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Increase in body size and other parts of the human body

Pertains to quantitative changes in the body and can be measured

Takes place in the first twenty (20) years of life

Most rapid during infancy and growth spurt on adolescence/puberty


Pertains to qualitative change in the human body and cannot be measured

It happens from simple to more complex

Takes place even after 20 years of life

Refers to our maturation

(Remember that the process of Growth and Development cannot be compared!)

There are two (2) Factors affecting Growth and Development:

1. Heredity (Nature) - refers to the transfer of genes. It also puts limitation in growth and development.

2. Environment (Nurture) pertains to the interaction with the surroundings and proper nutrition

When a baby is newly born, it is covered with a cheese-like substance called vernix caseosa. Also
covering the newborn islanugo which is the fine hair-like structure covering the baby.

There are also different types of birth presentations. They are the ff:

1. Cephalic when the head of the baby is presented first during birth giving.
2. Breech when the legs/buttocks are presented, and

3. Transverse when the shoulders of the baby are presented during birth.

During infancy, babies tend to present reflexes. Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions. Some
movements are spontaneous, occuring as part of the babys usual activity. Others are responses to
certain actions. Reflexes help identify normal brain and nerve activity. Some reflexes occur only in
specific periods of development. The following are some of the normal reflexes seen on newborn

1. Root reflex. This reflex begins when the corner of the babys mouth is stroked or touched. The baby
will turn his/her head and open his/her mouth to follow and root the direction of the stroking. This
helps the baby find the breast or bottle to begin feeding.

2. Suck reflex. Rooting helps the baby become ready to suck. When the roof of the babys mouth is
touched, the baby will begin to suck. This reflex does not begin about the 32nd week of pregnancy and is
not fully developed until about 36 weeks.

3. Moro reflex. The Moro reflex is often called as startle reflex because it usually occurs when a baby
is startled by a loud sound or movement. In response to the sound, the baby throws back his/her head,
extends out his/her arms and legs, cries, then pulls the arms and legs back in. A babys own cry can
startle him/her and trigger this reflex.

4. Tonic neck reflex. When a babys head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and
the opposite arm bends up the elbow. This is often calles as the fencing position and lasts about 6 to 7

5. Grasp reflex. Stroking tha palm of the babys hand causes the baby to close his/her fingers in a grasp.
It lasts until about 5 to 6 months of age.

6. Babinski reflex. When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of
the foot and the other toes fan out. This is a normal reflex until 2 years of age.

7. step reflex. This is also called as the walking or dance reflex because the baby appears to be dancing
or taking steps when held upright.

8. Cremasteric reflex. This reflex is much common to baby boys. When the thigh is stroked softly, the
lower part of the tummy tends to startle or move. This reflex is also observable during puberty or even
among grown up men.

Principles of Growth and Development

1. Cephalocaudal refers to from head to tail development

2. Proximodistal a development that starts from the center of the body going outward
a. Gross motor skills pertains to larger skills that babies mmake with their arms, legs, feet or with his
entire body such as crawling, running and jumping.

b. Fine motor skills refers to smaller actions such as when a baby picks up things between his fingers or
wriggles his toes on the sand. T also includes moving his/her tongue, mouth and smaller parts of the

Periods of Development

1. Pre-natal period from conception to birth

2. Infancy from birth to 18 months old

3. Early childhood -18 months to 6 years

During 3-6 years old, boys tend to display Pseudomasturbation. During this period teachers
must be very observant and should not impose threat or punishment when such activity is observed. If
the teacher do so, the child may develop castration fear or the fear of having his genitals being
removed. The BEST way to handle such situation inside the classroom is to ignore the behavior, divert
the attention of the child and after, explain to the child that masturbation should be done in private

4. Middle and late childhood from 6 to 13 years (slow growth)

5. Adolescence period from 13 to 19 years . secondary sex characteristics develops

Menarche menstruation

Thelarche breast budding

Pseudomenstruation withdrawal of maternal hormones

6. Early 20-45 years old

7. Middle adulthood 45-65 years old

8. Late 65 years onwards (death)


All theories of human growth and development has an effect upon decisions made in the
classroom and parental management.
SIGMUND FREUD believes that all human beings pass through a series of Psychosexual
Development. This theory includes pleasure-giving bodies per stages and may result to fixation if
cannot be able to move on.

The Psychosexual Development Theory

Stages Age Overstimulation Understimulation Characteristics

1. Oral From birth to Gullible Mistrust, alcoholic Mouth is the center of

18 months drinker, smoker pleasure and major source
Easy to be fooled
and gossiper of gratification and

2. Anal 18 months to Obsessive Messy, clumsy, Anus and bladder as

3 years Compulsive disobedient and pleasure-giving bodies
Personality rebellious
Disorder, too

3. Phallic 3-6 years old Pervert Frigid impotence, Genitalia as the source of
too shy pleasure (masturbation).
Develops Elektra and
Oedipus complex

4. Latency 6- puberty Workaholic Failing grades Energy directed to physical

and intellectual activities.
(school age)
Sexual responses are
repressed. Normal
homosexual stage
(relationship with same sex
or barkada

5. Genital Puberty --- --- Energy towards full sex

onwards maturity. Reappearance of
Oedipus and Elektra
complex but directed to
opposite sex

*Oedipus Complex means that the son is more into the mother while Elektra Complex means that the
daughter is more into the father.

*Overstimulation means that when the child during the given age of a particular stage is given
something too much may result to something negative. For example, during the Oral stage, if the baby
doesnt need a breastfeed but the mother still gives him milk he will become too used to it resulting to
being gullible when he grow up. On the other hand, if the baby is understimulated or wants milk to the
point that he/she is crying but the mother always ignore him/her, then the baby will grow up as if
he/she always wanted to have something in his mouth for he/she was deprived of it. This may result for
him/her to be a drinker, a smoker or gossiper.

Sigmund Freud also developed the differences between our id, ego, and superego.

( moral
principle; conscience) EGO

SUPEREGO (reality principle; balances id and ego)

ID (evil; the I principle; self-centered

Teachers should be aware of the Psychosexual Development Theory in order for us to fully
understand why some of our pupils/students behave the way they do.

ERIK ERIKSON proposed the Psychosocial Development Theory. According to him under this theory,
crisis must be resolved in order to develop a healthy direction. Take note that the focus on Psychosocial
Development Theory is an important sociocultural determinance of human development.

The Psychosocial Development Theory

1. Infancy

Psychosocial conflict: Trust VS Mistrust

Task: attachment to the mother/caregiver

If successful: trust in persons/faith and hope about the environment and future

If unsuccessful: difficulties in relating to persons effectively. Fear of the future

2. Toddlerhood (18 months 3 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt

Task: gaining some basic control over self and environment

If successful: sense of self-control

If unsuccessful: severe feeling of self-doubt. Always thinking that he cannot do something.

3. Preschool Age (3 6 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Initiative VS Guilt

Task: children areasked to assume more responsibilities, becoming purposeful and directive

If successful: ability to initiate ones activities

If unsuccessful: sense of inadequacy/guilt

4.School Age (6 12 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Industrious VS Inferiority

Task: developing social, physical and learning skills

If successful: competence and ability to work and learn

If unsuccessful: sense of inferiority or difficulty in working and learning

5. Adolescence period (12 20 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Identity VS Role Confusion

Task: developing sense of identity

If successful: sense of personal identity

If unsuccessful: role confusion

6. Young Adulthood (20 35 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Intimacy VS Isolation

Task: establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship

If successful: ability to love deeply and commit oneself

If unsuccessful: emotional isolation, egocentric (self-directed)

7. Middle Adulthood (35 -65 years)

Psychosocial conflict: Generativity VS Stagnation

Task: fulfilling life goals (family, career, society)

If successful: ability to give and care for others

If unsuccessful: self-absorption, inability to grow as a person

8. Late Adulthood (65 years death)

Psychosocial conflict: Integrity VS Despair

Task: looking back over ones life and accepting its meaning

If successful: sense of fulfillment

If unsuccessful: Dissatisfaction with life

As professional teachers, we should know how to prevent crisis to occur on every aspect of
growth and development, especially stages 1-5 for these are the stages where an individual learner is at
school. We should make every tasks given on every aspect of the learners life successful.

JEAN PIAGET developed the Cognitive Development Theory wherein according to him, knowledge is
based from prior learning (schema). He also stressed that Constructivism (realting past knowledge to
new ones) is important to the learners development.

The Cognitive Development Theory

1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2 years)

Sensory organs and muscles become more functional

Movements are primarily reflexive

All are extensions of oneself

Routines should be established

2. Preoperational Stage (2 7 years)

Starts to think


Cannot accept defeat

Animism (considering that objects have life)

Role of playing is emphasized (enhances imagination)

No sense of conservation and reversibility

3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 12 years)

Knows how to reason out

Learns the law of conservation

Learns to follow abstract reasoning but limited

They have problems in hypothetical reasoning

4. Formal Operation Stage (12 years onwards)

Able to solve abstract problems

Learner is rational and logical

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG based his ideas on the findings of Jean Piaget in studying Cognitive Development
and proposed the Moral Development Theory. According to him, our ability to choose right from wrong
is tied with our ability to understand and reason logically.

The Moral Development Theory

Level 1. Pre-Conventional (Authority figures are obeyed) (birth 9 years)

Stage 1. Punishment-Obedience Orientation

[if you do good, no punishment]

[if you do wrong, there will be punishment]

Stage 2. Instrumental-Relativist

[I will do good to you if you are good to me]

[I will do bad to you if you are bad to me]

Level 2. Conventional (9 13 years)

Stage 3. Interpersonal Concordance (Good Boy Nice Girl Orientation; Morality of Cooperation)

[I am doing this because everyone is doing the same thing]

Stage 4. Law and Order Orientation

Morality of Constraints

Behavior is right when it conforms to the Law

Level 3. Post Conventional (13 years onwards)

Stage 5. Social Contratc Orientation (Morality of Cognition)

Respect the differences in ideas, concepts, orality and religious affiliation

It is wrong to violate others rights

Stage 6. Universal Ethics Orientation

[I will do it because I know it is right to do it]

Knowing the Moral Developement Theory, teachers can be guided on making disciplinary
measures in the classroom and managerial processes.

LEV VYGOTSKY proposed the Socio-Cultural Theory. He emphasized that social interaction plays a very
important role in cognitive development. He also believed that individual development could not be
understood without looking into the social and cultural context within which development happens.

Scaffolding is Vygotskys term for appropriate assistance given by the teacher to assist the learner
accomplish a specific task.
Language Development *the best definition of the word is based on how it is being used.

There are four (4) major theorists on Language Developement.


Proposed Operant Conditioning

Involves reinforcements (rewards)

Talk to the child in an adult way

Playing Damn Technique let the child talk

2. NOAM CHOMSKY developed the Language Acquisition Device or Mother Tongue-Based

Technique. He is also the major proponent of the Innatist Theory, which postulates that humans have
innate ability to acquire language; they are genetically preprogrammed for it. All normally developing
children acquire language. He also maintains that language and thought are separate.

3. SOCIAL CONTEXTUAL THEORY. This theory is primarily proposed by Lev Vygotsky which states that
social interaction influences both language and cognitive development

4. COGNITIVIST THEORY (Jean Piaget) maintained that language acquisition cannot take place until
cognitive development has paved the way for it. It asserts taht children develop knowledge of the world
and then map thixs knoowledge onto language categories and relations. From this viewpoint,
language development depends on cognitive development, but not vice versa.

Who are the Exceptional Children? They are children with the following conditions and difficulties:

1. Aphasia impairment of any language modality (sound production)

2. Dysphasia partial impairment of language

3. Dyslexia special learning disability with written language

4. Dyscalculia special learning disability with numerical operations

5. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) impulsivity in attention and being hyperactive.

Ritalin medicine for ADHD. It makes the hyperactive child more hyperactive to make him/her tired and
tend to take a rest.
PAULO FREIRE proposed the Banking Concept of Education. According to him, a child is like a bank
which the teacher deposits knowledge. This is almost the same with John Lockes Theory of Tabula
Rasa wherein the child is like a blank tablet which during the learning process becomes filled with
knowledge. Apparently, Jean Piaget opposed these for according to him, the child has prior knowledge
already and the teacher gives new knowledge then the child relates it to what he already know (Theory
of Constructivism).


1. Two-Factor Theory by Charles Spearman. It supports that intelligence has two factors: a general
mental ability factor (g) which represents what different cognitive tasks have in common; and many
specific factors (s) which include mental abilities (mathematical, mechanical or verbal skills). Spearman is
also the first one to use Psychometric approach to measure or quantify cognitive abilitiesm or factors
taht are thought to be involved in intellectual performance. Let me give you an example:

Who is more intelligent, an examinee who garnered Top 1 in the Licensure Examination for Teachers or a
dancer who won champion in a national dance competition?

From the example given, we can see that both have exceptional abilities. But in terms of asking who is
more intelligent then it depends on how intelligence is defined. If intelligence is defined in terms of
cognitive abilities, we should say that the examinee who topped the LET is more intelligent. However, if
intelligence is defined in terms of motor skills and bodily kinesthetics, then the champion dancer is more

2. Multiple Intelligence Theory by Howard Gardner. It argues that there are different kinds of mental
abilities that make up different kinds of intelligence. Instead of having only two factors, there are 9 kinds
which include verbal intelligence, musical intelligence, logico-mathematical intelligence, spatial
intelligencce, body kinesthetics intelligence, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence, naturalistic
intelligence and existential or moral intelligence.

3. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. This is divided into three sub theories:

a. Experiential intelligence which is the ability to formulate new ideas;

b. Contextual intelligence which is the ability to adapt to a changing environment; and

c. Componential intelligence which is the ability to think abstractly and process information.
4. Jean Piagets Dynamic View. According to him, a persons intelligence is dynamic, that is, it changes
as a persons interaction with his or her environment changes.

5. Wechslers Global View. David Wechsler made his fame as the developer of the IQ Tests. He devised
teh Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WESC-R). He stressed that intelligence is the
aggregate ot global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal
effectively with te environment.

RELEVANT LAWS (Rights of the Child)

1. Republic Act No. 9344, the act establishing a Comprehensive Juvenile Justice and Welfare
System. It exempts children below 18 years of age from criminal liability.

2. Republic Act No. 7610,The Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse.

3. Republic Act No. 7658, known as An Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children below 15 Years of

4. Filipino Children: Child 21. This is a strategic programming network that promotes and safeguards the
rights of the Filipino children.,

5. Republic Act No. 8049. It is known as An Act Regulating Hazing and Other Forms of Initiation Rites
in Fraternities, Sororities, and Other Organizations and Providing Penalties Therefore.

6. Republic Act No. 8353. Also known as The Anti-Rape Law of 1997. An act expanding the definition
of Rape, Reclassifying the same as Crime Against Person, amending the purpose Act No. 3815, as
amended, otherwise known as the Revised Penal Code.