Units
Functions that carry out the major purposes Those that perform primary or line functions.
of the organization, delivering the services Examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and
and dealing directly with the public. vice control.

2. Staff/Administrative Functions II. Administrative Units

Functions that are designed to support the Those that perform the administrative
line functions and assist in the performance functions.
of the line functions. Examples are personnel, finance, planning
and training.
3. Auxiliary Functions III. Service Units
Functions involving the logistical operations Those that perform auxiliary functions.
of the organization. Examples are communication, records
Examples are communication, maintenance, management.
records management, supplies and
equipment management

Organizational Structure

The systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions, departments and
functions or work of the organization.

It is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities and authorities of individuals within the


Organizational Chart

An illustration in the form of a chart which represents the organizational structure.

The mechanical means of depicting the organizational structure.

Principles of Police Organization

a. Hierarchy Of Authority
The relationship between superiors and subordinates
b. Span Of Control
The ability of one man to direct, coordinate, and control immediate subordinates.
c. Unity Of Command
Dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the
execution of orders.
d. Delegation Of Authority
Conferring of certain specified authority by a superior to a subordinate.
e. Chain Of Command
The arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority.
f. Command Responsibility
Dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and
control of their personnel and unit.
g. Specialization
The assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks which are highly technical and
require special skills and training.
h. Authority Level Principle
Is based on the premise that authority exists within an organization at all levels and
that only those decisions that cannot be made at a given level because of lack of
authority should be referred upward for resolution.


July 4, 1901 - The American Civil Government was inaugurated and its immediate task was to restore
peace and order throughout the country

January 9, 1901 - The Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No. 70 of
the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the Manilas
Finest every January 9th.

July 18, 1901 - The Philippine Commission was enacted under Act. No. 175, creating an insular police
force which became as the Philippine Constabulary.

August 8, 1901 - The first Chief of Constabulary Henry T. Allen was designated and confirmed by the
Civil Commission.

Capt. Henry Allen the first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1901

Police Accountability Act, No. 175 - Providing punishment to any officer or member of the Insular
Police force found guilty of obtaining for his own use any money or property from any person by threats of
arrest or actual arrest or intended prosecution.

ACT 183 enacted on July 13, 1901, created the Manila Police Department.

Capt George Curry - The first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1901.

The CA of 1917 - Provides that the mayor as chief executive officer of the municipal government is
empowered to issue orders relating to the public or to public safety.

The 1935 Phil. Constitution - Sec. 9, Article XIX provides that the government shall organize and maintain
a national police force to preserve public order and law enforcement

CA No. 88 of Oct. 26, 1936 - Issued by Pres. Manuel L. Quezon otherwise known as the National Defense
Act creating the Phil. Army with the Constabulary as it fighting core

CA No. 88 of Oct. 26 1936 - established the state police by integrating the police force in all municipalities,
chartered cities and provincial guard organization. Under this Law, the state police was place under the
Department of interior.

CA No. 88 - was repealed by CA No. 343 dated June 23, 1938 which resulted in the detachment of the
Philippine Constabulary Division from the Philippine Army to assume the function of the National Police.

Exec. Order No. 153 - Placing the local police forces as under the local executives which again placed
then under the Department of Interior.

Exec Order 308 and 309 - were promulgated at the height of the Huk rebellion in March 30, 1950 by
President Elpidio Quirino, reconstituted the Philippine Constabulary as major service command of the AFP

The 1973 Phil. Constitution - Sec. 12, Article XX states that the state shall establish and maintain an
integrated national police force whose organization administration and operation shall be provided by law,

3. R.A. 4864 otherwise known as the Police Act of 1966, enacted on August 8, 1966; created the Police
Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the training and professionalization of the local
police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National Police
Commission (NAPOLCOM)

PD No. 448 (May 9, 1974) - Effected major amendments to the police act of 1966 providing for stronger
powers for the Commission in the pursuit of its mandated goal.

PD No. 765 (Aug. 8, 1975) - otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975, enacted on August 8, 1975;
established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) as the
nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of National Defense.
-transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defense.
PD No. 1162 (June 8, 1977)- The Governor of metropolitan Manila, the Provincial Governors, the City and
Municipal Mayors were given power to exercise general supervision order units or elements of the INP
stationed or assigned within their respective jurisdictions.

The 1987 Philippine Constitution -Sec. 6, Art. XVI provides that the state shall establish and maintain one
police force which shall be national in scope and civilian in character.

R.A. 6975 otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13, 1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine National Police,
Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety

R.A. 8551 otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of
1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975.

RA 9708 - Law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educational qualification
for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009.
An Act Extending For Five (5) Years The Reglementary Period For Complying With The Minimum
Educational Qualification For Appointment To The Philippine National Police (PNP) And Adjusting
The Promotion System Thereof, Amending For The Purpose Pertinent Provisions Of Republic Act
No. 6975 And Republic Act No. 8551 And For Other Purposes


Gen Rafael Crame

the first Filipino chief of the Philippine Constabulary on December 17, 1917

Col Antonio Torres

the first Filipino chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1935

Col Lamberto Javalera

the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Philippine Independence from the
United States of America in 1946

P/DIR Gen Cesar Nazareno

the first chief of the Philippine National Police

- Formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
-reorganized under R.A. 6975

The Department proper
Existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
The National Police Commission
The Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC)
Philippine National Police (PNP)
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP)
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP)
The PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975.
Headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the pleasure of
the President.
The Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries .
Undersecretary for Local Government.
Undersecretary for Peace and Order.
No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary within one (1)
year from date of retirement or resignation.
The Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission.


Under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external security
while the DILG was in charge with internal security.
Under RA 8551, the DILG shall be relieved of the primary responsibility on matters involving
suppression of insurgency and other serious threats to national security. The PNP shall through
information gathering and performance of its ordinary police functions, support the AFP on matters
involving suppression of insurgency.


An agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination.

Shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP.


Consist of a Chairperson, four (4) regular Commissioners and the Chief of PNP as ex officio
Shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension.
Three of the regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector who are neither active nor former
members of the police or military.
The fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either active or retired.
Provided, that an active member of a law enforcement agency shall be considered resigned once
At least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman.
From among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall
be chosen.
The Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission.


Organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551

A law enforcement agency under the DILG.

Under administrative control and operational supervision of the National Police Commission.
It is an organization that is national in scope and civilian in character, as provided by Article XVI,

Section 6 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution:

The state shall establish and maintain one police force which shall be national in scope and
civilian in character

Headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director General, appointed by the President and
who shall serve a term of office of four (4) years.

National in Scope

Means that the PNP is a nationwide government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breadth of the Philippine archipelago.
All uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP are national government employees.

Civilian in Character

Means that that the PNP is not a part of the military, although it retains some military attributes such
as discipline.

Powers and Functions of the PNP

Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and
assist in their prosecution;
Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the Constitution
and pertinent laws;
Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the person
so detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses to operate
security agencies and to security guards and private detectives, for the purpose of their professions.


Shall be headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by two (2) deputy chiefs:
Deputy Chief for Administration.
Deputy Chief for Operations.
The Chief PNP and the two (2) deputy chiefs shall be appointed by the President .
No officer who is retirable within six (6) months shall be appointed Chief .
The PNP shall be composed of a national office, regional offices, provincial offices, district offices,
and city or municipal stations.


The national headquarters of the Philippine National Police, located in Quezon City
Houses the offices of the following:
Chief, PNP

o Two (2) deputy chiefs

o Chief, Directorial Staff
o Ten (10) directorial staff
o Ten (10) administrative support units
o Ten (10) operational support units

Directorial Staff
Directorate for Personnel and Records Management;
Directorate for Intelligence;
Directorate for Operations;
Directorate for Logistics;
Directorate for Integrated Police Operations
Directorate for Plans
Directorate for Comptrollership
Directorate for Police Community Relations
Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management
Directorate for Research and Development
Directorate for Information and Communication Technology Management.
Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development

Administrative Support Units

Logistics Support Unit
Information Technology Management Service
Finance Service
Health Service
Communications and Electronic Service
Chaplain Service
Legal Service
Headquarters Support Service
Engineering Service
Training Service

Operational Support Units

Maritime Group
Intelligence Group
Police Security and Protection Group
Criminal Investigation and Detection Group
Special Action Force
Aviation Security Group
Highway Patrol Group
Police Community Relations Group
Civil Security Group
Crime Laboratory


The PNP is divided into seventeen (17) police regional offices (PRO), each headed by a
Regional Director;
PRO 1 13, NCRPO, CAR, and ARMM


For every region, there are provincial offices, each headed by a Provincial Director
In large provinces, police districts may be established to be headed by a District Director
At the city or municipal levels or stations, each is headed by a Chief of Police

NCRPO is divided into five (5) districts, each headed by a District Director:

a. Manila Police District (MPD) (formerly Western Police District)- Manila

b. Eastern Police District (EPD) Marikina, Pasig, San Juan and Mandaluyong,
c. Northern Police District (NPD) Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela
d. Central Police District (CPD) Quezon City
e. Southern Police District (SPD) Pasay, Makati, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Muntinlupa,
Taguig and Pateros


1:500 nationwide average
1:1000 minimum police-to-population ratio


Commissioned Officer
Four Star Director General General
Three Star Deputy Director General Lieutenant General
Two Star Director Major General
One Star Chief Superintendent Brigadier General
Three Sun Senior Superintendent Colonel
Two Sun Superintendent Lieutenant Colonel
One Sun Chief Inspector Major
Two Anahaw Leaf Senior Inspector Captain
One Anahaw Leaf Inspector Lieutenant

Non - Commissioned Officer

Senior Police Officer 4 Master Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 3 Technical Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 2 Staff Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 1 Sergeant
Police Officer 3 Corporal
Police Officer 2 Private First Class
Police Officer 1 Private

Key Positions and their Corresponding Ranks in The PNP

Chief highest position in the PNP, with the rank of Director General.
Deputy Chief for Administration the second-in command, with the rank of Deputy Director
Deputy Chief for Operations the third-in-command, with the rank of Deputy Director General
Chief Directorial Staff with the rank of Deputy Director General
Head of Directorial Staff with the rank of Director
NCR Director with the rank of DIRECTOR
Regional Director- with the rank of Chief Superintendent
Provincial Director-with the rank of Senior Superintendent
NCR District Director - with the rank of Chief Superintendent
Chief of Police


Police officers are employees of the national government and shall draw their salaries
from the national budget.

They shall have the same salary grade level as that of public school teachers, police officers
assigned in Metro Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial
incentives by the local government unit concerned subject to availability of funds.

and RA 9708)
a. A citizen of the Philippines;
b. A person of good moral conduct;
c. Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be administered by the
PNP or by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of determining physical
and mental health;
d. Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning;
e. Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;
f. Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed for cause from
any civilian position in the Government;
g. Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
h. Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m) in height for male and one meter and
fifty-seven (1.57 m) for female;
i. Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5kgs) from the standard weight corresponding to
his or her height, age and sex; and
j. For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30) years of age

Pursuant to RA 9708, PNP members who are already in the service upon the effectivity of Republic
Act No. 8551 shall be given five (5) years to obtain the minimum educational qualification preferably in law
enforcement related courses, to be reckoned from the date of the effectivity of this amendatory Act:

Provided, furthermore, That for concerned PNP members rendering more than fifteen (15) years of service
and who have exhibited exemplary performance as determined by the Commission, shall no longer be
required to comply with the aforementioned minimum educational requirement.

Examination and Eligibility

The National Police Commission shall administer the entrance and promotional examinations for
police officers on the basis of the standards set by the Commission (as amended by RA 8551).

POLICE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION taken by applicants of the PNP

POLICE PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATIONS taken by in-service police officers as part of the
mandatory requirements for promotion.


The appropriate eligibilities for PO1 are those acquired from the following:

NAPOLCOM PNP Entrance Examination

R.A. No. 6506 (Licensed Criminologist)
R.A. No. 1080 (Bar and Board Examinations of baccalaureate degree)
P.D. 907 (Granting Civil Service Eligibility to College Honor Graduates)
Civil Service Professional


Promotional Examinations
-Members of the Bar and Licensed Criminologists whose profession are germane to law
enforcement and police functions are no longer required to take promotional examinations.
- Up to the rank of Superintendent.


PO1 to SPO4 Appointed by the PNP Regional Director for regional personnel or by the Chief PNP for the
National Headquarters personnel.

INSP to SUPT Appointed by the Chief of the PNP, as recommended by their immediate superiors.
SSUPT to DDG Appointed by the President

Director General Appointed by the President from among the senior officers down to the rank of Chief


PERMANENT when an applicant possesses the upgraded general qualifications for appointment in
the PNP.

TEMPORARY Any PNP personnel who is admitted due to the waiver of the educational or weight
Any members who will fail to satisfy any of the waived requirements with the specified time periods
shall be dismissed from the service.
Pursuant to NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-009, a newly recruited PO1 shall be
appointed in temporary status in twelve (12) months pending compliance with the Field Training
Program (FTP) involving actual experience and assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation.


(NAPOLCOM MC No. 2007-009)

1) Conditions on waivers for initial appointment to the PNP

The age, height and weight for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number
of qualified applicants falls below the approved national/regional quota.
The Commission en banc may grant age, height and weight waiver. The NAPOLCOM Regional
Director may grant height waiver to a member of an indigenous group.
Waiver of the age requirement may be granted provided that the applicant shall not be less than
twenty (20) nor more than thirty five (35) years of age.
Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to a male applicant who is at least 1 meter and 57
cm (1.57m) and to a female applicant who is at least 1 meter and 52cm (1.52m). Provided, that the
minimum height requirement for applicants who belong to indigenous group duly certified by the
Office of the Muslim Affairs (OMA) or the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) shall
be 1.52m for male and 1.45m for female
An applicant who is granted a weight waiver shall be given reasonable time not exceeding six (6)
months within which to comply with the said requirement. Failure to attain the required weight shall
cause the termination from the service.

2) Factors to be considered in the Grant of Waivers

a) Outstanding accomplishments or possession of special skills in law enforcement, police work,
martial arts, marksmanship and similar skills;
b) Special talents in the field of sports, music and others;
c) Extensive experience or training in forensic science and other technical services.

3) Selection Criteria under the waiver program

a) Applicants who possess the least disqualifications shall take precedence over those who possess
more disqualifications.
b) The requirement shall be waived in the following order:
1. Age
2. Height
3. Weight


1) In general, all original appointments of commissioned officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank
of inspector, to include all those with highly technical qualifications applying for the PNP technical services
(R.A. 6975).

a) Senior Inspector
1) Chaplain;
2) Member of the Bar;
3) Doctor of Medicine

b) Inspector
1) Dentist
2) Optometrists
3) Nurses
4) Engineers
5) Graduates of forensic science
6) Graduates of Philippine National Police Academy
o Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of inspector to fill up any
vacancy after promotions from the ranks are completed.

2) New policy on LATERAL ENTRY (NAPOLOCM M.C 2008-006

a) A person with highly technical qualifications such as:
1) Dentist
2) Optometrist
3) Nurse
4) Engineer
5) Graduate of Forensic Science
6) Doctor of Medicine
7) Member of the Philippine Bar
8) Chaplain
9) Information Technologist
10) Pilot
11) Psychologist
b) Graduate of PNPA
c) Licensed Criminologist
3) Top priority consideration for lateral entry into the rank of Police Inspector shall be given to top ten (10)
placers of the different Licensure Examinations. However, incumbent PNP members who landed in the top
ten shall be given first preference over the civilian provided that the qualifications are satisfied.
4).The maximum age of PNP members applicants through lateral entry shall be forty six (46) years old at
the time of appointment. Age waivers shall not be allowed.


Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another carrying
higher benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a position of
1. Regular Promotion
2. Special/ Meritorious/Spot Promotion
3. Promotion by virtue of position

I. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory requirements for


1. Educational attainment
2. Completion of appropriate training/schooling, such as:

o Masters Degree - Chief Superintendent and above

o Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) Supt to Sr. Supt
o Officers Advance Course (OAC) Chief Insp.
o Officers Basic Course (OBC) Sr. Insp.
o Officers Candidate Course (OCC) SPOIV
o Senior Leadership Course (SLC) SPOIII to SPOIV
o Junior Leadership Course (JLC) POIII to SPOI

3. Time-in Grade the number of years required for a police officer to hold a certain rank before he
can be promoted to the next higher rank. The time-in grade in the PNP is maintained as follows
(NAPOLCOM MC # 2011-196):

o 2 years from Sr Supt to Chief Supt.

o 3 years from Supt to Sr Supt
o 5 years Chief Insp to Supt
o 5 years Sr Insp to Chief Insp
o 4 years Insp to Sr Insp
o 3 years SPO4 to Insp
o 3 years SPO3 to SPO4
o 3 years SPO2 to SPO3
o 3 years SPO1 to SPO2
o 3 years PO3 to SPO1
o 3 year PO2 to PO3
o 4 years PO1 to PO2

4. Appropriate eligibility the required promotional examinations

a. Police Officer Promotional Examination
b. Senior Police Officer Promotional Examination
c. Police Inspector Promotional Examination
d. Police Superintendent Promotional Examination

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less than one (1) year of service
before reaching the compulsory retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or
appointed to any other position.

Pursuant to RA 9708, In addition, the institution of a criminal action or complaint

against a police officer shall not be a bar to promotion: Provided, however, That upon
finding of probable cause, notwithstanding any challenge that may be raised against that
finding thereafter, the concerned police officer shall be ineligible for promotion: Provided,
further, That if the case remains unresolved after two (2) years from the
aforementioned determination of probable cause, he or she shall be considered for
promotion. In the event he or she is held guilty of the crime by final judgment, said
promotion shall be recalled without prejudice to the imposition of the appropriate penalties
under applicable laws, rules and regulations:

Provided, furthermore, That if the complaint filed against the police officer is for a crime
including, but not limited to, a violation of human rights, punishable by reclusion
perpetua or life imprisonment, and the court has determined that the evidence of guilt is
strong, said police officer shall be completely ineligible for promotion during the
pendency of the said criminal case.

II. Special Promotion promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of conspicuous
courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of duty.
Conspicuous courage is a courage that is clearly distinguished above others in the performance of ones


2007-003 and PNP Memorandum Circular No. 2009-019)

1. A deed of personal bravery and self sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty, so conspicuous as to
distinguish the act clearly over and above his/her comrades in the performance of more than ordinary
hazardous service, such as; but not limited to the following circumstances:
o Overwhelming number of enemies and firepower capability as against the strength of PNP
operatives and their firepower capability;
o Infiltration and penetration of the safe houses and hideouts of organized crime syndicates
like kidnapping, illegal drugs, carnapping, hijacking and terrorism;
o Shoot-out in robbery/hold-up incidents inside public places such as: malls, government
offices, business establishments and PUVs;
o Conduct of rescue/disaster operations that resulted in the saving of lives and properties.

2. An act of heroism exhibited in the face of an armed enemy or in the conduct of rescue/disaster operations
resulting in the loss of life (posthumous promotions).

Posthumous Award in case an individual who distinguish himself dies before the granting of the awards.


Any PNP personnel designated to any key position whose rank is lower than that which
is required for such position shall, after six (6) months of occupying the same, be entitled
to a rank adjustment corresponding to the position.
Provided, that the personnel shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher rank
until after two (2) years from the date of such rank adjustment.


Refers to the retirement or separation from police service of PNP uniformed personnel
pursuant to any of the means mentioned in Section 24 to 29 of RA 8551 and other means
as provided in NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2008-005.)

a) Attrition by attainment of Maximum Tenure in Position.

Maximum Tenure in Position refers to the maximum cumulative period for a PNP member
to hold a particular position level.

Position Maximum Tenure

Chief Four (4) years
Deputy Chief Four (4) years
Director of the Staff Services Four (4) years
Regional Directors Six (6) years
Provincial/City Directors Nine (9) years
b) Attrition by Relief A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just cause and has not been
given an assignment within two (2) years after such relief shall be retired or separated.

c) Attrition by demotion in position or rank Any PNP personnel, civilian or uniformed, who are relieved
and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his or her grade in the PNP staffing pattern
and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to his or her grade within EIGHTEEN (18)
MONTHS after such demotion shall be retired or separated.

d) Attrition by non-promotion Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted for a continuous period
of TEN (10) YEARS shall be retired or separated

e) Attrition by other means - Any PNP member of officer with at least five (5) years of accumulated
active service shall be separated based on any of the following:

Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last two (2) successive annual rating periods;
1. Poor performance refers to the poor rating in the promulgated PNP Performance
Evaluation Rating System.
2. Inefficiency based on poor performance for three (3) cumulative annual rating periods;
3. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties.
4. Failure to pass the required entrance examinations twice and/or finish the required career
course except for justifiable reasons;
5. Refusal to take periodic PNP Physical Fitness Test without justifiable reason.

Physical Fitness Test refers to the method of evaluating the physical condition of PNP members in terms
of stamina, strength, speed and agility.

6. Failure to take PNP Physical Fitness Test for four (4) consecutive periodic tests due to health
7. Failure to pass PNP Physical Fitness Test for Two (2) consecutive periodic tests or four (4)
cumulative periodic tests; or
8. Non-compliance with the minimum qualification standards for the permanency or original

Retirement Or Separation Under The Attrition System

Any personnel who is dismissed from the PNP pursuant to different ways mentioned, shall be retired
if he or she has rendered at least twenty (20) years of service and separated if he or she has
rendered less than twenty (20) years of service, unless the personnel is disqualified by law to
receive such benefits.

The separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the age of retirement
provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active service. a PNP uniformed
personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.


a. Compulsory for officer and non-officer, upon the attainment of age Fifty-Six (56). Provided, in
case of any officer with the rank of CSUPT, Director or Deputy Director General, the Commission
may allow his retention in the service for an unextendible of one (1) year.
b. Optional upon accumulation of at least Twenty (20) years of satisfactory active service.

Retirement Benefits
Monthly retirement pay shall be FIFTY PERCENT (50%) of the base pay in case of twenty years of
active service, increasing by TWO AND ONE-HALF PERCENT (2.5%) for every year of active
service rendered beyond twenty years.


Provided by RA 8551
Womens desk in all police stations shall administer and attend to cases involving crimes against
chastity, sexual harassment, abuses committed against women and children and other similar
The PNP shall reserve TEN PERCENT (10%) of its annual recruitment, training and education quota
for women.
Policewomen shall enjoy the same opportunities in terms of assignment, promotion and other
benefits and privileges extended to all police officers.


Governors and Mayors are deputized as representatives of the NAPOLCOM in their respective
territorial jurisdiction.
a) Provincial Governor
Power to choose the PNP Provincial Director from a list of 3 eligibles recommended by the PNP
Regional Director.
- oversee the implementation of the provincial public safety plan.
b) City and Municipal Mayors
Has the power to choose his CHIEF OF POLICE from a list of five (5) eligibles recommended by
the provincial police director.
He has the authority to recommend to the provincial director the transfer, reassignment or detail of
PNP members outside of their respective city or town .
Authority to recommend from a list of eligibles, the appointment of new members of the PNP to be
assigned in respective cities.
Exercise operational supervision and control over PNP units in their jurisdiction, except during the 30
days period immediately preceding and the 30 days following any national, local and barangay
During the election period, local police forces shall be under the supervision and control of the

Operational Supervision and control

Means the power to direct, superintend, and oversee the day to day functions of police investigation
of crime, crime prevention activities and traffic control.
Shall also include the power to direct the employment and deployment of units or elements of the
PNP, through the station commander, to ensure public safety and effective maintenance of peace
and order within the locality.

Refers to utilization of units or elements of the PNP for purposes of protection of lives and
properties, enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and order, prevention of crimes,
arrest of criminal offenders and bringing the offenders to justice and ensuring public safety,
particularly in the suppression of disorders, riots, lawlessness, violence, rebellious and
seditious conspiracy, insurgency, subversion or other related activities.

Shall mean the orderly and organized physical movement of elements or units of the PNP
within the province, city or municipality for purposes of employment


Unless reversed by the President, the NAPOLCOM may, after consultation with the provincial
governor and congressman concerned, suspend or withdraw the deputation of any local executives
for any of the following grounds:
o Frequent unauthorized absences
o Abuse of authority
o Providing material support to criminal elements
o Engaging in acts inimical to national security or which negate the effectiveness of the peace
and order campaign.

Administrative Disciplinary Machineries

Citizen Complaints -pertains to any complaint initiated by a private citizen or his duly authorized
representative on account of an injury, damage or disturbance sustained due to an irregular or illegal act
committed by a member of the PNP

1. CHIEF OF POLICE - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to
specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period not
exceeding fifteen (15) days

2. CITY/MUNICIPAL MAYORS - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges,

restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a
period not less than Sixteen but not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.

3. PEOPLES LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB) -where the offense is punishable by withholding
of privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination
thereof, for a period exceeding Thirty (30) Days, or by Dismissal.

INTERNAL DISCIPLINE On dealing with minor offense involving internal discipline found to have
committed by any PNP members, the duly designated supervisors shall, after due notice and hearings,
exercise disciplinary powers as follows:

1. CHIEF OF POLICE - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand;

restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any
combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Fifteen (15) Days.
2. PROVINCIAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or
reprimand; restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension;
or any combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.
3. REGIONAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand;
restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; demotion;
or any combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Sixty (60) Days.
4. CHIEF OF THE PNP - shall have the power to impose the disciplinary punishment of dismissal
from the service; suspension or forfeiture of salary; demotion; or any combination of the foregoing
for a period not exceeding One Hundred Eighty (180) Days.

MINOR OFFENSE - shall refer to an act or omission not involving moral turpitude but affecting the internal
discipline of the PNP, and shall include but not be limited to:
o Simple misconduct or negligence
o Insubordination
o Frequent absences or tardiness
o Habitual drunkenness
o Gambling prohibited by law



Pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP personnel and units;

Investigate complaints and gather evidence in support of an open investigation;
Conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing administrative charges;
Submit a periodic report on the assessment, analysis, and evaluation of the character and
behavior of PNP personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the Commission;
File appropriate criminal cases against PNP members before the court as evidence
warrants and assists in the prosecution of the case;
Provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in cases involving the personnel of the

The IAS shall also conduct, motu proprio (on its own initiative), automatic investigation of the
following cases:

Incidents where a police personnel discharges a firearm;

Incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any violation of human rights occurred in the
conduct of a police operation;
Incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered with, obliterated, or lost while in the custody
of police personnel;
Incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police was seriously injured; and
Incidents where the established rules of engagement have been violated.


Headed by the INSPECTOR GENERAL who is a CIVILIAN and appointed by the President upon
the recommendation of the Director General (Chief, PNP)
The Inspector General shall be assisted by a Deputy Inspector General
There shall be national, regional and provincial offices
The national office shall be headed by the Inspector General, the regional offices by a Director, and
the provincial offices by a Superintendent


Entry shall be voluntary

PNP personnel with at least five (5) years experience in law enforcement
With no derogatory service record
Members of the bar may enter the service laterally


A body created pursuant to RA 6975.
One of the disciplinary authorities of the PNP authorized to handle and investigate citizens
The central receiving entity for any citizens complaint against the PNP members
Shall be created by the sangguniang panlungssod/bayan in every city and municipality as may be
There shall be at least one (1) PLEB for every five hundred (500) city or municipal police personnel.
Membership in the PLEB is a civic duty.

composed of five (5) members who shall be as follows:

Any member of the sangguniang panlungsod/bayan.

Any barangay chairman of the locality concerned.
Three other members to be chosen by the local peace and order council from among the
members of the community.
For the three other members, the following conditions must be met:
o One must be a woman
o One must be a lawyer, or a college graduate, or the principal of an elementary school in the
q locality
The CHAIRMAN of the PLEB shall be elected from among its members
The term of office of the members of the PLEB is THREE (3) YEARS


Formal administrative disciplinary appellate machinery of the National Police Commission.
Tasked to hear cases on appeal from the different disciplinary authorities in the PNP


National Appellate Board

Shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the PNP Chief and the National Internal
Affairs Service
Shall be composed of the four (4) regular commissioners and shall be chaired by the executive


Shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the Regional Director, Provincial Director,
Chief of Police, the city or municipal mayor and the PLEB
There shall be at least one (1) regional appellate board per administrative region

a. Withholding of privileges
b. Restriction to specified limits
c. Restrictive custody
d. Forfeiture of salary
e. Suspension

f. Any combination of the penalties above (1 to 5)
g. One (1) rank demotion
h. Dismissal from the service


The determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained; involves the
determination of a course of action to take in performing a particular function or activity
A management function concerned with visualizing future situation, making estimates concerning
them, identifying issues, needs and potential danger points, analyzing and evaluating the alternative
ways and means of reaching desired goals according to a certain schedule, estimating the
necessary funds and resources to do the work and initiating action in time to prepare what may be
needed to cope with changing conditions and contingent events



Deal with procedures that have been outlined and officially adopted by all members of the unit under
specified circumstances
Guidelines for actions to be taken.

General plan of action that serves as a guide in the operation of the organization or unit
Codes of procedures


1. S.O.P # 1 Police Beat Patrol Procedures
2. SOP # 2 Bantay-Kalye
3. SOP # 3 Siyasat
4. SOP # 4 REACT 166
5. SOP # 5 LIGTAS (anti-kidnapping)
6. SOP # 6 Anti-Carnapping
7. SOP # 7 Anti-Terrorism
8. SOP # 8 Joint Anti-Bank Robbery Action Committee (JABRAC)
9. SOP # 9 Anti-Hijacking or Highway Robbery
10. SOP # 10 PAGLALANSAG or PAG-AAYOS (against Partisan Armed Groups of Loose Fire)
11. SOP # 11 Manhunt Bravo (wanted persons)
12. SOP # 12 Anti-Illegal Gambling
13. SOP # 13 Anti-Squatting
14. SOP # 14 JERICHO
15. SOP # 15 NENA (Anti-Prostitution)
16. SOP # 16 Anti-Pornography
17. SOP # 17 Guidelines in the Conduct of Arrest, Search and Seizure
18. SOP # 18 Schematic Diagram of SANDIGAN Master Plan
19. SOP # 19 Anti-Illegal Logging
20. SOP # 20 Anti-Illegal Fishing
21. SOP # 21 Anti-Illegal Drugs


Procedures intended to be used in all situations of all kinds shall be outlined as guide to officers and
men in the field, such as: procedures that relate to reporting, to raids, arrests, stopping suspicious
persons, receiving complaints, investigation, etc

Include the procedures to be followed in the headquarters, usually reflected in the duty manual.


Procedures intended for specific operations to ensure uniformity of action


Often called work plan
The work program of the field units
Describe specific actions to be taken
The work to be done is estimated, manpower and equipment is allocated, proper objectives are
defined and methods of accomplishment are developed
Statistical analysis is widely used


1. OPLAN JUMBO ASG Strategic Plan against Terrorism

2. OPLAN SALIKOP CIDG Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups
3. OPLAN DISIPLINA TMG regarding vehicles and motorists
4. OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN operation security measures and sea borne security patrols

Plans that concern methods of action to be taken at a designated location and under specific
Generally emergency type plans that can be put into effect on the sudden occurrence of a condition
requiring their use
Planning for emergencies of a specific nature at known locations
Developed for specific situations as they arise
Examples are: planning for major accidents; calamities or disasters; special events; hostage-
taking situations, etc


Those plans that relate to staffing, equipping, supplying and organizing
Include the structuring of functions, authority and responsibilities, the allocation of resources,
personnel management, budgeting and other concerns administrative in nature
Examples are: assignment and training of personnel; recruitment; equipment and supply
procedures, etc

Those which require actions or assistance from persons or agencies outside of the department
Involve coordination with other agencies
Examples are: exchange of information on wanted persons, known drug syndicates, known
organized crime groups, stolen vehicles, etc


a. SANDIGAN-MILENYO Anti-Criminality Master Plan
b. SANDUGO master plan supporting the Internal Security Operations
c. BANAT Anti-Illegal Drugs Master Plan
d. SANG-INGAT Security Operations Master Plan
e. SAKLOLO Disaster Management Master Plan
f. SANGYAMAN Protection and Preservation of Environment, Cultural Properties and Natural



Generally, the meaning of security is a kind of state where people, institution, authority or groups feel
fully secured of feeling, free from any threat or vulnerability from somewhere or someone in his/her life,
liberty, property or activity. It could be in physical, psychological, social or economical form.
It is a state or quality of being secured, freedom from fear or danger, assurance, certainty.
It is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals.
Protection against any type of crime to safeguard life and assets by various methods and device.


1. Command Responsibility
Cannot be delegated but the security tasks can be assigned.
2. Compartmentation
Need to know basis
3. Balance between security and efficiency
Security prevails over efficiency
4. General principles of security remain constant
Specific measures to suit operations
5. Security is the concern of all personnel
Regardless of rank, position, designation


1. ACTIVE MEASURES these involve the installation of physical barriers, security lighting, use of
vaults, locks and others.

2. PASSIVE MEASURES those that will deter man from committing such act of fear of being caught,
charge in court or get dismissed, such as: security education, programs, investigations, seminars,
personnel security check.

Brief History of Security in the Philippines

The private security business began on March 11, 1933, when the first formally licensed
private security agency Special Watchman Agency started operations;
Later it renamed Jimenez Security Agency, founded by brothers Juan and Pedro Jimenez;
On May 30 1958, the Philippine Association of Detectives and Protective Agency
Operations (PADPAO) was formally organized;
RA 5487 was passed on June 13, 1969 through the continuous lobbying of the incorporators
and officers of PADPAO, which set the standards and minimum requirements for the
operations of security agencies.
P.D. 11 was passed on October 3, 1972, widening the coverage of RA 5487 to include
security guards employed in logging concessions, agricultural, mining and pasture lands;
P.D. 100 was issued on January 17, 1973, broadening the coverage of the security industry
to include employees of the national or local government or any agency who are employed to
watch or secure government building and properties.
On August 1969, the Philippine Constabulary activated the Security and Investigation
Supervisory office or SIASO to supervise and control the organization and operation of
private security and detective agencies nationwide;
Later it was renamed Philippine Constabulary Supervisory Office for Security and
Investigation Agencies or PCSUSIA.
With the passage of RA 6975, this unit was absorbed by the Philippine National Police;
Later it was made into a division of the PNP Civil Security Group and was renamed Security
Agencies and Guard Supervision Division (SAGSD);
It was renamed to PNP Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency (SOSIA).


1. Physical Security
2. Personnel Security

3. Document and Information Security


A system of barriers placed between the potential intruder and the objects/matter to be protected. It
is the broadest branch of security, which is concerned with physical measures adopted to prevent
unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials and documents and to safeguard them
against espionage, sabotage, damage and theft.

Purpose of Physical Security:

1. To deny, delay or make difficult the intrusion or access.
2. To prevent, or control, unauthorized entry.
3. To safeguard /secure assets and/or property from loss, theft, or destruction.
4. To protect persons from harm as to be caused by the intrusion on the Intruder.
5. To deter, prevent and/or detect attempt to commit crime or perpetrate sabotage or espionage.

Basic Principles of Physical Security

1. The type of access will depend on the number of variable factors and may be achieved in a number
of ways.
2. There is no impenetrable barrier
3. Defense in depth(barrier after barrier)
4. Delays against surreptitious entry and non-surreptitious entry.
5. Each installation is different.


1. Threat
An indication of impending danger or harm;
- positive inimical acts
2. Hazard
A chance of being injured or harmed;
-passive inimical acts
3. Vulnerability
inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment
-measure of how open an establishment to intrusion, attack or injury
4. Risk
is the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss
(an undesirable outcome).
-probability of an event to happen that will lead to loss.

An act or condition which results in a situation conducive to a breach of the protection system and
the subsequent loss or compromise, or damage to personnel, property or facilities.

1. Man Made Hazards an acts or conditions affecting the safe of operation of the facility caused by
human action, accidental or intentional. It includes sabotage, espionage, pilferage and theft.
2. Natural Hazard cause by natural phenomena which cause damage, disturbance and problems of
normal functioning activities, including security. It includes flood, lighting, storms and volcanic



Is the importance of the firm which reference to the national economy and security.

The susceptibility of the plant or establishment to damage, loss, or disruption of operation due to
various hazard.

can be defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal
access to an installation.

Generally, a barrier is use for the following purposes:

1. Outline the perimeter of the area to be secured;
2. Create a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry;
3. Delay intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders;
4. Assist in more efficient and economical employment of guards;
5. Facilitates and impose the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

1. FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE Perimeter barrier/fences

Medium or structure which defines the physical limits of an installation or area to restrict or impede
access thereto.


Doors, floors, windows, walls, roofs and grills.


Storage system like steel cabinets, safes, vaults and interior files.


Include mountains, rivers, seas, desserts or terrain difficult to traverse. To be fully effective,
these barriers must be under surveillance of guards.


Structural constructions made by man like fences, walls, floors, roofs, grill or other physical
means to deter or impede penetration.

Constructed in such a way that visual access through the fence is denied. Its advantage is that it
denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel, activities and the
scheduled movements of the security personnel. On the other hand, it prevents the guards from
observing the area around the installation and it creates shadow that may be used by the intruder for
cover and concealment.

WALL Masonry wall should have the same as the chain linked and surrounded by the barbed wire
as top guard.

b. FULL VIEW FENCE It is constructed in such a way that visuals access is permitted through the
fence. Its advantage is that it allows the security personnel to keep the surrounding of the installation
under observation. On the other hand, it allows the intruder to become familiar with the movements
the security personnel.


Should be constructed minimum
height of 7 feet excluding top guard;
9 gauges or heavier;
Mesh openings of not larger 2 inches per side;
Securely fastened to rigid material or reinforced concrete;
Reach within 2 inches of hard ground or paving;
On soft ground, it must reach below surface deep enough to compensate for shifting soil or sand.


Is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the
strand(s). It is used to construct inexpensive fences.
3. Concertina Wire or Dannert Wire

Is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a
Opened concertina wire is 50 feet long and 3 feet diameter.


Top Guard
An addition overhang or barbed wire place on vertical perimeter fences facing upward and outward
with a 45 degree angle with three to four strands of barbed wires space six inches apart. This will
increase the protective height and prevent easy access.

Entry Stations
Provided at main perimeter entrances to secure areas located out of the doors, and manned by
guards on a full time basis.

A house like structures above the perimeter barrier. Height of tower increases the range of
observation during day and night with artificial illumination.

Clear Zones
Unobstructed area maintain on both sides of the perimeter barrier. It affords better observation and
patrol movement. It should be cleared of anything that may provide concealment or assistance to a
person seeking an authorized entry.

20 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and exterior structure.
50 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and structure within the protected areas.

In large open areas or ground, where fencing or walling is impracticable and expensive, warning
signs should be conspicuously placed.
The depth itself is protection.

6. Signs and Notices

Erected where necessary in the management of unauthorized ingress and preclude accidental entry.

Provides sufficient illumination to areas during hours of darkness.


1. It improves visibility so that intruders can be seen, identified and apprehend;
2. It gives psychological fear, which serves as a deterrent to thieves, pilferers, trespassers, and
3. It makes easier. The routine of work of guards in identifying employees, vehicles during night time;
4. If placed in certain areas, may even reduce the number of stationary guards, and instead, may
require only roving patrols at night.


1. Stationary Luminary most common type consisting of fixed series of luminaries. It is commonly
used on entry gates of employees and vehicles.

Glare Protection Type The intensity is focused to the intruder while the observer or the guard
remain in comparative darkness.
Controlled lighting- The lighting is focused on certain objects than the background.

2. Standby Lighting similar to continuous lighting but can be turned on manually or by special
device or other automatic means, when there is a suspicion of entry.
3. Emergency Lighting stand by lighting which can be utilized in the event of electrical failure.

Is an aural or visual signal given by the annunciator to the security when intruder actuate certain
devices in a protected area. An annunciator is a visual or audible signaling device, which initiates
conditions of associated circuits.

Basically, alarm system are designed to alert security personnel of a attempted or consummated
intrusion into an area, building or compound. Each type of alarm is activated in the event that an
intruder tampers with the circuitry, a beam or radiated waves. Alarm are also for fire, smoke, or other
emergencies and presence of hazards.


1. Sensors
Device that can sense an abnormal condition within the system and provide a signal indicating the
presence or nature of the abnormality
2. Circuit
It is the communication channel that conveys the information from all sensors in the system to the
signal by means of wire, radio waves.
3. Signal
The actual alarm may be audible or silent, a bell, buzzer, phone ringing, or flashing of light.


1. Central Station System

Several separate compounds tie their alarm system to a central station so that in case of need, the
central station calls for assistance to the police, fire department, hospital or with other government
assisting units.
2. Proprietary System
Similar to the central station type excepts that the proprietary console is located inside the
subscribers installation who owns or bases the system.
3. Auxiliary System
An installation owned system which is a direct extension of the local enforcement agency and/or fire
department by special arrangements.
4. Local Alarm System
Consists of rigging up a visual or audible alarm near the object to be protected. In case of alarm,
response will be made by the local guards and other personnel within sight or hearing.


FIRE ALARM - - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warn the occupants of the
building or fire fighting elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate
action to save life and property and to suppress the fire.

1. Smoke Detector - a device placed at the ceilings of the floor that detects smoke, typically as an
indicator of fire.
2. Fire Bell -a hollow device made of metal that makes a ringing sound.

A type of built in sprinklers which works by the increase of room temperature and which
automatically operates the system to put out the fire. Attached and distributed in the ceiling of the
rooms. These sprinklers will go into action once a fire starts, and those that will open are those that
are directly above the fire and water is delivered where it is needed.

Steel or plastic pipes located inside the building from the lowest to the top floor with water under
pressure for use in case of fire. Located near the standpipe is a fire hose usually enclosed in a glass

It is a mechanical device strategically located in an installation or in a street where a fire hose will be
connected so that the water will be available to extinguish a fire.

Is a firefighting equipment which can is a firefighting equipment which can be portable or in cart that
is used to put out fire depending on the contents to extinguish certain types of fire.

o Involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, and paper, requires an
extinguishing agent which cools. A water or multi-purpose dry chemical can be used.
o Fires involving flammable and combustible liquids and gases, such as solvents, greases,
gasoline, and lubricating oil, require an extinguisher which removes oxygen or cuts the chain
reaction. Foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, are effective.
o Fires involve energized electrical equipment (live electrical wires, electrical appliances). A
non-conducting extinguishing agent such as carbon dioxide or multi-purpose dry chemical must
be used.
o The result of the combustion of certain materials in firely divided forms. These metals can be
magnesium, potassium, powdered aluminum and zinc.


-If you need to use a fire extinguisher, remember the word P-A-S-S :

o PULL the pin - Fire extinguishers often have a pin, latch, or puncture lever that you need to release
o AIM low - Aim the nozzle or hose of the extinguisher at the base of the fire.
o SQUEEZE the handle - This releases the extinguishing agent.
o SWEEP from side to side - Move in close, and sweep across the base of the fire. Watch for re-flash
of the fire.

1. Magnetic Door Contact -is a protective device usually placed in the door, and window that can
send notification when the opening and closure occurs
2. Vibration Contact devices mounted on barriers and are used primarily to detect an attack on the
structure itself. When movement or vibration occurs, the unstable portion of the circuit moves and
breaks the current flow, which produces an alarm.
3. Passive Infrared Detector (PIR) or Motion Sensor PIRs are able to distinguish if an infrared
emitting object is present by first learning the ambient temperature of the monitored space and then
detecting a change in the temperature caused by the presence of an object.
4. Panic button -Often located under the counter, the button can be pressed in times of distress (Such
as robbery, disruptive or threatening behavior, or a situation which may warrant assistance),
triggering a silent alarm.
5. CCTV - A video monitoring system is more commonly known as Closed Circuit Television Systems.
A CCTV system is a system consisting of a television camera, video monitor, and a
transmission medium (Cable, fiber or wireless) connecting the two. It is used to monitor the

o IP based cameras work by turning images and audio into data then transmitting this data over a
network or Internet connection.
o IP cameras are a type of Closed Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) used for capturing images and
audio recordings in surveillance for homes and businesses.

o The IP name stands for Internet Protocol, a system that allows the transmission of images
captured by a digital video recorder (DVR) to the end destination computers and these components
together make up a video security system.

LOCK defined as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or electronic device designed to prevent entry to a
building or room.

Type of Locks
1. Key Operated Lock
- It uses some sort of arrangement of internal physical barriers which prevent the lock from operating unless
they are properly aligned. The key is the device used to align these internal barriers so that the lock may be

PADLOCK a portable and detachable lock having a pivoted or sliding hasp which possess through a
staple ring, or the like and is made fast or secured.

2. Combination Lock a lock that requires manipulation of parts according to a predetermined

combination code of numbers.
3. Card Operated Lock/Coded Lock type of lock that can be opened by inserting a coded card in a
slot in the lock, or by pushing the correct button on the surface of the lock.
4. Electronic Lock type of lock that can be closed and opened remotely by electronic means.

o A machine that can be used for identification of humans by their characteristics or traits.
o It is used as a form of identification and access control.
o It is equipped with recording device that can identify the person operating the lock and the time it
was operated.

Key Control
o Defined as the management of keys in a plant or business organization to prevent unauthorized
individual access to the keys.

o Change Key - a key to a single lock

o Sub-Master Key - a key that can open all locks within a particular area or grouping.
o Master Key a special key capable of opening a series of locks
o Grand Master Key a key that can open everything in a system involving two or more master key

o A term used in England for lock picker, safecrackers, and penetrators of restricted areas or rooms.

False Key
o Genuine key stolen from the owner

Physical Barrier

Is defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring and delaying
unauthorized , or illegal, access into an installation.

Security guard
o Is any natural person who offers or renders personal service to watch or guard residential or
business premises or both, government and/or their premises for hire and compensation.

o Security Supervisor Is charged with directing the work and observing the behavioral performance
of the guard under his unit.

Protective barriers are divided into five (5) categories:

1. Human barrier, like guards, employees

2. Animal barrier, like dog, geese
3. Natural barrier , which are natural features, like river, cliff, mountain, ravine, forest, etc that delay or
make the entry of the Intruder more difficult.
4. Energy barrier, like electrical or electronic devices used to provide assistance to security
personnel/guards, i.e protective lighting, alarm system, etc
5. Structural barrier, which are man-made features that tend to delay the Intruder, such as walls, doors,
gates, fences, locks, etc.


Republic Act 5487, as amended The Private Security Agency Law, approved on June 13, 1969.

2003 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of RA 5487, as amended,

PNPSOSIA Philippine National Police Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency office under
the Civil Security Group which is charged with the supervision, direction and control of all security agencies
in the Republic.


Any Filipino citizen or corporation, association, partnership, one hundred percent of which is owned
and controlled by Filipino citizens.


a. Filipino citizen;
b. Not be less than twenty five (25) years of age;
c. College graduate and/or a commissioned officer in the inactive service or retired from the
d. Has taken a course/seminar on Industrial Security Management and/or must have adequate
training or experience in security business,
e. Good moral character;
f. Having no previous record of conviction of crime or offense involving moral turpitude.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. High School graduate;
3. Physically and mentally fit;
4. At least eighteen (18) years of age but not more than fifty (50) years old;
5. Has undergone Pre-Licensing course or its equivalent.
6. Veterans and retired military/police personnel honorably discharge including graduates of
ROTC advance (or its equivalent in the PNP) are exempted from the required Basic-
Licensing Training.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Holder of a Baccalaureate Degree;
3. Physically and mentally fit;
4. Has graduated from a Security Officer Training Course or its equivalent


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of Masters degree either in Criminology, Public Administration, MNSA, Industrial Security
Administration, or Law
4. Must have at least ten (10) years experience in the operation and management of security


o Any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission, other than members of the
AFP, BJMP, PNP or any other law enforcement agencies.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of baccalaureate degree, preferably Bachelor of Laws or Bachelor of Science in
4. Graduate of a Criminal Investigation Course offered by the PNP or NBI or any police training
school, or a detective training in any authorized/recognized training center;
5. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate or its equivalent


1. Having previous record of any conviction of any crime;

2. Having previous record of any conviction of any offense involving moral turpitude;
3. Having been dishonorably discharged or separated from employment or service;
3. Being a mental incompetent;
4. Being addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs, and
5. Being a habitual drunkard
6. Dummy of a foreigner

o It is an act of baseness, vileness or depravity in the private and social duties which a man owes to
his fellowmen or to society in general, contrary to the accepted and customary rule of right and duty
between a man and man.
o Conduct that is considered contrary to community standards of justice, honesty and good morals.
o Examples . Rape, Forgery, Robbery


1. Company Guard Force security force maintained and operated by any private
company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch secure and guard its establishment.

2. Security Agency service security guard belonging to privately licensed agency (contractual
3. Government Guard Forces security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other
than military or police.

1. One (1) firearm for every two (2) security guards;
2. Private security agency/private detective agency/company security force/government security
force shall not be allowed to possess firearms in excess of five hundred (500) units.
3. Shotguns not higher than 12 gauge
4. Weapons with bores not bigger than cal .22 to include pistols and revolvers with bores bigger
than cal .38

Exemptions: in areas where there is an upsurge of lawlessness and criminality as determined by the Chief
PNP, Regional Office or their authorized representative, they may be allowed to acquire, possess and use
high powered firearms.



1. Private Security Agency minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel
and a maximum of one thousand (1,000).

2. Company Guard Force/Private Detective Agency minimum of thirty (30) and a maximum of
One thousand (1,000)


1. No firearm shall be borne nor be in the possession of any private security personnel except
when in actual performance of duty, in the prescribed uniform, in the place and time so specified
in the Duty Detail Order (DDO).
2. Shall be carried only within the compound of the establishment where he is assigned to guard.
3. While escorting big amount of cash or valuable outside of its jurisdiction or area of operation,
private security agency shall issue an appropriate Duty Detail Order to the security personnel

Duty Detail Order (DDO) is a written order/schedule issued by a superior officer usually the private
security agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private
security/detective services duties.

o DDO for the purpose of post duties not requiring transport of firearms outside of the physical
compound or property of a client or client establishment shall be issued for not more than a thirty
(30) days duration


1. Basic Security Guard Course (Pre-Licensing Course) 150 hours;
2. Re-Training Course- 48 hours;
3. Security Officers Training Course 300 hours
4. Basic Security Supervisory Course 48 hours

All Licenses to Operate have a validity of Two (2) years;

All applications for renewal of License to operate (LTO) shall be filed at least sixty (60) days before
the expiry date of LTO;
No application shall be approved unless a certification is issued by FED-CSG to the effect that all
licenses of firearms of the agency are updated/renewed for at least one (1) year forthcoming during
the validity of the renewed LTO.

Approval, Cancellation, Suspension of LTO

Chief PNP
-Approval of New Regular LTO
-Cancellation of Regular LTO
-Re-instatement of Regular LTO
-Suspension of Regular LTO

Director Civil Security Group

Renewal of Regular LTO
Approval of Temporary LTO
Reversion of Regular to Temporary LTO
Cancellation of Temporary LTO
Suspension of Temporary LTO

Agency with 1 -199 guards P50,000.00
Agency with 200-499 guards P100,000.00
Agency with 500-799 guards P150,000.00
Agency with 800-1000 guards P200,000.00

1. Stocks of ammunition in the agency shall not exceed fifty (50) rounds of ammunition per unit of duly
licensed firearms.
2. Individual issue to each security guards shall be limited to twenty five (25) rounds for every security


1. When the firearm is about to be used in the commission of a crime;
2. When the firearm is actually being used in the commission of a crime;
3. When the firearm has just been used in the commission of a crime;
4. When the firearm being carried by the security guard is unlicensed or a firearm is not authorized by
law and regulation for his use;
5. When the confiscation of the firearm is directed by the order of the court;
6. When the firearm is used or carried outside the property, compound or establishment serviced by
the agency without proper authority; or
7. When a security guard does not possess any license to exercise his profession.
a. In all the above cases, the confiscating officer shall inform immediately the agency


1. Failure to submit any issued firearm for verification as required;
2. Carrying firearms by security personnel without appropriate Duty Detail Order;
3. When the firearm serial number has been duplicated on another firearm or using one firearms
license for more than one firearm other than those stipulated in the license;

4. Carrying of firearms outside of the place stated in the permit or in places prohibited under the
5. When the firearm was reported lost.


1. Security Management Staff
1.1 Security Director (SD) Agency Manager/Chief Security Officer responsible for the entire
operation and administration/management of the security agency.
1.2 Security Executive Director (SED) Assistant Agency Manager/Asst. Chief Security Officer
Assist the Security Director
1.3 Security Staff Director (SSD) Staff Director for Operation and Staff Director for
a. >The Staff Director for operation -assistant of the security manager for the efficient operation
of the agency.
b. >The Staff Director for Administration - is the staff assistant of the agency manager for the
effective and efficient administration and management of the agency.
c. 1.4Security Staff Director for Training- Staff in charge for Training responsible for the
training of the Agencys security personnel

2. Line Leadership Staff

2.1 Security Supervisor 3 Detachment Commander is the field or area commander of the
2.2 Security Supervisor 2 Chief Inspector responsible for inspecting the entire area covered by
the detachment;
2.3 Security Supervisor 1 Inspector responsible for the area assigned by the Chief Inspector or
the Detachment Commander.

3. Security guard
3.1 Security Guard 1 Watchman/guard- the one actually posted as watchman and or guard
3.2 Security Guard 2 Shift in- charge responsible for the security officers who are scheduled in
a certain shift for a particular period
3.3 Security Guard 3 Post in- charge responsible for the entire detailed security office within a
certain establishment.

Note: Security Agency operator/manager/owner can put its own staffing pattern provided it is
consistent with the provisions of IRR of RA 5487.


1. High caliber and receives higher salary;
2. Provides better service;
3. Can be trained to handle some of the more complex security duties;
4. More familiar with facilities they protect;
5. Tend to be more loyal with the company.

a. May be required to join the union;
b. Cost more;
c. Problem of ensuring availability of back-up personnel.


1. Less expensive;
2. Use is convenient;
3. Less administrative and personnel problems;
4. Agency assumes full responsibility for the scheduling and supervising of all guard personnel
5. Can easily obtain extra guard if needed;
6. Agency easily usually accepts liability of civil suits.

1. Lack of training, low caliber employee;
2. No loyalty to the company;
3. Large turnover
4. Not familiar with facilities

1. Alertness being watchful in spotting violator, a person, a vehicle or an incident;
2. Judgment sound and good judgment to arrive at wise and timely decisions;
3. Confidence faith in oneself and his abilities;
4. Physical Fitness always in a condition to render effective service even under the most strenuous
5. Tactfulness ability to deal with others successfully without offending;
6. Self Control ability to take hold of oneself regardless of a provoking situation.


1. Enforce company rules and regulations;
2. Operate and enforce the personnel identification system;
3. Patrol and observe designated areas, perimeter, structures, installation;
4. Take into custody a person attempting or giving unauthorized access in restricted, limited and
controlled areas
5. Check rooms, buildings, storage rooms of security interest and after working hours, check proper
locking of doors and gates.
6. Perform escort duties when required;
7. Respond to alarm signals or other indications suspicious activities and emergencies;
8. Safeguard equipment and material against sabotage, unauthorized access, loss, theft or damage;
9. At quickly in situations affecting the security of installation and personnel, to fire accidents, internal
disorder, attempts to commit criminal acts;
10. Control and regulate vehicle and personnel traffic within the compound as well as parking of vehicle;
11. Other duties that is necessary in the security guard function;


1. Territorial Power
A security guard shall watch and secure the property of the person, firm or establishment
with whom he or his agency has a contract for security services. Such services shall not
extend beyond the property or compound of said person, firm or establishment except when
required by the latter in accordance with the terms of their contract, or in hot pursuit of
criminal offenders.

2. Arrest by Security Guard

A security guard or private detective is not a police officer and is not, therefore, clothed with
police authority. However, he may arrest a person under the circumstances mentioned in
Section 5, Rule 113, Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure.

3. Search without Warrant

Any security guard may, incident to the arrest, search the person so arrested in the presence
of at least two (2) witnesses. He may search employees of the firm or establishment with
which he or his agency has a contract, when such search is required by the very nature of
the business of the person, firm or establishment.


a. All private security personnel in direct confrontation with strikers, marchers or demonstrators shall
not carry firearms. They may carry only night sticks (baton) which may or may not be provided with
tear gas canister and dispenser. Security personnel not in direct confrontation with the strikers may
carry in the usual prescribed manner their issued firearm.
b. Private Security personnel shall avoid direct contact either physically or otherwise with the strikers;

c. They shall stay only within the perimeter of the installation which they are protecting at all times;
d. In protecting and securing the assets and persons of their clients, shall only use sufficient and
reasonable force necessary to overcome the risk or danger posed by strikers or hostile crowds.
e. They shall refrain from abetting or assisting acts of management leading to physical clash of forces
between labor and management.
f. They must at all times be in complete uniform with their names and agencys name shown on their
shirts above the breast pockets.


1. Background Investigation;

2. Locating missing person;
3. Conduct surveillance work;
4. Such other detective work as may become the subject matter of contract between the agency and its
clients. Except not contrary to law, public order, public policy morale and good custom.


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamity when the services of any security
agency/entity and his personnel are needed. The city or municipal mayor, may muster or
incorporate the members of the agency or agencies nearest the area of such disaster or
calamity to help in the maintenance of peace and order, prevention of crime, or apprehension
of violators of laws and ordinance, and in the protection of lives and properties.
They shall receive direct orders from the Chief of Police of the city or municipality for the
duration of the emergency, disaster or calamity.


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamities, the Chief, PNP may deputize any security
guard to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties for the duration of such emergency,
disaster or calamity. Licensed guards, who are actually assigned to clients with DDO, shall be
deputized by the Chief, PNP, and clothed with authority to enforce laws, rules and regulations within
his area of responsibility.


1. Private security personnel are always subordinate to members of the PNP on matters pertaining to
law enforcement and crime prevention. They cannot enforce any provision of the law except in
executing citizens arrest and/or conducting initial investigation of a commission of a crime. In such
case, any arrested person shall be turned over immediately to the nearest PNP unit/station.
2. Criminal investigation is the responsibility of the PNP. All results of initial investigation conducted by
the private security personnel and all evidence gathered by them shall be turned over to the PNP
unit/station concerned as a matter of course without delay.


1. Assisting or protecting criminals during on or off duty status;
2. Providing confidential information to unauthorized person;
3. Posted security guard found drunk or drinking intoxicating liquor; and
4. Other similar acts


Theft committed by any person, who with intent to gain but without violence, against, or
intimidation of persons nor force upon things shall take personal property of another without the latter


a. The need or desire . An individual may need or desire to commit the act because of
financial problem, inadequate income, extravagant living, gambling.
b. The psychological need (Kleptomania) -is an irresistible urge to steal items of trivial value.
People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally, but not limited to, objects
of little or no significant value.
c. The criminal tendency. The individual with such tendency may be more tempted to steal if
security control are inadequate.


Casual Pilferer One who steals due to his inability to resist the unexpected opportunity and has a little
fear of detection.
Systematic Pilferer One who steals with preconceived plans and takes away any or all types of items or
supplies for economic gain.

COMMUNICATION SECURITY is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which
prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized persons in gaining information through the communication
system. This includes:

a. Transmission Security component of communications security which results from all
measures designed to protect transmission from interception.
b. Cryptographic Security results from the provisions of technically sound crypto-system
and their proper use.
c. Physical Security providing safeguards to equipment and material from access by
unauthorized persons.


a. Wiretapping - is the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert

b. Bugging means to secretly listen to or record a conversation using a hidden electronic
c. Eavesdropping (unauthorized listening)- is the unauthorized real-time interception of a
private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax

RA No. 4200, Approved June 19, 1965

An Act to prohibit and penalize wiretapping and other related violations of privacy of communication,
and other purposes.

Unlawful Acts
Sec. 1
It shall be unlawful for any person, not being authorized by all the parties to any private
communication or spoken word, to tap any wire or cable, or by using any other device or arrangement, to
secretly overhear, intercept, or record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly
known as a dictaphone or dictagraph or dictaphone or walkie-talkie or tape recorder

It shall also be unlawful for any person, be he a participant or not in the act or acts penalized in the next
preceding sentence, to knowingly possess any tape record, wire record, disc record, or any other such
record, or copies thereof, of any communication or spoken word secured either before or after the effective
date of this Act in the manner prohibited by this law; or to replay the same for any other person or persons;
or to communicate the contents thereof, either verbally or in writing, or to furnish transcriptions thereof,
whether complete or partial, to any other person:

Provided, That the use of such record or any copies thereof as evidence in any civil, criminal
investigation or trial of offenses mentioned in section 3 hereof, shall not be covered by this prohibition.

Sec. 3

Nothing contained in this Act, however, shall render it unlawful or punishable for any peace officer,
who is authorized by a written order of the Court, to execute any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the
two preceding sections in cases involving the crimes of treason, espionage, provoking war and disloyalty in
case of war, piracy, mutiny in the high seas, rebellion, conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion, inciting
to rebellion, sedition, conspiracy to commit sedition, inciting to sedition, kidnapping as defined by the
Revised Penal Code, and violations of Commonwealth Act No. 616, punishing espionage and other
offenses against national security:


The authorization shall be effective for the period specified in the order which shall not exceed sixty
(60) days from the date of issuance of the order, unless extended or renewed by the court upon being
satisfied that such extension or renewal is in the public interest.

The court referred to in this section shall be understood to mean the Court of First Instance within
whose territorial jurisdiction the acts for which authority is applied for are to be executed.

Bank Security
A specialized type of physical security protecting the assets, personnel and operation of a bank, with
special emphasis on the precaution and measures to safeguard the cash and assets while in s
storage, in transit, and during transaction.

Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Circular No. 620 Issued on September 3, 2008 a Circular
issued by BSP concerning regulations on Bank protection which aims to promote maximum
protection of life and property against crimes (robbery, theft, etc), and other destructive causes.

Guard System
BSP requires that all banking offices be manned by adequate number of security personnel to be
determined by the bank, taking into consideration its size, location, costs and overall bank protection

Security Devices
Banks are required to have a robbery alarm or other appropriate device for promptly notifying law
enforcement office either directly or through an intermediary of an attempted, ongoing or perpetrated

In armored Car operations

All armored vehicles are required to be built with bullet resistant materials capable of withstanding
the firepower of high powered firearm (M16, M14). Also equipped with a vault or safe or a partition
wall with a combination lock designed to prevent retrieval of the cargo while in transit.

Document And Information Security

Security involving the protection of documents and information from loss, access by unauthorized
Prescribes the policies and establishes the standard basic procedures governing the classification
and security of official matter.

General Principles
1. The authority and responsibility for the preparation and classification of classified matter rest
exclusively with the originating office;
2. Classified matter should be classified according to content and not the classification of the
file in which they are held or of another document to which they refer;
3. Classification should be made as soon as possible by placing the appropriate marks on the
matter to be classified;

4. Each individual whose duty allows access to classified matter is responsible for the
protection of the classified matter while it is in his/her possession and shall insure that
dissemination of such classified matter is on the need to know basis and to property
cleared personnel only.


Any material that contains marks, symbols, or signs, either visible, partially visible or completely
invisible that may be presently or ultimately convey a meaning or message to someone.

Refers to the act of assigning to information or material one of the four security classification
categories after determination has been made that the information requires the security protection
as provided for in the regulation;

Is an administrative determination that an individual is eligible from a security standpoint for access
to classified matter of a specific category;

Refers to the grant of access to classified matter only to properly cleared persons when such
classified information is required in the performance of their official duties, and restricting it to
specific physical confine when feasible.

Term given to the requirement that the dissemination of classified matters be limited strictly to those
persons whose official duties require knowledge thereof.


-Memorandum Circular No. 196, dated 07/19/1968 (Security of Classified Matter in government offices.)

1. TOP SECRET any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would cause
exceptionally grave damage to the nation, politically, economically or militarily;
2. SECRET- any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would endanger
national security, cause serious injury to the interest or prestige of the nation or any governmental
3. CONFIDENTIAL any information and materials, the unauthorized disclosure of which would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or governmental activity or would cause
administrative embarrassment or unwarranted injury.
4. RESTRICTED any information and material which requires special protection other than those
determined to be Confidential, Secret, and Top Secret matters.

1. By direct contact of officer or personnel concerned;
2. By official courier;
3. Electrical means in cryptographic form
4. Registered Mail

1. Burning
2. Shredding

Shall be in a safe, steel filing cabinet with built in dial type combination lock of such weight, size and
construction as to minimize the possibility of physical theft or damage to fire.

Part of physical security that deals primarily with the protection of processes, formulas, patents, and
other industrial and manufacturing activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or

1. The Creation Information is discovered and develop;
2. Used Some action is take with the information;
3. Storage and Retrieval Stored for future use;
4. Transfer transferring of information from active to inactive use;
5. Disposition decision may be made to retain the information indefinitely.


information which some special way is related to the status, operations or activities of the possessor
over which the possessor asserts ownership.

It may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in ones
business and which gives one opportunity to gain an advantage over competitors who do not know
or use it.

A grant given by the government to an inventor, conveying and securing to him the exclusive rights
to make, use and sell his invention for term of twenty (20) years.


6, 1997



Competitive Intelligence systematic program for gathering and analyzing information about competitors
activities and general business trends to further companys goals.

Types of Competitive Intelligence

1. White information available from company publication, public records or commercial reporting
2. Gray not readily available but which is usually can be obtained without acquiring any
civil/criminal liability in the process.
3. Black obtained through clearly unethical or illegal means.

Class I Vital Document This is an irreplaceable records , reproduction of which does not have
the same value as the original;
Class II Important Document- This is a record, reproduction of which cause considerable
expense and labor, or considerable delay.
Class III Useful Document This is a record, the loss of which may cause inconvenience but
could be readily replaced and may not present insurmountable obstacle to the prompt restoration of
the business;
Class IV- Non essential Document This record may include daily files, routine in nature, lost of
which will not affect the organization.

1. SAFE a metallic container used for safekeeping of documents or small items in office or
2. VAULT a heavily constructed fire and burglar resistant container usually part of the building
structure use to keep and protect cash, documents and negotiable instruments.
3. FILE ROOM a cubicle in a building constructed a little lighter than a vault but of bigger size to
accommodate limited people to work on the records inside,

Refers to the procedure followed, inquiries conducted, and criteria applied to determine the work
suitability of a particular applicant or the retention of a particular employee.

1. To ensure that hired employees are best suited to assist the organization in achieving its mission
and vision;
2. To assist in providing the necessary security to the employees while they carry out their functions.


It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals, and loyalty of an individual
in order to determine a persons suitability for appointment or access to classified matter.

National Agency Check
Local Agency Check
Partial Background Investigation
Complete Background Investigation


It is an inquiry which aims to verify applicants information written at the applicants form, to ascertain
his/her past employment experiences and to obtain other information pertinent to the decision to


1. Loyalty faithful allegiance to the Philippine government and its duly constitutional authorities;
2. Integrity uprightness in character, soundness of moral principle, freedom from moral

3. Discretion the ability or tendency to act or to decide with prudence, the habit of wise judgment;
4. Morals distinctive identifying qualities which serve as an index to the essential or intrinsic nature of
a person;
5. Character the sum of traits that have been impresses by nature, education and habit upon the
6. Reputation opinion or estimation in which one is generally held. It is what a person is reported to
be whereas character is what a person is.

1. Prior Employment;
2. Claimed education;
3. Claimed residence for the period covered in the employment and educational institutes;
4. If the candidate indicates a criminal record, then the details should be checked.

a. Information sought should be relevant;
b. Information should be reliable;
c. If unfavorable, the information should be confirmed by at least two sources.

A fact finding probe to determine a plants adequacy in all aspects of security, with the
corresponding recommendations.
Refers to checklist, audits, or inventories of security conditions.
Security Surveys are often called RISK ANALYSIS SURVEYS or RISK ASESSMENT


1. To determine the existing state of security;
2. Identifying weaknesses in defense;
3. To determine the degree of protection required;
4. To produce recommendations for a total security systems.

The survey should be undertaken by either suitably trained staff security personnel, or a fully
qualified independent security specialist.
No universal checklist can be applied to all sites for survey purposes, as no two facilities are alike.


1. Written authority should be obtained from proper authority.
2. Previous surveys should be reviewed;
3. An orientation tour should be made;
a. 4. Photographs should be taken of things which will be difficult to describe in a report. (Only with

After completing the survey an immediate review of the findings should be undertaken with the plant
supervisor so that urgent deficiencies can be addressed.
A follow-up survey should always be conducted to ensure improvements
Any survey report including lists of recommendations is incomplete without including a
cost-benefit analysis, which is ;

A direct comparison of the cost of operation of the security unit and all the existing security
measures with the amount of the corporate assets saved or recovered as well as reduction of losses
caused by injuries and lost production and recommendations have been made.

Process of developing methods or procedures or an arrangement of parts intended to facilitate the
accomplishment of a definite objective.
The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish
the goals.

Security Planning
It is PRE-DETERMINING a course of action;
It is deciding IN ADVANCE what to do, how to do it, and who is to do it.

Goals Of Security Planning
1. To minimize effects of any incident upon plant and personnel;
2. To keep property and equipment loss at a minimum;
3. To ensure cooperation of all plant departments charged with specific activities of an
4. To ensure appropriate cooperative action by and with outside civic and government

Key Steps In Planning

1. Get in touch/coordinate with your Local Civil Authorities. (Tie your programs with theirs and
standardize equipment with them thus creating compatibility.);
2. Visit neighboring Plants/offices (coordinate your activities with theirs.);
3. Survey your plant for possible hazards and take immediate action to lessen or eliminate
4. Appoint a disaster Director or Disaster coordinator;
5. Early in the planning stage, present the Program to your Employees and enlist their active
6. Call an organization meeting of Heads of services, employee representatives and key
personnel. (out line purpose of the program and explain how the plant should organize for
7. Define the Program.

Testing the Plan

Benefits in testing the plan
Deficiencies will be uncovered;
People involved in the implementation of the plan will receive valuable training.

Two Types of Testing The Plan

Partial (by elements);
Complete (entire organization)

Keeping the Plan Up To Date

Changes in Personnel and Facilities

Security Education
It is defined as the exposure and teaching of employees on security and its relevance to their work.
Security education is conducted to develop security awareness among employees of the company.
It should cover all employees, regardless of rank or position.

Personal Security
Protection of personnel especially ranking official from any harm, kidnap, and others act. VIP
security is type of personnel security;

Police Security Protection Group (PSPG)

Is mandated by law to provide protective security to government officials, foreign dignitaries, and
private individuals authorized to be given protection and also provide physical security to vital
installations, and assist the Presidential Security Group (PSG) in securing the President and the
members of the First Family.

Protective Custody
State or quality of being secured or freed from danger. It may also includes the various means or
device designed to guard a persons and property against a broad range of security hazard.

Is an indication of something impending and usually undesirable or unpleasant, with an intention to
inflict evil, injury or damage on another, usually as retribution or punishment for something done or
left undone. It is an expression of an intention to inflict loss or harm on another by illegal means, and
especially by involving coercion or duress over the person or his welfare.

Threat Assessment
The process of investigation/validating the truthfulness of the existence of threat to an individual.

Emergency Situation
Condition or state that danger has already occurred which resulted to loss of life/liberty and/or there
is imminent danger or threat to life and property where delay will endanger or may cause the loss of


1. Access List
Authenticated list of personnel given to the security allowing entry to a compound or installation or
part thereof;
2. Controlled Area
In area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where entry is restricted;
3. Dry-run
Practical test or exercise of plans or any activity to test its validity, an operational readiness
4. Duress Code
Type of code system so that security personnel or any employee when forced by armed men
intending to enter an installation can five alarm by the use of certain words in casual
conversation with personnel in the installation.
5. Exclusion Area
restricted area containing materials or operation of security interest;
6. Restricted area
Any area access to which is subject to special restriction control;
7. Security Hazard
Is any act or condition, which may result in the compromise of information, loss of life, loss or
destruction of property or disruption of objectives of the installation.


1. Industrial Security
A form of physical security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard
personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents, and
to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage or theft.

2. Bank Security
Is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which safeguards cash and
assets which are in storage, in transit and or during transaction.

3. Operational Security
Involves the protection of processes, formulas and patents, industrial and manufacturing
activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or photocopying.

Safety is everybodys responsibility

Is freedom from harm or the danger of harm. The word safety also refers to the precautions people
take to prevent accidents.
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY, area of safety engineering and public health, which deals with the protection of
workers health through control of the work environment to reduce or eliminate hazards.

Industrial accidents and unsafe working conditions can result in temporary or permanent injury,
illness , or even death. Industrial accidents also take a toll in reduced efficiency and loss of

SAFETY ENGINEERING, In recent years, safety engineers have attempted to develop a systems approach
(termed safety engineering) to industrial accident prevention. Because accidents arise from the interaction
of workers and their work environment, both must be carefully examined to reduce the risk of injury.
Injury can result from poor working conditions, the use of improperly designed equipment and tools,
fatigue, distraction, lack of skill, and risk taking.
Unsafe Act
A violation of an accepted safe procedure which could permit the occurrence of an accident.

Unsafe Condition
A hazardous physical condition or circumstance which could directly permit the occurrence of an

It relates to any undesired or unwanted event that could (or does) degrade the efficiency of the
business operation resulting in the loss. The incident could be an accident on quality or production
problem or even breach to security (theft). Effective management principle can be used to eliminate
or control downgrading incidents that affect production and quality as well as such areas are safely.


It relates to any undesired events that result to a physical harm (injury/illness) to a person or
damage to property. It is usually the result of a contact with a source of energy (i.e. kinetic, electrical,
chemical, thermal, etc.)
Sources of Accidents/Incidents: People, Equipment, Materials, Environment

Safety Inspection

Is the quality control of accident prevention. As such, it is the procedures of any well established and
proper program of accident loss control.



Greek word, origin of the word Police.
= The Romans changed it to POLITIA and the French to Police and applied it to those persons who
actually enforce the law.

PATROUILLER - Origin of the word PATROL, meaning rough by, to travel on foot.


1. Patrol is the only unit working round the clock.
2. Patrol is the working horse of the Police Department.
4. Patrol is the Backbone of Police Department.
5. Patrol is the Operational Heart of Police Organization in crime prevention.
6. Patrol is the Show Window of Police Department
7. Patrol is the center or focal point of all police activities.
8. Patrol is very vital to police organization because society cannot exist without people who will help
maintain law and order.


The history of patrol is as old as organized society. Men have always needed protection, first from
animals, and then his own kind. His first attempt is to protect himself and his family which involves
barricading the entrance to his cave.

Boston = in 1636 formed the first Night Watch
New York = after 20 years, formed a Ratelwatch
Philadelphia = 20th century, formed a Watchman, a system of obligated duty for citizens
The American Watchman was called Leatherheads because they wore varnished
leather hats.
1833 = Philadelphia instituted the first daytime paid police service.
1844 = New York organized the First Modern American Police Force based on English
Metropolitan Police System.
Pendleton Act of 1883 = an act that established the Civil Service for federal employees
1920s modern period in patrol began with the use of automobile patrol and voice radio

Section 2275, Book III, Title IX, Art. XI of the Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines =
authorizes a mayor upon approval of the governor to require all able-bodied male residents
between the ages of 18 and 30 year old, to assist for a period of five days in any one month in
apprehending outlaws or other law breakers and act as PATROLS for the protection of municipality,
not exceeding one day in each week.
Metropolitan Police Force (MPF) = established as the police force in Manila on January 9, 1901
Gen. Arthur McArthur (Father of Douglas MacArthur) = first District Director of MPF
July 31, 1901 = MPF evolved into Manila Police Department (MPD)
Goldenberg Mansion = initial headquarters of MPD located along Gen. Solano St., San Miguel,
Manila and then moved to Manila City Hall where it stayed until 1945 and after WWII in United
Nations where it stands today.
1978 = MPD underwent another transformations with its integration into the Integrated National
Police (INP)
1986 = MPD further evolved into the Western Police District (WPD) Command.
July 20, 2005 = WPD was renamed Manila Police District pursuant to General Order 05-10
Captain George Curry = first chief of Police of Manila
Col. Antonio C. Torres = first Filipino Police Chief
December 8, 1941 = Col. Torres declared Manila as an open city
Col. Lamberto T. Javalera = first Filipino Chief of Police of Manila, appointed by Pres. Manuel

1939 the Manila Police District introduced the bicycle patrol.
March 17, 1954 Automobile Patrol was introduced in Metro Manila.
Isaias Alma Jose first chief of Mobile Patrol of MPD


1. Crime Prevention it includes crime suppression
2. Crime Solution covers investigation of crimes
3. Traffic Management covers direction and control, traffic accident investigation


I. Patrol as the Backbone of Police Organization
Patrol is the single largest element in the police organization. The actions taken by the
officers have direct impact on the citizens.
Patrol provides the ears and eyes of the department.

II. Patrol as the Essence of Police Function

Patrol is the only police service that directly attempts to eliminate the desire and
opportunity to commit crime.

III. Patrol as the Operational Heart of Police Organization

The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization.


1. Crime Prevention and Suppression
2. Crime Investigation
a. Preliminary Investigation

3 Purposes
1. To determine what, if any, crime has been committed.
2. To determine who has jurisdiction.
3. To attempt the immediate apprehension of the suspect.

P = Proceed to the scene with safety and dispatch

R = Render assistance to the injured
E = Effect arrest of the perpetrator
L = Locate and identify the perpetrator
I = Interview complainants and witnesses
M = Maintain scene and protect evidence
I = Interrogate suspects
N = Note all conditions, events
A = Arrange for collection of evidence
R = Report incident fully and accurately
Y = Yield Responsibility to investigators
Follow-up Investigation

Collection of Evidence

Crime Reporting

3. Law Enforcement
Primary function of the police the greatest responsibility is on patrol officers because of the nature of
their duties.
4. Maintenance of Social Order
Fundamental and primary obligation of the police department which includes the element of Peace
considered as the most important function performed by the patrol officers.
5. Police Service
It is one that creates confusion and discord among police authorities in which police officers should
provide public service or social service which is an important part of police patrol.




a. Protection of Life and Property

b. Preservation of Peace and Order
c. Prevention of Crime
d. Suppression of Criminal Activities
e. Apprehension of Criminals
f. Enforcement of Laws and Ordinances
g. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct
h. Performing Necessary Services and Inspection


1. To prevent the commission of crime.

2. To safeguard life and property.
3. To maintain peace and order.


The duties and objectives of police patrol are many, but the basic duties could probably be summed up
in two words, protection, and service.


1. Preventive Enforcement
Preventive enforcement falls under the heading of protection, and involves the prevention of crime
through the noticeable presence of police vehicles and personnel.
Sir Robert Peel first presented preventive enforcement as a criminological philosophy. And
this had been regarded as the soundest of all criminological theories. It is much easier to patch
a crack in the dike than to repair the wall after it has broken. An ounce of prevention being worth a
pound of cure.

2. Selective Enforcement
This involves going either where the trouble is, or where the trouble likely to occur.
If a certain area is subject to a high crime rate, the patrol cars spend a greater part of their patrolling
time in that area.
3. Traffic Enforcement
Large police departments have traffic divisions, but the majorities of the departments are small, and
have only patrol division to handle traffic enforcement.
Traffic enforcement is strongly dependent upon personal contact between the patrol officers and the
violators. The important thing is that the violator is stopped and the violation is brought to his

4. Emergency Call for Service

One of the duties and purposes of patrol is the handling of emergency calls for service. Since the
handling of emergency calls for service is one of the basic duties of the patrol officer, he should be
trained in first aid and water life-saving emergencies.
5. Routine Call for Service
Routine call account for the majority of services provided by the patrol division. Because of this,
officers have to guard against becoming callused and indifferent to calls of this nature.


1. Called for Service = incidents requiring immediate police action
2. Inspectional Service = patrol activity tends to reduce criminal opportunity and accidents
3. Routine Patrol = directed at less tangible hazards such as poor lighted areas, business section, etc.


1. Resident and transient populations in the business and tourist district, and University belt
2. Number and types of crimes and arrests
3. Location of crimes and arrests
4. Traffic collision statistics and patterns
5. Location of frequent incidents or hazard requiring concentrated police coverage
6. Disproportionate concentration of population
7. Socio-economic factors

8. Zoning plan of the city
9. Size and shape of Area of Responsibility (AOR)
10. Location, size and access to parks and recreational facilities
11. Age, gender and civil status ratio of population
12. Homogeneity of population
13. Modes of transportation and location of criminals
14. Number and qualification of officers available for field duties
15. Level of trust and confidence of the people to the police


Patrol force an organization within an organization. It serves as the nucleus or focal point of the
department. Functions are distributed as follows:

1. Patrol Function = 50%

2. Criminal Investigation = 15%
3. Traffic Functions = 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile Related Functions = 10%
5. Administrative Functions = 10%
6. Auxiliary Functions = 5%

Manning Level of Patrol Force

The patrol unit must have the most number of personnel.
Rule of the Thumb regarding manning level of any police department must be observed.
R.A. 6975 standard manning level is 1:500, however, in extreme conditions, this may be stretched to
maximum of 1:100.


1. Police Hazard
Situations or conditions that may induce incidents calling for some kind of police action.
Includes any person, place, thing, situation, condition possessing a high potential for criminal attack
or for creation of any other type of problem necessitating a demand for immediate police service.


a. Persons = such as criminals, alcoholics, addicts, gamblers, prostitutes, drug peddlers, juvenile
delinquents, insane persons
b. Property = includes piers, warehouse, unoccupied dwellings, gambling joints, banks,
pawnshops, drug dens, gambling dens
c. Places = terminals, demonstrations, parks, bars, parades, conventions, political meetings,
lodging houses, schools, athletic events


a. Deficient Visibility = resulting from inadequate illumination or obstruction of views

b. Insecurity of Premises = created by the absence of suitable locks, bars and gratings
c. Presence of Conditions of Things = poorly designed roadways, defects or obstruction in public
spaces and presence of combustibles

d. Presence of People = crowd offers opportunities for theft, loss of persons or things, fights and
e. Lack of regulation

2. Chronological Distribution

Involves consideration of the nature and causes of crimes. Patrol officers should know how crimes
are committed, when and who commits them.

Crime Clock = signifies what time crime is often or frequently committed

Crime Map = location or place or crime prone areas wherein crime is frequently or often committed.

3. Geographical Distribution
Involves weighing categories of incidents and accounting the number of identifiable hazards and
street mileage.

4. Walking Beats
It involved determining man hours needed to cover the streets and alleys to inspect the police
hazards predominating the AOR.

5. Motor Patrol Distribution

Involves determining the need to shift motor patrol units hour-by-hour at the area according to where
and when crime mostly likely to occur.

1. Regular Post - Assigning members to regular/usual post which usually based on seniority.
2. Post Rotation - Is the process of assigning members of patrol force from post to post


1. General Preparation - Attitude is the first and foremost preparation of patrol officer since he will be
dealing with different persons in the society. His value system must be in harmony with the objective
of law enforcement and sense of fair play.

2. Pre-Patrol Preparation the police officer should be armed with knowledge and equipment. This
can be done thru fall-in formation in the headquarters, precincts or police blocks devoted to giving of

3. Vehicle Inspection involves inspection of patrol vehicle to be used before going out on patrol

4. In-Field Preparation this is made by having debriefing conference with the officer who is being
relieved and who has just spent the previous tour of duty.

5. District Orientation Tour this involves familiarization of assigned area for patrolling upon arrival
in the field.

This refers to thorough geographical knowledge of the patrol area or an understanding of the
character, fears, concerns, problems and attitudes of the local residents


1. Post a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty
2. Route a length of street or streets designated for patrol purposes
3. Beat area assigned for foot patrol purposes
4. Sector area containing two or more beats, routes or posts


1. Foot Patrol it is the most expensive type of patrol in terms of human resources and most
departments had reduced their foot patrols to a minimum because of this. However, it does have certain
advantages that warrant its continued use if even on a limited basis.
Usually, foot patrol is used to secure two types of geographical units:
a. Post
b. Beat

Types of Foot Patrol

1. Fixed Foot Patrol usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and special events.
2. Mobile Foot Patrol used where there is considerable foot movement such as business and
shopping center, family dwellings and the like.
a. Line Beat Patrol used in securing certain portion of the road.
b. Random Foot Patrol used in checking residential buildings, business establishments, dark
alley, parking lots

Foot Patrol Procedures and Techniques

1. Dont establish a set of patterns of patrol.

2. When checking doors for forced entry, use flashlight on or around the clock to see if there are
noticeable jimmy marks.
3. When an open door is found, NEVER ENTER ALONE.

4. At least once a night use the fire escapes to check the roof in the downtown area for possible cut
through burglaries as they are sometimes referred to.
5. Be alert for boxes that are being pulled up behind building, or ropes that are hanging down the sides
of building, or ladders that might have been used to gain access to a roof.
6. At night time, the foot patrol officer should occasionally step into alleys or store entrance,
and get out of the light as much as possible.
7. When patrolling at night, always approach each building with caution, always assume that a
felon may be lurking inside.
8. Know the personalities in the area, particularly wanted person, establishments which usually fall
prey to armed robbery and burglary.
9. Walk close to the curb during day time and close to the building during night time. The
objective of patrolling during night time is to be seen by as few people as possible and to catch the
criminals in the act.
10. Foot patrol must walk his best during all type of weather.
11. A foot patrol officer should never smoke while in uniform on the street, nor should chew gum.
12. The foot patrol officer should make a conscious effort to make friends on the beat.
13. Use all five senses while walking the beat.

Advantages of the Foot Patrol

1. The foot patrolman can provide immediate traffic control when it is needed.
2. More person-to-person contact can be made with the public.
3. The officer can actually get to know the physical layout of his beat better.
4. He can also get to know the people in his beat better, and can develop criminal informants easier.
5. A foot officer can sneak up on situation, where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches.
6. By the use of a two-way radio, the officer can maintain communications with the department and the
mobile unit.

Disadvantages of Foot Patrol

1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage

2. Low response time to telephone complaints
3. It involves large numbers of personnel.

2. Automobile Patrol is the most economical type of patrol and offers tactical ability when used in
numbers. It is considered as the most extensively used and most effective means of transportation for
police patrol.

Features of State-of-the-Art Patrol Car

1. Vehicle-Mounted TV high resolution video camera with wide angle lens

2. Mobile Data Terminal (MDT) computer that allow officers in patrol cars to access files from NHQ and
other Law Enforcement agencies
3. High-Intensity Emergency Lighting Plan (HELP) a heavy duty light that can provide 2 million candle
power of light.

Automobile Patrol Techniques and Procedures

1. Check the police car thoroughly before leaving the garage.

2. Do not establish route patterns in patrolling.
3. Do not develop the habit of using the main roads, most criminal activity occurs at the back streets.

4. Do not spent too much time in drive-inns or coffee spots.

5. Always take note the plate number of suspicious vehicles.
6. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol except during emergencies in pursuing criminals. Maintain a
cruising speed of 20-25kph.
7. Make it a habit to never leave the keys in the police car, even if it is just for a minute.
8. Since we are creators of habits, a police officer must make a habit to use the seat belt at all times.
9. Frequently get out of the car to be visible and accessible to the public.
10. Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or signboard to trap traffic violators, this may erode community
11. Park the patrol car in legal manner unless, in case of emergency.

12. Patrol the district so that patrol car will be seen by the greatest number of people, frequently turning
the corners and covering the side streets as well as the main thoroughfares.
13. Whatever patrol pattern is used, do it in irregular and unpredictable manner.
14. When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact should be made with other units in the field.
15. When patrolling with a partner, divide the observation area inside the vehicle
a. Driving Officer must cover 100% of his vision in front.
b. Passenger Officer cover a field of view twice more than the driving officer. Take into
consideration the safe operation of patrol vehicle.
c. Driver and passenger officer must be alert for possible informants


1. Routine Call a call where mobile car is required to observed the traffic laws and does not normally
used flashing lights and siren while on its way to the scene of the crime
2. Urgent Call the responding patrol car has to observed the traffic laws without need of using
flashing lights and siren but proceed directly to its destination without stopping en-route unless
incident of far more serious occurs
3. Emergency Call requires the use of flashing lights and siren except when there is an attempt to
surprise the criminals in the act.

Advantages of the Automobile Patrol

1. Where speed and mobility are needed such as in a large area that must be covered by few officers,
the speed of the automobile allow them to service the whole area and do so efficiently.
2. It is one of the best means of Preventive Enforcement.
3. It offers the officer protection.
4. It permits the officer to carry extra equipment.
5. The patrol car allows the police officer to have a partner when needed, and to transport one or
several prisoners.
6. In the case of station wagons, which are becoming popular as patrol vehicles, they can be used to
carry police dogs on patrol and emergency ambulance during disaster.
7. Patrol cars can be used as barricades in roadblocks, and they offer a high degree of safety during
high-speed pursuits.

Disadvantages of Automobile Patrol

1. It diminishes personal contact with the public and sources of information

2. It hampers apprehension and surveillance operations

One Man Versus the Two Man Automobile Patrol

One Man Patrol Car

1. Having twice as many police cars on the street doubles the preventive enforcement.
2. When the officer is alone he devotes full attention to his driving and the beat rather than to the
conversation with his partner.
4. A one man alone developed self-reliance.
5. Personality clashes are reduced.

Two Man Patrol Car

1. A two-man patrol car provides the officer with a greater safety factor by doubling the firepower and
the physical protection.
2. The mistakes that one-man make may be caught by his partner, and vice versa.
3. One officer does not have to drive a full eight hours, and he is therefore more rested and can do a
better job.
4. Two pair of eyes is better than one.
6. One man can operate the radio while the other drives.
7. On the quiet night, the driver can have someone to talk to and help keep him awake.

3. Motorcycle Patrol
The two-wheeled motorcycle is quite adaptable to traffic enforcement, parades, escort duty and
congested areas because of its high mobility. Motorcycle Patrol is usually fielded in areas where
banks and pawnshops are concentrated.

It has the disadvantages of being used only in fair weather, of causing a greater number of accidents
which are usually quite serious, and in the long run costing the department almost as much as a
patrol vehicle despite the apparent low first cost.

4. Bicycle Patrol
It is considered as the simple and inexpensive means of silent transportation in patrol operation. Its
versatility makes it indispensable for covering crowded areas unreachable by automobile and

Advantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. It has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth

2. Inexpensive to operate
3. It can cover areas not accessible by motorcycle or patrol cars.
4. Effectively used by plainclothes officers on surveillance.
5. It is quiet in patrolling without alerting the criminal, thus the element of surprise is attained.
6. Found effective in combating theft, burglary, vandalism in residential areas, parks and shopping malls
which difficult to be covered by foot patrol.
7. Expedite the delivery of police assistance in congested areas.
8. Biking is a good form of exercise to maintain fine physique and good health.

Disadvantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. Transport of apprehended criminals is difficult.

2. There is limited chances of bringing equipment needed by patrol officers in patrolling.

5. Horse Patrol
Next to walking patrol, the horse patrol is one of the oldest types of patrol. It is useful in areas where
in automobile or motorcycle is suitable for patrolling.
The following are some of the more common uses of the Horse patrol:
a. Park Patrol
b. Beach Patrol
c. Parade and Crowd Control

- Mounted officers can see three blocks away than on foot patrol

6. Marine or Boat Patrol

This is specialized type of patrol which is used in large bodies of water for the purpose of
controlling smuggling.
The recorded history of our earliest civilization indicates the use of tariffs. Where there are tariffs
there is smuggling, and the control of smuggling in any community near water necessitates the use
of water patrol.

7. Air Patrol
A type of patrol using Helicopter or Fixed-Wing Aircraft. This is considered as the most economical
type of patrol in terms of human resources.

1925 Los Angeles County Sheriff Department formed a volunteer Reserved Aero Squadron
Before 1929 NYPD began using aircraft
1947 New York Port Authority began using helicopters for surveillance, transportation and rescue
1986 State of California developed an experimental program using helicopters for police patrolling
1959 Public Safety Department in Dade County in Florida used aerial patrol concept.

Advantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. Patrolling of long stretches of highway of inaccessible land.

2. Excellent of traffic control in long stretches of highways, for search and surveillance and other
special missions.

Disadvantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. It has very little flexibility in congested areas.

2. Needs wide span of flat land for lift and landing.

3. Very expensive to procure and maintain.

Advantages of Helicopter Patrol

1. Agency calls foe service.

2. Increase apprehension of offenders.
3. Increase prevention of crime.
4. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through air borne information.
5. Increase ability in conducting roof searches for suspected felons.
6. Easier location of both lost and escaped persons.
7. More efficient rescue operations and emergency ambulance service.
8. A better system of floodlighting areas at night.
9. Information can be broadcast to large areas through airborne loudspeakers.
10. Able to travel at low speed, to hover if necessary, and to land in small patch of flat land.
11. Added security to patrol officers through backup offered by aerial patrol.
12. Possible use in fire fighting.

Disadvantages of helicopter Patrol

1. Bad weather will ground the helicopter.

2. Smog and light or intermittent clouds might affect vision.
3. This type of service requires special skills and training.
4. There is a danger from high wire, trees, and similar object.
5. There can be difficulty of landing in urban areas.
6. Special facilities are required for housing and repairs.
7. Refuelling problems.

8. Plain Clothes Patrol

This is particularly effective for saturation drive coverage of high crime areas. This allows police
officers to infiltrate the crime areas without alarming the criminals following the element of surprise.

9. Canine (K-9) Patrol or Dog Patrol

Dog was first used by Egyptians in patrolling.
A single K-9 team can complete building searches seven times faster than four officers working
Dog team can find hidden suspects 93 percent of the time, while human officers can only find
hidden suspects 53 percent.
Dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human.


1. German Shepherd high scoring dog, most frequently used for police work.
2. Black Labrador Retrievers
3. Giant Schnauzers
4. Rootweilers
5. Doberman Pinschers
6. Bouvers
7. Newfoundlands
8. Airedale Terriers
9. Alaskan Malamutes

Is a large dog formerly used for tracking. It has sagging jaw, dropping ears and keen sense of smell.

Wireless Operational Link and Video Exploration System (WOLVES)

It is the system of attaching miniature camera and transmitter to a search dog which makes the dog
the eyes and ears of his handler.

10. Television Patrol

It is basically used for traffic control which originates in West Germany.
Television cameras are mounted in a weatherproof housing. They were equipped with Zoom lenses
and were remotely controlled by the operator at the control board who can adjust each camera to a
panoramic view of 270 degrees. It makes possible to pick up the license of fleeing automobiles.

The Traditional Foot Patrol Pattern

1. Clockwise Patrol Pattern

The officer walk from one beat to another making sure that he stays on the left side and at the
center or middle portion of any street between adjoining beats. For every beat, the officer
calls the station until the clockwise patter is completed. Ideal for rectangular of square beat.
Usually conducted during the first hour of duty.

2. Counter-clockwise Patrol Pattern

The reverse of clockwise pattern with the same characteristic of an area to be patrolled. Usually
done during the last hour of the tour of duty to ensure that nothing unusual happened in the

3. Zigzag or Free Wheeling Pattern

Done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter of the beat not at random but with definite
target location where he knows his presence is necessary.
It starts at one corner of the patrol area and work your way diagonally across it to the opposite

4. Straightway and Criss-cross Patrol Pattern

It is considered as Hazard Oriented Patrol.
In straightway pattern, it involves patrolling the length of the street, therefore, movement of
officer is easy to observe. On the other hand, criss-cross is almost similar with zigzag.
In any patrol pattern, the relieving patrol officer shall make his first hourly call before starting his
patrol duty.
5. Cloverleaf (Cloverleaf Pattern) a highway intersection designed to route traffic without
interference, by means of a system of curving ramps from one level to another, in the form of a 4-leaf


I. The Psychology Of Omnipresence

Psychology of omnipresence as an initial police strategy is to establish the aura of police

presence in the community through uniformed foot patrol and mobile (marked and equipped)
patrol cars.
Patrol officer cannot detect the thinking or desire of the criminal, yet he can destroy the opportunity
to commit a crime by his presence, thus, it best for crime prevention.

Strategic Objectives:

High visibility police presence

Feeling of security for law abiding
Feeling of fear for would be criminal
Feeling of confidence for the public that police are constantly available

II. Proactive and Reactive Patrol

Proactive Patrol
it is the deployment of patrol officers in their area with prescribe objectives and verifiable
task for the day.
More economical alternative patrol system, it addresses crime at its very root before it
can be developed into felonious act.
Reactive Patrol
It involves going around the area of responsibility waiting for something to happen and to
react accordingly if something does happen

III. Crime Prevention and Crime Suppression

1. Crime Prevention
It involves recognition of crime risk and initiation of positive action to remove or reduce
its objective is to eliminate or reduce the desire to commit crime
2. Crime Suppression
Is the actual prevention of the commission of crime
IV. High and Low Visibility
Police Visibility - Not just presence of patrol officer but actual presence which involves: 1) Physical
Presence 2) Patrolling Scheme 3) Response Time is the running time of the dispatched patrol car
from his position where the assignment was received and the arrival at the scene (the ideal time is

*Critical Time it is the time between the call of concerned individual to the police regarding crime incident
and the arrival at the scene of patrol officer.

1. High Visibility it is accomplished by deploying uniformed patrol officers and marked patrol cars in
the AOR with the objective of increasing the aura of police omnipresence.

2. Low Visibility a strategy wherein patrol officers are in civilian clothes or in unmarked patrol cars
with the primary purpose of increasing the apprehension of criminal engage in street crimes and
deterrence of criminal activity as a result of greater probability of apprehension.

V. Directed, Interactive and Aggressive Patrol

1. Directed Patrol Strategy patrol activities designed by patrol officers are based on analysis of
specific community problems. The emphasis is on participative decision making and sophisticated
methods of crime analysis.
2. Interactive Patrol Strategy the emphasis in on police-citizen interaction wherein the community
input is sought in resolving patrol problems
3. Aggressive Patrol Strategy the emphasis is on positive, target oriented activities which includes
physical security inspection. This is effective if the information regarding identifiable crime trends is
based on crime analysis.

VI. Stop and Frisk

It involves stopping of person on the street whose behavior is suspicious, questioning them and
frisking them for concealed weapons. This heightens the effect of high visibility.

VII. Street Interview/Interrogation

It is an aspect of stop and frisk strategy where individuals of doubtful character are being questioned.

VIII. Decoy
Decoy means trap, bait or induce. This strategy involves disguise or deception which is specifically
used in high crimes areas by highly trained specialist rather that regular patrol officer.


All police intervention operations (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint, demolition, civil
disturbance management) shall be conducted:
a. with a marked police vehicle;
b. preferably led by a Police Commissioned
c. Officer (PCO); and
d. with personnel in prescribed police uniform.


During actual police intervention operations, the TL shall use peaceful means including the use of
megaphones or any other similar instruments to influence/warn the offenders/suspects to stop and/or
peacefully give up.

The police shall not use warning shots during police interventions.

Issuance of Warning

The police officer must first issue a warning before he could use force against an offender. The
warning is issued for the police officer to identify himself and to give opportunity to the
offender to surrender.
The duty to issue a warning is however not absolute. The directive to issue a warning is necessary
only in situations where several options are still available to the police officer but in cases where the

threat to the life of a police officer is already imminent, and there is no other option but to use force to
subdue the offender, the law enforcers failure to issue a warning is excusable.

Reasonable Force
During an armed confrontation, only such necessary and reasonable force should be applied as
would be sufficient to overcome resistance put up by the offender; subdue the clear and imminent
danger posed by him; or to justify the force/act under the principles of self defense, defense of
relative, or defense of stranger. The Officer-in-Charge of the operation shall, at all times, exercise
control over his men in the area, and shall exhaust all possible means so that no innocent civilian is
caught in the crossfire.
The reasonableness of the force employed will depend upon the number of aggressor, nature and
characteristic of the weapon used, physical condition, size and other circumstances to include the
place and occasion of the assault. A police officer, however, is not required to afford a person
attacking him the opportunity for a fair or equal struggle. His duty requires him to overcome his
opponent. In the lawful performance of his duty, the police officer must stand his ground to
accomplish his mandated task of enforcing the law and maintenance of peace and order.

Use of Weapon

The excessive use of force is prohibited. The use of weapon is justified if the suspect poses
imminent danger of causing death or injury to the police officer or other persons.
The use of weapon is also justified under the Doctrines of Self-Defense, Defense of Relative, and
Defense of Stranger. However, one who resorts to self-defense must face a real threat on his life,
and the peril sought to be avoided must be actual, imminent and real.
Moreover, unlawful aggression should be present for self-defense to be considered as justifying

Unlawful Aggression refers to an attack amounting to actual or eminent threat to the life, limb, or right of
the person claiming self-defense.

Necessary and Legal means as used in the definition shall include, but not limited to, the employment of
appropriate number of troops, armor assets and tactical or special units to effectively and permanently quell
the threat or present danger, or to swiftly restrain or arrest the suspect or suspects.

Imminent Danger the danger is imminent if it is on the point of happening. It is not required that the
attack already begins, for it may be too late. (The Revised Penal Code, Book I, JBL Reyes). The elements
of imminent danger are the following:

1. Intent of the suspect to harm the policeman;

2. The capability of the suspect to harm the policeman or other persons; and,
3. Accessibility or the proximity of the suspect in harming the policeman and other persons.

Reportorial Requirements

Any police officer who used his firearm against a suspect must submit an after-encounter report
outlining the circumstances necessitating the use of weapon against the suspect.

A moving vehicle shall not be fired upon except when its occupants pose imminent danger of
causing death or injury to the police officer or any other person, and that the use of firearm does not
create a danger to the public and outweighs the likely benefits of its non-use.
In firing upon a moving vehicle, the following parameters should be considered:
a. the intent of the fleeing suspect/s to harm the police officer or other persons;
b. the capability of the fleeing suspect/s to harm in certainty the police officer or other persons;
c. accessibility or the proximity of the fleeing suspect/s with the police officer and other persons.


Immediately after an armed confrontation, the Officer-in-Charge shall:

a. Secure the site of confrontation;

b. Take photographs;
c. Check whether the situation still poses imminent danger;

d. Evacuate the wounded to the nearest hospital;
e. Ensure that all persons who died on the spot are not moved from their original position. Arrested
suspects, on the other hand, should be kept in isolation;
f. Conduct debriefing on all involved PNP operatives; and
g. Submit After-Operations Report.

Spot Check/Accosting

It is the brief stopping of an individual, whether on foot or in a vehicle, based on reasonable

suspicion/probable cause, for the purpose of determining the individuals identity and resolving the
officers suspicion concerning criminal activity.

Reasonable Suspicion
Acts that, within totality of the circumstances, lead an officer to reasonably suspect, or to have
probable cause to believe, that criminal activity has been, is being, or is about to be committed.

Grounds for Spot Check

a. The appearance or demeanor of the individual suggests that he is part of a criminal enterprise or is
engaged in a criminal act;
b. The actions of the individual suggest that he is engaged in a criminal activity;
c. Questionable presence of the individual in the area;
d. The subject is carrying a suspicious object;
e. The suspects clothing bulges in a manner that suggests he is carrying a weapon;
f. The suspect has been found in the time and place proximate to an alleged crime;
g. The police officer has knowledge of the suspects prior criminal record or involvement in criminal
activity; and
h. The individual flees at the sight of a police officer.


a. When approaching the individual, the police officer shall clearly identify himself as a police officer. If
not in uniform, by announcing his identity and displaying official identification card and/or badge.
b. Police officers shall be courteous at all times but maintain caution and vigilance for suspicious
movements like tending to retrieve weapon, conceal or discard contraband, or other similar actions.
c. Before approaching more than one individual, police officers should determine whether the
circumstances warrant a request for back-up and whether the spot check/ accosting can and should
be delayed until such back-up arrives.
d. Police officers shall confine their questions as to suspects identity, place of residence, and other
inquiries necessary to resolve the police officers suspicion. However, in no instance shall a police
officer hold a suspect longer than the period reasonably necessary to be able to make these limited
inquiries and to resolve suspicions.
e. Police officers are not required to give the suspect Miranda Warning unless the person is placed
under arrest.

Pat-down Search
It is a frisk or external feeling of the outer garments of an individual for weapons only.


a. The type of crime believed to be committed by the subject particularly crimes of violence where the
threat of use or use of deadly weapon is involved;
b. Where the police officer handles several suspects;
c. The time of the day and the location where the pat-down search took place;
d. Prior knowledge by the police officer of the suspects use of force and/or propensity to carry deadly
e. The appearance and demeanor of the suspect;
f. Visual indications suggesting that the suspect is carrying a firearm or other deadly weapon; and
g. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be performed by police officers of the same gender.


a. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be conducted by at least two (2) police officers, one
to perform the search while the other provides protective cover.
b. Because pat-down searches are cursory in nature, they should be performed with the suspect in a
standing position, or with hands placed against a stationary object, and feet spread apart. However,
should an officer visually observe a weapon, a more secure search position may be used like the
prone (lying face down) position.
c. In a pat-down search, officers are permitted only to feel the outer clothing of the suspect. Police
officers may not place their hands inside the pockets of the subjects clothing unless they feel an
object that could probably be a weapon, such as a gun, knife, club, or the likes.
d. If the suspect is carrying an object such as handbag, suitcase, briefcase, sack, or other similar items
that may conceal a weapon, the police officer should not open the item but instead put it in a
place out of the suspects reach.
e. If the external patting of the suspects clothing fails to disclose evidence of a weapon, no further
search may be made. If a weapon is found and the possession of which amounts to a
violation of the law, the police officer shall arrest the suspect and conduct a complete search.

Reporting after the Spot Check/Accosting or Pat-Down Search

If after conducting a spot check/accosting or pat-down search, the police officer has no basis for
making an arrest, he should record the facts of such spot check/accosting or pat-down search and
forward a report to the appropriate authority.
If the spot check/accosting or pat-down search gives a justification for a valid warrantless arrest,
then an arrest shall be made.

Police Checkpoint
It is a location where the search, which is duly authorized by the PNP, is conducted to deter/prevent
the commission of crimes, enforce the law, and for other legitimate purposes.


a. Team Leader (TL) - shall lead and take responsibility in the conduct of checkpoint preferably an
officer with the rank of at least Police Inspector;
b. Spotter - PNP personnel who will point/profile suspected vehicle subject for checkpoint;
c. Spokesperson - TL or member who is solely in charge of communicating with the motorists subject
for checkpoint;
d. Investigation Sub-team - in charge of investigation and documentation of possible incidents in the
checkpoint to include issuance of Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation Report (TVR);
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team - designated to conduct search, seizure and arrest, if necessary;
f. Security Sub-Team - tasked to provide security in the checkpoint area; and
g. Blocking/Pursuing Sub-Team - team tasked to block/pursue fleeing suspects/vehicle.


a. Mobile checkpoints are authorized only when established in conjunction with ongoing police
operations. Only officially marked vehicles shall be used in establishing mobile checkpoints.
b. Checkpoints may be established when there is a need to arrest a criminal or fugitive from
c. The composition of the personnel manning the checkpoint shall be left to the sound
discretion of the PNP unit commander.
d. Encourage the participation of, but not limited to, the Local Government Units (LGUs), Civil
Society Groups, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), business organizations, other
civic groups, media and other stakeholders during the conduct of Police Checkpoint.
e. The participation of the civilians and the presence of the media in the conduct of checkpoint
must be confined only as observers to give police additional eyes and promote transparency
of activities in the area.
f. All civic groups or organizations to include the media, who are inclined to participate in police
checkpoints, must be duly registered and accredited by the PNP for such purpose. The
accreditation of the civilian groups to join in the conduct of checkpoint shall be administered
by the Police Regional and Provincial Offices.
g. PNP personnel manning the checkpoint must have a presentable appearance, wearing the
prescribed PNP uniform. Likewise, the civilian members must also be in their organizations
uniform with their names conspicuously displayed for identification. In no case shall the
civilian components be allowed to bear firearms during the checkpoint.

h. In Metro Manila and other major cities, police officers manning the checkpoints should not
wear Field Service Uniforms (FSU) or black fatigues in lieu of the PNP General Office Attire
unless the conduct of checkpoint is a result of a Hot Pursuit Operation or a High Risk
Checkpoint. The use of mixed uniforms (GOA, FSU, black fatigue) in the conduct of
checkpoint is strictly prohibited.
i. As much as possible, the area where the checkpoints shall be established must be properly
lighted, with a noticeable signage bearing the name of the PNP unit and the participating
organization/s visibly displayed in the checkpoint site, to prevent any apprehension from the
public of the existence of the same.
j. Due courtesy must be accorded to the motorists, traders and the commuters during the
conduct of checkpoint.
k. The spokesperson must greet the people subject for inspection, ask apology for the
inconvenience, appeal for understanding and state the reasons of the operation. Thank the
person/s searched.
l. Except in the actual commission of crime during checkpoints or in a hot pursuit operation,
the conduct of inspection of vehicle during a routine checkpoint is limited to a visual
search and therefore must be done with due respect to innocent passersby, commuters, or
bystanders and be conducted in a manner that is least inconvenient to the public. Searches,
seizures, and arrest made during checkpoints shall be within the ambit of the law.
m. Violations/Infractions of the law discovered during the checkpoint operation shall be
expeditiously disposed of following legal procedures. Arrested persons must be apprised of
their rights in reference to the Miranda Doctrine.
n. The security of the PNP personnel, and most especially that of the civilians participating in
the checkpoint operation, must be given due consideration in the planning stage of the
o. Only the security sub-team and blocking/pursuing sub-team members are allowed to
display high-powered firearms and are positioned where they can best provide security to
the Checkpoint team including themselves.
p. Checkpoint personnel must not limit their task in law enforcement and crime deterrence.
They should also be ready to provide police assistance in the vicinity e.g., giving directions to
inquiring motorists or passersby.
q. The PNP operating units must provide their own logistical and financial requirements to avoid
soliciting support from the civilians for their personal or operational needs.
r. Police personnel assigned in the checkpoint shall not mulct, extort, or harass drivers,
passengers, and traders. Designated TL assigned at the checkpoint shall be responsible for
the actuations and behavior of his personnel and shall be accountable under the doctrine of
Command Responsibility.
s. Voluntary offers of cash or in kind from the traders/motorists passing the checkpoint should
be absolutely refused because the offer might be misconstrued as a bribe.
t. The police and the civilian component must separately submit their After Checkpoint
Operation Report to their respective units or organization for proper evaluation of the
efficacy of the operation.

Procedure in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint

a. Unit Commanders should inform Higher Headquarters (HHQs) Tactical Operations Center (TOC)
and coordinate with adjacent units, such as Public Safety Management Forces and other friendly
forces, personally or through an official representative, before commencing with the checkpoint to
avoid misencounter and any untoward incident;

b. The TL shall brief the PNP personnel, as well as the civilian components present, including the
media regarding the proper conduct of the checkpoint and their assigned tasks prior to their

c. The TL shall initially account for the PNP personnel and check if they are in the prescribed
uniform. PNP personnel conducting the checkpoint shall display their nameplates at all times. If
wearing a jacket, the flap of the jacket bearing their names should also be displayed. Likewise,
the equipment will include, but not limited to, the following:

1. Marked Patrol vehicles;

2. Firearms with basic load of ammunition;
3. Handheld and vehicle base radios;
4. Flashlights;
5. Megaphone; and

6. Signage
d. The Spotter of the team will be pre-positioned in a place where he can best point/profile
suspected vehicles prior to their approach to the checkpoint;
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team shall flag down suspected vehicles and conduct search, seizure and
arrest if necessary;
f. Arrested persons and seized items shall be turned-over to the investigation sub-team for
documentation and proper disposition;
g. In the event that the checkpoint is ignored, and the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the
personnel manning the checkpoint, reasonable force to overcome the suspects aggression may
be employed;
h. Inform Higher Headquarters before terminating the conduct of Checkpoint;
i. The TL shall conduct debriefing of personnel after termination of the Checkpoint; and
j. Unit Commander shall submit After Activity Report to Higher Headquarters.

Hasty Checkpoint
It is an immediate response to block the escape of lawless elements from a crime scene, and
is also established when nearby checkpoints are ignored or during hot pursuit operations. It is
set up by police personnel conducting mobile patrol on board a marked police vehicle, or those
conducting ISO and foot patrol operations within the vicinity/periphery of the national or provincial

Hot Pursuit (Cross Jurisdictional Pursuit) - (also termed in the US as fresh pursuit) shall mean an
immediate, recent chase or follow-up without material interval for the purpose of taking into custody any
person wanted by virtue of a warrant, or one suspected to have committed a recent offense while fleeing
from one police jurisdictional boundary to another that will normally require prior official inter-unit
coordination but which the pursuing unit cannot, at that moment, comply due to the urgency of the situation.

Procedures in the Conduct of Hasty Checkpoints

a. PNP personnel conducting mobile patrols on board patrol vehicles will initially man the checkpoint,
to be complemented by additional personnel upon arrival of reinforcement. A collapsible signage
with markings: Stop, Police Checkpoint, indicating also the name of the concerned police office/unit
conducting the operations, will be used for the purpose;
b. In the case of PNP personnel conducting Internal Security Operation (ISO) or foot patrol, where a
vehicle and collapsible signage is not readily available, the checkpoint shall be manned initially by
said personnel;
c. The team shall immediately inform Higher Headquarters of the exact location of the Hasty
Checkpoint to include personnel involved and available equipment;
d. In a hasty checkpoint, where there is a possibility of high risk stop and high risk arrest, and that there
is an urgency for troop deployment and that public safety might be at risk, the participation of the
civilian component and the presence of the media in the checkpoint operation shall not be allowed;
e. The Unit Commander of the personnel manning the hasty checkpoint shall immediately send
additional personnel, equipment and signage to the area in order to convert the Hasty Checkpoint
into a Regular Checkpoint; and
1. f. As soon as the Hasty Checkpoint is converted into a Regular Checkpoint, TL shall follow the
procedures in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint paragraph c.

Procedures to be Followed When Checkpoints are Ignored

a. In the event that checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored and the motorists/suspects bumped the
roadblock in an attempt to elude arrest or avoid inspection, the TL shall immediately contact
adjacent units to inform them of the situation so that these units can conduct dragnet
operation, while the members of the blocking/pursuing team shall block or pursue the errant fleeing
b. Warning shots shall not be allowed due to the confusion it may create to the driver and passengers
of the vehicle. Megaphones or police sirens shall be used instead during the pursuit. The plate
number of the vehicle shall be noted and given to other units in adjacent areas to prevent the
possibility that the vehicle may elude the pursuit operation; and
c. In the event that the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the checkpoint,
reasonable force to overcome the suspects aggression may be employed.

Procedures in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car

a. Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type and plate number of the motor vehicle to be
accosted including the number and, if possible, identity of occupants;
b. State the reason(s) for the planned intervention of the suspected motor vehicle;
c. Give mobile cars location and its direction before making actual intervention;
d. Try to get alongside the suspects vehicle and check the occupants without alarming them of your
purpose. You can even overtake the vehicle and wait for it at an advantageous location before
stopping the suspects vehicle;
e. Determine whether the suspects are hostile or not;
f. Make known to the suspect that you are after them through the use of a siren or megaphone;
g. Instruct the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the road;
h. Park behind the suspects vehicle at an appropriate distance and cautiously approach the vehicle on
the drivers side;
i. If the vehicles windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to
open all windows to have a clear view of the interior of the vehicle;
j. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition, if this was not done when the vehicle stopped;
k. The other members of the team must be on guard for any eventuality while the vehicle is being
l. Talk to the driver in a most courteous manner and inform him of the nature of his violation. Demand
to see the drivers license, photocopies of the certificate of registration and the official receipt.
Examine these documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein;
m. If it concerns traffic violations, immediately issue a Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation
Report (TVR). Never indulge in prolonged, unnecessary conversation or argument with the driver or
any of the vehicles occupants;
n. In cases of other violations that require the impounding of the vehicle, inform the driver regarding
this situation and instruct him to follow you, after issuing the TCT/TVR; and,
o. Before moving out, inform Headquarters regarding the situation/ status and disposition of the person
and motor vehicle accosted.

Procedures to be Followed in Dealing with Hostile Drivers:

a. Stopping Vehicles
1) Follow the Procedure in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car stated in
paragraphs a to c;
2) Immediately request for back-up;
3) Follow the suspect and always keep him within visual range;
4) Expect that the suspect will notice your action at any time. Be prepared for a car chase or actual
hostile confrontation;
5) If the back-up is already in the vicinity, inform Headquarters that you are proceeding to accost
the suspect;
6) Inform the suspects that you are after them through the use of siren or megaphone and instruct
the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the street;
7) Park at an appropriate distance behind the suspects vehicle;
8) While the vehicle is being approached, the other members of the crew and back-up must be on
guard for any eventuality. Overreactions should be avoided;
9) If the vehicles windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver
to open all windows for a clear view of the vehicles interior;
10) Direct the driver and other occupants of the vehicle not to make unnecessary movements and to
show their hands outside the car;
11) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground. Demand to see the
Drivers License and photocopies of the vehicles certificate of registration and the official receipt.
Examine the documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein; and,
12) If there are other suspects aside from the driver, separate them from one another.

b. Fleeing Vehicles

1) In the event that the motor vehicle did not stop despite the warning given, inform Headquarters
or adjacent units so that roadblocks or hasty checkpoints can be set-up;
2) Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type, plate number and color of the motor vehicle to
be accosted including the number of occupants and, if possible, their identity;
3) State the reason(s) for flagging down the suspected motor vehicle;
4) Give mobile cars location and its direction before making actual intervention;

5) When the vehicle of the suspect is cornered or stopped, instruct the driver and other occupants
in a clear and commanding voice to follow specifically what you will require of them. Failure
on their part to follow will be construed as a hostile act on their part. Execute instructions
on the use of reasonable force;
6) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground, open the door and step
out of the vehicle, followed by his hands to be placed on top of the vehicle, or to move towards
you with his hands up;
7) Instruct other occupants of the vehicle, if any, to come out one by one, and follow what the driver
has been instructed to do earlier;
8) Arrest, handcuff and search the suspects and bring them to Headquarters for proper disposition;
9) Before moving out, inform Headquarters about the situation, status and disposition of the
suspects and motor vehicle accosted.

High Risk Stop is the actual stopping or accosting of armed and dangerous person or persons, aboard a
vehicle or on foot, including the power to use all necessary and legal means to accomplish such end.

High Risk Arrest is the actual restraint of armed persons following a high-risk stop.

Pre-Determined Area is the specific or projected spot where the armed and dangerous person or
persons would pass or likely to pass and so tactically located as to gain calculated advantage against said
person or persons.

Stopping Zone - is the strategic predetermined area strongly sealed off, barricaded and occupied by
tactical forces in a lawful display of authority to maintain law and order or in defensive response to an event
of criminal nature or of such gravity that occurred or likely to occur calling for a high risk stop or arrest.

Dragnet Operation - is a police operation purposely to seal-off the probable exit points of fleeing suspects
from the crime scene to prevent their escape.

High Risk Stop and High Risk Arrest

a. Initial Stage
Upon receipt of information involving movement of armed person or persons, either singly or in
group, including unauthorized movement of government troops, or in immediate response to a reported
commission of crime perpetrated by armed persons, the PNP shall immediately:

1) Organize appropriate tactical security forces utilizing maximum firepower and armor
2) Deploy the security forces to stopping zones in defensive position; and
3) Seal off the area and establish strong roadblocks/ barricades.

b. Effecting a High Risk Stop

When effecting high-risk stop, the police officer shall:
1) Exert utmost effort to persuade the suspects to halt or stop their movement.
2) Start with the procedural conduct of regular warrantless arrest where arrest is inevitable.
3) Ensure proper documentation of the process.
4) Respect the rights of all the persons involved.

c. During Violent Stage

The PNP shall strictly adhere to the PNP Operational Procedures (POP) particularly on the use of
reasonable force.

Public Assembly
It means any rally, demonstration, march, parade, procession or any other form of mass or
concerted action held in a public place for the purpose of presenting a lawful cause; or expressing
an opinion to the general public on any particular issue; or protesting or influencing any state of
affairs whether political, economic or social; or petitioning the government for redress of grievances.

Public Place shall include any highway, boulevard, avenue, road, street, bridge or other thoroughfare,
park, plaza, square, and/or any open space of public ownership where the people are allowed access.

Freedom Park shall mean the venue or place established or designated by local government units within
their respective jurisdictions where a public assembly could be held without securing any permit for such
purpose from the local government unit concerned.
Maximum Tolerance means the highest degree of restraint that the police, military and other peace
keeping authorities shall observe during a public assembly or in the dispersal of the same.

Limitations on the Role of the PNP on Public Assembly

The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to ensure public safety
and to maintain peace and order during the assembly, the police contingent under the command of a
PCO preferably with the rank of Police Senior Inspector may be detailed and stationed in a place at
least one hundred (100) meters away from the area of activity.

Guidelines for Civil Disturbance Management (CDM) Contingent During Rallies / Demonstrations

a. CDM contingent shall be in prescribed uniform and without firearm.

b. Tear gas, smoke grenades, water cannons, or any similar anti- riot device shall be used only when
the public assembly is attended by actual violence or serious threats of violence, or deliberate
destruction of property.

Dispersal of Public Assembly with Permit

All public assembly with a permit shall not be dispersed. However, when an assembly becomes
violent, the police may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:
a. At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall call the
attention of the leaders of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible
b. If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are
thrown at the police officers or at the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it, the
Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall audibly warn the participants that if the
disturbance persists, the public assembly will be dispersed;
c. If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall
audibly issue a warning to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable
period of time to lapse, he shall immediately order it to disperse; and
d. No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the
assembly a law, statute, or ordinance.

Dispersal of Public Assembly Without Permit

When the public assembly is held without a permit where a permit is required, the said public
assembly may be peacefully dispersed. However, when the leaders or organizers of public assembly can
show an application for permit duly filed at the Office of the Mayor which has jurisdiction over the place
where the rally will be held, at least five (5) days prior to the intended activity and the Mayor did not act
on the same, the grant of the permit being then presumed under the law, and it will be the burden of the
authorities to show that there has been a denial of the application, in which case, the rally may be
peacefully dispersed following the procedure of maximum tolerance prescribed by law.

Police Responses During Public Assembly

a. During Planning Stage

1. Initiate dialogue with the leaders/organizers to ensure the peaceful holding of a public assembly,
including among others, the detail of police escorts.
2. Prepare appropriate security and CDM contingency plans.

b. During Initial and Peaceful Stage

1) With Permit or Held in Freedom Parks/ Private Properties
1.1 The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to adequately
ensure public safety, a CDM contingent, under the control and supervision of a PCO shall be
stationed at least one hundred (100) meters away from the area where the public assembly
is being held.
1.2 Monitor the activities at the public assembly area and respond to any request for police
2) Without Permit or Permit has been Revoked

2.1 As soon as it becomes apparent that an assembly is being held in a public place, the Ground
Commander shall immediately conduct an inquiry whether the assembly is covered with a
permit or not.
1.1 If a permit could not be shown, verification should immediately be done with the Office of
the Mayor having jurisdiction over the place where the public assembly is being held.
Should the Office of the Mayor confirm that a permit has not been issued, the
leaders/organizers shall be informed of the fact that they are violating the law and will be asked
to disperse peacefully.
2.2 The PNP shall exhaust all peaceful remedies to persuade the demonstrators to disperse. This
may include the involvement of Local Chief Executives / community leaders when available to
intervene in the situation so that dispersal operations could be avoided.
2.3. Should negotiation fail and the demonstrators refuse to disperse voluntarily and peacefully,
thereby causing public inconvenience, CDM contingents may commence dispersal

c. During Breach of Peace/Confrontational Stage (With or without permit)

No public assembly with a permit shall be dispersed. However, when a public assembly becomes
violent, the CDM contingents may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:

1) At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander shall call the attention of the
leaders/organizers of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance.
CDM contingents shall hold the line to prevent demonstrators from proceeding to other areas
where the holding of a public assembly is prohibited.
2) If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are
thrown at the CDM contingents or the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it,
the Ground Commander shall audibly warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the
public assembly will be dispersed;
3) If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander shall audibly issue a
warning to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time
to lapse, shall immediately order it to disperse. With the use of CDM formations, the rank of
demonstrators shall be disbanded, contained, and isolated from each other, and should be
prevented from regrouping.
4) Water cannons and riot sticks maybe used to repel aggression and to disperse demonstrators
and reserve CDM contingents may be employed when situation requires.
5) No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the
assembly a law, statute, or ordinance.

d. During Violent Stage

1) Non-lethal weapons and equipment may be used to suppress violence, to protect lives and prevent
further damage to properties.
2) The PNP security elements shall be tactically deployed to provide immediate assistance to the CDM

e. Post-Operation Stage
1) CDM contingents shall be withdrawn after the area has been cleared of possible danger to public
2) Sufficient police force shall be maintained to ensure peace and order in the area.

Guidelines in the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

a. Shield and Truncheon

a. During the confrontational stage, truncheon may be utilized only to push back demonstrators
and not as an instrument to strike individuals. However, when demonstrators become
aggressive, truncheon shall be the principal non-lethal weapon for dispersal. In such
situation, CDM contingents shall nonetheless, use the same with caution and due diligence
to avoid unnecessary injury.
b. Water Cannons
c. Water cannons may be utilized when demonstrators become unruly and aggressive forcing
troops to fall back to their secondary positions.
d. Tear Gas
e. Tear gas may be utilized to break up formations or groupings of demonstrations who
continue to be aggressive and refused to disperse despite earlier efforts.

o PNPs answer to the requirement of police visibility.
o PATROL means Policemen Assigned To Reinforce Order in the Locality
o best way of immersing policemen in various activities
o provides a symbiotic relationship between the police and the community which would
eventually draw active support and cooperation of the populace.


1. Fixed Components these are different stations, precincts, police visibility points, traffic posts and

a. Station Desk serves as the 3 Cs of police force: Communication; Coordinating;

Center/Command Post
b. Situation/Locator Map capable of providing visual IPS situation which shows the AOR, Real
Time Current Situation and Real Time Status of the IPS
c. PCP headed by PCO with a rank of Chief Inspector or Superintendent with a minimum of 30
personnel including the Commander divided in 3 shifts of 8-hours duty.

2. Patrol Components include line beat, mobile patrol, motorcycle, bicycle, air patrol and detective
repressive patrol

a. Police Beats consist of identifiable boundaries within the AOR where an officer can conduct
patrol. Police Beats identification:
PBs for NCR

Identifiable by a 5 digit number. 1st digit refers to the numerical assigned to the district
2nd refers to the number assigned to each of the city/municipality within the district
3rd digit refers to the number assigned to particular PCP
4th and 5th digits refer to the numbers assigned to particular beat

PBs for Regional Officers

Identifiable by a 7 digit number

First 2 digits refer to the number of the region
3rd digit refer to the number assigned to a particular province within the region
4th digit refers to the PCPs
5th and 6th refer to the beat

b. Mobile Patrol similar with mobile patrol discussed

c. Detective Beat System contiguous area where a team of police investigators is assigned with
a specific task of conducting follow-up investigation to all complaints, reports, referrals and other
requests with the end in view of full compliance and/or filing of case

DETECTIVE BEAT SYSTEM (DBS) one of the concrete responses of PNP in reinventing the field of
- it is concerned with crime solution and detectives are charged with total investigation responsibility

POLICE BEAT is concerned with crime prevention

- the patrol officers usually respond to crime incidents for arrest, protection of crime scene until
detectives arrive to investigate.

Guidelines in the Conduct of Patrol

I. Pre-Deployment Phase conducted by means of formation or assembly in police stations for at least
30minutes which will be allotted for:
a. inspection as to appearance and completeness of individual equipment.
b. dissemination of assignments, instructions and orders.

II. Deployment Phase

- Upon arrival at the patrol beat, officer shall report to the desk officer or dispatcher

- while on patrol, they shall adopt the buddy-buddy system
- upon reaching the end of the line beat, officer shall make a situation report before returning
to their point of origin
- any unusual incident must be reported and/or recorded in the patrol sheet report.

III. Post-Deployment Phase after the tour of duty, officers shall return to police stations for the following:
a. surrender the equipment
b. accomplish the Daily Patrol Report
c. Turn-over to the Front-Desk Officer all items confiscated or recovered during
the tour of duty
d. Patrol commander shall conduct an accounting of patrol officers before being

3. Auxiliary Components include security guards, traffic enforcers, barangay tanods, civilian volunteers
and non-governmental organizations


Is an attempt to integrate the police and the community interest into a working relationship so
as to produce the desired objective of peace keeping in the community.
Originated in Aberdeen, Scotland
Team of 5-10 men is assigned according to concentration of crimes and citizens-calls for
police service.
Effective police-community cooperation is critical to the success of a team policing system.

Characteristics of Team Policing

1. Geographic Stability of the Patrol Force The application of permanent patrolling to foster
greater awareness and sensitivity to local police problems by team members.
2. Maximum Interaction between Team Members Members must be given opportunity to work
closely together in solving problems.
- Members are encouraged to share information with one another through informal meetings
or conference.
3. Maximum Communication between Team Members and Community Residents Team
policing is intended to develop a greater sense of understanding and increased cooperation between
members of the team and community residents.
- Encourage members of the community to attend informal sessions in which they discussed
community problems with the team.


In Japan, they have operationalized and even institutionalized it through the Koban or
Police Box System.
In Singapore, they are wielding it through the Neighborhood Police Post.
In the United States about 60 % of the police departments are implementing it through
Oriented Policing/Problem Oriented Policing COP/POP.
In Canada and several countries in Europe and other parts of the world, they are into it also.
In the Philippines, the implementation of National Anti-Crime Strategy (NACS) at the
community level started as mere initiative of some innovative police commanders.
In Bacolod City, the Negros Occidental Provincial Commander of the defunct PC/INP
managed to mobilize the community to support and team up with Bacolod City Police Station
through the Bacolod Citizens for Unity and Peace (BACUP) Foundation from June 7,
1986 to date.
On August 8, 1991, the Davao Del Norte Provincial PNP Commander instituted the
KAUBAN, an integrated undertaking of the police/barangay/citizenry to maintain peace and
It was also in 1991 when the PNP started implementing the Koban Philippine style dubbed
as Pulis Patrol Lingkod Bayan (PPLB).
On May 04, 1993, the PNP started establishing the KABABAYAN Center as Community
Oriented Policing Units.
Finally on August 15, 1994, the PNP adopted and started implementing the Community
Oriented Policing System (COPS).

Basic Principles / Foundation Of COPS

1. Democracy Philippines is a democratic and republic state.
- It is imperative for the people to participate in and support the processes, programs and activities
of the government to attain SUMMUM BONUM or the greatest good for the greatest number
of our people.

2. Criminal Justice a machinery used by a democratic government to protect the society against
crime and disorder.
3. Who are the Police according to Robert Peel, The police are the public and the public are the
4. Peoples Power the greatest source of power to wage war against crime and other threats to
society lies among the people.

COPS is a philosophy of full service, personalized policing where the same patrol officers works in
the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership
with the citizens to identify and solve problems.


1. Philosophy the present and future crime and other disorder requires the police to provide full
service policing and problem solving with the active participation and support of the community.
2. Personalized officers should have person to person contact with the members of the community
3. Patrol officers must work and patrol their defined beat or AOR as often as possible.
4. Permanent officers should be assigned permanently for at least 18 months to defined beat.
5. Place the AOR should be divided/sectorized into distinct neighborhoods in urban areas and
clusters of barangays in rural areas.
6. Proactive shall have proactive focus of pre-empting, preventing, suppressing, and deterring
crimes. Anticipate or at least detect as early as possible the occurrence of crimes.
7. Policing provide full service policing in the community
8. Problem Solving includes those abets or serves as breeding grounds of crime
9. Partnership establish community partnership



1. Communication in general, it is the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another
through channel or medium. Technically, it refers to equipment used which can be electrical or
electronic used to exchange information.
2. Communications refers to the technical field of study or science which involves exchange of
information through various channels.
3. Communications Medium the language or code used in transferring information or idea.
4. Amplitude Modulation modulation in which the amplitude of a wave is subject to variation of
changes. This is used in single side band, double side band, and independent side band.
5. Frequency Modulation the amplitude is made constant in the carrier wave together with the
6. Antenna metallic wire or rod used for radiating and receiving waves to and from space. Also
termed Aerial.
7. Coordinating Center is a center base station of a police or law enforcement communications.
Also called Center.
8. Intercommunication (Inter-Com) wires system used within a building or compound for direct
exchange of calls
9. Intra-Communication a communication existing within a province, organization or communication
that exists between institutions of farthest distance.
10. Radio a communication by means of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.
11. Landline is a wired form of communication
12. Television Broadcasting (Telecast) a form of broadcasting through television
13. Subscriber refers to person, residence or office connected to the Private Base Exchange (PBX)
14. Dispatcher personnel in police communication center charged with receiving and transmitting of

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS refers to the technical means used by the police which consists of
interrelated but relatively independent sub-systems such as telephone, telegraph, teletype, radio and
television systems and other electronic and automated processes.


1. Training messages should be committed to standard handling procedures by trained personnel

2. Dependability provides that communications must be reliable and available at all times in good
3. Security provides that communications system must be secured from any criminal action toward
destruction of police organizations functions.
4. Accessibility provides that operational units must have convenient access to every
communication that is essential to its efficient operation.
5. Speed provides that communications must be adequate considering that the quick response of
officers depend on the transfer of information.
6. Confidentiality/Secrecy provides that informations in the organization must be private and should
not be held public as it relates to suspects or victims.


1. Administrative Communications Net it involves the exchange of non-operational information

among police precincts, units, departments or headquarters.
2. Operational Communications Net it pertains to exchange of police field informations involving
peace, law and orders as well as general public well being.

Police Radio Operator/Voice Radio Operator/ Dispatcher/ Coordinator is a person charged with
receiving and transmitting information and is trained in his job.

Requisites of a Good Police Radio Operator

1. Alertness gives an impression that the operator is awake and interested what the person is saying
on the other line
2. Pleasantness creates a proverbial voice with smile
3. Naturalness it involves the utilization of simple straightforward words and avoidance of repetition.
4. Expressiveness use of normal tone of voice which should not be too fast or too slow. The tone of
voice will vary on meaning of sentence that the operator is saying
5. Distinctiveness it involves speaking clearly and distinctly by moving the lips, tongue and jaw freely.

Radio is a system of communication using electromagnetic waves propagated through space

A. Radio Waves
The radio or electromagnetic waves travel as fast as the speed of light at 186,000 miles per second
or 300,000 kilometers per second.


1. Ground Wave is radiated energy that touches along the surface of the earth
2. Sky Wave is a radiated energy that travels to the ionosphere and is reflected back to earth.

B. Radio Transmitters generates electrical oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency
a. Oscillation Generator converts electrical power into oscillations of a predetermined radio
b. Amplifiers increases the intensity of oscillations while retaining the desired frequency
c. Transducer converts the information to be transmitted into varying electrical voltage
proportional to each successive instantaneous intensity.

C. Radio Receivers
a. Antenna receives the electromagnetic waves and converts them into electrical oscillations
b. Amplifier increases the intensity of oscillations
c. Demodulator detection equipment for demodulating
d. Speaker converts the impulses into sound waves audible by the human ear
e. Oscillators to generate radio frequency that can be mixed with incoming waves.


Above 30 MHz or within Very High Frequency (30300MHz) is the frequency needed by the
police departments.
30300 MHz is intended for short distances transmission.


a. Accuracy the correctness and truthfulness what is being communicated

b. Brevity using of few words. No unnecessary words or repetitious words in the transmission
c. Courtesy politeness of the words being used in the communication.

Associated Public Safety Communication officers, In APCO TEN SIGNALS

10-0 Caution 10-79 Notified

10-1 Unable to copy/Change Location 10-80 Kidnapping
10-2 Signal good 10-81 Stolen vehicle
10-3 Stop transmitting 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-4 Acknowledgement/ Roger 10-83 Found vehicle
10-5 Relay 10-84 If meeting advice ETA
10-6 Busy-standby unless urgent 10-85 Will be late
10-7 Out of service 10-86 Missing person
10-8 In Service 10-87 Pick-up checks for distribution
10-9 Repeat/ Say again 10-88 Advice precent telephone number of
10-10 Fight in progress 10-89 Found person
10-25 Report in person (meet) 10-90 Bank alarm
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-27 Drivers License Information 10-92 Wanted person
10-28 Vehicle Registration Information 10-93 Blockade
10-29 Check record for wanted 10-94 Drag racing
10-30 Illegal use of radio 10-95 Stole cattle
10-31 Crime progress 10-96 Mental subject
10-32 Man with gun 10-97 Secret
10-33 Emergency 10-98 Prison jail break
10-34 Riot 0-99 Record indicate wanted or stolen
10-35 Major crime alert
10-53 Road Blocked
10-54 Firestock highway
10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-56 Intixicated pedestrian
10-57 Hit and Run
10-58 Direct traffic
10-59 Convoy or escort
10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-61 Personnel in area
10-62 Reply to message
10-63 Prepare to make written copy
10-64 Message to local delivery
10-65 Next message assignment
10-66 Message cancellation
10-67 Clear to net message
10-68 Dispatch information
10-69 Message received
10-70 Fire alarm
10-71 Nature of fire
10-72 Report progress in fire
10-73 Smoke report
10-74 Negative
10-75 In contact with
10-76 En route
10-77 ETA (estimate time of arrival)
10-78 Need assistancE

o In Military Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration, and interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or
potential significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and programs of
the user.

o In Police Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals
and other law violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and
forestalling plan to commit crimes.


Numbers 13:17-32, Old Testament (Holy Bible) = Moses sent twelve (12) scouts to the
land of Canaan where he directed them to spy the land, the people and their location and
the nature of their living.

Rahab known as the Harlot of Jericho who sheltered and concealed the agents of
Israel. Made a covenant with the agents and duped their pursuers.

Delilah an impromptu philistine agent. Used her sex to gain information that lead to the
location of the largest effective forces of the enemy.

Sun tzu a Chinese philosopher takes a more practical view in intelligence history.
According to him, what is called foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits, nor from
gods. It must be obtained from men who knew the enemy situation. Sun tzu wrote a
book entitled the Art of War which is the favorite book of the late Communist leader Mao
Tse Tung.

Alexander the Great when Alexander the Great was marching to Asia, there were
rumors of disaffection growing among his allies and mercenaries. He sought the truth and
got it by simplest expedient. He devised the first letter sorting and opening to obtain
information. (modern day mail censorship for prisoners)

General Romano Sertorius (Quintus Sertorius of Rome) The Roman commander in

Spain who possessed a white fawn and allowed it to become widely known that he
derived both secrets and guidance from its fawn. His allies also believed that he can
communicate with animals.

Akbar known as the Great Mogul master of Hindustan who employed more than
4,000 agents for the sole purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest upon

Genghis Khan known as the Great Mongol. A leader of the so-called Mongol
Conquererors who used effective propaganda machine by spreading rumors of mongol
terror. The Leaders usually disguise as Merchants

The Renaissance Period

Sir Francis Walsingham protector of Queen Elizabeth I. he utilizes students as his
agents. He gave the England its first National Secret Service. Regarded as the First
Great Spymaster.
o He employed spies on the staff of the Spanish army and able to obtain information
regarding Spanish army as to their strength and weaknesses.
Armand Jean du Plessis (Richelieu) became a Cardinal and Chief or prime minister
of King Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu became the most powerful in France.

Louis XIV systematized political policy, continuous surveillance, postal censorship and
military intelligence organization.

Napoleon Bonaparte one spy in the right place is worth 20,000 men in the field.
Organized two bureaus:
1. The bureau of intelligence consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy
to obtain information.
2. The topographical bureau maintains a large map, which covers the latest
information regarding both enemy and friendly forces.

Frederick the Great known as the father of organized military espionage. He divided
his agents into four classes:
1. Common spies recruited among poor folk, glad to earn small sum or to accommodate
a military officer.
2. Double spies the law enforcers and unreliable renegades of value. Chiefly in
spreading false information to the enemy.
3. Spies of consequences couriers and noblemen, invariable requiring a substantial
bribes or bait.
4. Persons who are forced to undertake espionage against his will

Hannibal Considered one of the brilliant military strategies in history. He had

developed an effective intelligence system for 15 years in Rome, and he usually roam
around the city often disguised as a beggar to gather first-hand information.

Julius Caesar during his time, his staff of each legion includes ten speculators who
served as an information collecting agency. The speculators were the first intelligence
personnel to appear definitely in a military organization.

George Washington served as the Grand Master in intelligence who mobilized the
free masons of the colonies at the outbreak of the American war of independence.

Karl Schulmeister Renowned as "Napoleon's Eye". He was credited for establishing

counter intelligence conducted against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black
mail to obtain vital information pertaining to the personality and identify of the enemies of
Napoleon during the 18th Century.

Alfred Redl brilliant intelligence agent although a homosexual. Become chief of the
Austro Hungarian Secret Service, but in fact a double agent of Russia. In 1913, his
treason was discovered and he was forced to commit suicide.
His treason lead to the death of 500,000 agents and soldiers combine in 13 years of
espionage service.

Wilhelm Johann Karl Eduard Steiber Known as the Prussia's "King of

Sleuthhounds" as minister of police he studied the use of propaganda and censorship
as well as utilizing statistical intelligence accounting. Steiber's thorough organization and
ruthless, his sinister innovations and cold, calculating manipulation of human weakness
made him the spymaster who most shape the course of the 20th century espionage.

The Brahma Kautlya in ancient india, he overthrew the NANDA dynasty and
established the first MAYURYAN king in the Indian throne.

Mayuryan Spy System

Rivaled the modern Soviets and had the following tasks:
a. Shadow the kings ministers and officials and attempt to determine their
very thoughts
b. Report wrong doings of the people
c. Operate secretly in foreign countries
d. Spread unrest
e. Commit act of sabotage
f. Assassinate political and military leaders
g. Official envoys were instructed to make friends with officials of the enemy
to compare their military strengths with their own
William "Wild Bill" Donovan Headed the Office of Strategic Service (OSS), the
immediate forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, a lawyer and millionaire
Republican, Donovan enjoyed Roosevelt's trust, friendship, and most crucial of all direct
access to the inner sanctums of the White House. His jovial outgoing personality and his
upper class social background played a considerable part in setting overall tone and style

Herbert Yardley Head of MI-8, The forerunner of the Top Secret National Security
Administration a.k.a Black Chamber, a Cryptanalytic Organization.

Battle of Midway In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the victory
gained by the Americans was due to the disrupted messages from the Imperial Japanese

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto April 1943, the Cryptoanalyst of the U.S. Navy
Communications Intelligence intercepted a top secret signal relaying the travel of the
Admiral. En route ha was intercepted and crashed in the Jungles of Baungainville.

King Edward I King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police system so called
Witch and Ward. By Royal proclamation, the profession State Informer was created in
1734 enjoining all informers to expose criminal activities and be compensated.

Joseph Fouche The French statesman (1759-1820) served as minister of police under
Napoleon and was influential in the return of Louis XVIII to the throne in 1815.
He rose to become the most feared and respected intelligence director in French history.
He founded the system spying against spy which later know as counter-espionage

JOSEPH PETROSINO member of the New York Police Department in early 1900, he
was the head of the Italian Squad. Through extensive intelligence network, he is credited
to smash the Black Society.

Frey Tomas de Toquemada Master Planner. Conducted espionage during the 15th
century under the inquisition wherein purging and ecclesiastical cleansing was
undertaken to fortify and solidify the church

Sir Samuel Luke

Chief Scout of Oliver Cromwell who was able to dethrone King Charles I in British Civil
War of 1640's. Sir Samuel Luke was said to be industrious in snooping on the enemy.

John Churchill first duke of Malborough, told critics of his enormous expenditure on
espionage, that " No war can be conducted successfully without early and good
intelligence, and such advices cannot be had but a very great expense".

Sir Arthur Wellesly Duke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleon's at Waterloo in 1815.
Regarded as the "Greatest Military Spymaster at All Time". He live by the motto; "All
the business of war is to find out what you dont know by what you do." He always
studied the enemy in depth, finding out not only where the opposing army was and how
strong it was, but the character of it's commander, the spirit and training of its troops, their
battle experience, and how they were supplied with arms and rations. He also studied
and mapped the roads, rivers and topography of the war theatre.

William Stephenson A film mogul in England who founded the British Security
Coordination in New York to cooperate with American spy agencies on secret orders
from Winston Churchill in coordination with Franklin D. Roosevelt. Stephenson
commented that "Battles were won because of advance knowledge f enemy plans
could influence those plans, and could anticipate enemy actions by methods
heretofore concealed.

V2 Rackets OSS agents working in conjunction with the British Intelligence, through
penetration and technical intelligence discovered Pneumundo, which was the V2 guide
missile research project of Nazi Germany.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) The agency was created under the US
National Security Act of 1947 a.k.a. Public Law 110 established by the late President
Truman in January 1946.The CIA is under the National Security Council. The First
Director of the Agency was Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter. It is called THE

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) First established in 1908 as an

investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. It becomes what is known as the
F.B.I. under its first director John Edgar Hoover in 1942.

The Committee for State Security Russia The intelligence agency known as the
KGB Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)

The British Secret Service (BSS MI5/MI6) established in 1909 as an internal

departments under the control of Secret Service Bureau. It is now known as Secret
Intelligence Service (SIS)

The Mossad (Ha-mosad le modiin u-letafquidim meyuhadim) The agencys motto is

found in Proverbs XI, 14 Where no counsel is, the people fall, but in the multitude of
counselors there is safety. Mossad has two branches namely:
1. Aman Military Intelligence (Israels Defense Forces)
2. Shabak General Security Service (Internal Security
Shabak is from the word shin bet that means a defender who shall not be seen.
Reuven Shiloah was the First Director of MOSSAD.


intelligence agency in the Philippines under the Office of the National Security Adviser

o Refers to all evaluated materials of every description including those derived from
observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is

Two General Classifications of Sources of Information:

1. Open Sources 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources.
a. Enemy Activities
b. POW
c. Captured Documents
d. Map
e. Weather Forecast, Studies, Reports
f. Agencies

2. Close Sources 1% of information from close sources.

Close/Covert Method
a. Surveillance
b. Casing
c. Elicitation
d. Surreptitious Entry
e. Employment of Technical Means
f. Bugging and Tapping Devices
g. Tactical Interrogation
h. Observation and Description


Informant Net a controlled group of people who work through the direction of the agent handler
Informant persons who give information to the police voluntarily
Informer persons who give information for reward or price


1. Criminal Informant an informant who gives information to the police pertaining to the
underworld about organized criminals with the understanding that his identity will be
2. Confidential Informant is similar to the former but he gives information violate of the law
to includes crimes and criminals.
3. Voluntary Informant a type of informant who give information freely and willfully as a
witness to a certain act.
4. Special Informant those who gives information concerning specialized cases only and it
is regarded a special treatment by the operatives (ex. Teachers, businessman)
5. Anonymous Informant those who gives information through telephone with the hope
that the informant cannot be identified.


1. Incidental Informant person who casually imparts information to an officer with no

intention of providing subsequent information
2. Recruited Informant person selected, cultivated and developed into a continuous
source of information

1. Spontaneous Informant informant who by reason of his position or work has certain
legal, moral o ethical responsibilities to report an info to the police. Also known as
Automatic Informant
2. Ordinary (Out-of-Their-Will) Informant informant that is under the compulsion to
repot the info to the police
3. Special Employee informant who is of a specific operational value

Functional Classifications Of Police Intelligence

1. Criminal Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and
the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of
peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection
of lives and properties.

Principles Of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and operation are interdependent separate and distinct activities but
compliment each other.
2. Intelligence requires continuous security measures deny unauthorized personnel
information about operation and intelligence product.
3. Intelligence must be useful must serve the commanders need and requirements
4. Intelligence must be timely must reach the user in time to serve as basis for appropriate
5. Intelligence must be flexible based on reason and sound judgment
6. Intelligence requires imagination and foresight agents must be given the leeway to be
resourceful to obtain more than what is normally acquired

Broad Categories of Intelligence

1. National Intelligence integrated product of intelligence developed by all government
departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national security.
a. National Policy specific courses of action to achieve the national
b. National Security this relate to the protection and preservation of
military, economic and a productive strength of a country including the
security of the government and domestics and foreign affairs against
espionage, sabotage and subversion.
2. Department of Intelligence the intelligence required by department or agencies of the
government to execute its mission and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence used in the preparation and execution of tactical plans.

Fields of Police Intelligence

1. Strategic Intelligence knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign
nation, which is required by the National Planners for the formulation of an adequate National Defense in
peace and forms the basis for, projected military operations in time of war.

Components of Strategic Intelligence

a. Political Intelligence deals with Domestic and Foreign affairs and relation of
government operations;
1. Basic Principles of the Government
2. Government Structures
3. Public Order and Safety
4. Subversion
5. Intelligence and Security Organization
b. Economic Intelligence deals with the extent and utilization of Natural and Human
resources to the industrial potential of the Nations.
c. Transportation and Telecommunication Intelligence concerned with the operations
and facilities not only the Military but also the Civilians.
d. Sociological Intelligence deals with the demographic and psychological aspects of
groups of people.
1. Population and Manpower
2. Characteristics of the People
a. 3. Public Opinion attitudes of the majority of the people towards matters of
public policy.
3. Education based on literacy rate
e. Biographical Intelligence deals with individual personalities who have actual
possession of power.
f. Armed Forces Intelligence deals with the armed forces of the Nation.
1. Position of the Armed Forces constitutional and legal basis of its creation and
actual role.
2. Organization and structure and territorial disposition
3. Military Manpower Recruitment
4. Order of Battle
g. Geographical Intelligence deals with the natural as well as man-made features of the
physical environment of man considered from the point in view of military operations.
1. Location military and economic importance
2. Size measurement of which a nation can exchange space or time during
3. Shape
4. Weather and Climate
h. Scientific Intelligence deals with the progress of the research and development as it affects the
economic and military potential of a nation.

2. Line Intelligence (Tactical and Combat) is the intelligence required by the commander to provide
for planning and conduct of tactical operation.

- Knowledge of the People, Weather, Enemy, and Terrain (PWET) used in planning and conducting
tactical and administrative operation in a counter insurgency.

What are the Intelligence Information to be Determined in Line Intelligence?

a. living condition of the people
b. sources of income
c. education of the people
d. government livelihood of the people
e. extent of enemy influence to the people

a. visibility
b. cloudy
c. temperature
d. precipitation(rain)
e. wind

a. location of the enemy
b. strength of the enemy
c. disposition
d. tactical capability
e. enemy vulnerability

a. relief and drainage system
b. vegetation
c. surface material
d. man made features

3. Counterintelligence phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the

effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and the protection of information against espionage, subversion
and sabotage.

Three Activity of Counterintelligence

1. Protection of information against espionage

2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Two General Types of Counterintelligence

1. Passive Measures are those measures, which seek to conceal information from the enemy.
2. Active Measures are those measures, which seek actively to block the enemies effort to gain
information or engage in espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Five Categories of Counterintelligence Operation

1. Military Security it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself

against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise.
2. Port Frontier and Travel Security has to do with the application of both military and civil
security measures for counterintelligence control at point of entry and departure,
international borders and boundaries.
3. Civil Security it encompasses active and passive counterintelligence measures affecting
the non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military
4. Censorship it is the control and examination of the following;
a. Civil
b. national
c. armed forces
d. field press
e. POW

Counterintelligence Investigation is an activity which constitutes the value of the counterintelligence

workload, worldwide and includes specific investigation of individual and incidence, which for the most
part are conducted in an overt but discreet manner.

Three Categories of Counterintelligence Measures

1. Denial Measures secrecy discipline, document security, camouflage and concealment,

communication security, military censorship, counter reconnaissance effort

2. Detection Measures security tag or pass card, challenge or password, reconnaissance

3. Deception Measures ruse use of escape and evasion, dummy position, fabricated


Intelligence Cycle The process through which intelligence is obtained, produced and made available
to users.

PHASE I Planning the Collection Effort it involves the determination of the requirements of
intelligence operation

1. Determination of Requirements

a. Enemy capabilities, including time, place, strength, or other details

b. Enemy vulnerabilities, including nature, extent, performance and other details
c. Enemy order of battle and factors
d. Terrain, including natural and artificial obstacles
e. Weather
f. Information desired by higher, lower or adjacent headquarters

2. Determination of the Essential Elements of Information

Essential Element of Information an item of information of the characteristics of the area of
operations and the enemy which the commander feels he needs before he can reasonably arrive at a

3. Establishment of Priorities
Priorities reflect the criticality of the need for the particular information. No formula exists which can
automatically determine priorities. Such determination is a matter of judgment.

PHASE II Collection of Information

a. Determine collecting agency

b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts
d. Use tools or technique in collection
e. Ensure timely collection

Factors in Choosing Collection Agents

1. Capability agents placement or access to the target

2. Multiplicity more agents
3. Balance the number of agents needed in the operation

PHASE III Processing the Collected Information

1. Recording is the reduction of information into writing or some other form of graphical
representation and the arranging of this information into groups related items.
2. Evaluation is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation,
reliability of the source of or agency and the accuracy of the information.

Evaluation to Determine

a. Pertinence does it holds some value to current operation

is it needed immediately
b. Reliability judging the source of information or agency
c. Credibility truth of information
Judging Credibility

a. It is possible for the reported fact or event to have taken place?

b. Is the report consistent within itself?
c. Is the report confirmed or corroborated by information from different sources or agencies?
d. If the report does not agree with information from other sources which one is more likely to
be true?

3. Interpretation it is the determination of the meaning and significance of the information relative to
the information and intelligence already known and drawing deductions about probable meaning of the
evaluated information.
a. Assessment shifting and isolating those elements the have significance in the light of
the mission or objective
b. Integration combining the elements isolated in analysis and known information to form
a logical picture or theory
c. Deduction the formulation of conclusions from the theory developed, tested and
considered valid in determination of effort and meaning of the information


Reliability of Information Accuracy of Information Sources of Information

A Completely Reliable 1 Confirmed By Other T-Direct observation by a commander of a unit
B Usually Reliable 2 Probably True U-Report by a penetration or resident agent
C - Fairly Reliable 3 Possibly True V-Report by an AFP trooper or PNP personnel
in encounter or operation
D Not Usually Reliable 4 Doubtfully True W-Interrogation of a captured enemy agent or
E Unreliable 5 Improbable X-Observation by a government or civilian
employee or official
F Reliability Cannot Be 6 Truth Cannot Be Y-Observation by a member of populace
Judged Judged Z-Documentary

PHASE IV Dissemination and Use of Information

1. Timeliness intelligence must reach the users on time to be of value.
2. Propriety the message must be clear, concise and complete and must be in the proper
form for the receiver to be readily understandable


1. Intelligence Journal permanent official chronological record of the operations of the

intelligence section, unit or agency. Includes all incoming and outgoing messages
2. Intelligence Workbook a device that provides a means of systematic arrangement of
information by type or subject for particular topic are group together
3. Situation Map graphic representation of the current enemy situation


Cover the means by which an individual, goup or organization conceals the true nature
of its acts and/or existence from the observer
Cover Story a biographic account, true or fictitious that will portray the personality of the
agent he assumed, a scenario to cover up the operation.


1. Natural Cover using actual or true background

2. Artificial Cover cover using biographical data adopted for such purpose
3. Cover Within a Cover use of secondary cover in case of compromise for justification
of existence

4. Multiple Cover any cover wished


1. Offensive gives access to the target and facilitates the achievement of clandestine
2. Defensive serves to prevent detection

Organizational Cover an account consisting of biographical data which when adopted by an individual
will assume the personality he wants to adopt


1. Static or Dormant Opposition

2. Inhostile Active Opposition
3. Hostile Active Opposition


1. Move out immediately

2. Start new facility for operations and develop it
3. Build entirely new cover
4. Use circuitous route and provide careful counter-surveillance
5. Be patient, build slowly and carefully


1. Make a physical move or relocate

2. Start new facility and let it grow
3. Use new personnel
4. Let old personnel remain in place
5. Build entirely new cover identity

UNDERCOVER OPERATION an investigative technique in which the agent conceal his official identity
to obtain information from the target organization


1. Dwelling one in which the agent establishes residence in or near the dwelling which
houses the subject
2. Work Assignment places the undercover agent in a type of employment where he can
observe the activities of the target
3. Social Assignment requires to frequent places of entertainment and amusement
known to be habitually visited by the target
4. Multiple Assignment agent is given the task of covering two or more of the above
specific assignments simultaneously
5. Personal Contact Assignment or Rope Job agent is required to develop friendship
and trust with the target for purposes of obtaining information or evidence


1. Direct employment and utilization of special agents

2. Indirect employment and utilization of controlled informants


1. Placement location of prospective agent with respect to the target

2. Access the capability of a prospective agent to obtain the desired information


1. Primary Access the physical access to the desired information

2. Secondary Access the access to the desired information through a principal source
where the agent has direct access
3. Outside Access agent employed outside target and merely monitor information from a
third person who is monitoring info in the area

CONTROL is the authority to direct the agent to carry out task or requirement on behalf of the
clandestine organization in an acceptable manner and security


1. Positive Control characterized by professionalism and rapport like agent motivation or
psychological control
2. Negative Control characterized by threat which includes:
a. Disciplinary Action includes verbal reprimand for poor performance or insecure
actions of withholding certain rewards, reduction of agents, salary or threat of
terminating professional relationship
b. Escrow Account control of agent by putting his salary in a bank to be withdrawn
only after a fulfilment of a condition
c. Blackmail


1. Agent in Place agent who has been recruited by an intelligence service within a highly
sensitive target, who is just beginning a career or have been long or insider
2. Double Agent an enemy agent who has been captured, turned around as an agent of
his captor
3. Expandable agent agent whom false information is leaked to the enemy
4. Penetration Agent agent who reached the enemy gets information and manage to get
back alive
5. Agent of Influence agent who uses influence to gain information
6. Agent of Provocation agent who provoke the enemy to get information

It is a form of clandestine investigation which consists of keeping persons, place or other targets
under physical observation in order to obtain evidence or information pertinent to an investigation

Important Terms

Surveillant person conducting the surveillance

Subject a party under observation or surveillance
Stakeout the surveillant remains in one or fixed position or locale. Also called Plant or
Fixed Surveillanmce
Convoy a countermeasure to detect or elude surveillance
Decoy a cover supporting the surveillant who can become a convoy whenever
surveillance is burned out
Drop any convenient, secure and unsuspecting place where police undercover man
meet his action agent for debriefing or reporting purposes
Contact any person whom the subject picks or deals with while he is under observation
and identifies the observer
Mustard Plaster the subject is followed so closely that surveillant and subject are
almost in lock step.. It is tantamount to protective custody
Tailgaiting open surveillance in which the subejects vehicle is closely followed
Tailing or Shadowing surveillance of person
Casing or Reconnaissance surveillance of place
Roping surveillance of events, activities or other things


A. According to Intensity and Sensitivity

1. Loose or Discreet a cautious surveillance in which the subject is unaware that
he is being followed or observed
2. Open or Rough a surveillance with little or no attempt of concealment. The
subject is most likely aware that he is followed.
3. Close or Tight the subject is kept undr constant surveillance. The aim is not to
lose the subject even at the risk of being detected.

B. According to Methods

1. Stationary the surveillant is in fixed position

2. Moving the surveillant follow the subject from place to place to maintain
continuous watch
3. Technical surveillance with the use of electronic gadgets, equipments or

Casing is the term used in the police organization while reconnaissance is the term used
in the military. It is the visual inspection of an area, installation or building to determine its
suitability for operational activities.


1. Exterior Casing observation of the whole area, building or installation, possible exits
and approaches and the type vicinity
2. Interior close observation of the layout of the building. Includes item that can be
observed a building which are of intelligence value

Methods of Casing

1. Personal Reconnaissance the most effective method and will produce the most
2. Map Reconnaissance it may not be sufficient but may produce a certain amount of
3. Research sometimes additional info can be gathered through research
4. Prior Information information from records of file
5. Hearsay info usually gain by operating personnel

a. One-Man Tailing most difficult method which must be a close one otherwise the
person being followed will be lost
b. Leapfrog Method one member of the team maintains contact with the subject. The
other members of the team keep contact with those immediately ahead of them.
c. Group Method involves several men, each man maintains contact with the subject.
One may be abreast of the subject and others in similar position. In order not to prevent
discovery, such positions may be exchange between members of the group.


Observation encompasses the use of all the major senses to register and recognize the
significance of given operation
Description actual and factual reporting of ones observation
85% of knowledge gathered through sight
13% gathered through hearing
2% gathered through three other senses

Dos and Donts in Surveillance

1. Do not make abrupt or unnatural movement

2. Do not make use of disguise that will attract attention
3. Never stare at the subject
4. Never speak to other surveillant unless absolutely necessary
5. Plan ahead and be aware on changes of action
6. Take down notes safely
7. Make use of street furniture
8. Retrace the step of the subject in case the latter turn around during shadowing

o A system in which information of value is obtained through the process of direct
communication in which one or more of the parties is unaware of the specific purpose of
the conversation.


o It is the identification of strength, command structure and disposition of the personnel,
units and equipment of any threat force.

o The system of placing barrier between the potential intruder and the material being

o The protection resulting from the application of measures to deny unauthorized
persons from gaining access from information of value

o Document is any recorded information regardless of its physical form or

Classified Matter
o Information or matter in any form or nature, the safeguarding of which is necessary
in the interest of national security.

o Granting of access to classified document or information only to properly cleared
persons when such classified document or info is required in the performance of
their official duties and restricting it to specific physical confines when feasible

o The term given to the requirement that the dissemination of classified matters be
limited strictly to those persons whose official duty requires possession therof.

o Lose of security resulting to unauthorized person obtaining knowledge on classified

o The assigning of information or material to one or of the four security classification

o The changing of classified matter to a categories higher than the previously
assigned to it

o Act of changing the assigned classification of a document or material

o Removal of the security classification from document or material.


1. Top Secret Document record containing information and material, the unauthorized
disclosure of which would caused exceptionally grave damage to the nation, politically,
economically or from the point of national security. This category is reserved for the

nations closest secrets and is to be used with great reserve. It is covered with legal size
bond paper lined with a 1/2-inch green border.

2. Secret Document record containing information or material, the unauthorized

disclosure of which would endanger national security, cause serious injury to the interest
and prestige of the nation or any governmental activity or would be of great advantage to
other nation. It is covered with legal size bond paper lined with a -inch red border.

3. Confidential Document containing information or materials, the unauthorized

disclosure of which would be prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or any
government activity or would cause administrative embarrassment or unwarranted injury
to the honor and dignity of an individual or would be of advantage to foreign nation.
Covered with legal size bond paper lined with a -inch blue border

4. Restricted Record Information and material which requires special protection other
than that determined to be top secret, secret or confidential. Cover sheet is not
necessary, what is important is a bold RESTRICTED word at the top and at the bottom of
the bond paper.


o It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion and loyalty of an individual in order
to determine a persons suitability or access to classified matters prior to the granting of
security clearance


1. National Agency Check (NAC) investigation of an individual made on the basis of
written information supplied buy him in response to an official inquiry. It is simply a check
no the files and records of national agencies
2. Local Agency Check (LAC) inquiry sent to local government agencies, former
employers, character references and schools where the subject attended.
3. Background Investigation (BI) more comprehensive than LAC or NAC.


1. Complete Background Investigation (CBI) it consists of the thorough and complete

investigation of the background of the subject including all the circumstances of his life.
2. Partial Background Investigation (PBI) investigation of the background of the subject
but limited only to circumstances of his personal life which are deemed pertinent to an

Security Clearance administrative determination from a security standpoint that an individual is

eligible for access to classified matter

1. Security Clearance a certification issued by the proper authority that the person
described has an access to classified matter at the appropriate level.
2. Directed Clearance a clearance granted for a specific purpose upon completion of
prescribed records check or background check

CRYPTOGRAPHY the art and science of code and ciphers. It is done through the use of
telephone scrambler or technically speaking, Speech Inverter where speech frequencies
are divided to produce a scrambling speech when intercepted.
Cryptographer person skilled in converting messages from clear to unintelligible forms
by the use of codes and ciphers. Also known as Coder, Encrypter or Code Clerk.
Crypto-Analyst one who break intercepted codes
Coding changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible form. Also known as
Decoding transforming of coded message into plain text. Also known as Decrypting.


Management pertains to the utilization of available resources in an organization to achieve its
organizational objectives. It also refers to the process of directing and facilitating the work of people
organized in formal groups in order to achieve a desired goal. It is concerned in placing the right
people on the right job and in maintaining a satisfied work force.


1. Authority is the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions
within an organizational hierarchy. A particular position within an organization carries the same
regardless of who occupies that position.


1. Law
2. Tradition
3. Delegation

2. Responsibility means that the management shall be held accountable for whatever result that
may arise in the exercise of authority. Thus, responsibility limits the exercise of ones authority.
Command Responsibility - is the doctrine that imposes commensurate accountability to
one who is vested with management and leadership functions.

- is an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and
internal operating efficiency. It connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relatively routine
decision making and maintenance of the internal status quo.

1. PLANNING - refers to the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will
be attained.

2. ORGANIZING - involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as the
resource of an organization to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the organization.

3. DIRECTING - involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the various
activities in an organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the pre-determined goals or
objectives of the organization.

4. STAFFING - the task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for
the right job. It involves good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained personnel.
5. CONTROLLING - involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance
and comparing it with planned goals or objectives of the organization, and making the necessary
corrective actions so that work is accomplished as planned.

6. REPORTING - the making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and
unusual in order to keep everyone informed or what is going on.

7. BUDGETING - the forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of

operations based on the highest reasonable expectations of operating efficiency.

Scientific Management
- proposed by Frederick Taylor
Under this theory, workers are motivated by economic rewards and that if they are paid
commensurate to work being done they produce maximum amount of work. This
management theory entails that good salary and incentives must be given to workers to
ensure their hard work, innovative action and good will.

This behavioral science approach was introduced by D. McGregor. Theory X assumes
that people have little ambition, dislike work, and must be coerced in order to perform
satisfactory. Theory Y assumes that people do not inherently dislike work and if properly
rewarded, people will perform well on the job.


The art of preparing, organizing and directing the efforts of members of a police force in
order that they may achieve the accomplishment of the police purpose. The primary
objective of an effective police personnel management is the establishment and
maintenance for the public service of a competent and well-trained police force.


1. Police Personnel Planning study of the labor supply of jobs which are composed of the
demands for employees in an organization to determine future personnel requirements which
either increase or decrease.

2. Police Recruitment is the process of encouraging police applicant form outside an

organization to seek employment in an organization. It consists of developing a recruitment plan,
recruitment strategy and maintaining a list of qualified applicants.

3. Police Screening/Selection the process of determining the most qualified police applicant for
a given position in the police organization.

4. Police Placement the process of making police officers adjusted and knowledgeable in a new
job and/or working environment.

5. Police Training and Development refers to any method used to improve the attitude,
knowledge and skill or behavior pattern of an employee for adequate performance of a given job.

6. Police Appraisal process of measuring the performance of people in achieving goals and
objectives. Also known as Performance Evaluation System

7. Police Compensation constitute the largest single expenditure for most organizations

The process of attracting candidates who have maximum qualifications to be eligible for
selection procedure. It is the process of searching the candidates for employment and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.

The process of screening out or eliminating undesirable applicants who do not meet the
organizations criteria.

In the Philippine National Police, the recruitment and selection of applicants who will be appointed
to the police service is the responsibility of the Directorate for Personnel and Records Management
(DPRM). DPRM is tasked in the management of PNP uniformed and non-uniformed personnel as
individuals, manpower procurement and control and in the records management of the organization.

Responsible for the widest dissemination of vacancies in their respective areas, the
evaluation of the applicants qualifications and the selection of the most qualified applicants to
be recommended for appointment to the police service.
Established at the NHQ, NSUs and PROs.


Chairman: Deputy Director for Administration of the respective National Support Unit/ the Deputy
Director General for Administration.
Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be
designated by the Vice Chairperson and Executive Officer of the NAPOLCOM.

1. National Peace and Order Council (NPOC) member designated by the NPOC Chairman;
2. Private Sector representative designated by the NPOC Secretary General; and
3. Womens representative from private sector with known probity designated by the NSU

Secretariat: Assistant Director for Personnel and Records Management (ADPRM) / Human
Resource Management Officer (HRMO)


Chairman: Deputy Regional Director for Administration

Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be designated
by the NAPOLCOM Regional Director

1. Regional Peace and Order Council (RPOC) member designated by the RPOC Chairman;
2. Senior Regional DILG Officer designated by the DILG Regional Director;
3. Womens representative from private sector with known probity designated by the PNP
Regional Director.

Secretariat: Chief, Regional Personnel on Human Resource and Doctrine Development (RPHRDD)


1. Preparation and proper approval of quota allocation

The PNP shall prepare, through the Directorate for Personnel and Records Management (DPRM)
and submit it to the NAPOLCOM for approval of the PNP annual recruitment quota.

2. Posting and publication of Notice of Recruitment

The Notice of Recruitment shall include the following data for the information of prospective
a. Quota for the city/municipal police station;
b. Vacancies are open to both male and female applicant;
c. General qualification standards;
d. Documentary requirements;
e. Where to submit the application papers and documents;
f. Deadline for submission; and
g. Schedule of screening/evaluation.

3. Submission of the application folders

4. Selection and evaluation process by the PNP Screening Committee
5. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE)
6. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE)
7. Physical Agility Test
8. Final Committee Interview
9. Certification by the NAPOLCOM and attestation by the Civil Service Commission
10. Issuance of appointment order and oath taking

The final evaluation includes the sequential conduct of the following examinations, test and

1. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE) to exclude applicants that may be suffering from

any mental disorder. It shall be administered to all applicants under the supervision of the PNP
Medical Officer and NAPOLCOM Representative. Only those applicants who passed the PPE shall
proceed to the next stage, the Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE).

2. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE) this test shall determine whether
or not the applicants are in good health and free from any contagious diseases. It shall be
conducted by the PNP Health Service under the supervision of the PNP Medical Officer and
NAPOLCOM Representative. Applicants who passed the PMDE shall be indorsed for the conduct
of the Physical Agility Test (PAT).

3. Physical Agility Test (PAT) this test shall determine whether or not the applicant possesses the
required coordination, strength and speed of movement necessary in the police service. The PAT
consists of the following:
o Pull-up for Men; Horizontal Bar Hang for Women;
o Two (2) Minutes Push-ups;
o Two (2) Minutes Sit-ups;
o 100 meter dash; and
o 100 meter run.

4. Final Committee Interview (FCI) it shall determine the applicants aptitude to join the police service,
likableness, affability, outside interest, conversational ability, disagreeable mannerisms, etc.

The drug test (DT) shall not follow the sequential steps but shall be conducted on passers only
anytime after the PPE, PMDE, or PAT but before the Final Committee Interview. It shall be administered
by the PNP Crime Laboratory.
The conduct of the Physical Agility Test (PAT) and Neuro-Psychiatric (NP) examination shall be
simultaneous nationwide to prevent a retake in another place of said tests by applicants who initially
failed on the same.
The complete Character and Background Investigation (CBI) shall be conducted on all PPE
passers and must be completed before the start of the Final Committee Interview. The complete CBI
shall determine their reputation and possible involvement in any questionable or criminal activities or
violent incidents.


NAPOLCOM representatives to the PNP Recruitment Screening Committees are actively

involved in the recruitment and selection process including interview of applicants, the PNP Neuro-
Psychiatric Examinations, Physical/Medical and Dental Examination, Physical Agility Test (PAT) and
Drug Test.
There are also NAPOLCOM Representatives to the following PNP Promotion Boards:
1. PCO Promotion Boards;
2. PNCO Promotion Boards; and
3. Lateral Entry Board

- is a means of providing knowledge and skill to police officers which are needed in the performance
of their functions. It is the objective of police training to bring the police force to the desired
standards of discipline and efficiency by making each police officer fully aware of his duties and
responsibilities and by providing him with a working knowledge of police procedures and


1. Basic Recruit Training is the most basic of all police training. It is a pre-requisite for permanency
of appointment and is required for newly hired police officers. In the Philippine National Police, a
newly appointed Police Officer 1 is required to undergo a Public Safety Basic Recruit Course
(PSBRC) as a basic recruit training.

2. Field Training Program (FTP) or on-the-job training is the process by which an individual police
officer who is recruited into the service receives formal instruction on the job for special and defined
purpose and performs actual job functions with periodic appraisal on his performance and
a. As provided for under R.A. 8551, police officers are required to undergo a Field Training
Program for twelve (12) months (inclusive of the PSBRC) involving actual experience and
assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation which is required for permanency in the police


o Under Section 33, R.A. 6975, PNPA Graduates shall be automatically appointed to the initial rank
of Inspector via Lateral Entry.
o Taking into consideration that the PNPA Cadetship Program is a four-year course that includes
academic subjects on core police functions such as patrol, traffic and criminal investigation, and
on-the-job training in urban and rural areas, PNPA graduates are exempted to undergo the FTP
and that they shall be issued with a permanent status.

3. In-Service Training Program or refresher training program.

The following are examples of in-service training programs as mandatory requirement for
1. Junior Leadership Training PO1 to PO3
2. Senior Leadership Training SPO1 to SPO4
3. Police Basic Course (PBC) for senior police officers
4. Officers Basic Course (OBC) Inspectors to Chief Inspectors
5. Officers Advance Course (OAC) for Chief Inspectors to Senior Superintendent
6. Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) Superintendent and above
7. Directorial Staff Course (DSC) for Directors and above

4. Departmental Training Program

a. Roll-Call Training instructional courses of several hours a day concerning departmental
b. Supervisory Development, Specialized or Technical Training seminars or special
sessions on criminal investigation, traffic, drug control, etc
c. Training conducted by other law enforcement units or agencies


Police assignment refers to the process of designation a police officer at a particular function,
duty or responsibility. The very purpose of police assignment is to ensure systematic and effective
utilization of all the members of the police force.
Police Officer 1s, specifically those who were recruited under the attrition recruitment program,
after undergoing the required Field Training Program (FTP), shall be assigned with the
Regional/Provincial/City Public Safety Battalion/Company of their place of recruitment for a maximum
period of two (2) years.
After their assignment with the Regional/Provincial/City Public Safety Battalion/Company, they
shall be downloaded/assigned to their respective city/municipal police stations where they were


Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another
carrying higher benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a
position of leadership.


a. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory

requirements for promotion.
b. Special Promotion promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of
conspicuous courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of duty.

c. Promotion by Virtue of Position Any PNP personnel designated to any key position whose
rank is lower than that which is required for such position shall, after six (6) months of
occupying the same, be entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding to the position.


- refers to the process of measuring the performance of PNP members. It is also known as
performance evaluation system. The Performance Evaluation System in the PNP is focused
on two (2) areas: administrative (40%) and operational (60%). It is conducted every six (6)
months or twice a year.


- The frequency of the individual performance shall be undertaken every six (6) months.
Evaluation report covering the period of January to June shall be submitted on the 1 st week of
July and the report from July to December shall be submitted on the 1st week of January of
the succeeding year.


a. Serves as guide for promotion, salary increase, retirement and disciplinary actions.
b. Increases productivity and efficiency of police works
c. Assimilates supervision
d. Informs the officer of the quality of his work for improvements


- The uniformed members of the PNP are considered employees of the National Government
and shall draw their salaries therefrom. The salary of a Police Officer 1 of the PNP is
equivalent to a salary of a public school teacher 1 with salary grade scale of 10 under existing
laws as of year 2012.
- The PNP members assigned in Metropolitan Manila, chartered cities and first class
municipalities may be paid financial incentive by the local government unit concerned subject
to the availability of funds.


- A uniformed personnel of the PNP is entitled to a longevity pay of ten percent (10%) of basic
monthly salaries for every five (5) years of service, which is reckoned from the date of the
personnel's original appointment in the AFP, or appointment in the police, fire jail or other allied
services to the integration of the PC and the INP.
- The totality of such longevity pay should not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the basic pay. It should
also continue to enjoy the subsistence allowance, quarters allowance, clothing allowance cost of
living allowance, hazard pay, and all other allowances as provided by existing laws.

The total earnings of a police officer consist of the following:

a. Base pay;
b. Longevity pay;
c. Personnel Economic Relief Allowance (PERA);
d. Incentive pay;
e. Hazard pay;
f. Subsistence allowance;
g. Quarter allowance;
h. Additional compensation;
i. Clothing allowance;
j. Laundry allowance; and
k. Gratuity


Total Permanent Physical Disability refers to any impairment of the body which renders PNP
member indefinitely incapable of substantially performing the mandated duties and functions of his

- entitled to one year's salary and to lifetime pension equivalent to eighty percent (80%) of his last
salary, in addition to other benefits as provided under existing laws.


- Retirement is the separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the age
of retirement provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active service

- A PNP uniformed personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.

- Active Service shall refer to services rendered as an officer and non-officer, cadet, trainee or
draftee in the PNP


a. Compulsory retirement separation from the PNP upon reaching the age of fifty-six (56),
the compulsory age of retirement.
b. Optional Retirement - separation from the PNP upon accumulation of at least twenty (20)
years of satisfactory active service.


- The PNP member who has been retired from the service is entitled to a monthly retirement pay of
fifty percent (50%) of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of twenty (20)
years of active service, increasing by two and one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of active
service rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a maximum of ninety percent (90%) for thirty-six (36)
years of active service and over.


- Refers to the information whether in its original form or otherwise including documents, signatures,
seals, texts, images, sounds, speeches or data compiled, recorded or stored, as the case may be:
1. in written form on any material;
2. on film, negative, tape or other medium so as to be capable of being reproduced; or
3. any means of recording device or process, computer or other electronic device or process.

Record management
- refers to the managerial activities involved with respect to the record creation, record maintenance,
and use, transmission, retention, and record disposition in order to achieve adequate and proper
documentation of policies and transactions of government for its efficient, effective and economical

- also known as birth-through-death cycle
- the life span of records from creation to final disposition:

1. Birth or Creation the period during which the record is created or comes into existence.

2. Records Maintenance and Use refers to the period when the records serve its purpose:
a. Active Life during which the record is maintained, used and controlled
b. Inactive Life the time when the record is very rarely or no longer referred to and must be
transferred to a cheaper place. These records have already served their purpose but must
be kept for legal requirement or other compelling reasons.

3. Classification records are classified for filing purposes.

4. Storage refers to the filing of records according to classification.
5. Retrieval the act of taking out of record from the storage for reference purposes.
6. Purging or Retention the act of determining if the record is for retention or ready for disposal.
7. Transfer the process of moving the record from one storage to another.
8. Archival Storage or Records Disposition the systematic transfer of non-current records from
the office to any storage area or archives for long term storage, the identification of preservation
of permanent records and the destruction of valueless records.

A. According to Period of Retention:

1. Permanent Record to be kept for not less than ten (10) years
2. Semi-Permanent to be kept for five (5) years
3. Temporary no specified period but usually less than (5) years.

B. According to Importance or Essentiality:

1. Vital Records are records that are irreplaceable, but can be reproduced.
2. Important Records records that can be reproduced after considerable delay.
3. Useful Records records that would cause inconvenience if lost but could be readily replaced.
4. Non-essential Records records that are previously determined by retention schedule to be
illegible for destruction.

C. According to Phases of its Life Cycle

1. Current Phase (Current or Active Records) - records that are regularly used and maintained.
2. Semi-current Phase (Semi-current Records) - records that are still used but only infrequently.
3. Non-current Phase (Non-current or Inactive Records) - records that are no longer used.


1. Case Records it is the heart of any police records system. It serves as the basis for an analysis of
offenses and the methods by which they are committed.

a. Complaint Sheet it is the foundation record of the police department. It reflects all information
regarding complaints and reports received by the police from citizens and other agencies or actions
taken by the police.

b. Investigative Report it contains the findings and actions taken by the investigating officer based on
the inquiries made and by obtaining the available facts of the incident.

1. Initial or Advance Report is an advance information on a new or fresh case. It is written and
submitted immediately after having conducted the initial investigation of the case.

2. Progress or Follow-up Report it is the result of the follow-up investigation of a new or fresh
case. It is written and submitted every time or whenever any development or progress is
accomplished in the follow-up investigation.

3. Final or Closing Report is a complete written narration of facts based on an exhausted

investigation of the case. It is the result of evaluated, summation, analysis of all facts and
circumstances of the case. This is written and submitted whenever the case is solved and closed.
A case is solved and closed when the offender was arrested; evidence against him was
completely gathered to warrant prosecution and witness located to testify in the trial.
4. Technical Report a report on the laboratory examination of the physical evidence gathered in
order to supplement the findings of the investigator.

5. Accident Report an investigation report regarding an accident which includes vehicular

accident and damage to property.

6. Wanted Persons Report a report on persons who are wanted by the police.

7. Daily Record of Events a record needed to keep all members of the police force informed
concerning police operations, assignments, and administrative functions.

2. Arrest and Booking Records these records maintain the arrest and jail booking report which is
required for all persons arrested.
a. Arrest Report it contains the information regarding the full name of the offender,
charges and circumstances of arrest.
b. Booking Report it contains the list of the prisoners in custody which indicates the status
and disposition thereof.
c. Prisoners Property Receipt - contains all the information regarding the property taken
from the prisoner and accomplish in duplicate.

3. Identification Records third major division of police records. It provides identification criminals
which includes names, physical characteristics and in some cases photograph.
a. Fingerprint Record heart of any identification system.
1. Civilian Fingerprint
2. Alien Fingerprint
b. Criminal Specialty/Modus Operandi (MO) File contains photographic record of the
modus operandi of criminals

4. Administrative Records essential in administering personnel matters and designed to aid in

assignment, promotion, and disciplinary action of personnel.
a. Personnel Records
b. Correspondence File
c. Memoranda, Orders, Policy Files
d. Assignment Record

5. Miscellaneous Records these are records which are not related to the recorded complaints and
investigation reports but are essential to the daily police activities.

1. Alphabetical all materials are filed in dictionary order. It is the most widely used form of filing.

2. Encyclopedic Order the subjects are grouped into major headings, individual folders are filed
in alphabetical order behind each heading.
3. Chronological Order folders are arranged by sequential date order. It is useful for records that
are created and monitored on a daily basis.

4. Geographical files are arranged alphabetically by geographical name of the place.

5. Numerical assigning of numerical value or number into a specific file which can be managed
through the following system:
a. Serial Number
b. Digit Filing

6. Centralized Filing places all record series in one central location in an office. Most useful when the
majority of individuals within an office require access to majority of files

7. Decentralized Filing it physically locates record series in different places within an office. Most
useful when only one individual requires access to a specific record series.


As provided in the PNP Personnel Records Management Manual of 2008, the PNP shall
establish a centralized records management system and create, maintain, protect and preserve records
both in physical and electronic form.


The Records Management Division (RMD) was established to oversee the records management
functions of the DPRM. The RMD shall develop, coordinate and implement PNP-wide programs, policies
and procedures for creation, usage, maintenance, storage and disposition of personnel records. The
RMD is headed by a division chief with a rank of Police Senior Superintendent and assisted by an
assistant division chief with a rank of Superintendent.

Records creation refers to the act of exchanging written ideas between two (2) sources. At this
point, the life of the record begins. However, due to the fast pace at which the records of PNP personnel
are created, and the cost involved in maintaining them, a control system is necessary.


The PNP Personnel File which is also known as 201 File is a folder containing a set of personal
records and information pertaining to an individual member of the PNP, which serves as basis in availing
of service record, leave record, PNP ID, legal beneficiaries, authentication of photocopies, etc.

The color of the folder for the PPFs shall be as follows:

a. Red, for Police Commissioned Officers (PCO);

b. Blue, for Police Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCO)
c. Green, for Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP)


Records maintenance refers to the activities involving proper handling of records, arranging them
into usable filing sequence, using the most efficient type of filing equipment.


Records Disposition is the systematic transfer on non-current records from an office to any
records storage area, the identification and preservation of permanent records and the outright
destruction of valueless records.
No PNP personnel or units/offices shall dispose of, destroy or authorize the disposal or
destruction of records or PPFs which are in the custody or under its control except with the prior written
authority of the Executive Director, National Archives of the Philippines (Section 18, R.A. 9470).
Any PNP personnel who, willfully or negligently, damages a police record or disposes of or
destroys a police record shall be deemed to have committed an offense.


- refers to the preventive and preventive and protective measures and actions undertaken in
order to safeguard records/documents in all government agencies from unauthorized and indiscriminate
disclosure, damage, destruction and loss, whether records are filed in current of non-current storage


a. Duplication records shall be created with additional copies or duplicates depending on the
needs and circumstances.
b. Dispersal records shall be distributed without additional copies or duplicates.
c. Vaulting vital records shall be stored in a vault.
d. Evacuation original and older records considered to be vital shall be transferred to a secure


i. Vital or top protection priority, consists of all essential records considered as mission critical
and irreplaceable.
ii. Important or second protection priority, consists of all documents still considered as essential
but could be replaced or recreated.
iii. Useful or lowest protection priority, consists of all other documents considered to be non-
essential to normal operations but inconvenient when lost.


The governmental department charged with the regulation and control of the affairs of a
community, now chiefly the department established to maintain order, enforce the law, and
prevent and detect crime. (French word)

An estimate of relative likeness or unlikeness of two objects or event

Package of transnational flow of people, production, investment, information, ideas and authority.
Growing interpenetration of states, markets, communication and ideas.
The process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in an effort to form and
sustain a global economy.


Law enforcers are expected to be the protector of the people unaccountable flow of migration and
open markets present new threats to state-based human rights regimes great challenge to law

Threats to Law Enforcement

increasing volume of human rights violations as evidence by genocide and mass killing
conflict between nations
Transnational criminal networks for drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism


1. Common Law Systems Usually exists in English speaking countries of the world
a. There is strong adversarial system and rely upon oral system of evidence in which the
public trial is a main focal point
b. Also known as Anglo-American Justice
2. Civil Law Systems Distinguished by strong inquisitorial system where less right is granted to the
accused and the written law is taken as gospel and subject to little interpretation
a. also known as Continental Justice or Romano-Germanic Justice
3. Socialist System Distinguished by procedures designed to rehabilitate the offender.
b. known as Marxist-Leninist Justice and exist in places such as Africa and Asia
4. Islamic System Based more on the concept of natural justice or customary law or tribal traditions


Continental Is the theory of police service which maintains that police officers are servants of
higher authorities. This theory prevails in the continental countries like France, Italy and Spain.

Home Rule The theory of police service which states that police officers are servants of the
community or the people. This theory prevails in England and United States. It is also the
police service which prevails in country with decentralized form of government. This is likewise
the police service theory that should prevail in the Philippines based on the existing laws,
concepts and principles.


a. Old police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the number of
arrest made.

b. Modern police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the absence of

Deviance Control = is the modern police function which primarily involves the mission to reinforce
community values and laws. This was adopted by Germany, China and Japan.

Civil order control = is not organizationally separated from deviance control but is performed by regular
street police in the country of England and United States.


Praetorian guards = military bodies who serve as guardians of peace in ancient Rome in which
the idea of policing said to have originated
Officer de la Paix = a French term which claimed to be the origin of the term Police Officer

1. Anglo-Saxon Period of Policing System (Ancient England)

A. Tun Policing System

A system of policing emerged during the Anglo-Saxon period whereby all male residents were
required to guard the town (tun) to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people.

About 700 AD, the people living in England in small rural towns used the Anglo-Saxon System.
Ten families in a town (tun) equaled a tithing. Each tithing elected a leader who was known as the
Tithingman. Since 10 tithings amounted to 100, the leader of the 100 families was named the reeve.
Both the tithingman and reeve were elected officials. They possessed judicial power as well as police

B. Hue and Cry

A village law started in Britain which provided methods of apprehending a criminal by an act of
the complainant to shout to call all male residents to assemble and arrest the suspect.

C. Trial by Ordeal
A judicial practice where in the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting him
to an unpleasant, usually dangerous, experience. (In present terminologies, it would mean an
employment of a 3rd degree.) The word ordeal was derived from the Medieval Latin word Dei
Indicum which means a miraculous decision.

2. Norman Period of Policing System

This system of policing existed during the time of Norman William The Conqueror (King of
France). When he invaded and conquered England, a military regime of conquers and dictators began
and changed the concept of crime being committed against the state.

A. Shire-Rieve
Shire-Rieve was a policing system during the Norman Period when England was divided into
fifty-five (55) military areas, each headed by a ruler called the Rieve (head-man or lieutenant of the
army). The fifty-five (55) military divisions in England are called shires. The shire-rieve had absolute
powers that no one could questions his or her actions.
Two Constabuli or The Keeper of the Horse were appointed to each village to aid the
Rieve in his duties. It became the source of the word Constable.
The term Shire-Rieve is said to be the origin of the word Sheriff.

B. Travelling Judge or Circuit Judge

A judge selected to hear cases which were formerly being judged by the Shire-Rieve and tasked
to travel through and hear criminal cases. This was the first instance of the division of the police
and judicial powers.

C. Legis Henrici
An act that was enacted during this period with the following features:
Offenses were classified as against the king and individual.
Policeman becomes public servant.
The police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest. It introduced the system called
citizens arrest.
Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law. A system which made inquisition onto
the facts of a crime and eliminate the Anglo-Saxon Trial or Trial by Ordeal System.

D. Frankpledge System
A system of policing whereby a group of ten neighboring male residents over twelve years of
age were required to guard the town to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people

3. Westminster Period of Policing System

It is called by this name because the laws governing policing came out of the capital of England,
which at the time was Westminster. This period has the following features:
Guards were appointed and the duties of the constables at night (watch) and in daytime
(ward) were defined
Statute of Westminster of 1285, a collection of regulations aimed at keeping the peace.

B. Statute of 1295
o The law that marks the beginning of the curfew hours, which demanded the closing of the
gates of London during sundown.

C. Justice of the Peace (About 1361)

o Three or four men who were learned in the law of the land were given authority to pursue,
arrest, chastise and imprisonment violators of law. They handled felonies, misdemeanors
and infractions of city or village ordinances. This was later abolished about 75 years after.

D. Star Chamber Court (1487)

o A special court designed to try offenders against the state. The room set-up is formed in a
shape of a star and judges were given great powers such as the power to force testimony
from a defendant leading to a great abuse of power or brutality on the part of the judges.

4. Keepers of the Peace

o A proclamation issued by King Richard of England sometime in 1195 that required the
appointment of knights to keep the Kings peace by standing as guards on bridges and gates
while checking the people entering and leaving the cities and towns.

5. King Charles II of England (1663)

o King Charles II passed an act which established or promoted the employment of watchmen or
bellmen to be on duty from sunset to sunrise.

6. Magna Carta or "The Great Charter"

A law promulgated by King John of England upon the demand of the Knights of the Round
Table forcing the King to sign the same with the following features:

o No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, banished or exiled except by legal judgment of his peers.
o No person shall be tried for murder unless there is proof of the body of the victim.


Henry Fielding = appointed as Magistrate in 1748, introduced the first detective force, known as
the Bow Street Runners

Bow Runners - A group of men organized by Henry Fielding and named by his brother John
Fielding task to catch thieves and robbers
identified by carrying a Tipstaff with the Royal Crown
Made up of eight constables who also investigated crimes handed over to them by the
volunteer constables and watchmen

1798 - Marine Police Force was established, salaried constables were being paid by local magistrates.
Initially made up of 220 Constables assisted by 1,000 registered dock workers, and was
responsible for preventing the theft of cargo. = widely regarded as being the first modern police
force in the world, in the sense that they were not government controlled and were responsible
for the prevention of crime.


Sir Robert Peel - Appointed as Home Secretary in 1822

Organized in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel (Metropolitan Police Act of 1829)
o The largest of the police services that operate in greater London (the others include the
City of London Police and the British Transport Police)
o Finest police force around the world.

TOTAL POLICING = motto of London Metropolitan Police

1833 = Coldbath Fields Riot (Grays Inn Road). A major crowd disturbance dealt with by the
Metropolitan Police with controversial use of force.
1836 = The Metropolitan Police absorb the Bow Street Horse Patrol into its control.
1838 = incorporates Marine Police and Bow Street Runners into the Metropolitan Police and
the disbandment of the Bow Street Office and other Offices. These were all agreed and put into

Administration Policing Principles of London Metropolitan Police

1. Stable and effective civil police under government control
2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency
3. Fast distribution of crime news to the police is essential.

Commissioner = highest rank in the Metropolitan Police

Police Constable = lowest rank

Contributions of the French in Policing

Assigning house numbers
Installing street lights
Use of police ambulances
Use of warrant card and ID signifying the authority to arrest


1. Municipal Police = includes village, township, city and country police departments, sheriff departments.
Types of Local Police
a. Country Sheriff = in charged with the operation of county jail, civil function such as service of
eviction notices and other court orders and police responsibility.
b. City Police = most common local police organization. It has jurisdiction in matters that occur in
an incorporated municipality.
2. State Police = includes special investigative agencies that concentrate on statewide law enforcement
3. Federal Police = agencies operated by federal government at the national level

Some Federal Agencies Having Police Functions

a. Protection of Life, Property and Enforcement of Penal Statutes

1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of federal law
except when the enforcement authority was given to other specific federal agency
2. United States Secret Service (Department of Treasury) = concerned with investigation of
counterfeiting, forging or altering of any of the money or other securities of the U.S. It is also in
charged of the protection of the president and his family, and of the executive mansion grounds
3. Bureau of Narcotics (Department of Treasury) = investigated all violations of federal law relating to
prohibited drugs
4. Immigration and Naturalization Service (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of
immigration and naturalization laws, patrol boarders to prevent surreptitious entry of aliens,

b. Protection of the National Revenue

1. Intelligence Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = investigation of violations of income tax laws
2. Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = violations of internal revenue laws
3. Division of Investigation and Patrol, Bureau of Customs = investigates smuggling activities and
enforces customs and navigation laws.
4. Private Police = additional police protection made by employing sworn officers through contract
when they are not officially on duty

Two Basic Forms of Private Police

a. Proprietary Police = when a person wish to receive service, he hires and security personnel directly
b. Contract Security = services of an independent security company

U.S. Police Agencies

o New York City = it is where the first full time police force was organized in the United
o New York Police Department = the largest police force in the United States
o Texas Ranger = police force originally created in response to colonization
o Boston Police Department = first local modern police department established in the United
o Pennsylvania State Police = the first state police agency established
o Los Angeles Police Department = police force that hired the first female police officer
named, Alice Stebbins Wells

The United States police rank model is generally quasi-military in structure. Although the large
and varied number of federal, state, and local police departments and sheriff's office have different ranks,
a general model, from highest to lowest rank, would be:

o Chief of Police/Police Commissioner/Superintendent/Sheriff

o Deputy Chief of Police/Deputy Commissioner/Deputy Superintendent/Undersheriff
o Inspector/Commander/Colonel
o Major/Deputy Inspector
o Captain
o Lieutenant
o Sergeant
o Detective/Inspector/Investigator
o Officer/Deputy Sheriff/Corporal

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) = colloquially known as Mounties and internally as The
Force = is the national police force of Canada and one of the most recognized of its kind in the word
being a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. It is founded in 1920 by the Merger of
Royal Northwest Mounted Police(1873) with the Dominion Police (1868).
= headed by the Commission under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety Canada.

Commissioner = highest rank in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Police Constable 4th Class = lowest rank

Australian Police = a progressive and multi-faceted law enforcement organization, taking strong lead in
the fight against 21st century crime.
Commissioner = highest rank
Constable = lowest rank

Hong Kong Police Force
= is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It is the world's
second, and Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system. It was formed on 1 May
In 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the Royal Charter to the Hong Kong Police Force for their
handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots renaming them: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. Following
the transfer of sovereignty, the Force is once again named the Hong Kong Police Force

Structure HKPF
The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, who is assisted by two deputy
1. Deputy Commissioner Operations = supervises all operational matters including
crime and
2. Deputy Commissioner Management = is responsible for the direction and
coordination of force management including personnel, training, and management

Motto =We Serve with Pride and Care

The Hong Kong Police Force is organized into Six Regions:

Hong Kong Island
Kowloon East
Kowloon West
New Territories North
New Territories South
Marine Region

The Force Headquarters (Management) is made up of five departments:

Operations & Support
Crime & Security
Personnel & Training
Management Services
Finance, Administration and Planning

Hong Kong Police College = s responsible for all matters relating to training within the Hong Kong
Police except internal security, Auxiliary and Marine Police training. Training provided by the Police
College includes recruit and continuation training, crime investigation training, police driver training
and weapon tactics training. The information technology training, command training, local and
overseas management training, some specialist courses and periodic courses on firearms and first
aid are also provided by the Police College.

Service Quality Wing = is responsible for spearheading initiatives to improve services provided to
force customers both external and internal. The wing comprises three branches: Performance
Review, Research and Inspections and Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II)
Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II) = includes the Complaints Against Police Office
(CAPO) oversees the investigation and successful resolution of all complaints made both externally
and internally against members of the force.

Entry Requirements to HKPF

Must be a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and have lived in
Hong Kong for at least seven years.

For Inspector
Academic Requirements
Hong Kong degree, or equivalent; or
An accredited Associate Degree from Hong Kong tertiary institution / A Higher Diploma from a
Hong Kong polytechnic / polytechnic university, or a Diploma from a registered post-
secondary college awarded after the date of its registration, or equivalent; or
A pass in two subjects at Advanced Level in the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination
(2A) plus three other subjects at Grade C or above in the HKCEE (3O), or a combination of
results in five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) subjects of Level 3 in
New Senior Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained with Distinction in Applied Learning (ApL)
subjects (subject to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade C in Other Language
subjects, or equivalent.

For Police Constable

Academic Requirements

Five passes or above, which may include Chinese Language and English Language, in the
HKCEE, or a combination of results in five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE)
subjects of Level 2 in New Senior Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained in Applied Learning (ApL)
subjects (subject to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade E in Other Language subjects, or

Selection Processes For Inspector

Written Examination
Extended Interview
Psychometric Test
Final Interview Board
Physical Fitness Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Selection Processes for Police Constable

Physical Fitness Test
Group Interview
Psychometric Test
Final Interview Board
Basic Law Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Commissioner of Police (CP)
Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (SACP)
Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP)
Chief Superintendent of Police (CSP)
Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP)
Superintendent of Police (SP)
Chief Inspector of Police (CIP)
Senior Inspector of Police (SIP)
Inspector of Police (IP)
Probationary Inspector of Police (PI)
Station Sergeant (SSGT)
Sergeant (SGT)
Senior Constable (SPC)
Police Constable (PC)

TAIWAN POLICE FORCE = is the unified police force of taiwan
= under the supervision of NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY which is directly under the MINISTRY
= under effective civilian control


1) To maintain public order,

2) To protect social security,
3) To prevent all dangers, and
4) To promote the welfare of all people.


1. Administration Police = are generally referred to those who are required to wear uniforms to
carry out duties of household visits, patrolling, raid, guarding, duty officer, and reserves.
2. Traffic Police = the primary duties of the Traffic Police are to keep traffic order, to ensure traffic
safety, to prevent traffic accidents, and to smooth traffic flow.
3. Special Police = are those who are responsible for protecting the Central Government,
establishing contingent plans and assisting local and specialized police units in maintaining public
4. Criminal Investigation Police = the primary duties of the criminal investigation police are to
prevent and detect crimes.
5. Specialized Police = main duties are to protect state-run enterprises and public facilities like
railways, highways, airports, harbors, MRT and Bank of Taiwan.


Police Supervisor General
Police Supervisor Rank
Police Supervisor Rank Two
Police Supervisor Rank Three
Police Supervisor Rank Four
Police Officer Rank One
Police Officer Rank Two
Police Officer Rank Three
Police Officer Rank Four
Police Rank One
Police Rank Two
Police Rank Three
Police Rank Four

Myanmar Police Force
Formally known as The People's Police Force (Burmese: Pyi Thu Yae Tup Pwe)
Established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was
reorganized on 1 October 1995.
There are 14 State and Divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police Forces

Each State and Divisional Police Force consist of four components

Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force

Office of the Commander of the District Police Force
Office of the Commander of the Township Police Force
Police Stations


1. Central Training Institute of Myanmar Police Force

2. No.1 Police Training Depot = undertakes Basic Training Course for Police Sergeant for 2 years;
Warrant Officer and Police Sergeants Course for 12 Weeks; and Basic Training Course for Constables
for 6 Month

3. No. 2 Police Training Depot = undertakes only Basic Training Course for Constables, which normally
takes around 6 months to complete.


Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republika Indonesia) = is the official police force of
= organized 1946
= also known as Polri

Markasbesar/Mabes = name of the headquaters of Indonesian National Police located in

KebayoranBaru, South, Jakarta, Indonesia


1. Kepolisian Daerah or polda = provincial police

2. Kepolisian Wilayah or Polwil = regional police
3. Kepolisian Resort or Polres = city police
4. Kepolisian Sector or Polsek = sub-district police

1. Brigade Mobile (BRIMOB) = the most militarized trained to deal with mass demonstrations
a. Paramilitary role to conduct security stabilization operations and providing security for VIP
and vital facilities
2. Anti-Riot Unit (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hura) = received special anti-riot training
3. Sea and Air Police = responsible patrolling the airspace
4. Plainclothes Unit = assigned in conducting investigations
5. Maritime Police = responsible in protecting the territorial sea
6. Anti-Terrorist Unit = trained in counter-terrorism
7. Forensics = in-charged of laboratory examination of evidence


At least sixth-grade education and should pass the competitive examination.
After 3 years, personnel with junior secondary diploma could enter into training to become NCO.


Police General = equivalent of Director General of PNP
Second Bhayangkara = equivalent of police officer 1 of the PNP

ROYAL MALAYSIAN POLICE (RMP: Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia, PDRM) = police force of Malaysia.
= headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur
= The constitution, control, employment, recruitment,fund, discipline, duties and powers of the
police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967

Motto = TEGAS, ADIL DAN BERHEMAH = Firm, Fair And Prudent

RMP Organizations
1. Management Department = the Management Department is tasked with the routine of
management and administration affairs of the RMP. This department is also the nerve centre of
the RMP and acts as the support services platform for the rest of the force.
2. Logistics Department = has the role to provide several equipments needed in RMP
3. Criminal Investigation Division = deals with the investigation, arrest and prosecution of hard
crimes (murder, robbery, rape etc) and petty crimes (theft, house-breaking etc).
= This department also specializes in gambling, vice and secret societies (triads)
Branches of Criminal Investigation Division
D1 Administrative Division
D2 Criminal Record Registration
D3 Internal Affairs
D4 Statistics
D5 Prosecution and Law Divisions
D6 Technical Assistance Division
D7 Gambling / Vice / Secret Societies
D8 Investigation Division / Planning
D9 Special Investigation Division
D10 Forensic Laboratory Division
D11 Sexual Investigation Division
D12 National Centre Bureau-Interpol Division

4. Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division = this department's function is to fight against

dangerous drugs by enforcing the law to stop and reduce the demand and supply of dangerous
5. Internal Security and Public Order Department = responsible for traffic control and Search &
Rescue (SAR) operations
6. The Police Field Force (PFF) = organized in battalions and was a para-military units of the
Royal Malaysia Police. Also known as the Jungle Squad
a. = established in 1948
7. Police Counter-Terrorism Unit = an elite unit of RMP responsible in counter-terrorism
8. UNGERIN = Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN) (Marine Combat Unit) was established in 2006 and
it was fully operational by the end of 2007
b. = first name was Unit Selam Tempur due to the pressing need to suppress the pirate
attacks alongside the coastal area of Malacca Straits and open sea area of South China
Sea which were continuously widespread from time to time despite various efforts done to
overcome the problem
c. = members received training from U.S
9. Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) = (Malay: Pasukan Simpanan Persekutuan)
d. = its role is riot suppression, crowd control, disaster relief & rescue, as well as
special operations assistance
e. = organized in 1955
10. C4-i Implementations System = (abbreviation for Command, Control, Communications,
Computer-Integrated) = based at Police Control Centre in all police contingents in Malaysia.
f. = this unit is assigned to patrol the city and the suburbs.
11. The Marine Operations Force or (Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Marin) = tasked with maintaining
law and order and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone
and on the high seas
12. Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing Unit or Unit Udara PDRM (UUP) = is a special unit of Royal
Malaysia Police with a vital role in maintaining national security with thorough surveillance and
patrol from the air
13. Special Branch = This department is responsible for collecting intelligence for national security
14. Traffic Unit = responsible in maintaining the flow of traffic
15. Commercial Crimes Investigation Department = this department's main function is to
investigate, arrest, and prosecute offenders committing white collar crimes such as fraud, breach
of trust, cyber-crimes, forgery, counterfeiting etc
16. Mounted Police = police who patrol on horseback (equestrians) or camelback. They continue to
serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be
picturesque or ceremonial, but they are also employed in crowd control because of their mobile
mass and height advantage


INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF POLICE = equivalent of director general (Philippines)

POLICE CONSTABLE = equivalent of police officer 1 (Philippines)
Francis James Bernard = formed the skeleton force as the heritage of Singapore Police Force in 1819.
Singapore Police Force (SPF) is the main agency task with the maintaining law and order in the
city-state. It is formerly known as Republic of Singapore Police. Organized with split staff (15)
and line functions (13) roughly modeled after the military. Headquarters at New Poenix Park in
Novena. The highest rank is Commissioner of Police and the lowest is Police Constable.
Section 7 of Police Force Act of 1857 = constitution of the SPF
High school graduates who were interested in law enforcement as a career can be recruited
and those who are selected for officers had to be approved by the Public Service Commission.
Career development course were encouraged for officer and senior officers are required to travel
oversees for training such as in Police Staff College in Britain, FBI Natl Academy in US
and Police Academy in Japan.
Nine (9) months training. Newly appointed officer will be placed on a one year probation


Commissioner of Police = equivalent of director general in the Philippines

Constable = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Keihoryo (Police Bureau within the Ministry of Home affairs to 1945)

Japanese Colonial Government = the one which organized the first formal policing in
Japanese Yakuza = considered as the center of Asian organized crime action.


1. National Public Safety Commission - A government body responsible for the administrative
supervision of the police. Under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister
2. Japan National Police Agency (NPA) = a totally gunless police force, except for its special attack

Organizations Attached to the NPA

a. National Police Agency = provides training to police officers and conduct academic research
b. National Research Institute of Police Science = conducts research in police science
c. Imperial Guards = provides escort to the Emperor, Empress, Crown Prince and other Imperial
d. = responsible for the security of Imperial Palace

3. Regional Police Bureau = exercise control and supervision over regional police offices and provides
support with the prefectural police.
Director General = heads each Regional Bureau acting upon orders from the Commission
General of the NPA.

Regional Police Bureau = the local organizations to carry out part of the NPAs functions. There are
about 7 Bureaus in the major cities except for Tokyo and Hokkaido where in Tokyo, Metropolitan
Police department (headed by Superintendent General) has long been established and shares the
same location with the NPA. Prefectural Police has the whole of Hokkaido under its jurisdiction.

4. Prefectural Public Safety Commission (PPSC) = administrative commission functioning under the
representative system which supervise the prefectural police. Under the Jurisdiction of the
Governor. Though not empowered to give order to the Commission.

5. Koban = a system of policing adopted in Japan, a substation near major transportation hubs and
shopping areas and in residential districts which forms the first line of police response to the public.
= Koban usually staffed by 3-5 officers and about 7000 residential police boxes (Chuzaisho-
staffed by a single officer). About 20 % of police is assigned to Koban.


Ministry of National Defense = is the top of the hierarchy with judicial and public security
agencies such as Ministry of Public safety and the Ministry of State Security.
Ministry of Public Security= is the principal police authority of the mainland of the Peoples
Republic of China which oversee the day to day law enforcement. (It is the equivalent of the
National Police Agency in Japan).
Ministry of State Security = the Chinese governments largest and most active foreign
intelligence agency, though it is also involved in domestic security matters.

Kinds of police

1. Peoples Armed Police (PAP), 1980s deals with domestic disturbances, acts as riot police and
guards government compounds and foreign embassies. Usually handles border defense but is called
sometimes to back up local police.
2. State Security Police = (1983) safeguards state security, prevent foreign espionage, sabotage
and conspiracies. Under the Ministry of State Security and directly accountable to the State council.
3. Prison Police = a part of the correctional arm of the overall police system stationed in prisons and
correction units. This is under the leadership of the Ministry of Justice.
4. Judicial Police = responsible for maintaining the security and order in courts and serving
instruments and some also executing death sentences.
5. Quasi parapolice (Cheng guan) = operate in many places and hired by officials to help carry out
some unpopular actions such as collecting taxes and fines and ousting peasants from seized land.

Special Police College = conducts nationwide recruitment once a year.

Central Military Commission = appoints police in China
Peoples Liberation Army = Chinese Armed forces.
Civil Service Promotion Examinations = basis for regulation of the Rank promotion Examination for
police officer.


Commissioner General = equivalent of Director General in the PNP
Constable 2nd Class = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Royal Thai Police = formerly known as THAILAND NATIONAL POLICE DEPARTMENT (TNPD)
= In 1998, TNPD was transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Thailand to be directly under the
Office of the Prime Minister using the name Royal Thai Police. The position of its supreme head was
changed from that of the Director-General of the TNPD to the Commissioner-General of the Royal
Thai Police

Royal Thai Police Headquarters = based in Bangkok

Police-General = highest rank of the Royal Thai Police
Policeman / Constable = lowest rank


Royal Brunei Police Force (Polis Diraja Brunei PDRB) = created in 1921 which is
responsible for keeping law and order and providing law enforcement services throughout Brunei
Inspector-General of Police = highest rank
Lance Corporal = lowest rank

Philippine Police System

During the Spanish Regime
Maintenance of law and order is a part of the military system for the defense of the colony;
Locally organized police forces although performing civil duties is a direct adjunct of the colonial
military establishments; (policemen in appearance yet colonial soldiers in the ultimate sense.
Police functions consisted mainly of (1) suppression of brigandage by patrolling unsettled areas;
(2) detection of local or petty uprising by spying upon the work and movements of the people and;
(3) the enforcement of tax collection including church revenues.
Cuardilleros = a body of rural police organized in each town established by Royal decree of Jan. 8,
1836. It mandates that 5% of the able bodied male inhabitants of each province where to be
enlisted in this police organization for 3 years. There services are originally not paid or gratuitous
subject to some privileges although in some province they received a proportionate pay ranging from
4.00 to 8.00 depending on the revenue collection.
Carabineros De Seguridad Publica = Organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the regulations
of the Department of State. This was armed and considered as the mounted police who later
discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police. It was later given special commission by
Royal Decree of December 20, 1842 and it was called Cuerco De Seguridad Publica ( Corps of
Crabbiness for Public Security).
Gurdia Civil = Created by Royal decree on February 12, 1852, to partially relieve the Spanish
peninsula troops of their works in policing towns. It is consisted of a body of Filipino policemen
organized originally in each of the provincial capital of the province of Luzon under the Alcalde
Philippine Commission Act No. of 175 = (July 18, 1901) an act providing for the organization and
government of an Insular Constabulary.
Sec. 1, Act 255 of October 3, 1901 = renamed the Insular Constabulary to Philippine Constabulary
(a national police institution for preserving peace, keeping order and enforcing the law.
Henry Allen = the first Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Rafael Crame = the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Act No 70 = (On January 9, 1901) The Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized
E.O. 389 = Ordered that the PC be one of the four services of the AFP, dated December 23, 1940.
P.D. 765 = Integration Act of 1975, dated August 8, 1975, established the Integrated National Police
(INP) composed of the PC as the nucleus and the Integrated local police forces as components,
under the Ministry of National Defense.
E.O. 1012 =transferred to the city and municipal government the operational supervision and
direction over the INP units assigned within their locality.
R.A. 4864 =It created the POLCOM (Police Commission) as a supervisory agency to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local police under the Officer of the President. Otherwise
known as the Police Professionalization act of 1966, dated September 8, 1966. It was later renamed
as the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).
E.O. 1040 = Transferred the Admin. Control and Supervision of the INP from the ministry of National
Defense to the National Police Commission
R.A. 6975 = It is otherwise known as the Department of Interior and Local Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13, 1990. Established the PNP, BFP, BJMP and the PPSC.
R.A. 8551 Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted 1998,
amending the provision of R.A. 6975
Act No. 181 = created the Division of Investigation (DI) of the Department of Justice dated November
R.A. 157 = created the National Bureau of Investigation, enacted June 19, 1947 and later
reorganized by R,A. 2678
Line and Staff = the organizational structure of the P.N.P. which is also adopted by many police
organization in the world.
P.N.P. = headed by Chief with a rank of Director General with two (2) Deputy Director General (1) for
Administration and (2) for Operation. Although there are three (3) Deputy Director General ranks.
SOP No. 7 = prescribed PNP guidelines in the conduct of operations against terrorists and other
lawless elements involved in terrorist activities.

United Nations
Officially came into existence on October 24, 1945
Coined by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in the declaration by United Nation. This
declaration was made to officially state the Cooperation of the allies (Great Britain, the United
States, and the Union of soviet Socialist Republics)

Branches of UN
1. UN general Assembly = This is the main decision- making and representative assembly in the UN
through its policies and recommendations. It is composed of all member states , is headed by a
president elected from the member states, and meets from September to December

Functions of General Assembly

a. Deliberative = initiating studies and making recommendations for the development of
international law
b. Supervisory = receiving and considering annual and special reports from another organs
c. Financial = approval and apportionment of budget
d. Elective = election of non-permanent members of the security council
e. Constituent = admissions of members and the amendments of charter

2. UN Security Council = is another branch in the organization of the UN and is the most powerful of
all the branches.

a. Preventive Action = consist of provisional measures to prevent a conflict from worsening, and may
involve the deployment of PEACEKEEPING AND OBSERVER missions
b. Enforcement Action = consist of deployment of air, sea and land forces
Five Permanent Members of Security Council
1) China
2) France
3) Russia
4) United Kingdom
5) United States
*The other 10 members are rotating or elective members for a period of two years by the
General Assembly

3. International Court of Justice = Located in the Hague, Netherlands. This branch is responsible for
the judicial matters of the UN.
4.Secretariat = Its main responsibility is providing studies, information, and other data needed
5. Economic and Social Council = consists of 45 members elected by the General Assembly for a 3
year term.

Efforts are Towards the Following:

a. Higher standards of living
b. Condition of economic and social progress and development
c. Solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems
d. Universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

6. Trusteeship Council = assists the security council and the general assembly in the administration of
the International Trusteeship System

UN CHARTER = it is closest to a constitution that basically governs the relations of international

persons. Technically, it is a Treaty.

TREATY = an international agreement concluded between states in written form and sworn by
international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more instruments and whatever
its particular designation.

Interpol (1923) = (International Criminal Police Organization) is the police forces organization
that primarily manifest global or international cooperation in addressing transnational crime. Its
headquarters was initially located in Vienna Austria (it is where Interpol was founded) but at
present it is transferred to Lyon France.
INTERPOL = is the worlds largest international police organization, with 190 member countries.
It exists to help create a safer world by supporting law enforcement agencies worldwide to
combat crime.
It aims to facilitate international police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations,
authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat internal crime.
= the organization of law enforcement agencies worldwide that serves as transmission or
communication line for the exchange of information, data and request for assistance
between and among the member countries.
It focuses on: (1) Combat crimes and transnational crimes; (2) protect minorities against the
dominant groups; and (3) Maintain law enforcement regardless of race or religion.

INTERPOL s Structure
General Assembly
Executive Committee
General Secretariat
National Central Bureaus
The Commission for the Control of INTERPOLs Files.

General Assembly = is the supreme governing body of the Interpol, it meets annually and
comprises delegates appointed by each member country. The assembly takes all important
decisions related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programmes.

Executive Committee = consisting of 13 members elected by the General Assembly and comprises
the president, three vice presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
o It is the INTERPOLs select deliberate organ which meets three times a year, usually in March,
July and immediately before the General Assembly.
Current Members of the EC as of 2012
KHOO Boon Hui (Singapore) Current President and Singapores Senior Deputy Secretary of
the Ministry of Home Affairs and former Commissioner of Police.

3 Vice Presidents

Adamu Abubakar MOHAMMED (Nigeria)

Mireille BALLESTRAZZI (France)
Oscar Adolfo NARANJO TRUJILLO (Colombia)

9 Delegates
Pieter Jaap AALBERSBERG (The Netherlands)
Fath ELRAHMAN Osman (Sudan)
Emmanuel GASANA (Rwanda)
Francisco GIL MONTERO (Spain)
Nobuyuki KAWAI (Japan)
Tariq KHOSA (Pakistan)
Sanna PALO (Finland)
Marcos VASQUEZ MEZA (Chile)
Timothy A. WILLIAMS (United States)

General Secretariat = (Lyon, France) operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the
Secretary General. It Works with Officials of more than 80 countries side-by-side using four official
languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish. It consists of seven (7) regional offices across the
world namely:

o Argentina,
o Cameron,
o Cote DIvoire,
o Kenya,
o El Salvador,
o Thailand, and
o Zimbabwe.

National Central Bureaus (NCB) = Each INTERPOL member country maintains a National
Central Bureau staffed by National law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact
point for the General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring
assistance with overseas investigations and the location and apprehension of fugitives.

Advisers = these are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the
Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.

Commission for the Control of INTERPOL File (CCF) = this is an independent body whose
mandate is threefold:
to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies with
the Organizations regulations,
to advice INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter
concerning the information contained in INTERPOLS files.

INTERPOLs Governance = comprises the General Assembly and the Executive Committee,
which is headed by the President.
o The President of the Organization is elected by the General Assembly for a period of four
(4) years. His role is to chair the General Assembly and Executive Committee and ensure
that INTERPOLS activities conform with decisions made at these meetings.

Oskar Dressler = the first secretary general of the Interpol.

Johann Schober = the first president of the Interpol.

1. Red Notice a notice which is issued to seek the arrest or provisional arrest of wanted persons
with a view to extradition.
2. Blue Notice this type of notice is issued in order to locate, identify or obtain information on a
person of interest in a criminal investigation.

3. Green Notice to warn about a person's criminal activities if that person is considered to be a
possible threat to public safety.
4. Yellow Notice to help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who are
unable to identify themselves.
5. Black Notice a notice issued to seek information on unidentified bodies.
6. Orange Notice to warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing an imminent
threat and danger to persons or property.
7. Purple Notice issued to provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and
concealment methods used by criminals.
8. INTERPOLUnited Nations Security Council Special Notice is issued for individuals and
entities that are subject to UN sanctions.

The following are channels of global bilateral and multilateral international cooperation against
transnational crime:
Global multi-lateral cooperation via Interpol;
Bilateral police cooperation agreements with individual states;
European multilateral cooperation via Europol.

*System of policing that serves as a grass root approach to bring the people and the police together in
cooperative manners:
Problem Oriented Policing
Community Oriented Policing
Cooperative Policing
Team Policing


1. Secure Global Police Communications Services
a. INTERPOL developed the I-24/7 global police communications system to exchange
crucial data quickly and securely is a cornerstone of effective international law

2. Operational Data Services and Databases for Police

i. INTERPOL provides operational data services and databases for police to fight
international crime, police need access to information which can assist
investigations or help prevent crime. INTERPOL manages several databases,
accessible to the INTERPOL bureaus in all member countries through its I-24/7.

3. Operational Police Support Services

a. 24-Hour Support
The Command and Co-ordination Centre(CCC) operates round the clock
in all of INTERPOLs four official languages (English, French, Spanish and Arabic)
and serves as the first point of contact for any member country faced with a crisis

b. Crisis Response and Major Events

In the event of a disaster or major crime, INTERPOL Response Teams or
Disaster Victim Identification teams composed of officers from the General
Secretariat and member countries can be dispatched to the scene within hours of
an event.

c. International Alert System

An important component of INTERPOLs operational police support is the
notice system, of which the Red Notice for wanted persons is the most well
known. In addition to the six color-coded notices (Red, Blue, Green, Yellow,
Black and Orange), is the INTERPOL-United Nations Special Notice issued for
groups or individuals who are the targets of UN sanctions against Al Qaeda and
the Taliban.
d. Analyzing Crime Data
Criminal intelligence analysis is recognized by the law enforcement
community as a valuable tool, helping to provide timely warning of threats and
operational police activities. INTERPOL contributes to investigations by assisting
officers working at the General Secretariat and in member countries with research
and analysis on crime trends and with training courses in criminal analysis
Divisions of Criminal Intelligence Analysis

a. Operational Analysis = aims to achieve a specific law enforcement outcome. Usually, it has
immediate benefit
b. Strategic Analysis = provides early warning signals of threats and to support decision making in
setting priorities to deal with criminal issues

4. Police Training and Development

As one of the 4 INTERPOL core functions, Police Training and Development continues to evolve
as a priority for INTERPOL and member countries.


1981 (Manila) = The first formal meeting of The Chiefs of ASEAN Police
= Attended by 5 original member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and


1. Brunei 4. Myanmar
2. Cambodia 5. Vietnam
3. Lao

o 1983 (Jakarta) = Endorsement of the model & design of ASEANAPOL logo
o 1984 (Kuala Lumpur) = Royal Brunei Police became a member and joined the annual
o 1996 (Kuala Lumpur) = Vietnam joined as a new member
o 1998 (Brunei) = Laos joined ASEANAPOL
o 2000 (Myanmar) = Myanmar became the 10th country to joined as a new member
o 2005 (Bali) = The setting up of a working group to consider the viability of establishing a
permanent ASEANAPOL Secretariat
o = Silver Jubilee Commemoration of ASEANAPOL
o 2008 (Brunei) = The Royal Malaysia Police was chosen as a host of permanent ASEANAPOL
o 2009 (Vietnam) = Adoption of Terms of Reference (TOR)
o 2010 = On 1st January 2010 commencement of ASEANAPOL Secretariat in Kuala Lumpur,


1. ASEANAPOL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE = comprise of deputy heads of delegation attending the

annual ASEANAPOL conference. It provides a summary reports of the activities of the Secretariat
to the Head of the Delegation

2. ASEANAPOL PERMANENT SECRETARIAT = is on rotational basis with member countries

taking turn to host the ASEANAPOL conference and automatically assume the role of the
secretariat for the current year.
o Headed by executive director and assisted by 2 directors

Tenure of Services

a. Executive Director - 2 years

b. Directors - 3 years (one for Police Services and one for Plans and Programs
*During the 29th ASEANAPOL Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2009, the Terms of Reference on
the establishment of ASEANAPOL Secretariat was finally endorsed. Kuala Lumpur was made the
permanent seat.
*The ASEANAPOL Secretariat started its operation fully on January 1, 2010.